Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.

4.Muscles

There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.

Advantage

Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.

Varieties

Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.

History

The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.

Croatian

Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.

PINEAPPLE AS PART OF DIET

Fresh pineapple is the only known source of an enzyme called bromelain, which might play a role in a range of different health benefits.

Many examinations have proposed that expanding utilization of plant food varieties like pineapples diminishes the danger of heftiness, by and large mortality, diabetes, and coronary illness.

It likewise advances a solid colouring and hair, expanded energy, and a general lower weight.

Coming up next are potential advantages of eating pineapple :

Asthma counteraction

The dangers of creating asthma are lower in individuals who burn-through a high measure of specific supplements.

One of these supplements is beta-carotene. It is found in orange, yellow and dim green plant food varieties, like pineapple, mangoes, papaya, apricots, broccoli, melon, pumpkin, and carrots.

Some more modest studies Trusted Source have proposed bromelain can likewise add to reducing asthma side effects.

Assimilation / Digestion

Pineapples, in view of their fiber and water content, help to forestall stoppage and advance consistency and a sound gastrointestinal system.

Pineapples are likewise rich in bromelain, a compound that helps the body digest proteins. Bromelain additionally decreases provocative insusceptible cells, called cytokines, that harm the intestinal system lining.

The unappetizing stems are the most focused wellspring of bromelain, which can be removed and is promptly accessible in supplement structure.

Contains disease fighting antioxidants

Not only are pineapples rich in nutrients, they are also loaded with healthy antioxidants. Antioxidants are molecules that help your body combat oxidative stress.

Oxidative stress is a state in which there are too many free radicals in the body. These free radicals interact with the body’s cells and cause damage that is linked to chronic inflammation, a weakened immune system and many harmful diseases

Pineapples are especially rich in antioxidants known as flavonoids and phenolic acids

What’s more, many of the antioxidants in pineapple are bound. This allows the antioxidants to survive harsher conditions in the body and produce longer lasting effects.

May Help Reduce the Risk of Cancer

Malignancy is a persistent infection portrayed by uncontrolled cell development. Its movement is usually connected to oxidative pressure and constant aggravation.

A few examinations have shown that pineapple and its mixtures might decrease the danger of malignancies. This is on the grounds that they might limit oxidative pressure and decrease aggravation.

One of these mixtures is the gathering of stomach related compounds called bromelain. Test-tube studies have shown that bromelain may likewise assist with battling disease

For example, two test-tube studies showed that bromelain smothered the development of bosom disease cells and invigorated cell passing

Other test-tube studies show that bromelain smothers disease in the skin, bile pipe, gastric framework and colon, among different regions

Test-tube and animal studies have found that bromelain may stimulate the immune system to produce molecules that make white blood cells more effective at suppressing cancer cell growth and eliminating cancer cells.

DISADVANTAGES OF PINEAPPLE

SKIN IRRITATION

Bromelain is utilized as a meat tenderizer, so eating a lot of bromelain-rich pineapple might make your lips sore or enlarged. This response is typically gentle and brief, yet certain individuals are additional touchy to pineapple and may experience the ill effects of more extreme incidental effects, like enlarged tongue, rashes, hives or breathing issues, If you experience these manifestations, try not to eat pineapple, as you might be hypersensitive to it. Also, bromelain is a gentle blood slenderer and eating heaps of pineapple might cause draining issues in certain individuals.

Has High Sugar Content

Typically, when making pineapple juice there is no requirement for one to add any sugar since pineapple itself is now sweet. Pineapple having a high sugar content level and subsequently are not to be taken in overabundance as it can cause gum disease and pits. It ought to likewise be stayed away from by the individuals who are overweight or diabetic.

May demolish existing kidney issues

Notwithstanding bromelain, pineapple likewise contains oxalic corrosive and a lot of potassium. Oxalic corrosive is equipped for creating salts alongside different kinds of mineral mixtures like calcium, which is likewise found in our bodies.

Consequently, those with kidney disappointment or kidney stones can’t and ought not follow the pineapple diet. Doing as such would deteriorate their condition and create an aggregation of potassium in the body.

BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.

Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

10 home remedies to get of dark circles

Reduce any dark circles and under eye bags you’ve accumulated from years of having fun.

Us human beings are imperfect creatures. We know we’d like to get in better shape, but that chocolate cookie looks mighty tasty. We know we have to wake up early, but there’s only one episode left on the Netflix show we’re binging on. We know we should apply sunblock religiously, but we forget to bring the bottle with us to the beach.

That’s life. But that doesn’t mean we can’t form some habits and best practices for mitigating the inevitable effects of a life well-lived. For every late night chatting over drinks, for every day out in the sun and for every bed time we didn’t have the energy to apply eye cream, there are as many tips and tricks we can use to fight signs of aging.Nobody’s perfect.

Why Do We Get Eye Circles?

To be honest, even if you’ve spent your life diligently treating your skin as carefully as you possibly can, we’re all going to show signs of aging sooner or later – and that includes under-eye bags and dark circles.

Over time, skin naturally loses collagen and grows thinner, so regardless of what kind of skin you have or what good habits you maintain, veins will inevitably start to show through the thin skin around your eyes. As we already know, exposure to the sun speeds up the process of collagen breaking down, so your best weapon against under-eye circles are disciplined and consistent sunblock application habits from a young age. (Wearing sunglasses while out in the sun helps, too – less squinting = fewer crows feet!)

The best habits, however, can’t change your genes! Genetics are the biggest determinant of what kind of skin we will have and what we’ll look like as we age. Those of us that have inherited fair or thin skin tend to show under circles more easily than others due to the fact that when our blood pools in the capillaries under our eyes, it’s simply more obvious through lighter skin.

Unfortunately, as more and more blood accumulates there, your delicate capillaries begin to stretch and strain under the weight, leading to more leaking and blood pooling – and ultimately even darker under eye circles.

Yet for others, dark under eye circles and under eye bags aren’t caused by either aging, sun bathing or genetics. Sometimes it’s a simple matter of allergies. Year-round allergies like those to dust or mold, or seasonal allergies many of us experience in the spring trigger the release of histamines, which cause an inflammatory response. That means our blood vessels become inflamed and swell – including those under our eyes.

Okay, so That Explains Why I Have Dark Under Eye Circles. but How Do I Get Rid of Under Eye Bags?

Experiment with the following routines to see which one works the most effectively for you. Remember to use patience and consistency when trying out a new routine. Follow the routine every day for 4 to 6 weeks. If after that period of time, you still don’t see the results you want, move on to the next practice and see if that works better for reducing your dark under eye bags and circles.

The Best Routines for Getting Rid of Dark Circles and Under Eye Bags

1. Cold Compress

In the morning or evening – or better yet, in the morning AND the evening – apply a cold compress for about 10 minutes. If you have a mask you can keep in your fridge and pull out twice a day, that’s the easiest way to try this dark circle reducing method. Just make sure to keep it clean and give it a good soapy scrub a few times a week!

2. Cucumbers

We’ve all seen cucumbers used as cold compresses on television and in films – but do they really work?

In fact, cucumbers have skin-lightening and mild astringent properties, so you can use cucumber slices to fix raccoon eyes naturally.

To try this method twice a day, chop a fresh cucumber into thick slices and then refrigerate for 30 minutes. Then, leave the slices on your eyes for 10 minutes. Rinse your eye area with warm (but not hot) water after using.

3.Cucumber Juice + Lemon Juice

If cucumber slices don’t work for you, try mixing equal parts cucumber and lemon juice and then use a cotton ball to apply to your under-eye circles. (DO NOT get lemon juice in your eye!) Leave the solution on your skin for 15 minutes and then rinse with warm water.

4. Rose Water

Rose water doesn’t just smell fantastic – it can also soothe and rejuvenate tired skin. Like cucumber, it’s a mild astringent, so it can work as a skin toner. Just soak cotton makeup remover pads in rose water for a few minutes, and then let the soaked makeup pads sit on your CLOSED eyelids. Leave them for about 15 minutes twice daily.

5. Tomatoes

Tomatoes are high in lycopene, a substance that’s excellent for your cardiovascular health, vision and your skin. Lycopene can help create softer, more supple skin, as well as decrease the appearance of dark under eye circles.

To gain the medical benefits of the lycopene found in tomatoes, mix equal parts tomato juice with lemon juice and then use a cotton ball or makeup remover pad to apply it to your under eye area. (Again, PLEASE do not get lemon juice in your eyes.) Leave the solution for 10 minutes and then rinse with warm water, twice daily.

A tasty concoction of tomato juice, lemon juice and mint leaves to drink daily will also help improve your overall health as well as your skin.

6. Cold tea bags

If you don’t have a cold compress or mask to use, substitute with tea bags. Many teas like green tea have the added benefit of antioxidants, which have anti-inflammatory properties that help soothe strained capillaries in your under eye area.

To use cold tea bags as a compress, soak a tea bag in clean water and then place in the refrigerator for 30 minutes. Then, place the tea bags on your eyes. Leave for 10 minutes or so twice daily before removing and rinsing the area with warm water.

7. Potatoes

Potatoes are a surprising source of lots of vitamin C, which among other things is great for the synthesis of collagen to promote healthier, younger-looking skin.

To harness the power of vitamin C to treat your under eye bags, grate some potatoes. Extract the juice from the potato and soak some cotton makeup remover pads in the juice. Place the pads on your eyes for about 10 minutes and then rinse with warm water.

8. Cold Milk

Dairy products like milk are a great source of vitamin A, which contains retinoids that are great for keeping skin looking bright and young.

To gain the benefits of milk’s vitamin A, soak a cotton makeup remover pad in a bowl of cold milk for a while. Use the pad to apply the milk to your under eye bags and let it sit for about 10 minutes, twice daily. Rinse with warm water.

9. Orange Juice

Since orange juice is high in both vitamin A and C content, it can help remove dark circles from under your eyes. Add a few drops of glycerin to orange juice and then soak a cotton makeup remover pad to apply to your under-eye skin. You’ll reap the benefits of orange’s vitamins as well as the natural glow glycerin gives to your skin.

10. Vitamin E Oil

Vitamin E helps fight the effect of free radicals that cause signs of aging like wrinkles. Before bed at night, apply a drop of oil (a little goes a long way) to your dark under eye circles, gently massaging it into the skin. Leave this on your skin overnight and in the morning, rinse with warm water.

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Why does a student need to be industry ready & how they can be?

What do you mean by industry ready?

An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.

Importance

A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.

Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.

Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.

How can students be industry ready?

Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-

  1. Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
  2. Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
  3. Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
  4. Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
  5. Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
  6. Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
  7. Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
  8. Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.

So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.

Bahrain

Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.

Seychelles

Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.

UAE

The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused

Philippines

In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.

BOOST METABOLISM WITH 5 SIMPLE WAYS

Digestion is a term that portrays every one of the synthetic responses that occur in the body. These substance responses are significant for the working of your body.

The term is frequently utilized reciprocally with metabolic rate, which is the quantity of calories you consume. The higher the metabolic rate, the more calories you consume. The more calories you consume, the more weight you lose.

Having an elevated capacity to burn calories keeps you lively and helps you to have an improved outlook the entire day. Here are 5 simple approaches to support your digestion.

START YOUR DAY EARLY

To begin the day on a solid note, get a decent night’s rest the prior night. Great quality rest is related with more noteworthy possibilities of getting thinner effectively. It will furnish you with energy for your bustling timetable.

Prior to having your morning meal in the first part of the day, do a decent morning stretch to your wellbeing and prosperity.

BE ACTIVE DURING OFFICE HOURS TOO

For a great many people, office takes up most of their days’ time. When they are home, they are worn out to the point that they have no energy to go out to the rec centre.

In such cases, one such take a stab at remaining dynamic at work to keep their digestion up. In the event that you have a stationary work, take small action breaks for the duration of the day. Standard development isn’t only useful for weight reduction yet additionally in boosting your efficiency and capacity to focus on the current work.

Have a nutritious dinner at lunch, which incorporates protein and other digestion boosting fixings. Try not to nibble thoughtlessly. Skirt the chips, chocolates, cakes and confections.

EAT SMARTLY

There are sure food varieties that can assist you with consuming more calories. The most common way of biting, processing and putting away the food requires your body to consume calories. This is known as the thermic impact of food (TEF). It just compensates for around 5 – 10 percent of your day-by-day calorie consumption.

High protein food varieties are harder to process and support the development of bulk in case you are strength preparing. Fiber likewise should be bitten more earnestly and brings energy to separate. Adding flavors to your food is one more approach to somewhat support the internal heat level to consume more calories.

Consolidating protein and fiber-rich food varieties can control hunger longings for quite a long time in the wake of eating, which decreases the general inclination to gorge. Pay attention to your inner yearning prompts to separate between evident craving and passionate appetite.

EXERCISE

Undoubtedly, practice is the best method to help your digestion. An exceptional exercise can fire up your metabolic motor for quite a long time even after a meeting. Regardless of whether you are new to actual work, there are bunches of advantages to acquire by working out even as a fledgling.

Obstruction preparing that aide in building muscles is useful in long haul digestion boosting impacts. Indeed, even essential exercises assist with developing fortitude, consume calories and work on your wellbeing.

EAT PROTEIN IN EVERY MEAL

Eating food can build your digestion for quite a while. This is known as the thermic impact of food (TEF). It is the additional calories needed to process, retain and measure the supplements in your dinner.

Protein causes the biggest ascent in TEF. It builds your metabolic rate by 15 – 30 percent when contrasted with 5.10 percent for carbs and 0 – 3 percent for fat. Protein likewise saves you fuller for more and keeps you from indulging. An investigation discovered that individuals were probably going to eat 441 calories less each day when protein made up 30% of their eating routine.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

Why Take Health Insurance Plans in Difficult Times?

With all these healthy routines they are missing one of the most important steps that play a very important role in one’s health and treatment that is to secure their future health expenses by taking a liable health insurance plan. Health insurance equipped the person to take all the treatment and hospitalisation at a reasonable rate.

Currently, the world is dealing with the deadly coronavirus which was originated as the very new virus in late December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China. Even at the time, its name was not known than the situation gain international media’s coverage when virus cases started reporting from other countries as well along with a sharp increase in the death rate due to the coronavirus. The WHO declared it as the global pandemic in March 2020, with about 118,000 confirm cases with 4921 deaths in 114 countries.

The superpower of the world, the United States of America become the worst affected country in the world. Till now the USA has recorded 4.9 million confirmed cases with about 160 thousand deaths has been registered so far. In this dangerous and high-risk time of the pandemic, health-conscious Americans are taking all the necessary precautions to keep themselves fit and healthy. From following a healthy diet to regular exercising, they are doing almost everything to keep themselves away from the virus and other contagious diseases.

Importance of Health Insurance Plan

About 30 million workers living in America lost their jobs so does their health insurance plan during the outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic. Thus, along with the financial burden the Americans has to face the health crises and expenses also. As coronavirus treatment is the costliest so the necessity of a good health insurance plan for American citizens is enormous.

  • As the virus is new and unknown to scientists and doctors so the much study and research are not done on it as well as its vaccine formation time is still not confirmed so the treatment of virus is very expensive in different parts of the world. In America, thousands of dollars are required for the treatment of the corona patient. Because of these reasons, the need for good health insurance is essential.
  • As not only coronavirus but various other deadly viruses like Ebola, Zika and other dangerous diseases surrounds us and requires a lot of dollars for testing and treatment of the disease, so it is very beneficial to equip with the best health insurance policy to ensure the proper treatment and care by the health official at a very minimal rate which was already given to the health insurance company.
  • Health insurance also helps to maintain mental health along with the treatment of physical ailment. As the burden of disease and health problem is already on the mind of the patient so health insurance plan helps to detect financial burden from the mind and to maintain mental health.

As nothing is predictable in life, any unintended accidents can occur at any time of life. During these times health insurance plays a very vital role in saving our and our loves life. 

As corona is also one disease which can enter in our lives at any moment of our life, so advance maintenance and preparations are very essential especially in American cities like New York where there is a large spread of the disease. The first step in the preparation is to avail the honest and liable health insurance plan. 

Thus, along with following all the safety and hygiene protocols of Corona Virus, the person should also ensure the health insurance plan for themselves and their families. The Cities of New York and Boston are the worst affected so proper health insurance for its citizens is very essential.

Best Health Insurance Plan in New York

As the coronavirus claim a lot of deaths, some because of the lack of immunity while others due to the lack of money. The treatment and testing of Corona Virus are too expensive in New York city of America, the health insurance plays a vital role in ensuring treatment from the best doctors and the in the most renowned hospitals. The best insurance plans in New York health come under four categories.

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These are bronze plan, silver, gold and platinum health insurance plans, all vary in its prices. There is government sponsor health insurance plan Medicare that comes at $ 1,005 for the single person, and for married couples, it can be bought at $ 1,354 under its qualified beneficiary plan. Medicare provides four types of the best insurance plan in New York health.

There is also Medicaid health insurance plan for poor families that cannot afford other health insurance plans. About 6% of New York residents are uninsured that compels officials to make some more good policies.

Best Health Insurance Plans in Boston

The Boston city in the United States is also one of the worst affected city that provides some of the most renowned health insurance plans. The best health insurance plans in Boston includes a basic life insurance plan that can be brought at $ 5,000 but its amount may variant with the age of the person. The Medicare Retiree Health insurance plan allows the usage of coverage even after the retirement.

There are many more such health insurance schemes offers both by the government officials as well as the private insurance companies. The Obamacare Health plan that is giving benefits to many Americans, is providing a lot of health insurance plans in different parts of America. These are some of the best health insurance plans in Boston that are making the lives of many citizens easy.

