Eating nutrient-rich foods, such as lean protein and legumes, can support your overall health and help you maintain a moderate body weight.
Eating nutrient-rich foods, such as lean protein and legumes, can support your overall health and help you maintain a moderate body weight.
Healthy bodies come in all shapes and sizes. While weight loss is not a magic bullet for health, and not everyone needs to pursue weight loss, it might be something you want to work toward to feel your healthiest.
Coupled with regular movement, your diet can affect your health outcomes.
1. Whole eggs
Eggs are incredibly nutrient-dense. Interestingly, almost all its nutrients are found in the yolks — like choline and vitamin D — though egg whites deliver 4–6 grams of protein each. Because they’re high in protein and fat, they help you feel full. That’s key, because responding to your body’s internal fullness and hunger cues can help you reach or maintain a healthy weight. In other words, getting in the habit of eating when you’re hungry and stopping when you’re full can help your weight loss goals.
2. Leafy greens
Leafy greens include kale, spinach, collard greens, Swiss chard, and a few others. They have several properties that make them perfect for reaching or maintaining a healthy weight. For example, they pack fiber and nutrients that keep you satiated and hydrated.
Fatty fish like salmon are incredibly nutritious and very satisfying. Salmon is loaded with high quality protein, healthy fats, and various important nutrients. That combination keeps you satiated and can help you reach a healthier weight.
4. Cruciferous vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables include broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. Like other vegetables, they’re high in fiber and tend to be incredibly filling. What’s more, these types of veggies contain decent amounts of protein. They’re not nearly as high in protein as animal foods or legumes, but still high for vegetables.
5. Chicken breast and some lean meats
Meat remains a controversial food group for many people.
Beyond issues of sustainability and ethics, we’re still not sure whether and how red meat raises the risk of heart disease or diabetes.
Research on meat consumption and health outcomes has yielded low evidence of causation.
6. Potatoes and other root vegetables
White potatoes seem to have fallen out of favor possibly, at least in part, due to the rise of lower carb diets.
For what it’s worth, potatoes and other root vegetables have several properties that make them wonderful foods for weight loss and optimal health. They contain an incredibly diverse range of nutrients a little bit of almost everything you need.
7. Beans and legumes
Beans and other legumes can be beneficial for weight loss. These include lentils, black beans, kidney beans, and some others.
Those foods tend to be high in protein and fiber, which are two nutrients that promote satiety. They also tend to contain some resistant starch
Many factors can interfere with a good night’s sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to illnesses. It’s no wonder that quality sleep is sometimes elusive.
You might not be able to control the factors that interfere with your sleep. However, you can adopt habits that encourage better sleep. Start with these simple tips.
1. Stick to a sleep schedule:- Set aside no more than eight hours for sleep. The recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult is at least seven hours. Most people don’t need more than eight hours in bed to be well rested.
Go to bed and get up at the same time every day, including weekends. Being consistent reinforces your body’s sleep-wake cycle.
If you don’t fall asleep within about 20 minutes of going to bed, leave your bedroom and do something relaxing. Read or listen to soothing music. Go back to bed when you’re tired. Repeat as needed, but continue to maintain your sleep schedule and wake-up time.
2. Eat and drink:- Don’t go to bed hungry or stuffed. In particular, avoid heavy or large meals within a couple of hours of bedtime. Discomfort might keep you up.
Nicotine, caffeine and alcohol deserve caution, too. The stimulating effects of nicotine and caffeine take hours to wear off and can interfere with sleep. And even though alcohol might make you feel sleepy at first, it can disrupt sleep later in the night.
3. Creating a restful environment:- Keep your room cool, dark and quiet. Exposure to light in the evenings might make it more challenging to fall asleep. Avoid prolonged use of light-emitting screens just before bedtime. Consider using room-darkening shades, earplugs, a fan or other devices to create an environment that suits your needs.
Doing calming activities before bedtime, such as taking a bath or using relaxation techniques, might promote better sleep.
4. Limiting daytime naps:- Long daytime naps can interfere with nighttime sleep. Limit naps to no more than one hour and avoid napping late in the day.
However, if you work nights, you might need to nap late in the day before work to help make up your sleep debt.
5. Including physical activity in daily routine:- Regular physical activity can promote better sleep. However, avoid being active too close to bedtime.
Spending time outside every day might be helpful, too.
6. Manage your worries:- Try to resolve your worries or concerns before bedtime. Jot down what’s on your mind and then set it aside for tomorrow.
Stress management might help. Start with the basics, such as getting organized, setting priorities and delegating tasks. Meditation also can ease anxiety.
Nearly everyone has an occasional sleepless night. However, if you often have trouble sleeping, contact your health care provider. Identifying and treating any underlying causes can help you get the better sleep you deserve.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6 to 12 percent of women during their childbearing years, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This common female endocrine disorder causes your ovaries to produce an excess of male hormones, resulting in irregular periods, weight gain, and problems with fertility and ovulation.
But recent research points to a regular practice of yoga as an effective way to manage PCOS symptoms.
There are five easy yoga asanas that can actually help to deal with this issue as yoga helps to decrease testosterone levels in women and increase estrogen and also opens up the uterus and ovaries that makes ovulation much easier to occur. It even controls stress!
Asana 1:- Bridge Pose or Setu bandhasana
Asana 2:- Cat- Cow Pose or Chakravakasana
Asana 3:- Garland Pose or Malasana
Asana 4:- Sun Salutations or Surya Namaskar
Asana 5:- Head to Knee Pose or Janusirasana
Remember that always start from a beginning stage. You don’t need to be perfect and accurate from the very beginning as it always happens gradually. Practicing makes it easier and perfect. Consistency is the key!
Inclusive growth, also known as equitable growth, is a concept that emphasizes the importance of economic growth that benefits all members of society, regardless of their socio-economic status. In a market economy, where the allocation of resources is primarily determined by the interplay of supply and demand, achieving inclusive growth can be daunting. However, inclusive growth can be possible in a market economy with the right policies and strategies. This article will explore the concept of inclusive growth and its feasibility in a market economy. We will also discuss the importance of financial inclusion in achieving economic growth in India.
The concept of inclusive growth is based on the idea that economic growth should be broad-based and inclusive, and not limited to a select few individuals or groups. It emphasizes the importance of creating opportunities and access to resources for all members of society, particularly those who are traditionally marginalized or excluded from economic activities. Inclusive growth is necessary to reduce poverty, inequality, and social exclusion and promote sustainable and long-term economic growth.
Market economies are based on the principles of supply and demand, where the market determines the allocation of resources. While market economies have the potential to generate economic growth and create wealth, they are also characterized by inequality and social exclusion. The benefits of economic growth are not distributed equally, and certain segments of society may be left behind. This is particularly true for marginalized groups such as women, minorities, and low-income households.
However, it is possible to achieve inclusive growth in a market economy by implementing policies and strategies that promote access to resources and opportunities for all members of society. For example, policies that focus on improving education, healthcare, and infrastructure can help create a more inclusive economy. Additionally, policies that promote entrepreneurship and innovation can help create new opportunities for marginalized groups and reduce barriers to entry.
Financial inclusion is a critical component of inclusive growth, particularly in developing economies such as India. Financial inclusion refers to the process of providing access to financial services to all members of society, particularly those who are traditionally excluded from the formal financial sector. Financial inclusion can help reduce poverty, increase economic growth, and promote social inclusion.
In India, financial inclusion has become a key priority for policymakers in recent years. The government has launched several initiatives to promote financial inclusion, including the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), which aims to provide access to financial services to all households in the country. The PMJDY has been successful in reaching millions of unbanked households and has helped promote financial inclusion in the country.
Financial inclusion can have a significant impact on economic growth in India. By providing access to financial services, particularly credit, financial inclusion can help promote entrepreneurship and innovation, which are critical drivers of economic growth. Additionally, financial inclusion can help reduce poverty and improve the standard of living for marginalized groups.
However, achieving financial inclusion is not without its challenges. One of the key challenges is the lack of access to formal financial institutions in rural and remote areas. Many marginalized groups, particularly those living in rural areas, do not have access to formal financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies. This limits their ability to access financial services and can perpetuate poverty and exclusion.
Another challenge is the lack of financial literacy among marginalized groups. Many individuals, particularly those who are not well-educated or do not have access to formal financial institutions, may not understand how financial services work or how to use them effectively. This can limit their ability to take advantage of financial services and can lead to financial insecurity.
To address these challenges, policymakers in India must focus on developing innovative solutions that promote financial inclusion. For example, mobile banking and digital payment systems can help reach marginalized groups in remote areas and provide access to financial services.
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way we work and live. We are now transitioning from traditional office hours to a new work-from-home culture. As companies grapple with the challenges of social distancing, they’re increasingly focusing on telecommuting and remote working. This is the new normal in the workplace, and it’s bringing with it many benefits.
For one, remote working eliminates the need for costly office space and commuting for employees. This can help companies save a significant amount of money, especially in big cities with high rent costs. It also allows employees to work from any location, giving them the flexibility to work from home, a vacation spot, or even a coffee shop.
Remote working also allows employees to better manage their own work-life balance. This can decrease levels of stress and fatigue, thereby increasing job performance and productivity. Even though it may be hard for some people to focus without the structure of an office environment, many more individuals find that the flexibility of remote working is beneficial to them.
Companies are also finding that allowing employees to work from home can have positive effects on office morale. With fewer distractions and more focused work, teams are able to collaborate more quickly and easily. This can lead to higher employee satisfaction and improved customer service.
The transition to work from home is an opportunity to re-evaluate the way we work and live. With the right tools and strategies, companies and employees can take advantage of the many benefits remote working offers. As we continue to navigate the COVID-19 pandemic, this will likely be the new normal in the workplace.
Increased Family Time: One of the most significant benefits of WFH is the increased amount of time that families can spend together. With the elimination of commutes, families can enjoy a more relaxed schedule and spend more quality time with each other.
Improved Work-Life Balance: WFH allows individuals to balance their work and personal life more effectively. They can take care of household chores and attend to personal errands during the day, reducing stress and increasing overall satisfaction with their work-life balance.
More Flexibility: WFH provides individuals with the flexibility to work from anywhere, at any time. This allows for a more relaxed and flexible schedule, leading to a reduced sense of stress and increased happiness.
Increased Stress: While WFH has its benefits, it can also lead to increased stress. The boundaries between work and personal life can become blurred, leading to longer work hours and increased pressure to be available at all times.
Decreased Quality of Family Time: While WFH allows for increased family time, it can also lead to decreased quality of that time. With work constantly in the background, it can be difficult for individuals to fully disconnect and enjoy quality time with their families.
Isolation and Loneliness: WFH can lead to feelings of isolation and loneliness, especially for those who are used to working in a social environment. The lack of face-to-face interactions with colleagues and clients can be detrimental to mental health and overall well-being.
WFH has had a significant impact on family relationships, with both positive and negative consequences. While it has allowed for increased family time and improved work-life balance, it has also resulted in increased stress, decreased quality of family time, and feelings of isolation and loneliness. It is important for individuals to find a balance between work and personal life, setting clear boundaries and prioritizing their mental health and well-being. Overall, the impact of WFH on family relationships is complex and varied, and it is up to each individual to make the best of the situation and find a balance that works for them and their family.