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Conclusion

The Corona Virus Pandemic has put a halt to many things but it also brings the real condition of the health structure of many powerful countries. Even the most powerful and renowned country of the world, the United States of America is not able to control the virus initially that results in the thousands of deaths and millions of active cases. As well as millions of people lost their jobs and become unemployed.

In such a drastic and dangerous situation, the person’s health protector is a health insurance plan that protects the future of the person and makes it financially secured when such a disease or accident takes place. The Americans are looking for the best insurance plans that give them the most benefits of treatment and testing of the disease and by taking one of the health insurance plans our mind become peaceful without any worry of unpredictable tragedies of life.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Mountain of light: Kohinoor

Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.

Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.

Journey

Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.

It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.

After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.

Cursed?

An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as

He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.

Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.

  • Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
  • Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
  • Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
  • Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
  • Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
  • British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor

This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.

Eating Disorders

Eating disorder are severe mental illness, not lifestyle choices.

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Introduction

Eating disorder is a product of mental turbulence that manifests itself in the eating habits of people, affecting them negatively. It is a serious condition that can have a lasting impact in various spheres of a person’s life. Eating disorders usually sprout from body insecurities and an untameable urge to lose weight quickly.

According to Mayo Clinic, Most eating disorders involve focusing too much on your weight, body shape and food, leading to dangerous eating behaviours. These behaviours can significantly impact your body’s ability to get appropriate nutrition. Eating disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and teeth and mouth, and lead to other diseases.

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Although these disorders can take root at any age teenagers and adolescents might be more prone to such disorders.

Eating disorders can impact the body in a detrimental manner. Eating disorders, often obviously lead to lack of nutrition that becomes the underlying cause of a number of diseases, that eventually end up affecting all the functioning systems of the body.

Symptoms

Image result for eating disorder symptoms cartoon
  1. Drastic weight change
  2. Obsessive preoccupation with food
  3. Excessive exercise
  4. Binge eating or purging
  5. Vomiting
  6. Avoiding meals
  7. Binge eating
  8. Fear of fat
  9. Tooth decay
  10. Swollen glands, dry calluses on fingers
  11. Dry, yellowish skin
  12. Thinning bones
  13. Feeling tired
  14. Mild anaemia
  15. Depression
  16. Constipation
  17. Irregular menstrual cycles
  18. Low blood pressure
  19. Growth of hair on body
  20. Excessive mood swings
  21. Using laxatives etc

Types of Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are not just limited to less eating or not eating at all, several other type of disorders include binge eating as well. Listed below are three of the most common eating disorders.

Anorexia Nervosa:

One of the most commonly known disorder, anorexia is often characterised by low weight and a distorted body image. According to statistics;

  • Anorexia is the 3rd most common chronic illness among adolescents
  • 95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 25
  • 50% of girls between the ages of 11 and 13 see themselves as overweight
  • 80% of 13-year-olds have attempted to lose weight

Patients with this disorder, often underweight limit their food intake to a dangerous extent. It involves a characteristic fear of eating, unhealthy desire for weight loss and often includes excessive exercise.

People with this disorder are severely malnourished and often never satisfied with their weight loss aiming for a ‘perfect’ size zero.

Bulimia Nervosa:

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This eating disorder is characterised by eating in large amounts (binge eating) and then purging or forcing vomit to rid of the excess calories and guilt of food. It is a potentially life threatening disorder.

To get rid of calories and prevent weight gain, people with bulimia may use different methods. For example, you may regularly self-induce vomiting or misuse laxatives, weight-loss supplements, diuretics or enemas after bingeing. Or you may use other ways to rid yourself of calories and prevent weight gain, such as fasting, strict dieting or excessive exercise.

Binge-eating Disorder:

Image result for binge eating disorder cartoon

Patients with this disorder eat unusually large amounts of food almost everyday compulsively. Patients may be embarrassed of their eating regimen and may decide to work on some change but the urge to eat overpowers all.

This binging is different from festive binging or one in a blue moon movie night binge eating.

People with this disorder may be obese or overweight.

Citation(s): https://www.mayoclinic.org/

Why India can’t have an Official Language

Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?

Critics

After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.

Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.

Steps taken

India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.

Advantage of having an official language

A Chinese research concluded that

  1. When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
  2. China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
  3. Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
  4. Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.

Disadvantage of having an official language

According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said

India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.

But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.

As per as official language is concerned,

  1. English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
  2. Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
  3. This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.

Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.

The best solace food varieties you can eat, as indicated by specialists

There’s nothing more alleviating than your #1 solace allowing suppers when you feel somewhat low or simply sick. As the name proposes, solace food sources are intended to offer you that solace and warmth and you can simply go to them when you feel blue! For a few, it can likewise offer a little nostalgic benefit and cause you to feel at ease. Notwithstanding, as ameliorating as it appears, we as a whole realize that they aren’t actually the best contribution there. Be it a pack of chips, rice luxuries, desserts, moment noodles, a sandwich or pizzas, considered a mainstream decision around the world, solace food sources can be of any sort yet tragically, weighed down with a great deal of carbs, fat and sugar content, which isn’t actually a solid decision to be had.

Why are solace food varieties terrible?

Solace food sources are frequently connected with a nostalgic, alleviating esteem which regularly leaves us genuinely satisfied (otherwise known as, feeling full) whenever we are finished having them. Studies propose that solace food varieties really work to hoist mind-set levels by animating the cerebrum’s prize and joy focuses and can feel like a habit. Notwithstanding, as fulfilling and soothing as the food sources may feel in the midst of emergency, most solace food varieties are healthfully not unreasonably thick, and all things being equal, loaded up with calories. The issue deteriorates, in the event that you wind up having a lot of your solace food sources, and burden up on the abundance carbs and fats, or the undesirable additives in them, and end up in an awful pressure pigging out cycle.

Having said that, not all solace food is really downright terrible. While they do get a feeling of sentimentality and help you in general, for certain augmentations and careful trades, you can have your solace food varieties without an ounce of blame or stressing over exaggerating your calories! Here’s introducing the absolute most nutritious solace dinners to make you glad and sound simultaneously:

Cereal arrangements: Oatmeal is a morning meal staple for some, a confided in weight reduction helper, and, in the event that you ask us, an embrace in-a-bowl sort of planning! Not exclusively would oatmeal be able to be ready in an assortment of ways, it is wealthy in acceptable carbs, fiber and cell reinforcements which don’t digress you away from nourishment esteems. Oats are likewise bounty plentiful in B-Vitamins, which advance cerebrum wellbeing. Finish it off with nectar, nuts and seeds, foods grown from the ground have a feeding dinner worth partaking in any time.

Vegetable sandwiches and pasta: Pasta and sandwiches are appreciated by many are considered the go-to supper when abrupt food cravings and yearnings strike. While adding sauces and a lot of cheddar can positively make your supper a bit unfortunate, make a point to include a ton of brilliant veggies and a few flavors into your sandwiches, pastas to stack up on the wellbeing remainder! Cheddar as well, whenever added cautiously can be beneficial for you! Thus, ensure you make this careful trade to make your solace rich feast significantly more solid.

Heated potatoes: Potatoes are a favoured vegetable cherished by all. Nonetheless, it’s additionally something that is calorie-thick, and may not be really beneficial to be had in its singed, fresh structure that we like. Choosing heated potato dishes, finishing off with more veggies can be one trade that can cause you to have your potato, and eat it righteous!

Khichdi: When we discuss solace food varieties, how might we disregard our own special khichdi? The blended rice and lentil readiness is quite sustaining and thought about a mending feast in many pieces of the country. While certain increases to the dish (like the utilization of asafoetida, ghee or the humble tadka) make the dinner very nutritious, on the off chance that you truly depend on khichdi as your solace food, ensure you use protein-pressed lentils, (for example, moong daal), throw in veggies (any you like) and make it a satisfying supper without help from anyone else!

Curd rice: Just like khichdi, curd rice is an adored delicacy in many pieces of India. Indeed, it’s really a very solid planning. Specialists have since quite a while ago focused on that curd rice is gut-accommodating food since it can re-establish the microbial equilibrium in the body, help absorption. Curd, in the meantime, is a decent wellspring of dairy-rich calcium, which reinforces your bones and has heaps of cancer prevention agents.

Foxnuts and margarine less popcorn: Popcorn (made without spread) and foxnuts, otherwise called makhanas can likewise make for sound tidbits and solace food alternatives. While popcorn portions are supposed to be wealthy in cancer prevention agents and heart-solid polyphenols, wealthy in satiety and useful for assimilation, makhanas, as well, can be made contrastingly and gloat of a great deal of promising medical advantages from being wealthy in calcium, great carbs, iron, magnesium and phosphorus.

Yogurt finished off with organic products: The best (and the best) substitution to frozen yogurts are low-fat yogurt-based treats and yogurt bowls. While yogurt is an incredibly decent wellspring of good gut microbes, calcium, benefits weight reduction and insusceptibility, adding bright nuts and seeds to your yogurt planning serve in extra cancer prevention agents, nutrients and minerals and is beneficial to be had routinely.

Banned cartoons and their reasons

You may have came across the word “ban” Or “censored’ used in movies, but do you know these terms are also used for some cartoons in some countries which are liked by other countries. Let’s have a look at some popular cartoons which are banned in some countries and their reasons.

1. SpongeBob SquarePants

This is the longest running Nickelodeon show ever. It got banned because of violence and foul language which are used in this show. Countries like Russia, America and 120 others have banned this show from watching.

2. The Simpsons

This is America’s most popular cartoon show till now. This show had scenes where public figures like Donald Trump, were insulted. This show also promoted disorderly behavior which were totally misleading for kids. After sometime, the show is now available to watch, but there has been argument going on this show as countries like US have censored this cartoon show.

3. Mickey Mouse

This is world’s first cartoon show which had voice, and the first word that Mickey Mouse said was “Hot Dogs”. This cartoon show got banned in 1930s in the Romanian region because Romania government stated that big Mouse in this cartoon will scare the kids rather than making them laugh.

4. Doremon

This is a Japanese cartoon show which is ban in more than 50 countries because of the character Nobita. The Nobita character is a lazy character who always depends upon the character Doremon for helping gadgets. An argument concluded that the Nobita character was promoting laziness, procrastinating, etc, which resulted in banning.

Cartoon shows should be developed keeping kids as their main audience. It should have the simplicity and cleanness that attract audience and also focusing on the impact and effect that it’ll leave mainly on audience. That’s why shows that promotes foul language can always make a big effect on kids. This makes banning a healthy and better option.

Organ Donation: Myths and facts

Every years, many thousands receives the gift of life, a life saving transplant of Heart, Kidney, Liver, Lungs, Pancreas and Interesting. And thousands more people receive Corneas and other tissues that restore sight and health. Organ transplantation is one of the medicals advances of our time.

How does it work?

It all starts when someone’s organ begins to fail and that person will need a transplant to survive. The steps are as folllow:-

  1. A through evaluation is conducted at a transplant centre and the person is a good candidate for transplant, he or she will be put into the National Transplant Waiting List.
  2. Once a person is on the waiting list, the wait for organ begins.
  3. A national system matches people on the waiting list with donors. That factors matching donors to recipient includes
    • Blood type
    • Body size
    • How sick the patient is
    • Distance from donor
    • Tissue type
    • Time on list

What isn’t taken into account, organs are never matched based on

  • Race
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Celebrity
  • Social status

There is no telling how long the wait will take. Infact, some people don’t receive an organ in time, because the Waiting List is really long and there aren’t enough donors available. That’s why an average of 20 people on the Waiting List died each day. Imagine how many could we save if we all were donors.

Becoming a donors

Most of organs transplant comes a deceived donors. For example, a person comes to the hospital with a life threatening brain injury, such as from an accident, stroke, our lack of oxygen. The doctors work hard to save them patients life but sometimes nothing can be done. There’s a complete, irreversible loss of brain function. The patient is clinically and legally dead.

Thats when being a donor can turn a time of loss into a time of hope. Because machines have blood containing and oxygen flowing into the organs, they can be passed along. One person can give life to as many as eight people through organ donation, and enhance the lives of fifty people or more with eye and tissue donation. But now minutes matter, matches must be found and transplants must happen quickly.

Organ Procurement organization

The hospital contracts an Organ Procurement Organization (OPO), it manages the recovery process. The OPO checks the state of organ donor registry, if the person is already registered as a donor they inform the family, if not they’ll ask the family to authorise donation.

A medical examination is taken place. They check the medical and social history and the person is eligible to be an organ donor, the computer begins to search on the National Waiting List for well matched patients The best matched patients are contracted by the transplant team. This is the call that every person on the Waiting List was waiting for.

The Transplant

A surgical team recovers the organs, then Corneas and other tissues. The organs are sent to the transplant hospital where patients and transplant teams are waiting and the life saving transplant takes place. It will take health living and medication to keep the organ working well in its new home.

You too could make the decision today, sign up on your state registry as an organ, eye and tissues donor, any age is the right age, Young or old, any day is the right day to sign up as a donor. You can register through your drivers license or you can register online. Remember to tell your family so that they can support your wishes. More than 1r5 million people have already registered, and we all need to save kore lives. So let’s share the gift of life.

Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap
Bladderworts
Sundew
Pitcher plant

All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.

Reason of existence

It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-

  1. Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
  2. In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
  3. This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys

Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.

Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.

Lifestyle mistakes that are damaging our health

Living in a world where we are continuously striving to achieve materialistic things. Working late at night, eating junk food, binge-watching, and being lazy are only deteriorating your healthy lifestyle. You won’t notice this in the early stage but sooner or later symptoms will start showing up and then it will be too late.

As the saying goes “A healthy mind lives in a healthy body”. Researchers from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden have revealed that regular exercise boosts the brainpower of young adults. It improves blood flow to the brain that could help build new brain cells.

Here are some mistakes that one should be avoiding for living a healthy lifestyle –

  • Unhealthy Eating Habits

In this new era of fast food, people are ordering junk food like pizza and burgers. From a convenience point of view, it is okay although it isn’t a healthy option. Consuming high calories foods but lacking essential healthy nutrients causes severe digestive problems in the long run. It leads to unhealthy weight gain and an increased risk of many chronic diseases.

  • Drinking less water

For proper functioning of the body, you have to keep your body dehydrated. Drinking 3-4 liters a day will keep much illness away and gives you clear and healthy skin. 

  • Stressful life

Nowadays people feel overwhelmed because of the pressure that they face. There are many reasons for stressful life such as trying to do too much, not prioritizing your needs, and constantly being connected (social media). So to improve your lifestyle, unplug from being constantly connected, prioritize your needs and eat healthily and work out regularly.

  • Not making to-do list

Make your to-do list before going to bed. This will help you to manage your day without wasting your morning time figuring out what to do. Sometimes you take much time and you end up doing nothing. 

  • Being lazy

Laziness is one of the biggest modern-day problems. Not only will it affect your physical health, but it will also have a great impact on your mental health. Laziness in itself has enough potential to weaken your cognitive abilities and discourage you from eating and drinking healthy.

  • Avoiding deep and meaningful conversations

Human experience is about connecting with other people. Connection is what provides value and meaning to our lives. For example, people with strong social ties were found to be healthier and have a lower risk of death. Additionally, it was found that as age increases, the people with stronger social ties tend to live longer. And it seems that friendships can even help you find cancer.

  • Spending all day indoors

Explore the world around you whether that means traveling to faraway lands or hiking. This will freshen your mind and provides a wide range of mental and physical benefits.

  • Binge-watching for long hours

It’s good to binge watch for entertainment but it also has its side effects. It may increase anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Binge-watching for long hours may lead to insomnia and will make you less physically active.   

Sleepwalking

Did you ever Sleep walked? Here’s what I came to know that every 1 out of 3 kids aged between 4 to 8, sleep walk. And that’s a lot by the way.

Sleep walking formally known as Somnambulish is a strange phenomena where people get up and do things in their sleep, sometimes more than just walking and when they wake up they don’t have any recollection of what they were doing. Moreover, if they find way back to their bed they may not ever know that they were sleep walking.

Sleep walking is nothing about embarrassed about though or terrified for that matter, it’s relatively common. In a recent study Stanford found that 1 out of 3 people sleep walk at some point of their lives. It is specially common among children, between the age of 4 and 8. So what happened when we sleep walk.

Reasons

A leading theory about why we sleep walk is:-

  • In normal sleep cycle, your brains motor system continues to issue physical commands to the body.
  • Whereas those who sleep walks are suppressed by sleep chemical called GABA.
  • GABA access act as a break in your brain, it brings your mind and body down to rest by neutralizing Glutamate a chemical that causes excitement.
  • In sleep walkers there’s a glitch in the process that suppresses your boby from moving around namely that you don’t produce GABA.

So that’s why you are moving around when you’re still asleep. There are few causes of GABA deficient in the body:-

  1. Genetic sleepwalking :- when sleepwalking runs in the family
  2. Underdeveloped system:- when the boby simply hasn’t matured enough to produce the proper amount. That’s why it is more common amongst kids.
  3. Depression:- Those who suffer from depression are three times as likely to sleep walk.

Myths

You would have probably heard about the myth that you shouldn’t wake a sleepwalker because they’re going through a psychotic rage that could even kill you. But these are myths, if you see anyone sleepwalking, you are asked to wake them up gently, especially if they are in the kitchen or holding a knife.

Recently there was a story about a lady who drove 190 miles in her sleep without hurting or killing herself or anyone. She should be definitely called lucky.

Health and fitness

Health is an important aspect in anyone’s life. Fitness is a proof for a healthy person. By achieving a healthy body, we can achieve a healthy mind. Small habit changes in our day-day life will change our life completely in a healthier way. Food is the first thing to take into considering when we talk about health. There are lots of aspects to having a healthy life. I will share with you the small steps that you need to take to start your healthy journey.

Proper diet

The first thing that comes to our mind when we think about being healthy is being on a proper diet. It is not just about what we eat, it is also about when we eat. Healthy food aside, having your food at the right time every day will cut off lots of health issues. Many of us skip breakfast and eat straight at lunch time. You haven’t had anything for the past 12 hours so your stomach is literally empty with stomach acid in it. There are many risk factors when high stomach acid is secreted. The main function of this acid is to digest the food that you intake so better give it some food in the morning otherwise it will cause some serious health issues.

Keep specific timings for your breakfast, lunch and dinner. If you take food at proper timings, it will solve many health issues. Breakfasts should be taken around 7 to 9 AM. Lunch should be taken around 12 to 2 PM. Dinner should be taken around 7 to 9 AM. So make sure you stick to the timings and have a healthy diet!

Next comes the healthy food. Make sure you take vegetables thrice a week and fish twice a week (if you are a non vegetarian) and one cheat day to eat your favorite junk food. Intake of all kinds of food is important. Junk food and outside food from time to time would be fine but making it as a part of your diet would cause major health issues.

Sleep schedule

Another important factor that ruins your health is lack of sleep. I know most of us have issues with falling asleep at night time and that becomes a routine. The first step to do is to not make it a routine and not normalizing the sleep schedule. If you can only sleep at 1 then consider it a serious issue and work towards changing it.

Ways to stabilize your sleep schedule

  • Push in all your work within 11 PM and make yourself completely free at night. If you are a work from home dude then plan it accordingly, you require 6 to 8 hours of sleep, that’s all matters.
  • Avoid using mobile phone or laptop after 11 PM. Make sure you have at least 30 mins gap without screen time before sleeping.

Exercise!

Fitness is achieved by exercising your body regularly. It can be anything that you do. A simple 1 hour walk in the morning will keep you active throughout the day. There are many forms of exercises that you can do. You can workout everyday with simple moves. The ultimate goal is to exercise your muscles and not make them lazy. Some forms of exercise are,

  • home workouts
  • Going to gym
  • Morning/evening walk
  • Cycling
  • Dance workout
  • yoga

Meditation helps you exercise your mind. It calms and clears your mind. If you start doing it you will definitely see the results in your day to day life.

Conclusion

These are some factors that affects our health and if we bring more concentration into all of this, we can be healthy mentally and physically. Make time to focus on your mind and body.

Are you a Smartphone Zombie?

Few days back i saw a question on a site asking “I want to put my phone aside and study, but i’m not able to do it? Is there any I can get rid of it?”

Well we can say that we all faced this phase where we get too much addicted to Mobile phone and couldn’t keep it aside and focus on other works. A research recently released the details of a study which told us where in the world was the biggest Smartphone penetration:-

  1. South Korea
  2. Australia
  3. Israel
  4. U.S
  5. Spain
  6. U.K

But this doesn’t mean that people in this countries are using mobile phones all the time. Based on a 2016 study led by Statistica, it does look like people in those countries might fall into the category of smartphone zombies. The study also said that

  • Brazilian spend the most hours on average connected to a smartphone as 4 hr 48 mins per day.
  • Chinese spend the most hours on average 3 hours 3 mins
  • Followed by U.S 2 hours 37 mins
  • Italy 2 hours 34 mins
  • Spain 2 hours 11 mins
  • South Korea 2 hours 10 mins

One thing range true for all countries in the study, and that was the fact time spent on a smartphone for the average person was up quite a lot from 2012 to 2016.

It’s not totally people’s fault that we are addicted to the smartphones. We have this exciting thing in our pocket that flashes, beeps and invites us to use it. NPR in 2018 talked about this manipulative object we carry around with us, that is just so irresistible. The story mentions Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, and what we know as Pavlov’s dog. The psychologist one day realised that when his dog heard a bell or a buzzer, he knew it was feeding time, thereby associate with a sound to eating, which led to the dog drooling and looking excited.

Modern psychologist tells us this is what is happening to us when we hear a beep or a ding inside our pocket; we become excitable, like Pavlov’s dog. Our reward is coming, and we get a hit of dopamine and we want more. We check our phone on average every 15 mins and that make the tech use psychological tricks to keep us checking in.

All the time spent checking in may affect our sleep, our relationship, our work, or even all the creative things we might do to have a flourishing existence. Psychologist tend to agree we should be checking in less, and tech producers need to start thinking about creating less powerful digital drugs. But that isn’t easy because as most people now need those beeps and likes, and need to feel that they are not missing out on something.

Experts even states that putting your phone down, you may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as craving, restlessness, irritability or difficulty in concentrating. So from now on you might turn off notifications, have a plan for the day and stick to it, take off the apps you really don’t need as that might lead to a kind of app surfing. In general, not many people are against these technologies, but we should be focusing on what we might call device quality time, educating ourselves and being productive and creative.

The Role of Social Media in Raising Health Awareness

More and more people are dependent on social media for healthcare news and resources in this new era. Today, the idea of following doctors on Facebook is typical. Social media and healthcare go hand-in-hand. When Social media matters across all the industries, then why should healthcare be avoided right? 

Since more people are engaged on social media, the medical field has now understood the importance of social media in healthcare and has started incorporating such practices. Healthcare organizations have seriously started examining the role of social media in the patient-physician relationship. Leaders in public health have begun realizing that a comprehensive healthcare brand can be built with the help of social media marketing. 

Social Media Engagement in Healthcare | Digital Marketing for Hospitals

Raises Awareness

Social media has always been a key to increase public awareness about emerging, new, and annual health issues. It facilitates raising awareness in a way that is as simple as reminding followers about the basic sense of health practices. 

When the world around is changing fast, social media is the key that ensures that the public is aware of the latest medical guidelines, issues, and advisories. One of the ways of sharing information is to share them directly through your social posts. Another way is to use social media to direct followers to credible sources of the latest news. 

Combat Misleading Information

Social media, due to its very nature, helps spread information quickly to distinct groups of people. That’s great when the information shared is helpful, clear, and fact-based. But unfortunately, there is also a lot of misinformation on social platforms. At times, this misinformation comes in the form of false statements and they are easily ridiculed. 

You can cite published research from a credible health resource like the CDC or WHO. But sometimes, the creators of misinformation may use a reputable institution to give credibility to their statements. Then, the institution needs to clarify that they are not the source.

Social media offers institutions a platform to generate statements to stop the masses from believing false facts. So, make your healthcare brand a platform where you share useful information with your followers and stay away from spreading misinformation. More detailed research can help you identify the true facts. 

The more the research, the better!

Answer Common Questions

Health organizations and authorities working in the healthcare sector are valuable for all kinds of health concerns. Social media tools offer a creative way for healthcare professionals to address common issues. 

For example, the government of India has developed a Facebook Messenger Chatbot. It allows answering questions, directing citizens to the right source, and countering misinformation. 

Everything is shrouded in the media’s shadow. If we claim that the media is counting the feathers of the flying sparrow, we are not exaggerating. The role of media has created a stir and sensation in the world , rich or poor, fair or dark, wise or unwise, are enjoying lucretian pleasures and are in the air. Media could play a leading role in creating awareness on the various health issue and this role can’t be disputed. Hillary Clinton Secretary of State of the US has recently commented on AIDS and while speaking that the disease is incurable, she said efforts are to be made. Many efforts are made on health-related issues and role of media have to be included also. There are many health-related problems confronting our country and these include both communicable and chronic diseases. Health department at the center and state play a leading role in the eradication of diseases, including international agencies and governments of other countries. Media has been promoting health-related causes in a big way in helping government departments spreading awareness on various issues relating health and family welfare programs. The MOHFW has various schemes and these are promoted in many private and government-owned media outlets.

Who was the First Plastic Surgeon?

Plastic surgery – the name implies an artificial substance – but it is derived from the Greek word “Plastikos” which means to mold or to give form. An important specialty has been taking shape, one that reshapes the lives of patients. So who was the first plastic surgeon?

John Staige Davis was the first plastic surgeon. He played an important role not only at his council group in Hopkins but also in the United States in the plastic surgery. He limited his practice in the field of plastic surgery in those times. He was the only plastic surgeon who was there when World War I took place.

Dr. John Staige Davis

In 1991, Dr. Davis published the first English language textbook of plastic surgery and it is still used today. He sends copies to medical school founder, doctors and at that time no one acknowledged receiving it. And though plastic surgery at Hopkins would not gain the standard they deserved until the next century, Dr. Davis was helping to build the foundation for the entire discipline of plastic surgery in America.

He used to pioneer the transferring tissue techniques known as “Z- plasty” and the use of small deep grafts to heal chronic wounds. He was the founding member of The American Board of Surgery and The American Board of Plastic surgery. Dr. Davis’s work and reputation starts Hopkins on its way to becoming a crossroad and destination for the country’s best plastic surgeons.

In 1942, John Staige Davis was part-time faculty member and was running a plastic clinic even though he was in his 70s by then and beyond his retirement age, two years from then a forth year medical student at Hopkins had the chance observe the master surgeon doing a cleft lip repair.

His successor Dr. Edgerton graduates and proceeds to work by joining the army and was serving at Valley Forge General Hospital in Pennsylvania. He was one of the few surgeon treating thousands of men coming back from combat with disfiguring wounds and burns needing plastic surgery. This horrendous war injuries united skill surgeon in their desire to heal wounded soldiers. This dynamic gave raise to a new and important speciality in medicine.

Dr. Edgerton

With the scientific foundation and tissue regeneration, transplantation, and stem cell biology plastic surgery is uniquely poised to make the next major advance in medicine. By regenerating or replacing missing body parts, plastic surgery can transform patients life in ways that could not have been imagined only recently.

John Staige Davis didn’t lived to see plastic surgery receive the recognition and support if required and deserved in the world. But his path-breaking work and clear vision allowed a greater dream to be realized.

Indian Diet Chart for 7 days to Loss Weight.

India is a land of many religions and cultures, each one known for its unique living style, culinary habitat, folklore, etc. What India is also known for is the 1000 types of sweets and junk food and roadside snacks that you will rarely find in another country, especially outside Asia. With these foods is also a matter of grave concern – the quality and composition of these foods, coupled with the sedentary lifestyle of individuals poses a high risk of obesity.

Given the situation, we are here to guide you with a diet plan for weight loss. This Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days is customized to suit a typical Indian’s need and is based on the Indian diet chart for weight loss.

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Science Behind Weight Loss

Before we go through the essentials of the diet plan for weight loss, we must understand the science behind weight loss. The loss and gain of weight are directly proportional to the intake of your calories in the diet. Logically speaking, when you shed more calories than you eat every day, your body balances it by shedding calories. Calories are nothing but carbs – layers of fat.

So, calories burnt is equal to weight shed. However, a diet plan for weight loss cannot help if you stop consuming calories altogether – your body needs its nutrition, and this nutrition must be all around with a proper ratio of carbohydrates, proteins and starch.

So, in order to make the diet plan for weight loss success, one must also focus on burning calories through exercises like walking, running, jogging, swimming, etc. Now that it is clear that we must reduce calorie intake as well as burn calories, let us delve into the Indian diet chart for weight loss. This chart is cumulated with a lot of effort and research to make sure that it can be the best Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days.

Sample Diet Plan for Beginners

Please note that the following plan, the Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days is done through research and must be followed only under the supervision of a registered nutritionist or dietician.

Day 1:

Breakfast – 2 brown rice idlis with sambar

Lunch – Consume only vegetables and meals cooked from olive oil. 2 whole-grain Rotis with mixed-vegetable curry with one dal.

Snacks – 1/2 bowl of berries

Dinner – Jowar roti with low-fat paneer sabzi (max 2 Rotis)

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

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Day 2:

Breakfast – Paneer sandwich with mint chutney (made using wheat bread)

Lunch – Chickpea curry with brown rice (For non-vegetarians) / Brown rice with dal (for vegetarians)

Snacks – 1 glass masala buttermilk

Dinner – 2 bowls of brown rice with dal and non-green vegetables.

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Day 3:

Breakfast – ½ bowl of sliced muskmelon, 4 pieces of non-salted cashew nuts.

Lunch – Whole-grain rotis (2) with any green leafy vegetable of your choice.

Snacks – 1 cup of watermelon/few assorted berries

Dinner – salad, 2 chapatis with one vegetable. Keep away from bananas the entire day.

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Day 4:

Breakfast – Oats with milk (No added sugar or any other sweetener)

Lunch – 1 Whole-grain roti with vegetable sabzi/ Dal with veg or non-veg sabzi and brown rice

Snacks – 1 banana

Dinner – ½ cup sautéed vegetables with 1 bowl of brown rice

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Day 5:

Breakfast – 1 pear or guava

Lunch – 2 whole-grain Rotis with mixed-vegetable curry with one dal.

Snacks – 1 banana

Dinner – 2 chapatis with any homecooked pulses

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Day 6:

Breakfast – 2 tomatoes and 1 glass of milk

Lunch – one pear and one apple

Snacks – yogurt with dry fruits

Dinner – brown rice with dal (1 bowl)

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Give yourself a pat on the back if you’ve followed this for six days, there’s just one more day to go and you will officially be in the dieting regime for a whole week! Moving to the diet plan for weight loss for the last day of the week, now.

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Day 7:

Breakfast – one glass of carrot or beetroot juice

Lunch – Milkshake (2 bananas + 1 glass of milk + a dash of cocoa powder)

Snacks – 1 glass buttermilk

Dinner – salad, 2 chapatis with one vegetable. Keep away from rice the entire day.

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

That concludes your diet plan for weight loss. But remember: dieting takes time and dedication; be patient and you will see the results. Do you think this is helpful? Do you think there can be some changes to this Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days? If so, do let us know down below in the comments section.

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IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 9- VACCINES

The previous article was all about the process of inflammation. This article is about vaccines.

The vaccines fall under the type of artificial active acquired immunity. This is artificial because we are giving the vaccine externally and this is active because the body is generating the antibodies/response and it is acquired because we are getting the immunity and it is not present by birth. You must have known what immunity is at least by now.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins (antigens). So these vaccines are nothing but the pathogen itself but it cannot cause any disease, instead, it triggers the immune system.

This is a quick recap of the principle of working on vaccines. The vaccine contains the pathogens as a whole or the surface antigens only. These antigens stimulate the immune system. If the immune system had a memory about this antigen, then it would immediately produce an antibody, and phagocytosis of the antigen occurs by the macrophage aided by the antibody. In this scenario, the antigen is new and there is no memory, therefore the immune system struggles and takes time to produce the antibody.

So the antigen reign over the body and this can lead to inflammation. As a result, some of the symptoms of inflammation like fever, heat, pain in the area of application, and swelling may appear. The chances of them are rare and also severity is less (last for a few hours/days) since the pathogen is attenuated.

Once the immune system produces the correct antibody, phagocytosis of the antigen occurs and hence the causative agent is eliminated from the body (primary response). So if the same or similar pathogen which has disease-causing ability enters into the body, the memory triggers the immune system to produce the correct antibody. So a heightened and rapid response is generated in order to kick away the pathogen quickly (secondary response).

There are three types of vaccines:-

Live- infection is caused without any harm – measles & polio

Dead- doesn’t last long, requires booster dose- cholera

Microbial products- involves non-infectious pathogen, capsule and toxoid- anthrax, diptheria

Hence using the vaccine as a stimulus, the body is able to generate a response that is stored and can be useful for preventing the disease caused by the pathogen.

There might be an idea to generate vaccines for all diseases so that all humans are protected. But there are some difficulties in this which are listed below:-

There are new microbes being discovered every day and no one knows which microbe can cause disease. There can be multiple microbes causing the same or similar disease. So being immune to one microbe doesn’t mean being immune to the disease

The disease-causing microbe can undergo mutation meaning that there can be changes in the genetic material and hence the antigen can change. In this case, the antibody which was stimulated by the vaccine won’t work. A suitable example is a common cold, it is impossible to produce a vaccine that covers all mutants of viruses

The pathogen has to be genetically modified so as to remove its disease-causing ability which is easy to say but difficult to implement

Also, it is important that the antigen chose for the vaccine must be close to that of the original causative agent of the disease. If the original pathogen is not so close to that of the vaccine, then it will not work

Hence all these above points explain the difficulties in producing a vaccine. Despite these many research organizations in many countries have produced vaccines especially for the pandemic and dreadful diseases like the COVID-19, hepatitis, polio, etc. in which some vaccines provide lifetime immunity to some of the diseases. We must take a minute to appreciate those who have done immense work and their contribution is stopping some of the dreadful diseases.

With this, we come to the end of the series. I hope that all the concepts explained in this were simple and clear and also would have inculcated an interest in immunology. By now, it would be clear how the immune system protects us from several microbes and diseases.

HAPPY LEARNING!!

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 8- INFLAMMATION

The previous article dealt with the types and functions of immunoglobulin. This article provides a complete explanation of the process of inflammation.

Inflammation is the process of protection which was seen as one of the six mechanisms of innate immunity.

Inflammation is one of the body’s responses to the invasion of foreign particles. This is an important process in the human body that occurs to drive away from the pathogen. Inflammation is one of the stages seen in healing. Some of the changes that can be seen in the target site are:-

  • Changes in blood flow (mostly blood loss)
  • Increase in platelets (to plug the damaged vessel)
  • Increase in immune cells
  • Supply of nutrients

The word inflammation refers to a burning sensation. Hence there are five cardinal signs in inflammation namely:-

  • Rubor (redness)
  • Tumor (swelling)
  • Calor (heat)
  • Dolor (pain)
  • Functioleasia (loss of function)

These cardinal signs as well as the changes occur due to some mediators which are basically chemicals and also due to the action of various immune cells.