The Vidarbha region of Maharashtra primarily consists of four major cities. Nagpur being the largest has a huge rural population which is deprived of stable sources of income and is riddled with social problems including alcoholism. The primary contributor to the alcoholism problem is the male population. Inadvertently, the women of the household have to take up the responsibility of earning the bread. In regions lacking educational infrastructure, women have to not only overcome sexism, misogyny and toxic masculinity to earn, but they also have to battle the unavailability of jobs and the unwillingness of employers to employ women just to keep the food on the table. Out of the 48 lakh unemployed people in Maharashtra, the Vidarbha region contributes 6 lakh of them. Although an older report, according to the 2013-14 Report on District Level Estimates for the state of Maharashtra, Nagpur reported 27% unemployment in urban areas and a staggering 55.3% in rural areas. As mentioned earlier, this was a relatively old statistic. However, going through the Covid-19 pandemic hasn’t done any good in the rural employment sector.
Taking the dire unemployment situation into consideration as well as considering the rising issue of alcoholism amongst the general male population in the region, it has also given rise to domestic violence, marital rape and sexual assault under influence. The Covid-19 pandemic and the Lockdown made this situation a lot worse as unemployment was peaking and the availability of alcoholic beverages was very low. Upon gathering statistics from an NGO called Aroha working for the development of rural women, it was found that domestic violence cases simply multiplied by 2.3 times during the first lockdown (March – July 2020). This is an extremely dire situation and it is continually worsening with the increase in economic disparity and water shortages reaching an all-time high. This is the time when the need to empower women to gain financial stability and independence is the most. The NGO Aroha has taken this as their mission and has been working towards training women in making handicraft items and selling them on an international market through powerful marketing and product development via their brand Rangers.
Rangers is a traditional eco-friendly, high-quality handicrafts store based in Nagpur which sells purses, handbags, lamp shades etc which are made by women from rural areas and all the profit is evenly divided between all women involved, contributing to their financial independence.
Aroha starts by enrolling women who are in dire need of financial assistance. They start by providing them with training in handcrafting, Warli art, stitching, embroidery and block printing. Then, once the women graduate with enough skills, they’re hired by Rangaresha which provides them with employment, stable income as well as incentives for them to work. Aroha is financially supported by Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Since 2004, Aroha steadfastly remained focused on the promotion of livelihoods, capacity-building initiatives and extending training support as well as surfacing as a resource agency for all of the above for the benefit of other allied agencies. With time self-help group formation activities were also undertaken. In the past 17 years, Aroha has helped 1739 women overcome poverty and has made them
capable of standing up for themselves and fighting back against years of oppression. Although the actual statistical data about profits and actual gross income from handicrafts remains unknown and the organisation didn’t provide that information, it is undeniable that the organisation and their vision had been successful in their initiative and continue to empower women to date.
As the whole world is suffering against the covid-19 pandemic, pharmaceutical industries all over the world are trying their level best to fight against these unprecedented times. The covid pandemic has actually benefitted the pharmaceutical industry and helped in the growth and development of this industry. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is the world’s third largest drug producer by volume and the country’s market manufactures 60 percent of vaccines globally. This constitutes 40 to 70 percent of the supply to satisfy the World Health Organization’s (WHO) demand for Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DPT) and Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccines and 90 percent of the global demand for the measles vaccine. In this covid pandemic, the Indian pharmaceutical industry has played a vital role in distributing affordable and low-cost generic drugs to millions of people around the globe.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES
The covid-19 pandemic presented several opportunities for the pharmaceutical companies and helped them to think differently. It helped them to act in a sense of urgency for all the patients who were looking for cheap and affordable medicines. In this pandemic, Indian companies have risen and developed in the field of therapeutics by re-purposing the dugs.
This pandemic also gave the pharmaceutical companies opportunities to work in collaborations with some major global companies for the purpose of developing the covid vaccine in turn enhancing the global connections. Serum Institute of India partnered with Oxford University, Zydus Cadila partnered with Gamaleya Institute of Russia, Panacea Biotec collaborated with US-based Refana Inc and there are many other companies who collaborated for the purpose of producing good and effective vaccines against the deadly virus. These collaborations and partnerships helped the companies to make effective vaccines, develop a stand in therapeutics, and also reach the global market.
Indian pharma industry took a proactive approach during the pandemic and also became successful in proving its mettle in complex and specialty generics. These companies also ensured regular manufacturing by not hindering manufacturing even for a single day. With the development in the pharma industry, eCommerce platforms and industries also developed. In the current pandemic, a great deal of motivation was given to E-pharmacy which helped in ensuring that patients received their medication despite lockdown. The domestic pharma market turnover in India has reached Rs. 1.4 lakh crores (equivalent to $ 20.03 billion) in 2019 as per the government data. This is actually an increase from Rs. 1.29 lakh crores in 2018.
CHALLENGES FACED BY INDIAN PHARMACY INDUSTRIES DUE TO PANDEMIC
The source of APIs plays a very crucial role in the strategic plan of the Indian pharmaceutical industry to combat covid-19. A major challenge faced by this industry is the supply of APIs. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) are defined as the active ingredients contained in a medicine. This pandemic has highlighted the dependence of the Indian pharma industry on imported APIs. Today, 60 percent of India’s API requirement is imported. In commonly used APIs, such as cephalosporins, azithromycin, and penicillin, the dependence is as high as 90 percent . Of the total imports of APIs and intermediates into India, China accounts for 65–70 percent . This is a problem faced by almost the whole west depends upon china for their API supplies. This pandemic has also highlighted low healthcare coverage in India. n terms of healthcare spending, India has one of the lowest healthcare budgets with just 1.26 percent of GDP being spent on healthcare. India ranks 155th out of the 167 countries in terms of hospital bed availability (as per the Human Development Report 2020) with just five beds available for every 10,000 Indians. Such a sudden rise in covid cases in India highlighted the shortage of hospital beds, medicines, and availability of laboratory tests. As pandemics have always shifted the way people react. A similar change has been seen in the consumption pattern of various consumers. There has been an increase in the case of online ordering and e-consultations, especially in the case of chronic diseases. These challenges can result in long-term impacts on this industry.
STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING INDIAN PHARMA PRODUCTION
Initiatives like Production Linked Incentives (PLI) schemes for bulk drugs and medical devices introduced by the government for the industry’s self-reliance have given a major boost to this industry. These incentives are to the tune of INR6,940 crore and INR3,420 crore, respectively, and encompass greenfield projects for bulk drugs and intermediates, and the establishment of three bulk drug parks. In addition to this, the government should take some steps in removing the financial and technical barriers prevailing within this industry. This will in turn help in reducing the dependency of the Indian pharma industry on china for APIs.
The pharmaceutical companies have now identified the importance of backward integration which is expected to bring greater reliability, improve the quality of production, reduce dependence on external sources of supply, and help in increasing the efficacy of manufacturing. Several key representatives from the pharmaceutical industry and NITI Aayog have suggested fostering the approvals of pharmaceutical infrastructure developments, clearance from the environment ministry, and providing tax exemptions and subsidies for the development and promotion of the pharmaceutical industry hubs could benefit the market.
Over the last few years, many tourists have been visiting India for their medical treatment. The government has also relaxed rules for the tourists by issuing rapid airport clearances and fast-track medical visas, thus helping in the promotion of this industry.
This covid pandemic has been a boon to the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Medicine spending in India is expected to grow between 9-12 percent over the next five years, leading India to become one of the top 10 countries in terms of medical spending. It is now important for all pharmaceutical companies to shift their product portfolio toward chronic diseases like covid drugs, antidepressants, anti-diabetes, cancers, etc. which are on the hike nowadays. Many initiatives have been taken up by the government to reduce healthcare expenses and make it affordable for the whole population of the country. The introduction of generic drugs has also paved the way for the benefit of pharma companies. It is now important to focus on the rural healthcare system and provide the rural areas with the necessary drugs and preventive vaccines. Doing so will help a lot in the development of pharma companies in India and will also lead to the development of the country as a whole.
Modern age philosopher Osho maintains “No meditation, No life. Know meditation, Know life.” This quote holds cent per cent relevance in today’s time. In this modern day and age, the negative effects of stress are unavoidable. People have literally forgotten the way to live their life. They are extremely busy running after materialistic goals thereby fueling stress every day.
To cope with this stress, they have tried everything from exercise and diet to alternative methods like medicines. However, the most effective method to deal with stress is not one of these modern methods but rather a thousand years old idea of meditation. Meditation finds its root in many religions, primarily in Hinduism and Buddhism.
Hindu mythology is full of examples wherein normal human beings and sages meditated for years to gain higher spiritual powers. Through meditation, they have risen above the botherations and tensions of worldly life. They have aligned their souls with the almighty in their meditation.
Buddhist mythology explains ‘Nirvana’ through meditation. According to it, Lord Buddha reached enlightenment at the age of 35, awakening to the true nature of reality, which is ‘Nirvana’, the ‘Absolute Truth’. The word Nirvana comes from the
root meaning to blow out and refers to the extinguishing of the fires of greed,
hatred and delusion. When these emotions are destroyed by wisdom, the mind becomes free, radiant and joyful, and at death, one is no longer subject to rebirth. Nirvana is the ultimate happiness, which can be achieved through meditation. The basic principles and practices of meditation are rooted in Hinduism, which believes that the soul is eternal and maintains an eternal relationship with God. The aim of meditation is to quieten the thought waves of the mind.
Quietness can lead to more peace inside the mind. Meditation leads to tranquility and
purification from negative state of our mind, Infact, Buddha religiously believes
“Meditation brings wisdom, lack of meditation leaves ignorance.”
Meditation is very difficult to describe and can only truly be explained once experienced. It is the practice of mental concentration leading ultimately through a sequence of stages to the final goal of spiritual freedom called nirvana. Meditation can be compared with any sport, for example to a basketball game. Everyone can try to play this sport but only a few know the rules and the central dogma of the game. And the others just play the game as they assume it is like. So, it would be right to say that not everyone is able to practise meditation correctly.
Learning to meditate properly, however, is very difficult and must be done under the supervision of teachers. A person who has not practised meditation before, finds it difficult to understand the nature of his mind and may think he is meditating while his mind runs disorderly.
Just a mere 10-15 minutes practice of meditation each day can bring many positive results in the lives of the people. It can be practised anywhere and anytime. The first stage of meditation is to stop distractions and make the mind clearer and more lucid. This can be accomplished by practising a simple breathing meditation.
A quiet place is chosen to meditate and to sit in a comfortable position with closed eyes. Sitting in a traditional cross-legged manner is preferable. The most important thing is to keep the back straight to prevent the mind from becoming sluggish or sleepy. The main motto is to concentrate on breathing.
Breathing during meditation is done naturally, preferably through the nostrils, without attempting to control it, thereby trying to become aware of the sensation of the breath’s movement. This sensation is the object of meditation. Additionally, meditation should be practised with great discipline and awareness to obtain positive results, otherwise it can cause problems in psychological and spiritual well-being.
In recent years, scientists and doctors have shown interest in the effects that meditation has on people going through various situations. Infact, prestigious universities such as Harvard and Washington have invested their efforts in the research and have also come out with positive results. Meditation not only helps reduce the negative effects of stress, but also leads to a better sense of well-being by uniting mind and body.
Statistics on meditation in the Western culture have shown that people suffering from chronic pain, anxiety, depression, hypertension were treated with the help of meditation. Meditation provides benefits to all of the major forms of human existence: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual.
A lot of famous people across the globe have started shifting to this practice religiously. They believe that through meditation, the mind is rejuvenated, the soul refreshed, nerves calmed and in general, one is at peace with oneself and the environment. Fortified by sessions of meditation, people have found they are able to face the tensions of the world with increased success.
Fear of future is a negative word let’s call ourselves Forward Thinkers . Yes, forward thinkers are the ones who are always worried about what will happen in future.
If you are in school , you must be wondering what will I study in college, which career will make me more money , what if I don’t clear entrance, etc. If you are in college and you didn’t get into your dream college you are already dreading about your life by thinking of all the self sabotaging thoughts.
Well these thinkings if asked to an experienced person who has already lived his life will say that – ” Having worries and sleepless nights over future worries is a good sign that you are in a right path ” . It means you know that the life that you crave for will not come merely from attending college. You know that wasting time and money with friends who won’t contribute you in anyway is serious damage to your future. You are very much aware and that itself stands you out of the crowd.
A person who worries is more prone to take steps rather than the one who doesn’t. You are already more mature than your peers. You are already embracing the struggle in you and fighting to remove the worry. So keep that fire of worry in you alive and take that action today because the life that you crave for won’t come in a day it will come after many years of sleepless and ruthless nights.
Yoga is a collection of physical, mental, and spiritual activities that originated in ancient India that aim to control and still the mind the mind by recognizing a detached witness-consciousness that is unaffected by the mind or ordinary sorrow.
The name ‘Yoga’ comes from the Sanskrit root ‘Yuj,’ which means ‘to join, yoke, or unify.’ Yoga, according to Yogic texts, leads to the union of individual consciousness with that of the Universal Consciousness, implying complete harmony between the mind and body, as well as between Man and Nature. Everything in the universe, according to modern scientists, is just a manifestation of the same quantum firmament. A yogi is someone who has experienced this oneness of existence and has attained the state of freedom known as mukti, nirvana, or moksha. As a result, the goal of Yoga is to achieve Self-realization, which leads to ‘the state of liberation’ (Moksha) or ‘freedom’ (Kaivalya).
Yoga’s beginnings may be traced back over 5,000 years to northern India. The Rig Veda, an old sacred scripture, is where the word yoga first appeared. Yoga is one of Hinduism’s six schools of philosophy, and it’s also a big part of Buddhism’s meditation practices.
Terminology of Yoga
Here are a few words you could hear during a yoga practice and what they mean: Āsana An Āsana is a body posture that includes reclining, standing, inverted, twisting, and balancing poses. It was originally and still is a general term for a sitting meditation pose, but it was later extended in hatha yoga and modern yoga as exercise to any type of position, including balancing, twisting, and balancing poses.
Prānāyāma In Sanskrit, Prānāyāma refers to the life energy that pervades all living things. The term Prānāyāma is used in modern-day yoga sessions to describe breathing exercises that erase physical and mental blockages in our bodies to release the breath.
When you first begin practising yoga, there will be specific postures that will form the foundation of your practice. You may receive the benefits of yoga by anchoring your practice with these postures: flexibility, greater muscle strength, spine protection, increased blood flow, and even improved happiness.
It is believed that there are 19 different types of yoga and 66 basic yoga postures. Some of the basic postures are:
ŚĪRṢĀSANA – HEADSTAND You balance on your elbows, arms, and head in this asana. The Headstand is the first in the sequence and is known as the “King of āsanas” due to its numerous benefits. “Head-stand is a panacea, a cure-all, a sovereign specific for all diseases,” Swami Sivananda said.
SARVĀṄGĀSANA – SHOULDERSTAND With the body resting on the shoulders, this is an inverted stance. Sarvangāsana denotes totality. Sarvangāsana, also known as the “Queen of āsanas,” strengthens the entire body. Because the chin is forced on the throat in this position, the thyroid gland is regulated, which in turn balances all other glands in the body, ensuring that all bodily systems and organs function properly.
HALĀSANA – PLOUGH A plough-like stance with hands and feet on the floor. Its name comes from the Sanskrit word hala, which means plough. Halasana strengthens and tones the spine, as well as correcting a pronounced lower back curvature (lordosis). As the abdominal organs are massaged, it reduces problems like indigestion and constipation.
MATSYĀSANA – FISH Matsyāsana posture is resting on the arms, arching the back and expanding the chest. The name Matsyāsana comes from the fact that it allows one to float in water like a fish. This posture promotes improved lung capacity and better breathing, which aids in the treatment of respiratory illnesses such as chronic bronchitis and asthma.
PAŚCIMOTTĀNĀSANA – SITTING FORWARD BEND Paścimottānāsana Posture is stretching the spine forward. This seemingly simple pose is one of the most powerful and significant of all postures. It relieves the pressure on the spine generated by standing erect. Continuous practice helps to keep the back supple, the joints mobile, the nervous system energized, and the internal organs toned. It also helps to prevent diabetes by massaging the pancreas naturally.
BHUJAṄGĀSANA – COBRA This posture is arching the upper body and expanding the chest. This position enhances flexibility, rejuvenates spinal nerves, and provides a rich blood supply to the spine by arching the spine. It helps to support the neck and upper back.
ŚALABHĀSANA – LOCUST Śalabhāsana Posture is lying on the front with lifted legs. Śalabhāsana improves the operation of the intestines, strengthens the abdominal walls, and improves digestion. This posture enhances cervical flexibility and helps lower back pain and sciatica by bending the spine backwards. This posture aids in the development of willpower.
DHANURĀSANA – BOW Dhanurāsana Posture is balancing on the abdomen in the shape of a bow. The benefits of Cobra and Locust positions are combined and enhanced in Dhanurāsana. This posture increases flexibility in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions by working on the entire spine. It massages and energizes the digestive organs, which aids in the treatment of a variety of diseases. Another good āsana for women because it helps with menstrual difficulties.
ARDHA MATSYENDRĀSANA – HALF SPINAL TWIST Ardha Matsyendrāsana Posture is a twist for the entire spine. This asana is named after Matsyendranath, a renowned yogi. The Half Spinal Twist increases the mobility of the spine by twisting the vertebrae in both directions. In this position, the abdominal organs receive a deep massage, which helps to relieve digestive disorders.
KAKĀSANA – CROW Kakāsana Posture is balancing in a squatting position. Kakāsana helps to strengthen the arm, wrists, and shoulders while also stretching the hips. It improves concentration and fosters mental and physical balance, as do all balancing poses.
PĀDAHASTĀSANA – STANDING FORWARD BEND Pādahastāsana is a bending forward in a standing position. Pādahastāsana stretches the spine and mobilizes the joints, making it more elastic. It improves the neurological system by increasing blood flow to the brain. Standing Forward Bend is an exercise that promotes eternal youth.
TRIKOṆĀSANA – TRIANGLE Posture is a lateral bend resembling a triangle. Trikonansa’s lateral stretch elongates the spine and improves hip and leg flexibility. The circulatory system is stimulated, the liver and spleen are massaged, and the digestive tract’s peristalsis is boosted. Other asanas improve as the body becomes lighter.
After the fast-spreading of Omicron variant of COVID-19 in the various parts of the world, a new terror has been emerged in the people of the country. So far, two positive cases of Omicron* variant have been detected in Karnataka.
To reduce the spreading of this variant in different parts of the country, the Health Ministry of the country has been advising the states and union territories to strictly check upon the international passengers who have been coming from ‘at risk’ countries.
International passengers coming from ‘at risk’ countries are advised to go for RT-PCR* test. Only after the reports of their tests are available, they are allowed to step out from the airport. This situation created a lot of chaos in Kempegowda International Airport in Bengaluru on Wednesday, December 1. Long queues were witnessed at the airport due to the guidelines regarding the mandatory RT-PCR test of the international passengers at the airport passed down by Union Health Ministry.
Only four doctors and 25 staffers were deployed at the airport according to the reports. Moreover, there was only one testing counter located for screening the passengers. A lot of passengers showed their discomforts during the testing through various social media handles.
Among those passengers, Raja Andukondan was also the one who faced issues while testing. He raised his complaints through his Twitter handle.
He stated, “@BLRAirport As one of the passengers on the very first flight which landed after 00:00hrs, it was horrible. Clearly the lab Auriga Research was not at all prepared. Who can I contact for a refund of my cost for the Rapid PCR test? Results were promised in 1 hr but took 3+ hrs”.
According to the current guidelines, passengers coming from ‘at risk’ countries have to go through post-arrival testing and will be isolated in case the reports turn out to be positive.
Due to the fast-spreading of Omicron variant of COVID-19, all the residents of India are advised to ensure their safety and not to take it lightly in any case. It is to be hoped that all the people will be able to overcome this crisis very soon with their own vigilance.
*Omicron variant –
It is a new variant of COVID-19 that has been kicked-off in South Africa. A sudden surge of positive cases broke out among the university students. At first, scientists mistook this omicron variant in the students as delta variant. But after the research, the omicron variant was found out with a lot of mutations which stirred up a chaos among the scientists. On 24 November, this variant was reported to World Health Organisation. According to WHO, this variant poses a ‘very high risk’. Following different reports, it is to be said that this variant could be the most contagious one to be ever known in the history.
Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is the test where an enzyme called reverse transcriptase used to change the piece of RNA into a same matching piece of DNA. This method is used to detect the specific genetic material in any pathogen. It is one of the widely used methods to detect the COVID-19 virus in a diseased body.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention. Older people and those with underlying medical conditions like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses. Anyone can get sick with COVID-19 and become seriously ill or die at any age.
Myths about Covid19
Can Covid-19 be transmitted through goods produced in countries where there is ongoing transmission?
Although it can last on surfaces for many hours, the environment, transportation, and varying temperatures during shipment make it difficult for the virus to remain active. If you feel the surface may be contaminated, clean it with a disinfectant and wash your hands after touching it.
Can Covid-19 be transmitted through mosquitoes?
There is no evidence that the novel coronavirus can be transmitted through mosquitoes. The virus can be spread through droplets from coughing, sneezing or a patient’s saliva.
How can we be sure that our clothes don’t spread coronavirus 2019?
Besides showering every day, you should wash your clothes using detergent or soap in 60-90 ํC water or add bleach. Dry the clothes in a high-temperature dryer or the sun.
Can drinking alcohol help prevent Covid-19?
Drinking alcohol, such as beer, liquor, wine doesn’t help prevent coronavirus. You should wash your hands often, wear masks, and avoid being close to those with a fever and cough.
Is it true that Covid-19 is transmitted in a cold climate and not in a hot and humid climate?
Coronavirus 2019 can be transmitted in any kind of climate. Wherever you are, no matter what kind of climate, you have to practice personal hygiene, i.e. wash your hands often, cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough, and wear masks.
Can digital thermometers be 100% effective in detecting Covid-19 patients?
It may take the virus 1-14 days to incubate and cause symptoms like fever, so it cannot be used to identify asymptomatic patients.
Can UV bulbs use for disinfecting be used to kill Covid-19 on our body?
Don’t use UV bulbs on your hands or any part of the body because UV light can irritate your skin.
Can spraying alcohol or chlorine on your body kill the virus inside?
Besides not being able to kill the virus inside your body, it could damage clothes and other tissues like eyes and lips.
Can eating garlic prevent covid-19?
Though garlic has some anti-microbial properties, there is no evidence that it can prevent Covid-19.
Can Pneumonia vaccine prevent Covid-19?
This virus is new and different from other strains. We need a vaccine that is developed specifically. The research team is working on this through the support of the WHO.
Can rinsing your nose regularly with saline solution prevent Covid-19?
Evidence has indicated that rinsing your nose with saline solution can help us recover faster from the common cold, but cannot prevent infectious respiratory diseases or Covid-19.
Is there any drug that can prevent and treat Covid-19?
At present, no drug can prevent and treat the disease. Patients should receive proper and supportive care to alleviate the symptoms. WHO is accelerating research with all the partners to actively study the treatment for the disease.
Smoking is already a major health problem in India, one that will worsen if we do not take action. Nearly ten lakh deaths are attributed to smoking alone in India each year. About one-third of Indian men now smoke; as many women as men do. The risks for both are the same. The majority of tobacco-related deaths occur in middle age and not just in old age.
In India, it is common to chew tobacco products such as gutka. Over half of all oral cancer deaths result from chewing, and women are particularly hard hit. Younger people are chewing more, and precancerous conditions such as mouth lesions are on the rise.