Mediator nameIt’s effect
Bradykinin, histamine, serotoninIncrease permeability
ProstaglandinDecreases blood pressure
CytokinesProduce fever
Toxic metabolitesDamage tissue

This inflammation can be either acute or chronic. As seen earlier, acute stays for a shorter time but produces more vigorous pain whereas chronic stays for a longer time with less vigorous pain. If the causative agent has been driven away then healing occurs either by complete restoration or scar formation. There are chances that the acute inflammation can become chronic which can be worse. It can lead to several diseases and complications.

The pathogen in order to establish its supremacy in the human body, it has to pass through the epidermis which is the outermost layer of the human body. This is known as SALT skin-associated lymphoid tissues. Hence T and B lymphocytes are prominent in the skin. Most of the pathogens get destroyed in this stage. Let us assume that our pathogen is strong and it had passed through it. The next layer it encounters is the dermis. As we go deep inside the skin, more and more immune cells get involved. In the dermis the following immune cells are seen:-

immunity in the skin
  • Macrophage
  • NK cells
  • Mast cell – produce histamine and serotonin
  • T helper cells – it provides help to other immune cells

The next stage is the hypodermis which has a large number of macrophages and neutrophils that phagocytosis the pathogen. Hence these following processes help in defending against the pathogens.

When a particular pathogen say a virus enters the cell, the immune system will get alerted through signals and they immediately send the correct immune cell to the target site. This occurs since either the immune system gets information naturally or artificially through previous infection or vaccine. This leads to the classification of immunity in humans.

So now we will consider a new and strong pathogen that has not been recognized by the immune system and has dodged those barriers and has entered inside the skin. Now it multiplies at a rapid rate and colonizes that particular area. Hence the cells in that area start to die and they release several signals like TNF, cytokines, interleukins. This gets combined with other signals like histamine, serotonin released from immune cells. Some of these signals produce direct effects on the target site as seen in the table.

An array of these signals triggers the immune system and it, in turn, starts the inflammation process and the cardinal signs are observed. This process lasts for some time and as it occurs; the pathogens decrease in number through phagocytosis and subsequently vanishes from the body. This can be observed by a decrease in the signs. After this process, the targeted site starts to heal and the immune system learns how to defend the pathogen when it enters the next time.

Now the damage caused by the pathogen has to be repaired by the process of healing.

  1. Haemostasis
  2. Inflammation
  3. Proliferation
  4. Maturation/Remodelling

The pathogen will rupture and damage the outer layer of blood vessels known as endothelium resulting in blood loss. Hence the blood vessels start to contract to prevent further loss. Also, a plug is formed at the site of leakage by the platelets. Then the process of inflammation occurs; clearing out the dead cells and the pathogen. In the proliferative stage, new blood cells are formed by a process known as neovascularisation and the new epithelium is formed. In the last phase, the newly formed cells become stronger and flexible. Hence the combination of these steps brings the affected area back to normal.

Hence the inflammation is an essential process in the immune system and it has to occur to prevent the conspiracy of the microbes. The next article is about vaccines and their principle of working.

HAPPY READING!!!

Attraction

Ever thought why do we get attract to someone? Well everyone has different answer to it. For some it can be the way one look, smiled, walk or may be their was an unusual aura around that one.

What is attraction?

Attraction, especially in a romantic way, is a complex process that take place in our brains, and has had it’s roots since it’s beginning of the humankind. It’s our minds way of telling us who has the potential to be our partner, our friend, or even our soulmate, and is based on a complex blend of our interest, values, experience, and desire. Physical and romantic attraction, which are often focused on, are only small facets of a much larger equation.

Psychologist look at the ingredients of attraction is in a form of pyramid, split into 4 different sections.

The base of the pyramid is made up of health and status:-

  • Status – 1. internal (confidence, self set, beliefs) 2. External (person’s job, possession and appearance.
  • Health – Physical attributes, smell, basic level of intelligence.

If the potential partners passes these initial requirements then we move to the center of the pyramid, which are the emotional factors:- includes

  • trust comfort someone wants,
  • their emotions intelligence, and
  • unique characteristics.

The final portion of the pyramid is “Logic”.This is the part that differentiate us from other animals, and is the part where our brains seriously

  • considers whether we are totally compatible for that person.
  • It ensure that the other person is aligned with us in term of what they want – things such as marriage, children, even the city they want to live.

According to this model, the more alignment there is, the more attraction there is, but it doesn’t always have to follow from bottom to top – like online dating.

What makes someone Attractive?

The answer to this questions make come to our mind is physical traits. Due to the influence of media, we tend to favor women who is younger, and more feminine features, in men on the other side, qualities such as broad shoulders, a deep voice, and strong jawline are highly upon.

Scientists suggest that, these also have an evolutionary origin because these traits are associated with a higher chance of producing health offspring and passing of good genes. Also, values, culture, and the environment, that we grow in also plays an important role.

Hence, attractiveness is complex, there’s a number of different perspective to consider, and at the end of the day, there’s very little we can choosing who we are attracted to. As each person looks for unique set of traits and, while physical traits are often focused there are far more factors that come into play. A person’s upbringing, behavior and even lifestyle have major influence. The most important thing to remember is to be happy and make the most of it.

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 7- TYPES OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN

The previous article dealt in detail with immunoglobulin and how they help in phagocytosis. This article is about the types of immunoglobulins, their functions.

The types of immunoglobulins are based on the types of light and heavy chains. There are two types of light chains namely the kappa and the lambda. An immunoglobulin contains either kappa (K-K) or lambda (L-L) but does not have a mixture of both (K-L not possible). About 60% of the immunoglobulins in humans have kappa chains.

So, the classes of immunoglobulins are based on the heavy chain. So based on this condition, there are five classes of immunoglobulins namely:-

  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) – gamma
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) – mu
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) – alpha
  • Immunoglobulin D (IgD) – delta
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) – epsilon

These immunoglobulins have certain configurations and play different roles in the human body. The immunoglobulin G is present the most. It constitutes about 80% of the total immunoglobulin. These are mostly present in the blood, plasma, and other body fluids. This immunoglobulin has the lowest carbohydrate content when compared to the rest. This immunoglobulin has a half-life of 23 days which is the longest of all. Some of the unique features and functions of this immunoglobulin:-

  • This is the only immunoglobulin which can cross the placenta (this is a unique feature because this immunoglobulin provides immunity to the foetus inside the womb and also after birth for some months. Presence of others may indicate infection)
  • This helps in killing bacteria and viruses by opsonisation (the process of covering the pathogen with a protein coat such that the pathogens become more presentable to the immune cells)
  • Neutralize toxins
  • Activate complement by classical pathway (The complement system, also known as complement cascade, is a part of the immune system that enhances the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promote inflammation, and attack the pathogen’s cell membrane)
  • Unique catabolism (breaking down of molecules) based on concentration
  • There are four sub classes (G1, G2, G3 and G4) out of which 1,3 and 4 cross the placenta and offer immunity
  • Also involves in the Rh immunization (there are two types’ Rh+ve and Rh-ve based on the presence of Rh factor in blood). The mother being Rh+ve and child the opposite is not a problem in the first pregnancy but can be fatal in second, killing the foetus.

The immunoglobulin M constitutes about 5-10% of total proteins. This is a pentamer structure with a J chain. This weighs about 900000-1000000 and is the heaviest of all. They have 5 days of half-life. Some of its features-

  • Presence in newborn indicate congenital infection as they don’t cross placenta
  • Short lived, so their presence indicates recent infection
  • First Ig to participate in primary response
  • Opsonisation
  • classical pathway
  • bacteria agglutination
  • Play an important role in ABO blood grouping (discovered by Landsteiner). There are 8 types of blood groups based on antigen, antibody and Rh factor

Immunoglobulin A is also known as the secretory immunoglobulin and is mostly present in body secretions (tear, saliva, sebum, mucous, and milk) in which they are dimer and are monomer in blood. They constitute 10-15% of the proteins. They also have a J chain and secretory piece. Their half-life is 6-8 days.

  • The secretory piece protects the Ig from enzymes and juices
  • Complement activation by alternate pathway
  • Promote phagocytosis
  • Intracellular microorganism killing
  • First line of defense against some microbes

Immunoglobulin E is a dimer similar to IgG. This is present in low concentrations (about 0.3) and has the weight of about 1,90,000. These have a half-life of about 2 days and can become inactivated at 56 C.

  • Present extra-cellularly
  • Associated with allergic reactions like asthma, hay fever and anaphylactic shock
  • Bind with the Fc of mast cells and basophils resulting in degranulation and release histamine which causes allergy
  • Mediate the some immunity reactions
  • No complement activation
  • Provide immunity against helminthes

The last is immunoglobulin D.  It is present in low concentrations and on the surface of B lymphocytes. They constitute 0.2% of proteins. They have a half-life of 3 days. The IgM and IgD bind on the B lymphocyte to help in antigen identification.

Hence these were the different types of immunoglobulins and the mechanisms by which they help with immunity. The next article is about the process of inflammation.

HAPPY READING!!

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 6- IMMUNOGLOBULIN

The previous article was about the different types of immune cells. This article is about a special molecule in immunity known as immunoglobulin.

There might be a question that what is so special about this immunoglobulin. There is a reason for this. These molecules play an important and inevitable role in the phagocytosis of pathogens. To understand this, it is essential to know about immunoglobulins.

The immunoglobulin is a gamma globulin, a specialized group of proteins (glycoprotein) produced in response to pathogens. It is produced by the plasma cells (a globulin protein present in the plasma). These constitute 25-30% of the blood proteins.

There are two important terms that are more commonly known by the most, they are the antigen and the antibody. The antigen is the molecule present on the surface of the pathogen and can stimulate an immune response. There is a small part of the antigen called the epitope which interacts with the antibody.  The epitope is known as the antigen determinant site. An antigen can have unlimited epitopes.

On the contrary, the antibody is the molecule produced in response to the antigen in order to kick it away. The part of the antibody which interacts with the antigen is called a paratope. An antibody must have at least 2 paratopes. These antibodies belong to the immunoglobulins. All antibodies are immunoglobulins but not immunoglobulins are antibodies. To understand how the antibody helps in immunity, it is essential to understand the structure of an antibody/immunoglobulin. The image below shows the general structure of an immunoglobulin:-

There are two chains in an immunoglobulin namely the light chain and heavy chain. The light chain has 212 amino acids (the building block of protein) and the heavy chain has 450 amino acids. Each chain has two types namely the constant and variable. These regions are based on the amino acid sequences. Half of the light chain (1 out of 2) is constant and the rest is variable. A quarter of the heavy chain (1 out of 4) is variable and the rest is constant. These are linked by two types of sulfide bonds namely the intra (H-H AND L-L) and inter (H-L). These molecules contain carbohydrates (CHO) hence these are called as glycoproteins.

The tip of the variable regions of the heavy and light chain is hypervariable in nature and these constitute the antigen-binding site (Fab). These are hyper-variable because they have to produce amino acid sequences complementary to that of the antigen so that they can interact together. The other site is called a crystallizable region (Fc).

Having known all this, now it will be convenient to explain the process by which the antibody plays in the prevention of infections.

There are millions of substances that pass through the blood every day. So there must be a criterion/substance to identify them whether they are pathogenic. This is where antigen comes to play. These antigens present on the surface of the pathogens alert the immune system which then identifies this as a pathogen. So in response to the antigen, a suitable antibody is secreted and deployed to the target site. On reaching the antigen, the Fab region binds with the antigen.

The ultimate aim of the immune system is to abolish the pathogen and one way is by phagocytosing them. This is done by the macrophages. But it is essential for them to identify the substance before engulfing it. This is where the antibody comes to play. The Fc region of the antibody combines with the receptor of the macrophage. This facilitates the process of phagocytosis.

Hence the antibody acts like a bridge between the source (antigen) and the destination (macrophage) aiding in phagocytosis. This is essential because in most of the cases the macrophages, it is difficult to identify the non-self-objects and this is where antibody helps.

In the case of the new pathogen, the antigen is new, and therefore their might not be a suitable antibody. In that case, the macrophage cannot phagocytocise the pathogen and it reigns in the body causing infection and disease.

The next article is about the types of immunoglobulins.

HAPPY LEARNING!!

Music can change you

These days we hear music all the time, it wakes us up, motivates our workouts, keeps us company on our commutes. It doesn’t matter what kind of music it is, it itself has the ability to affect our moods and our bodies in all sorts of ways. It can give us chills even can make us cry.

Effects on Brain

Music activates every area of the brain that scientists have mapped so far. In fact, there is no area of the brain that music doesn’t touching some ways.

25 years ago there was an idea which said that language is in left side of the brain and music is in right side of the brain but now with better quality tools, higher resolution, neuroimaging and better experimental methods, it is discovered that thats not at all right so how does it effects our brain?

When music enters and then gets shuttled off to different parts of the brain:-

  1. It stops at specialise processing units in auditory cortex, they track loudness, pitch, rhythm, etc.
  2. The visual cortex activates when you’re reading notes as a musician or watching music.
  3. Motor cortex activates when you move or dance or tap your feet, snap fingers, clapping your hands.
  4. The Cerebellum activates and immediate the emotional responses.
  5. The memory system in the Hippocampus will activate and will help you to recognise any familiar music or lines that you listen

Hence, music is going on in both halves of the brain, left and right, the front, back, the inside, and the outside.

How playing Instruments helps?

We can start learning to play instrument at any age. Picking up an instrument can provide some huge benefits for Intelligence, Physical well-being, Brain.

Playing an instrument requires:-

  • Auditory motor
  • Sensory
  • Visual system to work together

This inner system cooperation has some incredible outcomes that can affect many areas of life.

Different intensities of training produce different outcomes, even the most minimal practice can make a difference. Starting to play an instrument just one hour a week for few months can cause growth and increased activity in the parts of the brain responsible for memory, hearing, and motor. Researchers have found that this kind of activities can even increase IQ by 7 point or more.

Its also known that people who play musical instrument are better at other practical things too such as:-

  • Practical emotions
  • Learning new things/tasks
  • Creative problem solving

Musicians brain have better communication between left and right hemisphere which allows for more cooperation and out of the box thinking. Playing an instrument can also has benefits for brain and body.

  • boosting immune system function
  • Increase in resilience to hearing lose
  • Helps stroke patients regain motor skills

It’s been found that just listening to music can prompt the repair and regeneration of damage nerves in the brain.

Music is so much more than notes on a page, it can change the way we think, speak and feel. Music making and listen is really complex it’s not demystified till now it’s more mysterious than ever.

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES-PART 5- INTRODUCTION TO THE IMMUNE CELLS

The previous article was about the acquired immunity. This article is all about the immune cells, the warriors of the human body.

These cells play a major role in protecting the body from infections. Some of them contribute directly and some contribute indirectly. Despite the methods, all of them are required in optimum amounts so as to live a healthy life.

All of these cells are derived from a specific type of cell found in the blood. The blood is a freely flowing interstitial fluid that transports oxygen, nutrients, etc. to the cells of the body. There are two components in the blood in which the first one is called plasma. The plasma is the liquid carrying water, salts, enzymes, and proteins. There are three specialized proteins in the plasma-

Albumin- to maintain water balance

Globulin- for immunity (it is a part of immunoglobulin)

Fibrinogen- for clotting

Hence the plasma also contributes to immunity. This plasma constitutes about 55% of the blood. The rest 45% of the blood is constituted by the formed elements or corpuscles. There are three elements in it namely-

Erythrocyte or Red Blood Corpuscle- transport of oxygen

Leucocyte or White Blood Corpuscle- fight infections

Thrombocyte or platelets- for clotting

Out of these, the WBC is the one primarily contributing to immunity. A healthy person must have a WBC count from 4000-11000. Count less than 4000 means leukopenia meaning that the immune system is weak. If the count is more than 11000 then it means the condition of autoimmunity known as leucocytosis. There are some further classifications in the WBC which are displayed through the flowchart below.

There are two types of cells in the WBC namely the granulocytes and agranulocytes.

The granulocytes, as the name specifies have granules in their cytoplasm. There are three different cells in this.

The neutrophil constitutes to about 55-70% of the total WBC and they are ones involved in most of the fights against the infections. These defend against bacterial and fungal infections. These cells are mostly found in the epidermal regions and are in the first line of defense.  These cells engulf the pathogens by the process of phagocytosis. These cells have multiple nuclei hence these are also known as PMN (Poly Morpho Neutrophils). Neutrophils help prevent infections by blocking, disabling, and digesting off invading particles and microorganisms. They also communicate with other cells to help them repair cells and mount a proper immune response. The death of these cells often results in the formation of pus (suppuration).

neutrophil

The eosinophil constitutes about 2-4% of the total WBC. These cells are very little in the body but can increase in the case of allergic reactions, parasite infection, and so on. The functions of the eosinophil include movement to inflamed areas, trapping substances, killing cells, anti-parasitic and bactericidal activity, participating in immediate allergic reactions, and modulating inflammatory responses.

eosinophil

The basophil is present in the least concentration of all (0.2%) in total WBC. These cells play an important role in allergic reactions in which their count can increase. The basophil contains inflammatory mediators like histamine and heparin. The release of the compounds results in dilation of the blood vessels. Hence these cells regulate the inflammation process.

The agranulocytes are those which lack granules in their cytoplasm. There are two types in this. The lymphocyte can be called as the memory of the immune system. There are two types of lymphocytes namely T and B lymphocytes. These lymphocytes recognize the incoming pathogens and based on their memory it produces a suitable response in a short amount of time. These cells are involved in the secondary response in the acquired immunity.

B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance pathogen destruction. The T cells mostly known as CD4+ T helper cells produce the cytokines (proteins in cell signaling) and coordinate with the immune system. There is another form called CD8+ cytotoxic T cells which is opposite to the previous type, they help in the destruction of tumors and pathogens.

The monocyte is the largest of all the cells in WBC. They function similarly to that of the neutrophils (phagocytosis of the pathogens). These cells present the pathogen to the memory cells upon which a response is generated. Once they leave the blood, they turn into macrophages which help in clearing cell debris and killing pathogens. These are known as the vacuum cleaners of immunity.

Hence all these cells work in different mechanisms and they coordinate together to make sure that we do not fall prey to the disease-causing microorganisms.

HAPPY LEARNING!!

Green Tea- Key to Increase the Immunity

As we are looking forward to a healthy future after the present health calamity of COVID-19 subsides, now is when is the best time to drink green tea with many options such as Lipton and Patanjali green tea price well available in the Indian market.

In these days of modernization, humans have maligned the environment and our resources with chemicals and dirt. These substances have found their way into the food chain and, now, are acting as poisons to the overall well being of all the components of nature’s complex food network. Health refers to the physical, mental and emotional well being of an individual that leads to a well-formed bodily structured and this is endangered in present times.

With overall levels of exercise reduced in the body due to the rapid involvement and fascination of the youth with office desk jobs, this has only been proven to lead to lethal results in the near future. We have also started consuming processed food full of preservatives and sugars which is debasing the health condition in general.  This has led to an increased number of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, hyper cholesterol and obesity in today’s community.

Nutrition and Health

Nutrition plays a key role in maintaining a healthy lifestyle for an individual along with exercise. Hence it is important that we indulge ourselves into healthy eating habits and adopt the ergonomic pieces of advice by the professionals who suggest to cut down on sugars, unhealthy fats, and to drink plenty of water and eat fibre.

Green Tea – the modern-day ‘Amrut’

Today, on social media we see that people are giving up the consumption of back tea and replacing it with green tea. Green tea is sometimes referred to as “amrut” or ‘the drink of longevity’ by some nutritionist.

Green tea is made from the leaves of plant Camelia senesis. The same plant is used to make oolong tea and black tea when it is harvested in a different season that causes it to undergo  (or not) a different level of oxidation. Green tea’s origin dates back to 618-907 A.D. in China. It was popularized during the rule of the Emperor Shennong.

How to make Green Tea?

If not brewed to perfection, green tea can taste too bitter to drink when is the best time to drink green tea is. Therefore, it is important that you make the perfect cup using Green Tea Bags, Loose-leaf Green Tea or Matcha Green Tea.

Green Tea Bags

Boil around 250 ml of water and let it cool down to around 79˚C  as using boiling water can burn the tea bag and make green tea bitter. Place the teabag in the cup. Use 1 teabag per cup and pour hot water over it.  Let the tea brew for 2 to 3 minutes and then remove the teabag. Don’t squeeze the teabag.

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Loose Leaf Green Tea

Heat the water to around 77˚C to 80˚C. Put 1 teaspoon of loose-leaf green tea leaves in a teapot and add around a three-fourth cup or 180ml water to it. Leave it covered for 1 to 2 minutes and then serve using a strainer.

Matcha or powdered Green Tea

Bring one cup of water to boil around 82˚ to 88˚C. Place a strainer over the cup and add one teaspoon of green tea powder to it and push the powder into the cup using the back of a spoon. Add the boiled water to the cup and stir it well.

Green tea Caffeine content

 Even though it is difficult to measure the exact green tea caffeine content, it depends upon the type of green tea used, its brand and serving size. On average green tea caffeine content can range from 12mg to 75mg of caffeine. Matcha or other types of powdered Green tea caffeine content is even higher.

Benefits of Green Tea

Green tea has high antioxidant content which makes it extremely beneficial for our health.  Some of the green tea benefits are listed below.

Improves brain function

Since it is a caffeinated beverage, it acts as a stimulant to the brain and makes us active mentally.  This improves various brain functions thus keeping our mood lifted and memory improved.

Improved immunity

Due to the presence of potent plant antioxidants or polyphenols, green tea benefits us by improving our immune system. It is found to kill influenza virus if consumed without milk.

Increased fat burning

Green tea is known to improve the metabolism rate of our system, thus, aiding in the fat-burning process.

Lowered Cancer Risk

Oxidative damage to the cells has been linked to cancer. Due to the high antioxidant content, green tea benefits us with cancer prevention.

Gives you fresh breath

New studies show that green tea benefits our oral hygiene by suppressing the growth of bacteria in our oral cavity and prevents bad breath.

Lower risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

Due to its high antioxidant content, green tea prevents the oxidation of bad cholesterol in our body, which is one of the reasons for various heart conditions.

When to Have Green Tea?

The best answer to when is the best time to drink green tea lies in your schedule and activities throughout the day. Following are some of the best times of the day to have green tea to give you its full green tea benefits.

Not too early in the morning

Having green tea on an empty stomach can have ill effects on the liver due to its high catechin content.

In between meals

Having green tea two hours prior to or after the meal can help in better digestion and iron absorption.

Before Bedtime

Having green tea two hours before bedtime can increase the metabolism post-dinner.

Before exercise

This aids in burning fat better and faster.

Best Green Tea options in Indian Market

Organic India   

Price INR 400

LaPlant Green Tea

Price INR 130

Himalaya Green Tea

Price INR 110

Lipton (available in multiple flavours)

Price INR120

Patanjali Green tea Price

INR 50

India is one of the nations at the top of the list of lifestyle diseases. So let’s do our best and take care of our health.

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Decoding Indian ways of Eating

Food is a very complex subject to understand. The world is experimenting new types of food, new recipes, new combination and new styles of consuming it to make it more aesthetically beautiful. But they are breaking the age-old science of healthy eating.

How we eat is equally important to what we eat. Our ancestors have passed on to us the right recipes, the right way to eat, and the right way to make it. We should start acknowledging the science and it’s significance. Food depends many variables:-

  • Season
  • Geography
  • Local availability
  • Attitude
  • Body type

Right Medium of Food Consumption

1. Eating with hands

People are getting used to eating with spoons and they consider eating with hands as unhygienic and unpleasant. According to Ayurveda, eating food should involve all senses. The touch of food to your fingers and feeling the texture can really trigger the nerve endings of your fingers which are connected to your digestion. These nerves stimulations are know to activate and stimulate your digestive juices. Also according to Ayurveda the five fingers represent the five elements:-

  • Thumb represents Fire (agni)
  • Index finger represents Air (wayu)
  • Middle finger represents Sky (Akash)
  • Ring finger represents Earth (Prithvi)
  • Little finger represents Water (jal)

Holding food with all five finger symbolises the union of all elements, which are essential for the normal functioning of our body.

2. Sitting on the floor

In India, sitting on the floor and eating is a family activity. It involves many muscles, the sitting position presses our lower spine and relaxes the whole body. The back and forth movement while eating gives a nice compression to your abdomen. Compression is maximum in sitting position and this also stimulates the digestive juices. It also has an effect on your mind. When the individual sits on the floor, the nervous systems performances better and transmission of signals happens very effectively. As a result sitting on the floor and eating has a huge weight reduction advantage.

Sitting on chair brings more pressure on your heart. When you’re sitting on chair your heart has to pump blood from toe to upwards against gravity and that is a strain. If you sit on a chair with folded legs that will reduce the gravity force that would help your heart and general health conditions so that more blood will be facilitated for digestion.

3. Food containing vessels

Vessels have an important effect on food, it can be positive as well as negative. In Indian tradition, every vessel has its own advantage in cooking or storing food.

For example, copper as has a strong intoxication property over water. That’s why copper vessels was used to store water in India. Another example, Ghee, if stored in a bronze vessel can become toxic. That is why ghee is stored in a metal vessel like steel.

In old times, food used to be kept in the leaves covered with leaves and it always remains healthy. Stones which were used for crushing, grinding is said to be more superior than done in mixers. So make sure to put right food in the right container.

Even the healthiest of food can become toxic if not consumed in right way. The ways of eating food is always been highlighted in all the cultures because it is the cultural identity of every community. Indian have always tried to introduce every healthy aspects into the food. So let’s follow these food habits and acknowledge deep science in the ancestral way of eating. We should not forget the valuable lessons which are passed down to us and understand that food once consumed can become medicine or junk. Your way of consuming it will decide what it will turn to – healthy or junk. So eat food in a right way, the Indian way.

Zero Waste During Lockdown.

The Corona virus pandemic has swept over the planet and with it has brought about concepts like quarantine and social distancing which were earlier seen only in films. The lockdown that is widely being followed all over the world has not been the easiest time for people. With no provision to step out of the house, markets aren’t functioning and economies are crashing. A common man would wonder, ‘How am I supposed to help out, when I am locked inside my own house?’

Your miniscule contributions to the society, can massively assist the authorities and the paramedical staff in this time of need. A major step you can take during this quarantine period is to ensure that the waste produced in your home is minimized. In India alone, 21 million tonnes of food is wasted every year. This wasted food is often treated with plastic waste leading to emission of methane gas in a large quantity. While a life-threatening disease is upon the earth, one must not forget another crisis that is underway, that of global warming. Dealing with the COVID-19 gives us no excuse to forget caring for nature. The small roles we play at our house can make a huge impact outside.

How has Pandemic increased Waste Production?

The Corona Virus has forced the government to take some drastic measures. The shutting up of all non-essential shops across the country was the first of many shocks. People were advised to reduce their trips to the market in order to encourage social-distancing. Lots of families misunderstood this message and hoarded up on supplies to minimize their trips to the market. This uncalculated decision made by the people has led to the wastage of food on a large scale. The pandemic has led to the limitation of a few commodities and we cannot afford to waste even the slightest of food.

1. Buying Smart

The first step in moving towards a zero-waste lifestyle is to by only the amount of food you will require. Hoarding should be thoroughly discouraged as it is the main cause of waste production. The limited number of supplies means that the food you waste could have actually filled the stomach of a person in need.

2. Proper Storage

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In these testing times, you never know, when even a single loaf of bread could be useful. Hopefully, the situation won’t get to such an extremity but storing items should still be a priority. Keep food items in cool and covered places to ensure that they are not spoiled. This could immensely reduce the amount of waste being produced at your place.

3. Use Items before they Expire

About 40% of the food produced in the country is thrown into the trash, uneaten. During the lockdown period, try and have a basic idea of the expiry dates all food items in your home. It is essential to make sure that no sort of canned or packaged food is kept win your house past its expiry date. Make sure that you have completely finished an item before going out to buy more. An interesting fact about packaged food is that some of it is safe to consume even after its ‘best before’ date. Check on the internet to find out if the can in your store room is still safe to consume. If not make sure it is disposed off correctly. Separate the food item from its packaging before throwing it away in two separate bins.

4. Utilize the Leftovers

The most important aspect of living a zero-waste life is to ensure that your leftovers are put to good use. Segregation into two different bins is an ideal way to dispose off leftover food. The only problem lying with this situation is that many garbage trucks and cleaners just pile all the garbage into one huge bag regardless of its recycling and ecological properties. The perfect way to deal with this problem would be to use the leftover food as compost.

People often avoid using compost as it is a long and slightly difficult process. The quarantine makes it a perfect time to finally do something good for the environment. Before creating compost make sure that you are doing it right. There are a lot of factors that need to be considered before generating a manure in your kitchen. Use proper tips and techniques from professionals for optimal results.

5Mini Farming

Now that you have composed manure just from your wasted food, it is time to put that compost to good use. Indoor farming is not easy and it requires care and time but it is not necessary for you to own a huge balcony or a garden. You can grow vegetables even in the small terrace of your house. There are families around India who have become completely self-sufficient. Shilpa and Nitin, a couple based in the traffic heavy Bengaluru, grow more than 50 vegetables in their small balcony. Just one small pot for each type of vegetable is enough to sustain a family of four. The food they consume is from their own balcony and the waste produced in their home is used as manure to grow more vegetables. This ecological cycle can have a huge positive impact on the environment.

6. Eat Healthy

Perhaps the most underestimated way to reduce food wastage is to eat healthy. Junk food, has a much faster rate of decay when compared to fresh vegetables and fruits. Having a balanced and planned diet can help you minimize the amount of waste you generate. If you do not have the provision to create compost and farm in your balcony, you can start by eating healthy.

The COVID-19 pandemic has not been an easy time of us. Para medical staff and nurses are working overtime to ensure that we are safe the least we can do is reduce the burden on the planet. Correct utilization of leftovers and controlled generation of waste will make sure that the country has ample supply of food for the poor and needy. Play your part in the quarantine by changing to a zero-waste lifestyle.

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Countries that haven’t reported a Single case of Covid-19.

Most of the world has been struggling to contain COVID-19. The disease which was first reported in China, has become a global pandemic that many countries are still trying to get under control. But a hand full of nation have not reported a single case of COVID-19 to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Most are in southern and central area of Pacific ocean.

  1. Federated States of Micronesia
  2. The Marshall Islands
  3. Naru
  4. The Solomon Islands
  5. Vanuatu
  6. Tuvalu
  7. Kiribati
  8. Samoa
  9. Niue
  10. Tonga
  11. The Cook Islands
  12. Palau

These small islands are all technically Covid-19 free. Health experts these 12 countries escaped the pandemic because of a combination of remoteness, small number of people as their combined population adds up to just 1.6 million and because they closed borders when the Corona virus that causes Covid-19 began to spread widely. But just because they haven’t reported any Corona virus cases, does not mean these nations have entirely dodged the effect of the pandemic.

Tourism plays a major role in the economics of most of these countries. And as in many around the world, a lack of visitors has left hotels and restaurants struggling. The owner of the hotel says since March 2020 they have lost their whole business and have zero income.

Palau is one of the island nation feeling the economic pain of Covid-19. Streets that are normally bustling with visitors from abroad have been all but empty for months. With no guests, hotel in the country have also had to make serious cuts. A hotel owner says

No one in our hotel is making their full salary. Most people are 50% or below. Everybody is feeling the pain as thers is no economic opportunity left.

The Palau government recognized early on the economic toll of shutting it’s borders to foreigners. He says

Our capacity, our reality a situation here its that you’re better of with prevention than trying to do something about it later on. So, it became a question of economics or people’s lives, and the right thing to do for anybody in this world is to consider people’s lives.

The Government provided generous subsidies of up to US $10,000 for local people and a few hundred dollars for foreign workers affected by the halt in tourism. Not all Pacific countries rely on tourism as a main driver for their economies.

Countries like Marshall Islands and Federated States of Micronesia rely on fishing and farming and financial aid from the US. But with limited health care facilities and population spread across many islands, the nation’s priority has been keeping COVID-19 from their shores and educating citizens about thorough handwashing, social distancing and other precautionary measures.

Other than Island Nations

In addition to these tiny island nations, there are other countries that haven’t reported a single case of COVID-19 to the WHO: North Korea and Turkmenistan.

North Korea closed its borders in January 2020 and it’s leader Kim Jung-un has repeatedly said the disease is a “potential” threat. He even put the town of Kaesong, which borders South Korea, under lockdown in July 2020. But many observers are are sceptical about the country’s official statistics. They say North Korea’s weak healthcare system may not be able to confirm Corona virus infections, or that the ruling party may simply not be very transparent about whether there are any cases.

Health experts are also wary of Turkmenistan’s claim to be COVID-19 free. It is among the hardest countries in the world for foreigners to enter, and it also closes its borders early on in the pandemic. The authorities government in Turkmenistan also says there are no people in the country living with HIV or Aids, a claim most scientists say is just not plausible.

Back in Paula, where people are doing their best to ride out the economic toll of the pandemic, hotel owner have a bleak prediction about the future. They’re predicting how long will they continue to lose money before suspending more operations or total operations and just wait for the whole world to settle down? Because it’s a financial question arises, we’re willing to lose money, but how much money are we willing to lose?

So while border control, good hygiene and social distancing seem to have effectively kept the disease away from these places, there is no defence against the economic devastation caused by the global pandemic.

Understanding the Fine Line between Seasonal Influenza and COVID-19.

Starting off as a simple virus emerging from Wuhan, China, COVID-19, or the Novel Coronavirus, has brought the entire world to a halt. Be it economic, judicial or educational prospects, there is no clear picture as to what the future holds for us. With the virus currently holding an overall tally of 40,636 deaths and 8,23, 479 positive cases worldwide (as of 31st March, 2020), the pandemic has now become a life-threatening global phenomenon forcing numerous countries to impose lockdowns.

However, in this time when social distancing and hand hygiene play key roles, one more important aspect must be considered- correct information. While we are getting to know about numerous cases, another problem prevalent in most countries is the high number of people flocking to hospitals for testing even when they show flu-like symptoms, like a cold or mild fever. While it is certainly true that there is only a stark contrast between seasonal influenza (flu) and COVID-19, it manages to pose a major problem: it has not only increased traffic in the hospitals but also diverted the attention of hospital staff from cases that require immediate attention.

Thus, here are a few indicators which might be helpful in differentiating between the common flu and the Novel Coronavirus.

1. Difference in Major Symptoms

A COVID-19 patient will typically suffer from a fever; however, it is not necessary that every individual with flu will have a fever, particularly older adults or those with a weak immune system. While nausea and diarrhea are symptoms for both diseases, they are more prevalent in kids suffering from flu.

If the patient shows signs of dry coughing and shortness of breath, that’s more of an inclination towards a case of COVID-19.

2. Difference in Incubation Period

While a COVID-19 patient takes an average of four days between the initiation of the infection and the onset of symptoms, the incubation period ranges between 2 and 14 days. On the other hand, a flu patient’s incubation period ranges between 1 and 4 days, averaging at 2 days.

3. Difference in Period of Contagion

One of the major threats related to COVID-19 is that it can be contagious even if the patient doesn’t show symptoms. On the other hand, flu can be contagious a day before the symptoms appear, and for nearly 5-7 consequent days thereafter.