Chewing is common among both men and women all over the world. The percentage of people chewing tobacco products in India is 31% for men and 19% for women, but the number is much higher in Bihar at 69% and 22% for men and women, respectively. Pregnant women who smoke lead to low-birth-weight babies, stillbirths, and birth defects.
According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2010, chewing is more prevalent among the poorest. The poorest 30 percent of people chew tobacco products. The middle income is 25 percent, and the highest income is 15 percent. Oral cancer is more likely to kill women who chew tobacco. In the 30-69 age group, three percent of women and one percent of men are at the relative risk of dying from chewing. Oral cancer has a higher relative risk of death among women, but men have a higher background death rate, so the absolute risks are more equal.
Kishanganj has 1,00,000 men ages 15-69, of whom 50,000 will die from smoking. Seventy percent of people will die between the ages of 15 and 69, while thirty percent will die in old age. In 2015, there were 59% more men who smoked in Bihar than in previous years. 612 lakh men who smoke cigarettes lose 10 years of life whereas 687 lakh men who smoke bidis lose 6 years of life. The use of tobacco is not only a public health threat, but also an economic burden on our country’s health care systems, forcing them to spend a lot of money treating diseases that are largely preventable. In addition to the cost of treating serious diseases like cancer or stroke, tobacco use also affects individual families.
28,000 Kishanganj residents are forced into poverty by tobacco use each year. Almost Rs. 11 crores are spent each year on tobacco in the district. Tobacco control laws are implemented in part by the police. A staggering 350 police officers will be killed by tobacco at ages 15-69 out of 1000 who smoke. Stopping smoking is one of the most important things smokers can do to extend their lives and improve their health. Nonetheless, India has very low quit rates of 5%. Nearly all the risks can be avoided by quitting by 40 and preferably earlier. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air decreases and oxygen levels increase after quitting within 12 hours. The risk of heart attacks drops and lung functions improve within three months. With 1 year, the risk of sudden heart attack is cut in half, and with 5 years, the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and bladder is halved. According to Section 4 of the Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), smoking in public places is prohibited wherever the general public has access, whether by right or otherwise, but does not include open spaces. Additionally, smoking is prohibited in open areas that are visited by the public such as auditoriums, stadiums, stations, and bus stops. The fine for smoking in public places can range from Rs 200 to Rs 500.
As Yoga’s sacred texts are passed down orally and its teachings are regarded as secretive, the history of Yoga is obscure and uncertain in many places. Yoga was originally written on fragile palm leaves that were easily damaged, destroyed, or lost. Over 5,000 years ago, yoga was developed, but some researchers believe that yoga may be as old as 10,000 years. There are four main periods of innovation, practice, and development in the history of yoga.
A Preclassical Yoga practices
Yoga originated in Northern India over 5,000 years ago with the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. Yoga was first mentioned in the oldest sacred text, the Rig Veda. Vedas were a collection of texts containing songs, mantras, and rituals that were used by Brahmans, the Vedic priests. The Brahmans and Rishis (mystic seers) refined and developed yoga gradually, recording their practices and beliefs in upanishads, a huge work containing over 200 scriptures. In the Upanishads, the concept of ritual sacrifice was internalized, teaching the sacrifice of the ego through self-knowledge, action (karma yoga), and wisdom (jnana yoga).
The Classical Stage of Yoga
During the pre-classical stage, yoga was a mishmash of ideas, beliefs, and practices that often contradicted one another. Yoga-Sûtras, Patanjali’s first systematic presentation of yoga, mark the end of the Classical period. RAJA YOGA, sometimes called classical yoga, was described in this text around the second century. Many stages and steps lead to enlightenment in Patanjali’s “eight-limbed path” of yoga. He is often considered the father of yoga and his Yoga-Sûtras still influence most styles of modern yoga.
Yogic practices were created following Patanjali’s teachings a few centuries after Patanjali’s. The ancient Vedas were rejected in favor of embracing the physical body as the means of attaining enlightenment. To break the knots that bind us to our physical existence, Tantric Yoga, with its radical techniques, was developed. Exploring these physical-spiritual connections and body-centered practices led to the creation of what we primarily think of as yoga in the West: Hatha Yoga.
The western world began to receive yoga masters’ attention and followers during the late 1800s and early 1900s. A turning point for this occurred when Swami Vivekananda lectured on yoga and the universality of the world’s religions during the 1893 Parliament of Religions in Chicago. Hatha Yoga was strongly promoted in India during the 1920s and 1930s by T. Kumaramacharya and Swami Sivananda, among others. On the banks of the holy Ganges on the banks of Mysore, Krishnamacharya opened his first Hatha Yoga school in 1924, and Sivananda founded the Divine Life Society in 1936. Sri Krishnamacharya produced three students who would continue his legacy and increase the popularity of Hatha Yoga: B.K.S. Iyengar, T.K.V. Desikachar, and Pattabhi Jois. Among Sivananda’s accomplishments, he wrote more than 200 books and built numerous ashrams and yoga centers worldwide. Until Indra Devi opened her yoga studio in Hollywood in 1947, yoga importation to the West continued at a trickle. Since then, many more western and Indian teachers have popularized hatha yoga and gained millions of followers. Now, there are many different styles of Hatha Yoga, all emphasizing different aspects of the practice.
India is known for its contribution to medicine. Since the ancient times, traditional medicines like Ayurveda, Unani, and homeopathy have been prevalent. Apart from this, the status of allopathy has been equivalented as well. Every year, India graduates millions of well-qualified doctors. As an ode to the exceptional quality of medical education in India, here are a few top medical colleges in India –
All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi is a public hospital and medical research university based in New Delhi, India. The institute is governed by the AIIMS Act, 1956 and operates autonomously under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. AIIMS is considered the best institution of India in the field of medicine. A few undergraduate programs offered by AIIMS are Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), Bachelor of Science, Nursing, Allied Sciences. Post graduate programs are – Doctor of Medicine (MD), Master of Surgery (MS), Master of Dental surgery (MDS), Doctorate of Medicine (DM). All undergraduate admissions would be taken up only through a single national level examination NEET-UG conducted by NTA (National Testing Agency).
Armed forces medical college, Pune
The Armed Forces Medical College is a leading medical training institute in Pune, India, in the state of Maharashtra. The college is managed by the Indian Armed Forces, ranked among the best medical colleges in India throughout and 34th best globally by CEO World Magazine: 2021. The Armed Force Medical College doesn’t conduct any separate entrance exam for the admission; Candidates must qualify the NEET examination to get admission. The courses offered are MBBS, post graduate courses, super-speciality, and para-medical courses. It is also a premier institute for research.
King George’s Medical University, Lucknow.
King George’s Medical University is a medical school, hospital, and medical university located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The medical school was raised to a medical university by an act passed by the government of Uttar Pradesh on 16 September 2002. Apart from the top-notch quality of education that they provide, they have one of the most beautiful campus in India. Situated in a majestic white building, the college looks nothing less than a palace. With a green lush lawn in the centre, it offers a relaxing place for the already exhausted medical students. King George V, then the Prince of Wales, laid the foundation stone of King George’s Medical College in 1906. It has four main faculties – Faculty of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Paramedical Sciences, and Institute of Nursing. The University has about 1250 undergraduate students (including 280 dental students) and 450 postgraduate students.
Self-help is the art of focusing on betterment of oneself. Sticking to a daily routine can be overwhelming and take a toll on your mental well-being. It is absolutely normal to feel worn out, exhausted, and at times incompetent even while carrying out your daily duties. Eventually, everyone reaches a point in their lives where they need to step back and just be with themselves, analyze, reflect and try to find peace. Each of us should leave ourselves some space for self-improvement and self-help without being too hard on oneself. Self-help, self-improvement and self-love go hand in hand. Once you recognize a difficulty, examine it and find the will to improve that aspect of your life, it is called at self-help. Taking an action that would aid in fixing the problem is known as self-improvement. A few ways which may help in your journey of self-improvement are:
Surround yourself with right people-
Positivity and happiness are contagious. A person’s company matters a lot as it statistically influences the person’s success or failure. Having people who inspire you, motivate you, and guide you is a blessing. Thus, one should always make a conscious effort surround themselves with positive people. A supportive and uplifting environment will instill empowering beliefs in you. This will, in turn, induce a positive mindset and a positive mindset manifests success faster.
Turn off social media-
Your environment has an incredible ability to shape your behaviour. Today, social media is full of “influencers” and other personalities who showcase their life a certain way. There are some who set extremely unrealistic and aberrant expectations that are difficult to live up to for a common man. Subjecting oneself to such a culture can be harmful. Hence, one should make a mindful effort to stay away from such posts if it is proving to affect them in a negative way. One may instead follow people or accounts that inspire them or simply make them feel better. Having a healthy and uplifting social media environment is as important as surrounding yourself with positive people.
Have a healthy lifestyle-
The famous saying “You are what you eat” has been around for centuries. What it implies is that everything you eat becomes a part of your inner being. Today junk food and fast foods have been carving their ways into our lives.it is far more convenient for a working person to grab a burger and rush to work than take out time to cook a healthy breakfast. These fast foods have little to no nutritional value and only make us obese and lethargic. This sequentially affects our mindset and we feel less productive. The health of the gut affects the overall health of the body. A healthy gut contains healthy bacteria and immune cells that ward off infectious agents like bacteria, viruses and fungi. A healthy gut also communicates with the brain through nerves and hormones, which helps maintain general health and well-being. Thus, it is important to have a nutritious meal to keep your brain and soul healthy and young.
Apart from eating healthy, it is equally important for your body to keep moving. Exercising stimulates brain chemicals called endorphins that leave you feeling happier and more relaxed, providing an emotional lift and reducing stress. Physical activity also stimulates the release of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin that trigger a positive feeling in the body, and can be especially helpful in alleviating symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Along with eating healthy and exercising, another advocate for mental and physical well being is meditation. Meditation helps you introspect and find inner peace. It is in meditation that you can do the most self-discovery and get direction from your own inner self or soul. Biochemical studies also show that meditation can significantly affect hormones and neurotransmitters such as cortisol, dehydroepi- androstrone, serotonin, melatonin, and epinephrine which help elevate one’s mood. A simple habit of meditating for 10 minutes every day can change your life drastically. You can sit or lie comfortably and close your eyes. You can put on an audio for guided meditation to help you go through with it or just focus your attention on your breath and on how the body moves with each inhalation and exhalation; making no effort to control the breath; simply breathe naturally. Just 10 minutes are enough to overcome stress, anxiety, and give you other mental and physical benefits.
We are entering a new decade as India celebrates the 10th anniversary of its Right to Education Act (RTE), which was passed in April 2010. While the RTE has been criticized for its limited focus on governance and learning outcomes, it has been successful in improving access to schooling. The report has also served as a rallying point for a wide range of stakeholders to intervene in the sector.
The country’s learning outcomes remain low, however, as has been well-established by now. In politics, quality concerns around education are rarely a priority. It isn’t possible to ignore these concerns forever, especially when the country is experiencing a human capital crisis, as can be seen from its unemployment statistics. Furthermore, more educated individuals have lower employment rates than those with less valuable degrees. Global Business Coalition for Education’s 2030 Skills Scorecard confirms these concerns – in 2030, India will be the most educated nation in South Asia, but nearly half of them will not have the skills to get a job.
So far, the band-aid response to such crises has been to establish a Ministry of Skilling instead of making more fundamental reforms in school education. To move forward, India must break out of this unstable equilibrium and view education within a broader human capital framework. India’s education sector must take both scale and substance into account in the upcoming decade, addressing the learning problem system-wide while also recalibrating the system’s raison d’être.