4. Difference in Severity and Course

The seasonal influenza or common flu usually takes nearly 3-7 days to resolve, with just 1% of the patients ending up in the hospital. The deathly COVID-19, on the other hand, lands nearly 20% of the confirmed cases in the hospital in a critical condition.

5. Effect on the Immune System

Believed to have an animal origin, the COVID-19 is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, a novel virus. This signifies that the population doesn’t have pre-existing immunity to it, which makes it more difficult to prevent the disease from becoming fatal.

Seasonal flu, on the other side, is a disease which can recur, with the body developing antibodies each time. This reduces the extent to which the disease can affect the human body. However, for COVID-19, there is no current evidence to prove whether an individual can get it again post-recovery.

6. Difference in Mortality Rate

Based on information collected from different locations and using various population sizes, it has been gathered that 0.25-3% of the total population testing positive for COVID-19 succumbs to it. In the case of seasonal flu, the esteemed mortality rates are a mere 0.1% in comparison.

7. Difference in Rate of Transmission

With COVID-19 cases multiplying rapidly each day, the reproductive number (R0) for the disease appears to be higher than that of the seasonal flu, with the former being 2.2 and the latter, 1.28.

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This is a clear indicator that a patient of COVID-19 is more likely to infect more people as compared to an individual suffering from flu.

8. Difference in Developed Vaccines and Medication

As a result of a novel coronavirus, COVID-19 is yet to have a valid vaccine or effective medication available for the general public. In the case of seasonal flu, however, the seasonal flu vaccine proves to be most effective. Antiviral medications also help to an enormous extent.

9. Difference in Target Population at Risk

While both flu and COVID-19 affect similar ranges of the population, especially those already suffering from asthma, chronic lung diseases, diabetes etc., the latter is found to have a more severe effect on the older population. Flu, however, is found to be more dangerous in the case of pregnant women and children under the age of 2 years.

10. Difference in Prevention Methods

Due to the nature of both diseases as well as their high rates of contagiousness, remaining in isolation is recommended, though more in the case of COVID-19. Also, COVID-19 highlights the need to maintain good hand hygiene (regular washing of hands with soap or alcohol-based sanitizer) and social distancing i.e. remaining at home if not in case of emergencies, maintaining a distance of 6 feet from another individual at all times and avoiding crowded places like malls and restaurants with heavy footfall.

In the case of flu, proper medication, rest and good nutrition are recommended to heal. Regular flu shots also play a key role in the prevention and faster cure of the disease.

Although remarkably similar in nature, both COVID-19 and Seasonal Influenza, on the deeper end, vary to a great extent. While COVID-19 has proved to be comparatively fatal and easily transmittable, flu is seen as a recurring phenomenon, largely treatable.

In these trying times, when most of the world is living under self-quarantine and isolation, we must remember that the first and foremost requirement is to bring the COVID-19 outbreak under control. Thus, upon showing any symptoms, we must consult a family doctor before crowding hospitals to get a seasonal flu treatment, which can be done from home!

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Coronavirus: Top 10 Popular Coronavirus Myths

Coronavirus has been causing a deadly disease which has taken upon the world within a very short period. This disease caused by Coronavirus has created not only a lot of panic among the public but has also resulted in several rising rumours and myths. At this stage, to curb the disease, it is very important to know everything about it. Here are ten myths which common people have mistaken as facts.

1. “Coronavirus can also be called Chinese disease.”

It’s called COVID 19 and not a Chinese virus. The name of the virus has been divided simply into, CO from corona because the shape of the virus appears to be crown-like, VI stands for the virus, D is for disease and ’19’ symbolizes that it started spreading in the year 2019. Many people are calling it a Chinese virus. Even President Donald Trump recently addressed it as ‘Chinese virus’. It’s not spreading from Chinese, not every Chinese person has it. A girl from Manipur, in India, was called ‘Corona’ by an old man, and he spat ‘paan’ on her face to show his disgrace towards her. North-eastern Indians are facing many racial remarks because of this outbreak. Many Chinese people living abroad have faced similar situations. It’s not just racist but also inhumane. People should address the virus with the correct name and should think twice before making any such insensitive remarks.

2. “Drinking alcohol can kill the virus.”

 False! Alcohol is a disinfectant was thought to be a killing substance of the virus, but it’s not as easy as it sounds. The virus, once inside the human body, cannot be killed by alcohol. Any surface might be disinfected with alcohol, but using alcohol on the skin can cause harmful reactions and consuming excessive alcohol can definitely take a toll on your liver.

3. “Only Old people can die of the virus.” 

Anyone, including a child of one day, or even inside the womb, can catch the virus. Younger people might have higher immunity and may have higher chances of surviving the virus, but it is still deadly for them. The virus is indeed more deadly for old people or people having an underlying health issue such as diabetes, heart problems or asthma, but that does not mean that the younger are safe. Everyone should take precautions.

4. “Stay away from people who are wearing a mask.” 

The virus has infected not everyone who is wearing a mask. They might just be wearing it to protect themselves. Incidents have been reported where people wearing masks in public were harassed. People can wear the mask as a precaution, but it should be noted that even though one is wearing a mask, the chances are that the virus enters through your eyes. Hence, the only solution is to suggest anyone who is coughing, should wear a mask or cough in their shoulder so that no droplets fall around and infect nearby people.

5. “Eating ginger, garlic or lemon will increase your immunity

 People started with their own home-based remedies. Eating healthy may increase immunity but will not create complete protection from the virus. Even drinking cow urine was said to be one of the ways to kill the virus. There was a lot of fake WhatsApp news which were circulated. It was also said that smoking weed could kill the virus. People also said that sitting in the sun or warm climate can kill the virus. People around the globe considered taking a hot bath can kill the virus within their body. The only way to cross-check any such news is to visit the ‘WHO’ site and check if they have published any such news or not. Any news related to the research of coronavirus, be it positive or negative, will be posted on the WHO site.

6.” Only people coming from abroad should get tested and be scared of having it.” 

 It’s highly wrong to think that only those people should be scared who have travelled recently abroad. Anyone who has symptoms of the virus should immediately get checked. Anyone who has a recent travel history should try self-quarantine. One should understand that if the person who recently travelled abroad failed to take any precautions and refused to self-quarantine, he/she might end up spreading it to others. So, you could be infected by a complete stranger in public. Staying at home and getting checked if showed any symptoms, is the only way to fight the spread of the virus.

 7.”It is a city disease.” 

 Most of the labourers are going back to their village or hometown, considering that the virus is only spreading in “cities.” However, they are not taking into account how there is a chance that they might transmit the virus with them to their respective hometown. Going back to your hometown, even with current zero cases of the virus, does not mean that one stops taking precautions to be safe. Under all circumstances, social distancing should be practised.

 8. “Chicken, dogs, and cats are spreading the virus.” 

No! The disease can be transmitted only through human contact. There has been no study which proves that animals can transmit the disease. Animals should not be treated with cruelty on any basis. One should consider the well-being of the street dogs and cats, and should at least feed them during the lockdown. In India, the rate of chicken had seen a drastic fall, especially in the state of Maharashtra, because of the rumour that the disease can be spread via eating chickens. In fact, the truth is that consumption of chicken may help in increasing your immunity and save you from the seasonal flu.

 9.” Coronavirus has a 97% Survival rate; the government is making us panic for nothing.”

To put this in a simple analogy, it’s like if you are given ten apples, and one of them is infected, you probably shouldn’t take the chance to infect yourself by eating any of them. There is a limited supply of healthcare services, and in a country like India, which is highly populated, should not risk the spread of it. If the number of cases keeps going higher, we might fall short on several doctors and nurses present to help the patients. 

10.” Stock as much food as possible.” 

The pandemic created such a panic among the public that on the announcement of the lockdown, people rushed to the stores to buy as much food as possible. In this rush, they forgot how close they were standing to strangers and how the deadly disease could be passed on unintentionally as many failed to wear a mask. Stocking of excess food will also create a shortage for others who are in need. People were found stocking up on basic medicine as well, such as fever and cold. This might have created a deficit for someone who is currently in need of it. The government is taking as many measures as possible to make ends meet. In Maharashtra, grocery shops will be open all day and night to provide essential items to the customers.

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By Megha Sharma

Posted in Internship

Rating: 1 out of 5.

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 3- MECHANISMS OF INNATE IMMUNITY

A detailed description of innate immunity has been provided in the previous article. This article explains in detail the action of innate immunity. As mentioned earlier, innate immunity is a non-specific immunity that acts as the first line of defence. There are six mechanisms backing innate immunity. They are:-

  1. Epithelial surfaces
  2. Antimicrobial products
  3. Microbial antagonism
  4. Cellular factors
  5. Inflammation
  6. Acute phase proteins

These are the six different mechanisms of innate immunity.

Epithelial surfaces

The epithelial surfaces are those which form the outermost layer of the body. It is pretty obvious that the pathogens gain access into the body through the body openings. Hence it is trivial that the immunity is strong at these places. The following are the body openings where the immunity is present:-

  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Nose
  • Mouth
  • Skin
  • Genital tracts

Eyes– there is a special fluid called the ‘tear’ generated by the lacrimal apparatus. This tear can flush out the microbes by its mechanical action. Also, the enzyme called lysozyme is present in it which is antibacterial in nature. This particular enzyme splits certain polysaccharide molecules from the cell wall of the bacteria without which it cannot sustain. Hence these are processes that confer immunity to the eyes.

Ears– there is a constant production of wax that entraps the foreign microbes. The cells lining the outer surface of the ear membranes secrete the wax for cleaning and protective purposes. The inner ear is filled with phagocytic cells.

Nose– the nose and the respiratory pathway are very important to be protected since they involve the exchange of air and microbes can easily enter. So there is tightened defence provided by several mechanisms:-

  • The anatomy of the nose itself prevents the entry of some microorganisms
  • There is mucus lining the entire respiratory pathway which have hairs that can sweep the microbes back to the air
  • There are mucopolysaccharides which are sticky in nature and hence the microbes get stuck to them
  • The alveoli of the lungs are filled with phagocytic cells

Mouth– the mouth and the digestive system are also as important as the nose. The following defence mechanisms can be seen

  • Saliva which is basic in nature kills some of the pathogens
  • The peristalsis movement can kick away some of the microbes
  • The stomach acid which is low in Ph can destroy most of the microbes
  • The digestive juices and secretions like the bile also provide immunity

Skin- the skin is present all over the body and there are 4 mechanisms

  • Long chain fatty acid
  • Salty nature of the sweat
  • Soaps contribution
  • Oils and sebaceous glands

Genital tract- this is also an important opening to be concerned about as there is a large concentration of microbes found here. The urine itself flushes out any incoming pathogens. In males, the sperm protein spermine and zinc are antibacterial. In females, high acidity can kill the microbes.

Antimicrobial products

There are some anti-microbial products present naturally in the bloodstream and other body fluids.

  • Beta lysine- effective against thermostable bacteris
  • Polypeptides- leukin and plakin
  • Lactic acid- muscles
  • Lactoperoxidase- present in breast milk
  • Interferons- effective against virus

Microbial antagonism

Remember the fact in the first article that the foreign microbe has to find a suitable ‘target site’. The reason is that there are already some microbes present inside us. Don’t worry they won’t hurt us. These microbes constitute the normal flora and are resident. They follow symbiotic relationships with us. A suitable example is an e.coli present in the intestine helping indigestion for food.

So the presence of one species of organisms do not allow the presence of similar or different species. So these microbes indirectly furnish immunity to the body. So nice of them!

Cellular factors

These are some cells that are specialised in the function of protecting the body by destroying pathogens. It is done by the process of phagocytosis which is the engulfing of substances. The phagocytising cells engulf the foreign particles in response to the chemical mediators (mediators are certain chemicals released by a special type of immune cell known as mast cell).

There is a special defence for viral infections. In this case, the interferons activate the NK cells (Natural Killer) to undergo phagocytosis. This cell can be called the assassin of the immune system.

Inflammation

Inflammation is one of the body’s responses to the invasion of foreign particles. This is an important process in the human body that occurs to drive away from the pathogen. Inflammation is one of the stages seen in healing. This inflammation can be either acute or chronic. Acute stay for a shorter time but produces more vigorous pain whereas chronic stays for a longer time with less vigorous pain. If the causative agent has been driven away then healing occurs either by complete restoration or scar formation. There are chances that the acute inflammation can become chronic which can be worse. It can lead to several diseases and complications.

Acute-phase proteins

These are certain indicator proteins present in the blood whose increase in the level indicates infections. A group of these proteins constitute the acute phase proteins. They are:-

  • C-reactive protein
  • Mannose binding factor
  • Serum P amyloid component
  • Alpha -1-acid antitrypsin

These proteins enhance the defence and host resistance, prevent tissue injury and aid in damage repairs.  

The next article deals in detail with another type of immunity, the acquired immunity.

HAPPY READING!!!

THE MULTIPURPOSE TREE- A GOD’S GIFT

Bananas, Banana Trees, Banana Plantation

All of us have some purpose in our lives. This can apply to all the living species in this universe. The bees are present to produce honey, the flowers are present to produce nectar and pollen, and the cows are present to produce milk and plants to produce food. It is generally seen in plants that more than one part of them has a purpose. But there is a specific tree in which all its parts are useful and none of them is wasted. This is a tree with several purposes and indeed it is a gift from god. Already some of you would have found it out! It is the banana tree.

Mostly the fruits, vegetables and flowers of a plant are useful. But all the parts in the banana tree have more than one specific purpose. Also, these do not serve a purpose for humankind, but also to a lot of animals. This article mainly highlights the medicinal benefits of each part of the banana tree.

Speciality of banana tree

As we know the portion which is above the ground and which houses the leaves, flowers, fruits etc. is known as the stem. However, in the case of the banana tree, the true stem is found underground and the green part which we see is a ‘pseudo stem’ meaning false stem; the true stem is a rhizome. Even this part is also consumable. If one has decided to cut a banana tree, he can cut it till the pseudostem and a new tree start to grow from the original stem. This depends upon the condition and strength of the root to regenerate one.

Banana fruit

The fruit is the tastiest and delicious part of the tree. An interesting fact which some might know is that the banana tree can produce fruit only once in its lifetime. They say that the banana tree is dead after fruiting because it starts to degrade after fruiting. So the tree is cut down up to the false stem after fruiting.

There are different sizes and colours of bananas which are based on the fruit obtained from the banana tree. Some of the banana varieties known are:-

  • Red banana
  • Nendran
  • Mountain
  • Rasthali
  • Robusta

There is a banana known as the blue java banana which looks blue in colour and tastes like ice cream!!

  • Bananas are a good source of potassium, an ion which takes part in most of the body’s metabolic processes
  • Bananas can aid in weight loss
  • Bananas can make us full (healthy food)
  • Bananas are rich in antioxidants
  • Bananas are rich in fibre essential for proper stool

And there are even more health benefits. It is recommended to eat at least one banana a day.

Banana vegetable

Shrub, Banana, Banana Plant, Fruit

The vegetable cannot be consumed raw as compared to its fruit. This is a bit hard in nature when compared to the fruit. This is mainly used in cooking to make curries, chips etc.

  • The raw bananas are rich in magnesium, a micronutrient essential for the body
  • They can help in regulation of blood sugar levels
  • They are a healthy source of starch
  • They aid in digestion due to high content of fibre
  • They can prevent constipation and other digestive problems

Banana flower

Banana, Banana Tree, Bunch Of Bananas

The flower is said to have an umami profile of taste. Hence this is least preferred by children. Also at the same, this part has the highest medicinal benefits.

  • They are immunity boosters; they prevent infections and add resistance to the body
  • Promote the kidney function in the filtration of the blood
  • They help in regulating diabetes
  • They can reduce anxiety and relax the mind
  • They help in reducing the blood cholesterol and blood pressure levels

Banana leaf

Banana, Leaf, Green, Tropical, Plant

This is the point that separates the banana tree from the rest. The leaves of these trees are also used, apart from the fact that animals eat them. This part of the tree is non-edible for humans. The leaves of the tree have been traditionally used as plates. the following are the reasons for this purpose:-

  • There is a thin coating of wax in the leaves which get melted when hot food is placed, this process results in a release of good aroma and also enhances the flavour
  • These waxes are totally consumable and they contain polyphenols which is required for the immunity to fight off diseases
  • The antimicrobial property of the leaf is exposed when hot food is served, so these properties infuse into the food
  • The leaves are easy to use and are cheap

There is one dish called ‘kizhi parotta’ where the parotta is wrapped in a banana leaf and is steamed. All the flavours of the leaf enter into the food, enhancing its taste.

Banana pseudostem

The false stem is also edible and has a lot of medicinal benefits. It can be cooked to make a lot of dishes or can be consumed raw as juice.

  • Rich in fibre and helps in digestion
  • ‘Kidney-friendly’, in fact it is recommended for kidney stone patients to drink the juice. It aids the kidney in the filtration process
  • Helps in weight loss
  • Rich in potassium and vitamin B, boosts the production of haemoglobin
  • Boosts the production of insulin hence helping in controlling diabetes

Banana root

Even the root of the tree is useful. It can be used to make ropes and sacks. The following are its medicinal purposes.

  • The root can cure tooth pain
  • They are rich in dopamine and can assist the mind in taking decisions
  • They can cure stomach problems

On the whole, the entire banana tree is useful and none of them gets wasted. from the medical point of view, this tree is equivalent to medicine. There is no doubt in calling this tree the ‘GIFT OF GOD’

VEGANISM AND IT’S IMPORTANCE

What is Veganism?

Veganism is perhaps the best manners by which you can uphold basic entitlements, secure the planet, work on your wellbeing, and live without moral tradeoffs. An ever-increasing number of individuals are going veggie lover consistently, and on the off chance that you do focus on this way of life, you likely will not discover it as hard to follow as you might suspect.