Even the most sophisticated education policies and curriculum frameworks have failed to live up to their promise in the past due to weak administration. It is imperative to strengthen the pillars of governance in the education sector. According to Julia Gillard, former Australian prime minister and chair of the Global Partnership on Education, “governments must be able to gather a diverse collection of instruments, each playing its own notes, to produce a sound of coherent splendour.” Many states have taken ownership of bringing about large-scale changes in the way education is administered in recent years, including Haryana, Rajasthan, and Himachal Pradesh. A common starting point has been the integration of schools in many of these states. Government schools often emerged organically without a coherent strategy, serving just a handful of students, resulting in a large, unwieldy system of schools. With inadequate frontline administration, information gaps, and many faculty vacancies, the state’s ability to manage such a system is limited.
It is still the marks that determine children’s future and students are often burdened as a result. Students often underperform due to the pressure of marks. Students should be evaluated on more than just a three-hour exam; they should be evaluated on their classroom participation, their projects, their communication and leadership abilities, and their extracurricular activities. Then and only then will the students give their best and will be evaluated accordingly.
Introduction of technology
We are living in the era of the fourth industrial revolution. Technology is undergoing a renaissance today, and in an era like this, education and technology cannot be separated. In order for students to not feel alienated by technology in the future, it must be introduced in the early stages of their education. The Indian schools must embrace technology and education with an open heart and pass on the same to the students since it is there, where their future lies.
In the context of immigration, the COVID-19 economic crisis could be long, deep, and pervasive. Across the globe, economic activities have been slowed by travel bans, lockdowns, and social strife. There are additional challenges for the host countries in many sectors such as health and agriculture that depend on the availability of migrant workers. In addition to the risk of contagion, migrants may lose their employment, wages, and health insurance coverage.
Despite all forms of transportation being suspended and interstate borders being sealed, migrant workers across India made their way back home during the Covid-19 lockdown announced in March. During the lockdown, migrant workers’ greatest suffering resulted from their inability to manage their finances. The critical role of wages is evident in the lives of migrants and their families during this period – without wages, they could not meet basic needs such as food, water, shelter, or healthcare, or send remittances to their rural households who depend on immigration income. It is important to note that wages played an important socioeconomic role during the crisis, determining the ability of workers and their households to survive. Over 139 million Indians are migrant workers, which constitutes nearly half of the nation’s 470 million workforce. Despite the extreme desperation facing the vast mobile workforce during the shutdown, the issue of migrant workers’ access to protected wages has remained unaddressed. A strict nationwide lockdown was rather viewed as an outcome of poor planning by governments, which failed to account for the large numbers of undocumented, rural-urban migrants.
Migrant workers’ plight was attributed solely to their mobility between states, without taking into account the nature of their employment in urban labor markets, including low wages and insecure jobs. India’s wage-dependent workforce is vexed by an ongoing debate about the state’s protection of living wages. Despite substantial evidence to the contrary, some have argued that raising wages will lead to the closure of businesses and the loss of jobs. Even government reports, such as the Economic Survey (2019), by the State Bank of India (2019), and by the Reserve Bank of India (2018), highlight the fact that stagnation in real wages has hurt the consumption capacity of the poor, causing the economy to slow down. However, the neo-liberal economic policy that encouraged economic growth by slashing the labor protection framework, especially that protecting workers’ wages, weakened labor regulations and grievance redress mechanisms, leaving them unable to handle the widespread wage violations experienced by workers.
Due to the economic crisis due to the Covid-19 pandemic, experts suggest that measures to create disposable income, including raising wages, are a top priority in order to create economic revival. The post-lockdown period in India, however, has been marked by the dilution of the labor protection regime through the labor reform process, in order to facilitate economic revival rather than ensuring wage security for its migrant workers. Due to their alienation from the state machinery where they work, migrant workers cannot demand wages from their employers, and due to their lack of integration into trade unions at their destinations, in addition to their fragmentation by caste and region, they lack any collective bargaining platforms. It is critical that economic revival is imagined alternatively, and executed through a strong institutional framework, in order to prevent that economic expansion post-pandemic deepens the exploitation of and inequality faced by the country’s poorest wage, dependent populations.
Under such a framework, the state plays a crucial role in keeping wages protected by setting minimum wages at the level of living wages, allowing workers and their households to eat adequately to live a dignified life.
This school year, there were Coronavirus outbreaks at several schools. however, the rate of transmission was generally the same or lower in communities that had measures in place to minimize disease spread. Today, however, many school districts are being pressed to remove practices such as masking or testing. Although cases of COVID-19 with the delta variant doubled nationwide, this is despite a surge in outbreaks. Testing in schools will become even more important with the delta variant. In an ideal world, all students would be tested daily with free tests. If someone was infected, that test would detect it instantly and with 100 percent accuracy. But there are no such tests. Plus, schools don’t have unlimited funds or the ability to create perfect protocols. Instead, districts will have to weigh the pros and cons of different Coronavirus tests. There will have to be a balance between how often they test and who they test. Below is a look at the type of tests that schools use, along with their benefits and challenges.
A new test was introduced at a school in America. Each week, thousands of students (with parental consent) swabbed their noses at home. A plastic baggie was used to store the swab, which they then brought to school. A nearby lab received swabs, which were mixed into 16 groups and shipped there. In the lab, technicians combined the samples from these swabs and performed PCR tests.
A PCR reaction is a polymerase chain reaction (PUL-im-er-ace). Genetic material can be detected in samples by these tests. A coronavirus is being looked for here. These tests are the gold standard for diagnostic tests. A PCR test will almost never reveal the presence of the Coronavirus in an uninfected individual. That would be what’s known as a false positive. But PCR tests can miss real infections. Ten to twenty percent of the time, it misses them. Nevertheless, it’s the most accurate test currently available. Tests that are less accurate are less expensive than tests that use PCR. Additionally, it takes longer to run. A cost-saving measure is combining individual samples into pools. The pooled test doesn’t need to be repeated if it’s negative. This can save a lot of money.
To make pooled testing work, students must buy-in. The peak participation rate in these schools averaged about 60 percent. Whenever a student tested positive, school nurses would scramble to contact the child. The kids were told to isolate themselves and identify everyone they had recently interacted with. Those contacts would then be notified about the possible exposure by the nurses. Contact tracing is a method of identifying contacts.
It does, however, have some drawbacks. PCR-testing labs are not readily available in all schools. In addition, the results take a few days to appear. Then we have to trace the contacts, which is even more time-consuming. As a result, the virus can spread easily among infected students. In the case of the delta variant, this may prove particularly troubling. As soon as they become infected, they are much more likely to spread it.
Immunizations for jungle fever and dengue, tropical mosquito-borne diseases, could require two to four years to hit the Indian market, say industry insiders.
As of now, there are a few up-and-comers underway with the Serum Institute of India (SII), Bharat Biotech, and Zydus Cadila all chipping away at one or the other creating or assembling against malarial antibodies.
With respect to dengue, French firm Sanofi and Japan’s Takeda are hoping to bring their antibodies here.
SII, the world’s biggest immunization creator, and Novavax are teaming up for stage 3 clinical preliminaries of the Oxford University’s Jenner Institute’s intestinal sickness antibody on more than 4,800 youngsters in four African nations. It has shown 77% viability in preliminaries on babies, the main immunization to cross the World Health Organization’s (WHO) focus of 75% adequacy.
“Work has started over the most recent couple of months on this,” said a source near the turn of events, without revealing subtleties on India-explicit plans. Industry insiders say controllers would require neighborhood preliminary information prior to permitting it.
“Information on security and immunogenicity, regardless of whether on a little associate, would be looked for by the controller here regardless of whether they choose to put together their choice of endorsement with respect to worldwide adequacy preliminary information,” said a senior authority of an immunization firm. This could expand the timetables for accessibility here.
Adar Poonawalla, CEO of SII, couldn’t be gone after a remark on when he wished to begin the Indian arm of the preliminary.
Furthermore, the majority of the immunizations being created, truth be told, are designated at African nations. GSK’s plasmodium falciparum jungle fever antibody (RTS,S/AS01E likely marked Mosquirix), which Bharat Biotech will create will at first go to African nations. The tech move of the immunization has started. The antigen RTS,S will be made by Bharat Biotech, while GSK will supply the adjuvant.
GSK, which has fostered the immunization more than 30 years, is presently directing it in Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi under the Malaria Vaccine Implementation Program (MVIP). The WHO said last week that it has suggested far reaching utilization of the GSK immunization for kids in sub-Saharan Africa.
Sources near the improvement said Bharat Biotech is as of now dealing with setting up the assembling site. Thus, it would require a couple of years before the antibody opens up either in African countries or in India. Bharat Biotech will be the sole provider of the immunization till 2029 and will supply 15 million portions yearly to these African nations.
“Another office is being developed at Bhubaneswar for assembling the intestinal sickness antibody. The course of innovation move has effectively begun,” said a source near the turn of events. The individual added that it would require a few years before the antibody is prepared.
“Bharat Biotech should take administrative endorsements from the Indian medication controllers prior to assembling,” the source added.
Closer home, Zydus Cadila also has a possibility for jungle fever, being created by its Vaccine Technology Center in Ahmedabad. It is likewise chipping away at immunizations for Haemorrhagic Congo Fever, Ebola, and Japanese Encephalitis, among others.
Sharvil Patel, Zydus Cadila’s overseeing chief, let Business Standard know that the firm is dealing with both an antibody and a treatment. “We are chipping away at both an intestinal sickness antibody and a medication,” Patel said, without uncovering further subtleties.
With the rise of coronavirus (COVID19), In the last few months, individuals, families, and communities in India have been negotiating a new social order. India’s roughly 1.3 billion people went under the first phase of lockdown in March 2020.
The government had initiated these protocols concerning WHO :
Wearing a mask in public
Make sure your mask covers your nose, mouth, and chin.
Clean your hands before you put your mask on, before and after you take it off, and after you touch it at any time.
When you take off your mask, store it in a clean plastic bag, and every day either wash it if it’s a fabric mask or dispose of it in a trash bin if it’s a medical mask.
Don’t use masks with valves.
2. Maintaining distance in public places
Avoid the 3Cs: spaces that are closed, crowded, or involve close contact.
Keeping 6 feet distance or a minimum of 3 feet in public
Meet people outside. Outdoor gatherings are safer than indoor ones, particularly if indoor spaces are small and without outdoor air coming in.
Open a window to increase the amount of natural ventilation when indoors.
3. Keep good hygiene
Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with either an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water. This eliminates germs that may be on your hands, including viruses.
Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Dispose of the used tissue immediately into a closed bin and wash your hands.
Clean and disinfect surfaces frequently, especially those which are regularly touched, such as door handles, faucets, and phone screens.
Get vaccinated as soon as it’s your turn and follow local guidance on vaccination.
Do not believe in any false information about vaccination.
The vaccines approved in India are :
1 Zydus Cadila. ZyCoV-D.
2 Moderna. mRNA-1273.
3 Sputnik V.
4 Janssen (Johnson & Johnson)
5 Oxford/AstraZeneca. AZD1222.
6 Serum Institute of India. Covishield
7 Bharat Biotech. Covaxin.
What to do if we get sick?
If you have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.Call by telephone first and follow the directions of your local health authority.
Do not take any random medicines without the concern of a proper physician.
Know the full range of symptoms of COVID-19. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, tiredness, and loss of taste or smell. Less common symptoms include aches and pains, headache, sore throat, red or irritated eyes, diarrhea, a skin rash, or discoloration of fingers or toes.
Stay home and self-isolate for 10 days from symptom onset, plus three days after symptoms cease. Call your health care provider or hotline for advice. Have someone bring you supplies. If you need to leave your house or have someone near you, wear a properly fitted mask to avoid infecting others.
Keep up to date on the latest information from trusted sources, such as WHO or your local and national health authorities. Local and national authorities and public health units are best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to protect themselves.
Written with reference to WHO and MoHFW (Ministery of health and family welfare Government of India )
Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.
We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.
But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.
Knowing your Blood type
In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.
Blood type experiments
For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.
It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.
In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.
It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.
If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause
extensive blood clotting, and
The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.
AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.
Other than 8 Blood types
To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.
As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.
It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.
Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time
2% of swimmers passed away
8% of runners passed away
9% of walkers passed away
11% of physically inactive people passed away
This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.
It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.
Body during swimming
What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.
According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.
Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.
You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.
There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.
When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.
Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.
In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.
The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.
But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.
Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.
People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.
The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.
Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as
watching movies with no subtitles
to having less problems in traveling and
even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.
Types of Bilingualism
It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism
1. Compound Bilingualism
Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.
With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.
2. Coordinate Bilingualism
This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.
I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.
Officially Monolingual Countries
Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.
Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.
Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.
Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.
From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.
It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.
At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.
The name Halloween
In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.
All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.
How the holiday spread
The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including
Bobbing for apples and,
Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.
Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.
The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.
Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-
The zipper tie
Clip on tie
The tie dye tie
So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.
The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.
Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.
Tying a Necktie
There are four main ways to tie a neckties;
The Four-in-hand knot
The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
The Windsor knot
According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.
Towards the end of tie fashion
The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.
Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.
Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as
Traditional working hours
Paying employees a living wage
Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.
Fresh pineapple is the only known source of an enzyme called bromelain, which might play a role in a range of different health benefits.
Many examinations have proposed that expanding utilization of plant food varieties like pineapples diminishes the danger of heftiness, by and large mortality, diabetes, and coronary illness.
It likewise advances a solid colouring and hair, expanded energy, and a general lower weight.
Coming up next are potential advantages of eating pineapple :
The dangers of creating asthma are lower in individuals who burn-through a high measure of specific supplements.
One of these supplements is beta-carotene. It is found in orange, yellow and dim green plant food varieties, like pineapple, mangoes, papaya, apricots, broccoli, melon, pumpkin, and carrots.
Some more modest studies Trusted Source have proposed bromelain can likewise add to reducing asthma side effects.
Assimilation / Digestion
Pineapples, in view of their fiber and water content, help to forestall stoppage and advance consistency and a sound gastrointestinal system.
Pineapples are likewise rich in bromelain, a compound that helps the body digest proteins. Bromelain additionally decreases provocative insusceptible cells, called cytokines, that harm the intestinal system lining.
The unappetizing stems are the most focused wellspring of bromelain, which can be removed and is promptly accessible in supplement structure.
Contains disease fighting antioxidants
Not only are pineapples rich in nutrients, they are also loaded with healthy antioxidants. Antioxidants are molecules that help your body combat oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress is a state in which there are too many free radicals in the body. These free radicals interact with the body’s cells and cause damage that is linked to chronic inflammation, a weakened immune system and many harmful diseases
Pineapples are especially rich in antioxidants known as flavonoids and phenolic acids
What’s more, many of the antioxidants in pineapple are bound. This allows the antioxidants to survive harsher conditions in the body and produce longer lasting effects.
May Help Reduce the Risk of Cancer
Malignancy is a persistent infection portrayed by uncontrolled cell development. Its movement is usually connected to oxidative pressure and constant aggravation.
A few examinations have shown that pineapple and its mixtures might decrease the danger of malignancies. This is on the grounds that they might limit oxidative pressure and decrease aggravation.
One of these mixtures is the gathering of stomach related compounds called bromelain. Test-tube studies have shown that bromelain may likewise assist with battling disease
For example, two test-tube studies showed that bromelain smothered the development of bosom disease cells and invigorated cell passing
Other test-tube studies show that bromelain smothers disease in the skin, bile pipe, gastric framework and colon, among different regions
Test-tube and animal studies have found that bromelain may stimulate the immune system to produce molecules that make white blood cells more effective at suppressing cancer cell growth and eliminating cancer cells.
DISADVANTAGES OF PINEAPPLE
Bromelain is utilized as a meat tenderizer, so eating a lot of bromelain-rich pineapple might make your lips sore or enlarged. This response is typically gentle and brief, yet certain individuals are additional touchy to pineapple and may experience the ill effects of more extreme incidental effects, like enlarged tongue, rashes, hives or breathing issues, If you experience these manifestations, try not to eat pineapple, as you might be hypersensitive to it. Also, bromelain is a gentle blood slenderer and eating heaps of pineapple might cause draining issues in certain individuals.
Has High Sugar Content
Typically, when making pineapple juice there is no requirement for one to add any sugar since pineapple itself is now sweet. Pineapple having a high sugar content level and subsequently are not to be taken in overabundance as it can cause gum disease and pits. It ought to likewise be stayed away from by the individuals who are overweight or diabetic.
May demolish existing kidney issues
Notwithstanding bromelain, pineapple likewise contains oxalic corrosive and a lot of potassium. Oxalic corrosive is equipped for creating salts alongside different kinds of mineral mixtures like calcium, which is likewise found in our bodies.
Consequently, those with kidney disappointment or kidney stones can’t and ought not follow the pineapple diet. Doing as such would deteriorate their condition and create an aggregation of potassium in the body.
Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.
People suffering from BDD
Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
Occupational dysfunction and
No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.
The most common features about which people obsess includes:-
BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to
Suicidal thoughts and behavior
The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-
Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.
Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-
A family history
Negative body image
Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –
styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
avoiding social situations,
constantly comparing appearance with others,
always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.
Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.
A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.
Diagnosis is based on:-
A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
Personal, medical, family and social health history.
Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-
Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours
Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.
India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.
The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.
The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.
Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.
The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.
The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.
You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.
What is Petroleum Jelly?
Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.
How does it work?
Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.
When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:
It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.
There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-
Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.
Reduce any dark circles and under eye bags you’ve accumulated from years of having fun.
Us human beings are imperfect creatures. We know we’d like to get in better shape, but that chocolate cookie looks mighty tasty. We know we have to wake up early, but there’s only one episode left on the Netflix show we’re binging on. We know we should apply sunblock religiously, but we forget to bring the bottle with us to the beach.
That’s life. But that doesn’t mean we can’t form some habits and best practices for mitigating the inevitable effects of a life well-lived. For every late night chatting over drinks, for every day out in the sun and for every bed time we didn’t have the energy to apply eye cream, there are as many tips and tricks we can use to fight signs of aging.Nobody’s perfect.
Why Do We Get Eye Circles?
To be honest, even if you’ve spent your life diligently treating your skin as carefully as you possibly can, we’re all going to show signs of aging sooner or later – and that includes under-eye bags and dark circles.
Over time, skin naturally loses collagen and grows thinner, so regardless of what kind of skin you have or what good habits you maintain, veins will inevitably start to show through the thin skin around your eyes. As we already know, exposure to the sun speeds up the process of collagen breaking down, so your best weapon against under-eye circles are disciplined and consistent sunblock application habits from a young age. (Wearing sunglasses while out in the sun helps, too – less squinting = fewer crows feet!)
The best habits, however, can’t change your genes! Genetics are the biggest determinant of what kind of skin we will have and what we’ll look like as we age. Those of us that have inherited fair or thin skin tend to show under circles more easily than others due to the fact that when our blood pools in the capillaries under our eyes, it’s simply more obvious through lighter skin.
Unfortunately, as more and more blood accumulates there, your delicate capillaries begin to stretch and strain under the weight, leading to more leaking and blood pooling – and ultimately even darker under eye circles.
Yet for others, dark under eye circles and under eye bags aren’t caused by either aging, sun bathing or genetics. Sometimes it’s a simple matter of allergies. Year-round allergies like those to dust or mold, or seasonal allergies many of us experience in the spring trigger the release of histamines, which cause an inflammatory response. That means our blood vessels become inflamed and swell – including those under our eyes.
Okay, so That Explains Why I Have Dark Under Eye Circles. but How Do I Get Rid of Under Eye Bags?
Experiment with the following routines to see which one works the most effectively for you. Remember to use patience and consistency when trying out a new routine. Follow the routine every day for 4 to 6 weeks. If after that period of time, you still don’t see the results you want, move on to the next practice and see if that works better for reducing your dark under eye bags and circles.
The Best Routines for Getting Rid of Dark Circles and Under Eye Bags
1. Cold Compress
In the morning or evening – or better yet, in the morning AND the evening – apply a cold compress for about 10 minutes. If you have a mask you can keep in your fridge and pull out twice a day, that’s the easiest way to try this dark circle reducing method. Just make sure to keep it clean and give it a good soapy scrub a few times a week!
We’ve all seen cucumbers used as cold compresses on television and in films – but do they really work?
In fact, cucumbers have skin-lightening and mild astringent properties, so you can use cucumber slices to fix raccoon eyes naturally.
To try this method twice a day, chop a fresh cucumber into thick slices and then refrigerate for 30 minutes. Then, leave the slices on your eyes for 10 minutes. Rinse your eye area with warm (but not hot) water after using.
3.Cucumber Juice + Lemon Juice
If cucumber slices don’t work for you, try mixing equal parts cucumber and lemon juice and then use a cotton ball to apply to your under-eye circles. (DO NOT get lemon juice in your eye!) Leave the solution on your skin for 15 minutes and then rinse with warm water.
4. Rose Water
Rose water doesn’t just smell fantastic – it can also soothe and rejuvenate tired skin. Like cucumber, it’s a mild astringent, so it can work as a skin toner. Just soak cotton makeup remover pads in rose water for a few minutes, and then let the soaked makeup pads sit on your CLOSED eyelids. Leave them for about 15 minutes twice daily.
Tomatoes are high in lycopene, a substance that’s excellent for your cardiovascular health, vision and your skin. Lycopene can help create softer, more supple skin, as well as decrease the appearance of dark under eye circles.
To gain the medical benefits of the lycopene found in tomatoes, mix equal parts tomato juice with lemon juice and then use a cotton ball or makeup remover pad to apply it to your under eye area. (Again, PLEASE do not get lemon juice in your eyes.) Leave the solution for 10 minutes and then rinse with warm water, twice daily.
A tasty concoction of tomato juice, lemon juice and mint leaves to drink daily will also help improve your overall health as well as your skin.
6. Cold tea bags
If you don’t have a cold compress or mask to use, substitute with tea bags. Many teas like green tea have the added benefit of antioxidants, which have anti-inflammatory properties that help soothe strained capillaries in your under eye area.
To use cold tea bags as a compress, soak a tea bag in clean water and then place in the refrigerator for 30 minutes. Then, place the tea bags on your eyes. Leave for 10 minutes or so twice daily before removing and rinsing the area with warm water.
Potatoes are a surprising source of lots of vitamin C, which among other things is great for the synthesis of collagen to promote healthier, younger-looking skin.
To harness the power of vitamin C to treat your under eye bags, grate some potatoes. Extract the juice from the potato and soak some cotton makeup remover pads in the juice. Place the pads on your eyes for about 10 minutes and then rinse with warm water.
8. Cold Milk
Dairy products like milk are a great source of vitamin A, which contains retinoids that are great for keeping skin looking bright and young.
To gain the benefits of milk’s vitamin A, soak a cotton makeup remover pad in a bowl of cold milk for a while. Use the pad to apply the milk to your under eye bags and let it sit for about 10 minutes, twice daily. Rinse with warm water.
9. Orange Juice
Since orange juice is high in both vitamin A and C content, it can help remove dark circles from under your eyes. Add a few drops of glycerin to orange juice and then soak a cotton makeup remover pad to apply to your under-eye skin. You’ll reap the benefits of orange’s vitamins as well as the natural glow glycerin gives to your skin.