While a few groups accept that veganism is unfortunate, unnatural, or outlandish, these thoughts are essentially bogus. Indeed, going veggie lover can really make you better and work on your relationship with the normal world and your body’s requirements. Besides, in the event that you believe it’s outlandish, perhaps you should give yourself more credit.

“Veganism is a philosophy that is against the mercilessness, abuse, and enduring of creatures. As a way of life, it is rejecting the utilization of creatures, regardless of whether in food, dress, amusement, or items tried on creatures.”

Why Veganism is important?

Mankind is draining the planet’s limited assets at a quick rate, the climate is going through uncommon, pointless and capricious changes, and individuals experience the ill effects of heap sicknesses connected to their eating regimens. You can’t fix all that by accepting veganism, yet you can be one piece of the arrangement.

Individuals will in general follow those they appreciate. In the event that you conclude that veganism is for you, your companions, relatives, and partners may follow after accordingly because of your model. In addition, when you quit eating meat, dairy, and eggs you are utilizing your wallet to take up arms. Organizations that sell meat and creature results just do as such in light of the fact that it makes them cash. At the point when their benefits begin to evaporate, they will think about alternate methods of working together.

Why go vegan?

  • Put Your Health First

It’s not difficult to snatch a supper at a drive-thru eatery — a hamburger and French fries or a meat taco — or to toss a couple of chicken bosoms in the stove when you return home from work. In any case, how are those propensities doing your wellbeing?

Vegetables and Fruit Heart Shaped

The facts really confirm that creature tissue and side-effects feed our bodies, yet they can likewise add to illness and different issues, which are talked about beneath. In the event that you ask any nutritionist what individuals should zero in on in their eating regimens, the person will say “foods grown from the ground.” That’s in every case highest in the brain of any expert who makes dietary suggestions. No nutritionist would say “steak and seared chicken,” for a valid justification — those are considerably more prone to shape part of an unfortunate eating regimen. In case you’re battling to get thinner or drag out your life expectancy, veganism might be the best initial step on your way.

  • Save the Environment

Processing plant cultivating contributes vigorously to natural issues from one side of the planet to the other. Contemplate the quantity of creatures that are butchered each day to fill grocery stores with stock. Those creatures must be taken care of, watered, and housed before they are annihilated. Deforestation across the world is driven by the avarices for more pastureland and creature feed, though taking care of the world with plant-based food sources would require just a negligible portion of that land.

Creatures in the horticulture business add to the pollution of the water table through fecal spillover. They devour huge loads of water and grain, which should be cultivated utilizing yet more water. Pesticides are added to creature feed crops, and the actual creatures are infused with unfortunate chemicals. It’s an endless loop that debases our environment.

We’re not simply discussing salmonella and E. coli here, however those are unquestionably hazardous. Foodborne disease can likewise result from the defilement of meat: dung, bug eggs, and different things you presumably don’t need in your mouth — not to mention your gut.

  •  Conserve Natural Resources

We also have to think about the natural resources that factory farming and crop raising deplete. Factory farms have to be powered, so they consume fossil fuels, and in general the more finite resources we use, the less will be left over for our children.

The crucial point here is the long production chain of factory farming — you need to put resources into growing the food for the animals, then growing the animals themselves, and then “processing” (just a pretty word for slaughtering) the animals. By contrast, the plant-based food chain is much shorter and requires fewer natural resources.

  • Creatures Die in Efforts to Prevent Predation

What many individuals don’t understand is that veganism adds to saving lives other than those of cows or chickens. These animals have regular hunters, and ranchers utilize savage techniques to trap and kill those hunters. As could be, it’s tied in with safeguarding the wellspring of their pay. Coyotes, wolves, and different hunters stall out in traps constantly. So do animals who don’t go after cultivated creatures, for example, birds who accidentally fly into these snares.

  • Diminish the Risk of Foodborne Illness

Identified with this are ailments that are not actually foodborne, however result from the escalated processing plant cultivating rehearses that are expected to transform creatures into human food. You might have known about bird influenza and pig influenza — they are called that since they in all likelihood began in chicken industrial facilities and hoard ranches. Microbes circling in industrial facility cultivating are one of the best and most squeezing dangers that humankind faces.

  • Further develop Digestion and Build More Lean Muscle

Processing is a confounded theme. It’s additionally tricky for some individuals. An ever-increasing number of purchasers are standing up against ulcerative colitis and IBS, two stomach related problems that have their underlying foundations in irritation of the stomach related parcel.

Plant-based eating regimens are wealthy in fiber, which helps processing. Furthermore, all that rich sustenance will help you assemble slender muscle and break up fat. Many individuals expect that they’ll battle to acquire muscle subsequent to going to veganism, however the inverse is frequently obvious. However long you keep on working out and devour adequate calories, you can prepare just as — or far better than — you could before veganism.

–        Improve Your Concentration

Similarly, you might discover that you can concentrate for longer periods of time after you take up veganism. You might also find that you get better performance reviews from your boss as a result. It’s amazing what eliminating meat and animal by-products from your diet can do for you.

  • You Might Live Longer

Specialists haven’t yet concurred about whether veganism prompts life span, yet there are a couple of new wellsprings of data to recommend that veggie lovers live more. One investigation recommends that, paying little heed to carb admission, individuals who eat plant-based eating regimens have diminished death rates. Curiously, the investigation likewise proposes that plant-based food turns out to be much more significant when lessening utilization of carbs — so in case you are doing keto or paleo diets and eating creatures, you might be all the more altogether shortening your future.

What next?

Veganism is an extraordinary method to save aware animals from hurt as well as to work on your life. Try not to sit around idly. Begin to make the change now.

Indeed, you may battle to discover great cafés right away, and discover a few difficulties in your shopping for food, however you’ll improve at it the more you’re vegetarian. It resembles any way of life change. It may not feel like it fits from the outset, however you steadily warm to it. Or then again perhaps like many, you rapidly understand that you’ve at long last settled on the most ideal decision and it feels totally right and regular all along.

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES-PART 2- CLASSIFICATION OF IMMUNITY & INNATE IMMUNITY

The previous article gave a brief introduction to immunity, the internal force protecting us from several hazards. This article will be on the classification of immunity.

This is the classification chart for immunity. Immunity can be briefly classified as two, innate immunity and the acquired immunity. Innate immunity also known as natural immunity and native immunity is the one that has been bestowed to us. This type of immunity is present from birth till death. The following are the other names of innate immunity:-

  • Natural immunity
  • Native immunity
  • Non-specific immunity

Innate immunity is the resistance to infections which an individual possesses due to their genetics. Also, there are other factors that can decide native immunity.

Species- the native immunity which is present within everyone is species-specific. The meaning is that humans have resistance to a specific set of infections and the plants have resistance to another specific set of infections. This is the reason for which humans do not get affected by plant diseases and vice versa.

Race- race refers to the group of people from several parts of the world. People in one part of the world may be resistant to a particular disease when compared to others. This can also depend on the environmental conditions and other factors in which people reside. A suitable example for this is a study that shows that the Negroid species (of African origin) in the US are more resistant to tuberculosis when compared to the Caucasian species (European origin).

Individual- people having a similar genetic constitution may have the same resistance/non-resistance to infections. A study shows that twins have the same level of resistance and non-resistance to several diseases.

The innate immunity is long-lasting, non-specific, and has a good memory. The term memory will be explained while introducing the immune cells. Innate immunity forms the first line of defence in our body. This immunity primarily focuses on providing a barrier to the body and destroying the microbes and pathogens, irrespective of their type. Hence the innate immunity is known as non-specific immunity. There are specified cells that perform this activity and the process is known as phagocytosis. More details will be provided in the next article.

The innate immunity can be comprised of four namely. These can be known as the barriers of innate immunity:-

  • Physical
  • Physiological
  • Cellular
  • Cytokine

The physical type includes the mechanical barriers mostly present in the openings of the body (eye, nose, mouth, ears, genitals, and skin) which prevent the entry of microbes through several mechanisms.

The physiologic type includes the secretions of which help in kicking out the pathogens. These include sweat, highly acidic stomach acid, saliva, sebaceous glands, earwax, and mucus, and so on. These secretions mostly trap the pathogens and prevent them from reaching inside.

The cellular type includes some arrangements made to prevent microbe entry. For example, the wall of the blood vessels is tightly attached with each other ensuring that there is no gap hence preventing the entry of microbes.

The last type includes cytokines. The cytokines are a broad group of signaling proteins that take an important part in immunity. These molecules help in regulating the immune response.

The next article deals with the 6 mechanisms of innate immunity. Till that

HAPPY READING!!

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 1- INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNITY

There are about 1 trillion microbial species which constitutes about only 0.0001% of the entire species. One trillion itself is a huge number and they constitute the number of identified species only. Most of the microbes are packed inside the glaciers and is said that global warming which melts the glaciers can release them! The microbes can be broadly classified into 6:-

  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa
  • Virus
  • Algae
some shapes and forms of the microbes

An important thing is that even though there are these many species of microbes, we do not get infected by them so often. To understand this it is trivial to know about the infection. Infection is defined as the invasion of the host’s body tissues by disease-causing microorganisms followed by their multiplication, colonization, reaction with the host, and release of toxic product metabolites. Infection is a complex process in which the harmful organisms enter into the host, finds a suitable and weak target place, establishes themselves well, multiples themselves, react with body cells, and release bad substances. The series of these events constitutes the prevalence of several diseases. The word ‘target site’ is very important since the microbe cannot establish themselves in any place in the human body. A clear-cut idea of this concept will be given in the next article.

Infection by a microbe can be best understood through relationships. A relationship is always exhibited between two organisms. There are three different kinds of relationships namely parasitism, commensalism, and symbiosis.

Commensalism– the relationship in which one of the organisms is benefitted and the other is neutral (neither harmed nor benefitted)

Symbiosis/mutualism– the relationship in which both the organisms help out with each other so that both are benefited

Parasitism– the relationship in which one organism is benefitted and the other is harmed. In this scenario, the harmed one is known as the host and the one causing the harm is the parasite.


Credit- differencebetween.net

The reason for which that all microbes don’t cause disease might be that some of them are cannot cause infection meaning that they are not parasitic. Under those circumstances, there are about 1500+ kinds of microorganisms that particularly target and infect human beings. If so, then we would have got around 1500+ diseases and that is not the case. So there is some inner force that protects/guards us against these microbes. This protective force present in our body is known as immunity.

Immunity is defined as the response generated by the local mammalian in response to the infection caused by the pathogenic microbes and their products (toxins).

As mentioned earlier, the microbe has to enter into the body in order to establish itself. In fact, this is the hardest part for the microorganisms and most of them fail to cross this stage. It is this immunity that prevents most of the microbes to enter the body and cause infections. The immunity identifies and destroys these microbes and prevents their infections.

The first step is known as recognition which is an important characteristic of the immune system. It is the ability that the immune system destroys the objects which are foreign or not present in the body (non-self) and do not affect the body cells (self). An error occurs in this and as a result, the immune system is unable to differentiate both and starts to destroy their own body cells. This condition is known as autoimmunity.

A brief introduction to immunity has been provided, the next article discusses the classification of immunity.

HAPPY LEARNING!!

Alone and Happy

Feeling alone at parties or having nothing to do on weekends. Having no one to hang out with on your worst days or no close friends to remember your birthdays. Having none to talk about life… we all would have faced these kinds of situations at least once in our lifetime. Some people have these feelings as a routine, but they do not cry else express their loneliness on social media. They are productive and happy. Why is that so? What do those people have which we do not? Why are they at peace even in loneliness when we are depressed about being alone?
Well, the reason is, to them being happy is a choice. Those people just realized that being alone is different from loneliness. It might not be possible at first but, it becomes a habit. This pandemic might have curbed our limitations where we can’t breathe. Still, we have been used to it and, we do try to stay happy.

Being alone is not always being lonely. It means that you have fewer people to argue with, you have more “me-time” and a lot more time for self-realization. Take time to think about the boundaries of the universe and the creations of life. Try to understand the stories behind every face and the hidden mysteries about every object. Travel into the pages of your favorite book or sink into your favorite cup of tea. On average, nine out of ten people see loneliness as a monster. This pandemic might have taken lives but, it has also given people chances to think about themselves. Partying at the weekends or being the center of attention at school, workplaces do not work anymore. We have been forced to give a hand to ourselves. Giving this a thought being in a bubble is far better than being with a bunch of people with whom you have to wear a mask all time. Somehow we all have been accustomed to this new normal. Loneliness seems less lonely if you keep your mind healthy.


To all those who still see loneliness as a monster, let me help you make up with loneliness:

  • Start your day by making your bed. When you make your bed, you take care of yourself. The self-satisfaction you gain in the first hour of your day will last till dusk.
  • Cook your favorite food or cup of coffee.
  • Grab a book. Let your mind explore the world between the pages. Romanticize every word. Smile at the little moments and memories through those words of the author.
  • Create a to-do list.
  • Go for a walk or exercise. Keeping your body healthy is as much important as keeping your mind healthy.
  • Take a nap. According to a study, nap time increases your psychological health.
  • Keep track of your journal. Writing helps one to self realize one’s actions. Write things that you feel grateful for, even if you have nothing to thank, thank yourself for surviving the day.
  • Listen to music. Music is the best companion.

These new beginnings might seem difficult at first. Eventually, you get used to them. We all grow up and develop ourselves. That is how things work in this world. You will have to find peace in your loneliness. Go find and embrace yourself!

FIBRE AS A COMPONENT OF BALANCED DIET

Fibre, which can seemingly be perhaps the most missed fixings in our eating regimen, has benefits galore. While it keeps up with typical assimilation, it additionally assists us with remaining fuller for more by affecting the retention of supplements in the body. To know more, we need to see how fibre functions.

Dietary fibre is a kind of starch, clarifies master nutritionist Sparkly Surendran, and in authoritative terms it tends to be known as the consumable parts of plant food varieties that are not processed in people which is vital for assimilation of supplements. It adds mass to the eating regimen, impacts satiety, adds mass to stool and advances routineness. It is for the most part named dissolvable and insoluble dietary fibre premise their water solvency.

Dissolvable filaments are found in food sources like apples, beans, oats, citrus organic products, psyllium and so on Insoluble filaments are found in grains like entire wheat, wheat grain, vegetables like cauliflower, green beans, and so on

Multigrain atta is another acceptable wellspring of fibre. It is made of an assortment of grains that are normal wellsprings of fibre like wheat, oats, psyllium husk, chana, maize, soya and so forth It gives the upside of giving supplements and fibre advantage of various grains. These aides help assimilation and can altogether add to the fibre necessity of one’s every day diet.

Drink satisfactory measure of water and remember fibre for your eating regimen progressively to keep up with great assimilation.

Dietary fibre is the palatable part of plant food varieties that are impervious to absorption in small digestive tract. It is arranged into dissolvable and insoluble dietary fibre. It is a significant segment of our fair eating regimen and has numerous helpful properties. Utilization of dietary fibre keeps up with stomach related framework.

Our Indian eating regimen for the most part comprises of numerous normal wellsprings of dietary fibre, similar to oats like entire wheat, grain and ragi. Stringy vegetables like carrots, beets, cabbage, peas, broccoli and beans, just as natural products like apples, oranges, guava, are different wellsprings of fibre. Nuts and seeds including almonds, raisins, figs, pecans, groundnuts, flax seeds and so forth additionally contain fibre. Multi grains are additionally a decent wellspring of dietary fibre as they are a blend of assortment of entire grains.

The Indian Chamber of Clinical Exploration suggests that 40g of dietary fibre (in light of 2000 Kcal diet) is viewed as safe for every day admission Utilization of entire grains or multigrain items alongside at least 5 servings of vegetables and one serving of organic product is useful and altogether contribute towards the day-by-day necessity of dietary fibre.

As per prominent nutritionist Glossy Surendran, adding fibre to your eating routine, with careful dinner arranging helps absorption. There are numerous approaches to increase fibre admission. Adding 2 chapatis produced using atta with multigrain to a dinner with a little bit of rice and a mixture of vegetables is a decent beginning. Chapatis themselves can be made with ground carrot or beets, or even whitened spinach, and eaten with curd. Different changes to mainstream arrangements incorporate making kootu with chayote, plantain stem, spinach or keerai.

Multigrain Atta is one of the great wellsprings of dietary fibre. It is a blend of fluctuated entire grains like entire wheat, psyllium, soy bean, oats, corn, Bengal gram and so forth as each grain has its own wholesome profile, devouring multigrain helps to the upside of acquiring the nourishing profit with a combination of grains as various oats source various kinds of dietary fibre.

The dietary fibre in 3 chapatis made out of multigrain flour is comparable to the dietary fibre in 4 beetroots or 6 carrots and help add to ~1/fourth of day-by-day dietary fibre prerequisite. Adding 2 chapatis produced using atta with multigrain to a feast with a little part of rice and a mixture of vegetables is a decent beginning. A straightforward green serving of mixed greens can be given surface and fibre by throwing in some hacked apples, nuts or seeds.

So, you must have got It how important role does fibre plays in our diet. So, we should start including it in our daily diet which will definitely help us to build a healthy and fit physique both from inside and outside.

COOL AND HEALTHY

It is around summer, and you have come home from an intense gym session/casual cricket match with your friends. You take a bottle of ice-cold water or any chilled beverage from the refrigerator and chug it at once. You can feel the immense amount of pleasure you get from this just by reading this. But what if I say that your body hates this even though you like it? This article brings upon the ill-effects of drinking ice water and a sustainable solution/alternative to that.  