10. Vitamin E Oil
Vitamin E helps fight the effect of free radicals that cause signs of aging like wrinkles. Before bed at night, apply a drop of oil (a little goes a long way) to your dark under eye circles, gently massaging it into the skin. Leave this on your skin overnight and in the morning, rinse with warm water.
An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.
A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.
Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.
Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.
How can students be industry ready?
Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-
Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.
So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.
Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.
China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-
a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
22 million doses have been donated,
262 million doses have been delivered.
China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-
But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.
In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.
Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.
Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.
The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.
Countries who have refused
In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.
Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.
Do Chinese vaccines works in China
There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.
Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.
Digestion is a term that portrays every one of the synthetic responses that occur in the body. These substance responses are significant for the working of your body.
The term is frequently utilized reciprocally with metabolic rate, which is the quantity of calories you consume. The higher the metabolic rate, the more calories you consume. The more calories you consume, the more weight you lose.
Having an elevated capacity to burn calories keeps you lively and helps you to have an improved outlook the entire day. Here are 5 simple approaches to support your digestion.
START YOUR DAY EARLY
To begin the day on a solid note, get a decent night’s rest the prior night. Great quality rest is related with more noteworthy possibilities of getting thinner effectively. It will furnish you with energy for your bustling timetable.
Prior to having your morning meal in the first part of the day, do a decent morning stretch to your wellbeing and prosperity.
BE ACTIVE DURING OFFICE HOURS TOO
For a great many people, office takes up most of their days’ time. When they are home, they are worn out to the point that they have no energy to go out to the rec centre.
In such cases, one such take a stab at remaining dynamic at work to keep their digestion up. In the event that you have a stationary work, take small action breaks for the duration of the day. Standard development isn’t only useful for weight reduction yet additionally in boosting your efficiency and capacity to focus on the current work.
Have a nutritious dinner at lunch, which incorporates protein and other digestion boosting fixings. Try not to nibble thoughtlessly. Skirt the chips, chocolates, cakes and confections.
There are sure food varieties that can assist you with consuming more calories. The most common way of biting, processing and putting away the food requires your body to consume calories. This is known as the thermic impact of food (TEF). It just compensates for around 5 – 10 percent of your day-by-day calorie consumption.
High protein food varieties are harder to process and support the development of bulk in case you are strength preparing. Fiber likewise should be bitten more earnestly and brings energy to separate. Adding flavors to your food is one more approach to somewhat support the internal heat level to consume more calories.
Consolidating protein and fiber-rich food varieties can control hunger longings for quite a long time in the wake of eating, which decreases the general inclination to gorge. Pay attention to your inner yearning prompts to separate between evident craving and passionate appetite.
Undoubtedly, practice is the best method to help your digestion. An exceptional exercise can fire up your metabolic motor for quite a long time even after a meeting. Regardless of whether you are new to actual work, there are bunches of advantages to acquire by working out even as a fledgling.
Obstruction preparing that aide in building muscles is useful in long haul digestion boosting impacts. Indeed, even essential exercises assist with developing fortitude, consume calories and work on your wellbeing.
EAT PROTEIN IN EVERY MEAL
Eating food can build your digestion for quite a while. This is known as the thermic impact of food (TEF). It is the additional calories needed to process, retain and measure the supplements in your dinner.
Protein causes the biggest ascent in TEF. It builds your metabolic rate by 15 – 30 percent when contrasted with 5.10 percent for carbs and 0 – 3 percent for fat. Protein likewise saves you fuller for more and keeps you from indulging. An investigation discovered that individuals were probably going to eat 441 calories less each day when protein made up 30% of their eating routine.
Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.
What is narcissism?
Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.
Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:
What is NDP?
NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.
What causes NPD?
While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.
What are the signs and Symptoms?
The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.
People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
They may manipulate others to get what they want.
They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.
How to get help?
People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.
However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.
What treatment options are available?
People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.
Other self-improving activities such as:-
Doing exercises and,
Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.
Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.
You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?
During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.
It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.
The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.
The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.
Britishers in their own jail
In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.
After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.
After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.
Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.
The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.
There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.
Effect on eye sight
The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.
The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.
From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.
Ancient ways of cleaning teeth
Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.
Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.
In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.
Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.
Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.
Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.
The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.
Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.
In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.
The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.
While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.
With all these healthy routines they are missing one of the most important steps that play a very important role in one’s health and treatment that is to secure their future health expenses by taking a liable health insurance plan. Health insurance equipped the person to take all the treatment and hospitalisation at a reasonable rate.
Currently, the world is dealing with the deadly coronavirus which was originated as the very new virus in late December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China. Even at the time, its name was not known than the situation gain international media’s coverage when virus cases started reporting from other countries as well along with a sharp increase in the death rate due to the coronavirus. The WHO declared it as the global pandemic in March 2020, with about 118,000 confirm cases with 4921 deaths in 114 countries.
The superpower of the world, the United States of America become the worst affected country in the world. Till now the USA has recorded 4.9 million confirmed cases with about 160 thousand deaths has been registered so far. In this dangerous and high-risk time of the pandemic, health-conscious Americans are taking all the necessary precautions to keep themselves fit and healthy. From following a healthy diet to regular exercising, they are doing almost everything to keep themselves away from the virus and other contagious diseases.
Importance of Health Insurance Plan
About 30 million workers living in America lost their jobs so does their health insurance plan during the outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic. Thus, along with the financial burden the Americans has to face the health crises and expenses also. As coronavirus treatment is the costliest so the necessity of a good health insurance plan for American citizens is enormous.
As the virus is new and unknown to scientists and doctors so the much study and research are not done on it as well as its vaccine formation time is still not confirmed so the treatment of virus is very expensive in different parts of the world. In America, thousands of dollars are required for the treatment of the corona patient. Because of these reasons, the need for good health insurance is essential.
As not only coronavirus but various other deadly viruses like Ebola, Zika and other dangerous diseases surrounds us and requires a lot of dollars for testing and treatment of the disease, so it is very beneficial to equip with the best health insurance policy to ensure the proper treatment and care by the health official at a very minimal rate which was already given to the health insurance company.
Health insurance also helps to maintain mental health along with the treatment of physical ailment. As the burden of disease and health problem is already on the mind of the patient so health insurance plan helps to detect financial burden from the mind and to maintain mental health.
As nothing is predictable in life, any unintended accidents can occur at any time of life. During these times health insurance plays a very vital role in saving our and our loves life.
As corona is also one disease which can enter in our lives at any moment of our life, so advance maintenance and preparations are very essential especially in American cities like New York where there is a large spread of the disease. The first step in the preparation is to avail the honest and liable health insurance plan.
Thus, along with following all the safety and hygiene protocols of Corona Virus, the person should also ensure the health insurance plan for themselves and their families. The Cities of New York and Boston are the worst affected so proper health insurance for its citizens is very essential.
Best Health Insurance Plan in New York
As the coronavirus claim a lot of deaths, some because of the lack of immunity while others due to the lack of money. The treatment and testing of Corona Virus are too expensive in New York city of America, the health insurance plays a vital role in ensuring treatment from the best doctors and the in the most renowned hospitals. The best insurance plans in New York health come under four categories.
These are bronze plan, silver, gold and platinum health insurance plans, all vary in its prices. There is government sponsor health insurance plan Medicare that comes at $ 1,005 for the single person, and for married couples, it can be bought at $ 1,354 under its qualified beneficiary plan. Medicare provides four types of the best insurance plan in New York health.
There is also Medicaid health insurance plan for poor families that cannot afford other health insurance plans. About 6% of New York residents are uninsured that compels officials to make some more good policies.
Best Health Insurance Plans in Boston
The Boston city in the United States is also one of the worst affected city that provides some of the most renowned health insurance plans. The best health insurance plans in Boston includes a basic life insurance plan that can be brought at $ 5,000 but its amount may variant with the age of the person. The Medicare Retiree Health insurance plan allows the usage of coverage even after the retirement.
There are many more such health insurance schemes offers both by the government officials as well as the private insurance companies. The Obamacare Health plan that is giving benefits to many Americans, is providing a lot of health insurance plans in different parts of America. These are some of the best health insurance plans in Boston that are making the lives of many citizens easy.
The Corona Virus Pandemic has put a halt to many things but it also brings the real condition of the health structure of many powerful countries. Even the most powerful and renowned country of the world, the United States of America is not able to control the virus initially that results in the thousands of deaths and millions of active cases. As well as millions of people lost their jobs and become unemployed.
In such a drastic and dangerous situation, the person’s health protector is a health insurance plan that protects the future of the person and makes it financially secured when such a disease or accident takes place. The Americans are looking for the best insurance plans that give them the most benefits of treatment and testing of the disease and by taking one of the health insurance plans our mind become peaceful without any worry of unpredictable tragedies of life.
In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.
Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.
By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.
The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.
In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.
The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.
The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.
This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.
Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.
At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.
Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.
Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.
Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.
It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.
After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.
An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as
He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.
Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.
Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor
This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.
Eating disorder is a product of mental turbulence that manifests itself in the eating habits of people, affecting them negatively. It is a serious condition that can have a lasting impact in various spheres of a person’s life. Eating disorders usually sprout from body insecurities and an untameable urge to lose weight quickly.
According to Mayo Clinic, Most eating disorders involve focusing too much on your weight, body shape and food, leading to dangerous eating behaviours. These behaviours can significantly impact your body’s ability to get appropriate nutrition. Eating disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and teeth and mouth, and lead to other diseases.
Although these disorders can take root at any age teenagers and adolescents might be more prone to such disorders.
Eating disorders can impact the body in a detrimental manner. Eating disorders, often obviously lead to lack of nutrition that becomes the underlying cause of a number of diseases, that eventually end up affecting all the functioning systems of the body.
Drastic weight change
Obsessive preoccupation with food
Binge eating or purging
Fear of fat
Swollen glands, dry calluses on fingers
Dry, yellowish skin
Irregular menstrual cycles
Low blood pressure
Growth of hair on body
Excessive mood swings
Using laxatives etc
Types of Eating Disorders
Eating disorders are not just limited to less eating or not eating at all, several other type of disorders include binge eating as well. Listed below are three of the most common eating disorders.
One of the most commonly known disorder, anorexia is often characterised by low weight and a distorted body image. According to statistics;
Anorexia is the 3rd most common chronic illness among adolescents
95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 25
50% of girls between the ages of 11 and 13 see themselves as overweight
80% of 13-year-olds have attempted to lose weight
Patients with this disorder, often underweight limit their food intake to a dangerous extent. It involves a characteristic fear of eating, unhealthy desire for weight loss and often includes excessive exercise.
People with this disorder are severely malnourished and often never satisfied with their weight loss aiming for a ‘perfect’ size zero.
This eating disorder is characterised by eating in large amounts (binge eating) and then purging or forcing vomit to rid of the excess calories and guilt of food. It is a potentially life threatening disorder.
To get rid of calories and prevent weight gain, people with bulimia may use different methods. For example, you may regularly self-induce vomiting or misuse laxatives, weight-loss supplements, diuretics or enemas after bingeing. Or you may use other ways to rid yourself of calories and prevent weight gain, such as fasting, strict dieting or excessive exercise.
Patients with this disorder eat unusually large amounts of food almost everyday compulsively. Patients may be embarrassed of their eating regimen and may decide to work on some change but the urge to eat overpowers all.
This binging is different from festive binging or one in a blue moon movie night binge eating.
People with this disorder may be obese or overweight.
Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?
After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.
Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.
India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.
Advantage of having an official language
A Chinese research concluded that
When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.
Disadvantage of having an official language
According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said
India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.
But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.
As per as official language is concerned,
English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.
Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.