Ice water has some of its own benefits like ice water stimulates thirst enabling further consumption of water. Hence ice water can keep you hydrated. Also, ice water can keep one mentally active and awake. Research says that athletes who consume cold water are able to exercise or perform longer.

However, the benefits of ice water are countable and limited. On the other hand, there are many ill-effects of consuming ice water. Consumption of ice water and any chilled products can lead to “brain freeze”- an intense headache that is seen within few seconds of consumption of a chilled product. It is a principle that cold produces vasoconstriction (contraction of blood vessels) and this sudden experience of cold can make the blood vessels in the brain contract.

cartoonic representation of brain freeze

Hence there is limited blood and oxygen supply to the brain. This in medical conditions is known as shock. So in order to balance this more blood is supplied to the brain and hence the vessels swell. This can be considered as a mechanism of the brain in order to avoid consuming the cold substance. Hence this can be the reason for children not eating the ice cream after getting brain freeze. It is a natural defensive process and is not dangerous when it goes away within seconds but can be detrimental if prolonged. Repeated consumption can lead to migraines (heavy headache accompanied by nausea).

Also, ice water can disrupt the process of digestion. According to Ayurveda, there is a fire (jatharagni) inside us that helps in the process of digestion. This can be compared to the digestive enzymes and juices which aid in digestion. There must be an appropriate temperature for the digestive organs to work. This has also been proven scientifically which says that a minimum of 38’C of core body temperature is required. The ice water can disrupt the internal heat environment and can prolong digestion. This is not advisable in the long run.

a pictorial representation of inner fire- jatharagni

The entire process of digestion is prolonged especially in the regions of the stomach and intestine. Ice water can affect the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. The intestine contract as a result and there can be chances that the stool becomes too hard. So it can lead to constipation. The worst time to drink ice water is after a meal. The reason is that the body raises the core temperature so as to start the process of digestion and ice can disrupt it. There are even more ill effects like a decrease in heart rate, improper fat metabolism, and throat irritation, and so on.

So a solution to all these problems is to avoid drinking ice cold water. But if we do so, we cannot rejoice in the pleasure we get from it. So we have to find an alternative method/source of ice water which is healthy for us. The answer lies with our ancestors. Years ago, there were no refrigerators then how was it possible for them to have cold water? They used earthen pots to get chilled water.

Earthen pots or Matka have been used for many years. They produce chilled water by the process of evaporative cooling. The pores present in the pot release the heat out by capillary action hence making the water ‘cool’. It is important to understand that the water is cool and is not cold.

This water provides the benefits of refrigerated ice water and rules out all its ill effects. The pot water does not only affects digestion problems but also enhances digestion. The minerals that are present in the water help in digestion and create a balance in the Ph. The minerals in pot water make it alkaline which balances the acidic Ph of the stomach. This can prevent a lot of digestive problems which can be caused due to excess acidic Ph.

Pot water does not irritate the throat and does not cause sore throat. Also, it refreshes the body with mineral-rich water and prevents dehydration and sunstroke in summer. The pot water also boosts metabolism. The earthen pots act as natural filters and remove the toxins. Apart from that, earthen pots are sustainable, eco-friendly, and also cheap to use. The fridges release chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) which is an important cause of ozone depletion. No such problems are seen in earthen pots.

earthen pots with water kept during summer to quench the thirst of several passerby’s
source- twitter

On the whole, the earthen pots have produced the benefits of refrigerated water and on the contrary, they have no ill effects as compared to refrigerated water. And the important point is that we can get these benefits at minimal cost and do not harm Mother Nature. So from here afterward, chug upon a pot full of Matka water after an intense gym session or long and tiring sports match. This time, your body also enjoys the water along with you.

HAPPY READING !!!

Superfoods

Superfoods

Superfoods are foods that have a dozen or more unique properties. Superfoods comprise a specific set of edible, incredibly nutritious plants that are not entirely classifiable as foods or medicines. Some common superfoods are:

  • Algae
  • Berries- Acai berries, Blueberries, Goji berries
  • Leafy greens
  • Green tea
  • Legumes
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Olive oil
  • Dark chocolate

In this article, we will be looking at algae, specifically, microalgae.

Microalgae are microscopic aquatic organisms which use the solar energy and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and produce a wide variety of complex substances and biologically active compounds. The aquatic microalgae are one of the oldest terrestrial organisms and can adapt to survive in adverse environmental conditions. They are characterized by the ability to grow and multiply rapidly within a short life cycle and are also easy to manipulate. Efficiency of microalgae in fixing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 10 to 50 times higher than that of terrestrial plants. The cultivation of microalgae reduces the level of pollutants in the air and in the aquatic environment. Microalgae is “20 times more productive than conventional crops,” with little needed in the way of input to keep them alive.

Microalgae
Microalgae

The edible types of algae are: Blue-green algae, Brown algae, Red algae and Green algae. Chlorella (a green algae) and Spirulina (a blue-green algae) are two extremely popular algae used as superfood. Spirulina is a potent source of phycocyanobilin. Nutrient-dense, like chlorella, and contains 10 percent more protein than chlorella, as well as more copper and thiamine, or vitamin B1. Chlorella is higher than spirulina in zinc, iron, magnesium, vitamin B2, calories, fat, and omega-3 fatty acids.

Production:

The large-scale microalgae cultivation started in the 1960s in Japan, in which Chlorella microalgae were used as a food additive. In the 1970s and 1980s, the industrial production of microalgae expanded to USA, China, Taiwan, Australia, India, Israel and Germany. In the last few years, the production of Spirulina and Chlorella microalgae has increased, and currently it is practiced by most countries. The annual production is about 7,500 tons of dry biomass (5,000 and 2,500 tons of Spirulina and Chlorella microalgae, respectively).

Microalgae production
Microalgae production

Health Benefits of Algae:

  • Algae contain Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  • Algae deliver essential amino acids
  • Algae help in the prevention of diseases
  • Algae help in the development and maintenance of healthy kin

Dietary Supplements

 dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement one’s diet by taking a pill, capsule, tablet, powder or liquid. Eating a variety of healthy foods is the best way to get the nutrients you need. However, some people do not get enough vitamins and minerals from their daily diet, and their doctors may recommend a supplement. Dietary supplements may provide nutrients that might be missing from your daily diet.

Supplement can provide nutrients either extracted from food sources or that are synthetic in order to increase the quantity of their consumption. The various compounds for which dietary supplements are available are- vitamins, minerals, proteins, fibers, fatty acids, and amino acids. Dietary supplements are also available to enhance and support fertility, prenatal care, and for body-building.

Dietary supplements
Dietary supplements

Microgreens

An Introduction to Microgreens

Microgreens are edible seedlings including vegetables and herbs, which have been used, primarily in the restaurant industry. They are used as a nutrition supplement, a visual enhancement, and a flavor and texture enhancement. They are harvested after the sprout stage of harvestation; just after the cotyledon leaves have developed with one set of true leaves when the plant is 1-3 inches in height and 7-21 days old (immature stage). Microgreens are composed of three parts: a central stem, cotyledon leaf or leaves, and a pair of young true leaves. Microgreens vary in taste, which can range from neutral to spicy, slightly sour or even bitter, depending on the variety. They have a flavor which is generally considered strong and concentrated.

M1

Difference between Sprouts and Microgreens

In the case of sprouts, the harvest time is earlier than microgreens

Microgreens are grown in soil or soil-like materials such as peat moss. Sprout seeds are soaked in water, usually for eight hours and then drained. The sprouting process occurs in dark or very low light conditions. Microgreens are planted with very low seed density compared to sprout processing.

A sprout consists of seed, root, and stem. On the other hand, microgreens are harvested without the roots.

How Microgreens are grown

At home

Fill container with soil and water lightly. Sprinkle the seed of choice on top of the soil as evenly as possible. Lightly mist seeds with water and cover container with a plastic lid. Check tray daily and mist water as needed to keep the seeds moist. A couple of days after the seeds have germinated, remove the plastic lid to expose them to light. After 10–14 days, the microgreens should be ready to harvest.

growing microgreens at home

In the industry commercially

Seeds are grown on large trays lined with absorbent growing mats. Seeds are sprinkled over the tray and grown covered for the first few days. Once the sprouts have reached the desired length the cover is removed. Sprouts are allowed to green under the fluorescent light and grown until the true leaves appear.

industrial production of microgreen

Types of Microgreens

Microgreens can be grown from different types of seeds. The most popular varieties are produced using seeds from the following plant families:

  • Brassicaceae family: Cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, watercress, radish and arugula
  • Asteraceae family: Lettuce, endive, chicory and radicchio
  • Apiaceae family: Dill, carrot, fennel and celery
  • Amaryllidaceae family: Garlic, onion, leek
  • Amaranthaceae family: Amaranth, quinoa swiss chard, beet and spinach
  • Cucurbitaceae family: Melon, cucumber and squash

Health Benefits of Microgreens

  • Eating vegetables is linked to a lower risk of many diseases
  • Microgreens contain phytonutrients
  • Microgreens are juvenile seedlings that contain large concentration of vitamins, minerals and other higher health-giving phytonutrients compared to mature leaves
  • Young lettuce seedling after 7 days of germination contains highest total phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity
  • Red cabbage, garnet amaranth, green Daikon and radish microgreens contain highest concentration of Vitamin E, C and K
  • All the nutrients that are packed in microgreens are essential for skin
  • Microgreen contain crystalline compounds having a wide range of health benefits such as an estrogen stabilizer DIM (diindolylmethane) which is necessary for both men and women

ICMR says, Covishield, Covaxin blend can give better outcomes

The examination was led on 18 individuals who have gotten two portions of two distinct vaccines and it has not yet been peer-assessed, reports said.

The Research:

The Indian Council of Medical Research has uncovered that a blend of Covishield and Covaxin, the two fundamental antibodies of India’s Covid inoculation program, can really yield better outcomes, news organization ANI detailed. The investigation was just led on 18 individuals of Uttar Pradesh’s Siddharth Nagar, who accidentally got two dosages of two separate immunizations / Vaccines. As indicated by the finding of the examination which is yet to be peer-checked on vaccination with a blend of an adenovirus vector stage-based antibody, trailed by inactivated entire infection immunization was protected as well as inspired better immunogenicity. Covishield, fabricated by Pune’s Serum Institute of India, is the adenovirus vector stage-based antibody and Covaxin, created and made by Bharat Biotech and the ICMR, is the entire infection immunization. Covishield and Covaxin have a place with two distinct sorts.

The investigation named ‘Fortunate Covid-19 Vaccine-Mix in Uttar Pradesh, India: Safety and Immunogenicity Assessment of a Heterologous Regime’ has been transferred on medRxiv. Under this investigation, 18 individuals got two dosages of two unique immunizations, the response of which was contrasted with 40 recipients of two portions of Covishield and 40 beneficiaries of two portions of Covaxin, news organization PTI announced. The examination length was from May to June 2021, it said.

Blending of immunizations is being talked about universally, all investigations are supportive of blending two antibodies to build the insurance against future contamination. The subject master panel of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization has in July suggested a preliminary of blending Covishield and Covaxin, which will be led by the Christian Medical College in Vellore on 300 sound volunteers.

While that will be an appropriate clinical preliminary to examine the adequacy of the mixed drink of Covishield and Covaxin, the ICMR’s investigation depended on the goof-up that occurred in May. There was no prompt antagonistic effect of the misunderstanding of the recipients. Presently, further investigation has uncovered that the misunderstanding has really worked for insurance as these individuals have more security than the individuals who have gotten two shots of a similar antibody.

What WHO has to say:

The issue of blending antibodies is touchy as World Health Organization has cautioned that people ought not settle on blending immunizations. Niti Aayog part (wellbeing) Dr VK Paul had before said that hypothetically there is no issue in blending two antibodies as the second portion in such a case will function as a promoter shot. Yet, as the public authority began its immunization drive on January 16, it requested that wellbeing laborers practice outrageous alert to ensure that the recipients get the second shot of the very antibody that they got as their first shots.

What to Understand?

  • We don’t have to take two different doses of vaccine; second shot should be of the same vaccine which we got as first dose.
  • We should adhere to advice of WHO, it will benefit our health only.

STOP Body Shaming

Have you ever hated yourself for being called thin, fat, tan, or textured? Have you ever wanted to become the celebrity who hides behind those makeup products? Have you ever tried to tear yourself apart for being you? According to the statistics, 91% of n are unhappy about their body image. Cases of teens having suicidal thoughts are increasing as body-shaming is becoming quite common among peers. So is this thought real else is it just an illusion that threatens us? No matter what it is you and your body, it is your responsibility to show utmost affection and positivity. 

Reasons for body-shaming:

  • Setting the imaginary bar high. (For example, Textured skin is normal. Being obese is normal. Acne and breakouts are just a part of your body. Social media and filters blinds people.) 
  • Ignorance (You are not beautiful if you are obese, you will not get a date being this tall, you will get rejected just because you are tan) 
  • Low self-esteem (Feeling inferior about their body, in turn, they end up criticizing and judging others.)

We might even body shame others without our knowledge, but those words hurt them to an extent they want to kill themselves. People start to feel unworthy of themselves when they hate their body and affect their psychological well-being. The Mental Health Foundation, which commissioned the survey, said the issue could affect anyone at any age. Words have the power to kill and heal, so we must choose them wisely. If you ever come across a person who feels inferior for being overweight or underweight, listen to them. Assure them positivity. Stand by them whenever they need you. 

Thin or fat, dark or white, clear or textured – you are beautiful; you are adored.

Tips for loving yourself: 

  • Have a positive attitude. Life is beyond people’s criticism. Don’t bound yourself in their words. 
  • Have a supportive circle. Being with positive people lifts your daily mood. 
  • Distract yourself towards life goals. When you are successful, literally no one would ever talk about your body image but about your success story. 
  • Have a healthy lifestyle. Exercise, meditate, journal. These habits will make you develop yourself. 
  • Be worthy of yourself. Appearances are not everything. A beautiful heart is more important than a perfect figure. 

Confronting negative comments is the only way to stop body shaming. Let us normalize our tone, skin, and textures. We all are beautiful and blessed, and having a healthy mind and heart are more important. Love others irrespective of their figures and numbers but never forget to love yourself first.

Misconceptions About Physical Education

Padhoge likhoge banoge nawab, jo kehloge, kudoge banoge kharab” is a proverb that has become a permanent wound for physical education. 

In present-day society, there are many misconceptions about physical education. Even many people do not know the meaning of physical education. Some people treat it like physical training, whereas others treat it like physical culture. Some people have the assumption that physical education is nothing except games and sports. Some people think that it is only bodybuilding which is done with the help of weight training exercises. 

It means different people have different thoughts or misconceptions about the meaning of physical education.

  • Physical Education is nothing but to Play

It is usually presumed that physical education is nothing but playing games and sports. Games and sports are a part of physical education. In physical education, various subjects are taught such as Psychology, Sports Sociology, Human Anatomy, and Physiology, etc. 

  • Creates Indiscipline

It is also a wrong notion about physical education that it creates indiscipline behavior in children. Sportspersons always behave in a disciplined way and follow the rules and regulations not only in playfield but in real life also. Moreover, many programs of physical education decrease the possibility of undesired behaviors.

  • Waste of Time

Most parents think that participation in games and sports is a waste of time which is why they don’t send their children to play. It is such a competitive age that parents lay too much stress on the study of their children and rebuke them if they go to play. But they have to understand that playing sports helps in the proper growth and development of the child.

  • Physical Education is Body-Building

Participating in physical activity, such as weight training increases muscular strength and power which are beneficial in improving performance. So, it is wrong to think that physical education is just bodybuilding.

  • Fewer Career Opportunities 

A large number of people hold the notion that physical education has fewer job opportunities. In past, there were fewer career opportunities in this field, but now there are increasing rapidly. Some career opportunities are sports media, sports management, sports physiologists, and many more.

  • Waste of Money

Nowadays, sports and games are considered a big business. Good sportspersons get a lot of money by participating in games and sports and by advertisements. Along these, facilities in the form of sports equipment, uniforms, free education, and free meals are provided to a good sportsperson. So, it is not a waste of money, rather it is a way of making money.

  • Physical Education Helps in Physical Development and Not in Mental Development

Most people have the misconception that physical education helps in physical development and not in the mental development of children. No doubt that physical education helps in the physical development of an individual but it also helps in mental development. We should not forget the views of Montague. He avers, “Physical education does neither train up the soul nor body but the whole man.” Studies found that students who participate in programs of physical education are more intelligent in comparison to non-participant students. Hence, it is also a misconception that it does not help in mental development.  

BENEFITS OF WAKING UP EARLY

Healthy lifestyle habits starts with a healthy change in our sleep schedules . Getting a solid amount of proper sleep is indispensable for our body to function properly and be productive . Going to bed early and getting up early have positive affects on your body and soul . Here are a few reasons why you should start getting up early ,


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BOOSTS PRODUCTIVITY – Waking up early can seriously boost your productivity levels as you get more hours to work and don’t have to rush . Getting up early gives you more energy , and hence has a positive affect on your productivity levels . Try doing your college work or office work early in the morning and notice the change yourself.

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BETTER SLEEP – It is research proven that people who wake up early get better quality sleep . Quality sleep implies less dark circles , healthier skin , it also improves your mood and helps you concentrate properly. So , if you go to bed early and wake up early it can be miraculous for your not only your work , but also your skin.


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POSITIVITY – It is a proven fact that people who wake up early are happier and more positive that the people who do not wake up early . Positivity is magnetic and people are drawn towards positive people .

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MORE TIME TO EXERCISE – Waking up early gives you plenty of time to work out , especially if you have college or work in the morning. This reduces the chances of you skipping your work outs . Since waking up early has you more energised , exercising at this hour can be very beneficial . Exercising reduces your chances of getting a heart disease or obesity .