There’s nothing more alleviating than your #1 solace allowing suppers when you feel somewhat low or simply sick. As the name proposes, solace food sources are intended to offer you that solace and warmth and you can simply go to them when you feel blue! For a few, it can likewise offer a little nostalgic benefit and cause you to feel at ease. Notwithstanding, as ameliorating as it appears, we as a whole realize that they aren’t actually the best contribution there. Be it a pack of chips, rice luxuries, desserts, moment noodles, a sandwich or pizzas, considered a mainstream decision around the world, solace food sources can be of any sort yet tragically, weighed down with a great deal of carbs, fat and sugar content, which isn’t actually a solid decision to be had.
Why are solace food varieties terrible?
Solace food sources are frequently connected with a nostalgic, alleviating esteem which regularly leaves us genuinely satisfied (otherwise known as, feeling full) whenever we are finished having them. Studies propose that solace food varieties really work to hoist mind-set levels by animating the cerebrum’s prize and joy focuses and can feel like a habit. Notwithstanding, as fulfilling and soothing as the food sources may feel in the midst of emergency, most solace food varieties are healthfully not unreasonably thick, and all things being equal, loaded up with calories. The issue deteriorates, in the event that you wind up having a lot of your solace food sources, and burden up on the abundance carbs and fats, or the undesirable additives in them, and end up in an awful pressure pigging out cycle.
Having said that, not all solace food is really downright terrible. While they do get a feeling of sentimentality and help you in general, for certain augmentations and careful trades, you can have your solace food varieties without an ounce of blame or stressing over exaggerating your calories! Here’s introducing the absolute most nutritious solace dinners to make you glad and sound simultaneously:
Cereal arrangements: Oatmeal is a morning meal staple for some, a confided in weight reduction helper, and, in the event that you ask us, an embrace in-a-bowl sort of planning! Not exclusively would oatmeal be able to be ready in an assortment of ways, it is wealthy in acceptable carbs, fiber and cell reinforcements which don’t digress you away from nourishment esteems. Oats are likewise bounty plentiful in B-Vitamins, which advance cerebrum wellbeing. Finish it off with nectar, nuts and seeds, foods grown from the ground have a feeding dinner worth partaking in any time.
Vegetable sandwiches and pasta: Pasta and sandwiches are appreciated by many are considered the go-to supper when abrupt food cravings and yearnings strike. While adding sauces and a lot of cheddar can positively make your supper a bit unfortunate, make a point to include a ton of brilliant veggies and a few flavors into your sandwiches, pastas to stack up on the wellbeing remainder! Cheddar as well, whenever added cautiously can be beneficial for you! Thus, ensure you make this careful trade to make your solace rich feast significantly more solid.
Heated potatoes: Potatoes are a favoured vegetable cherished by all. Nonetheless, it’s additionally something that is calorie-thick, and may not be really beneficial to be had in its singed, fresh structure that we like. Choosing heated potato dishes, finishing off with more veggies can be one trade that can cause you to have your potato, and eat it righteous!
Khichdi: When we discuss solace food varieties, how might we disregard our own special khichdi? The blended rice and lentil readiness is quite sustaining and thought about a mending feast in many pieces of the country. While certain increases to the dish (like the utilization of asafoetida, ghee or the humble tadka) make the dinner very nutritious, on the off chance that you truly depend on khichdi as your solace food, ensure you use protein-pressed lentils, (for example, moong daal), throw in veggies (any you like) and make it a satisfying supper without help from anyone else!
Curd rice: Just like khichdi, curd rice is an adored delicacy in many pieces of India. Indeed, it’s really a very solid planning. Specialists have since quite a while ago focused on that curd rice is gut-accommodating food since it can re-establish the microbial equilibrium in the body, help absorption. Curd, in the meantime, is a decent wellspring of dairy-rich calcium, which reinforces your bones and has heaps of cancer prevention agents.
Foxnuts and margarine less popcorn: Popcorn (made without spread) and foxnuts, otherwise called makhanas can likewise make for sound tidbits and solace food alternatives. While popcorn portions are supposed to be wealthy in cancer prevention agents and heart-solid polyphenols, wealthy in satiety and useful for assimilation, makhanas, as well, can be made contrastingly and gloat of a great deal of promising medical advantages from being wealthy in calcium, great carbs, iron, magnesium and phosphorus.
Yogurt finished off with organic products: The best (and the best) substitution to frozen yogurts are low-fat yogurt-based treats and yogurt bowls. While yogurt is an incredibly decent wellspring of good gut microbes, calcium, benefits weight reduction and insusceptibility, adding bright nuts and seeds to your yogurt planning serve in extra cancer prevention agents, nutrients and minerals and is beneficial to be had routinely.
You may have came across the word “ban” Or “censored’ used in movies, but do you know these terms are also used for some cartoons in some countries which are liked by other countries. Let’s have a look at some popular cartoons which are banned in some countries and their reasons.
1. SpongeBob SquarePants
This is the longest running Nickelodeon show ever. It got banned because of violence and foul language which are used in this show. Countries like Russia, America and 120 others have banned this show from watching.
2. The Simpsons
This is America’s most popular cartoon show till now. This show had scenes where public figures like Donald Trump, were insulted. This show also promoted disorderly behavior which were totally misleading for kids. After sometime, the show is now available to watch, but there has been argument going on this show as countries like US have censored this cartoon show.
3. Mickey Mouse
This is world’s first cartoon show which had voice, and the first word that Mickey Mouse said was “Hot Dogs”. This cartoon show got banned in 1930s in the Romanian region because Romania government stated that big Mouse in this cartoon will scare the kids rather than making them laugh.
This is a Japanese cartoon show which is ban in more than 50 countries because of the character Nobita. The Nobita character is a lazy character who always depends upon the character Doremon for helping gadgets. An argument concluded that the Nobita character was promoting laziness, procrastinating, etc, which resulted in banning.
Cartoon shows should be developed keeping kids as their main audience. It should have the simplicity and cleanness that attract audience and also focusing on the impact and effect that it’ll leave mainly on audience. That’s why shows that promotes foul language can always make a big effect on kids. This makes banning a healthy and better option.
Every years, many thousands receives the gift of life, a life saving transplant of Heart, Kidney, Liver, Lungs, Pancreas and Interesting. And thousands more people receive Corneas and other tissues that restore sight and health. Organ transplantation is one of the medicals advances of our time.
How does it work?
It all starts when someone’s organ begins to fail and that person will need a transplant to survive. The steps are as folllow:-
A through evaluation is conducted at a transplant centre and the person is a good candidate for transplant, he or she will be put into the National Transplant Waiting List.
Once a person is on the waiting list, the wait for organ begins.
A national system matches people on the waiting list with donors. That factors matching donors to recipient includes
How sick the patient is
Distance from donor
Time on list
What isn’t taken into account, organs are never matched based on
There is no telling how long the wait will take. Infact, some people don’t receive an organ in time, because the Waiting List is really long and there aren’t enough donors available. That’s why an average of 20 people on the Waiting List died each day. Imagine how many could we save if we all were donors.
Becoming a donors
Most of organs transplant comes a deceived donors. For example, a person comes to the hospital with a life threatening brain injury, such as from an accident, stroke, our lack of oxygen. The doctors work hard to save them patients life but sometimes nothing can be done. There’s a complete, irreversible loss of brain function. The patient is clinically and legally dead.
Thats when being a donor can turn a time of loss into a time of hope. Because machines have blood containing and oxygen flowing into the organs, they can be passed along. One person can give life to as many as eight people through organ donation, and enhance the lives of fifty people or more with eye and tissue donation. But now minutes matter, matches must be found and transplants must happen quickly.
Organ Procurement organization
The hospital contracts an Organ Procurement Organization (OPO), it manages the recovery process. The OPO checks the state of organ donor registry, if the person is already registered as a donor they inform the family, if not they’ll ask the family to authorise donation.
A medical examination is taken place. They check the medical and social history and the person is eligible to be an organ donor, the computer begins to search on the National Waiting List for well matched patients The best matched patients are contracted by the transplant team. This is the call that every person on the Waiting List was waiting for.
A surgical team recovers the organs, then Corneas and other tissues. The organs are sent to the transplant hospital where patients and transplant teams are waiting and the life saving transplant takes place. It will take health living and medication to keep the organ working well in its new home.
You too could make the decision today, sign up on your state registry as an organ, eye and tissues donor, any age is the right age, Young or old, any day is the right day to sign up as a donor. You can register through your drivers license or you can register online. Remember to tell your family so that they can support your wishes. More than 1r5 million people have already registered, and we all need to save kore lives. So let’s share the gift of life.
If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.
What are insectivorous plants?
Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.
Categories of being insectivorous
There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-
Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.
Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.
Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.
Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.
Reason of existence
It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-
Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys
Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.
Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.
Living in a world where we are continuously striving to achieve materialistic things. Working late at night, eating junk food, binge-watching, and being lazy are only deteriorating your healthy lifestyle. You won’t notice this in the early stage but sooner or later symptoms will start showing up and then it will be too late.
As the saying goes “A healthy mind lives in a healthy body”. Researchers from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden have revealed that regular exercise boosts the brainpower of young adults. It improves blood flow to the brain that could help build new brain cells.
Here are some mistakes that one should be avoiding for living a healthy lifestyle –
Unhealthy Eating Habits
In this new era of fast food, people are ordering junk food like pizza and burgers. From a convenience point of view, it is okay although it isn’t a healthy option. Consuming high calories foods but lacking essential healthy nutrients causes severe digestive problems in the long run. It leads to unhealthy weight gain and an increased risk of many chronic diseases.
Drinking less water
For proper functioning of the body, you have to keep your body dehydrated. Drinking 3-4 liters a day will keep much illness away and gives you clear and healthy skin.
Nowadays people feel overwhelmed because of the pressure that they face. There are many reasons for stressful life such as trying to do too much, not prioritizing your needs, and constantly being connected (social media). So to improve your lifestyle, unplug from being constantly connected, prioritize your needs and eat healthily and work out regularly.
Not making to-do list
Make your to-do list before going to bed. This will help you to manage your day without wasting your morning time figuring out what to do. Sometimes you take much time and you end up doing nothing.
Laziness is one of the biggest modern-day problems. Not only will it affect your physical health, but it will also have a great impact on your mental health. Laziness in itself has enough potential to weaken your cognitive abilities and discourage you from eating and drinking healthy.
Avoiding deep and meaningful conversations
Human experience is about connecting with other people. Connection is what provides value and meaning to our lives. For example, people with strong social ties were found to be healthier and have a lower risk of death. Additionally, it was found that as age increases, the people with stronger social ties tend to live longer. And it seems that friendships can even help you find cancer.
Spending all day indoors
Explore the world around you whether that means traveling to faraway lands or hiking. This will freshen your mind and provides a wide range of mental and physical benefits.
Binge-watching for long hours
It’s good to binge watch for entertainment but it also has its side effects. It may increase anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Binge-watching for long hours may lead to insomnia and will make you less physically active.
Did you ever Sleep walked? Here’s what I came to know that every 1 out of 3 kids aged between 4 to 8, sleep walk. And that’s a lot by the way.
Sleep walking formally known as Somnambulish is a strange phenomena where people get up and do things in their sleep, sometimes more than just walking and when they wake up they don’t have any recollection of what they were doing. Moreover, if they find way back to their bed they may not ever know that they were sleep walking.
Sleep walking is nothing about embarrassed about though or terrified for that matter, it’s relatively common. In a recent study Stanford found that 1 out of 3 people sleep walk at some point of their lives. It is specially common among children, between the age of 4 and 8. So what happened when we sleep walk.
A leading theory about why we sleep walk is:-
In normal sleep cycle, your brains motor system continues to issue physical commands to the body.
Whereas those who sleep walks are suppressed by sleep chemical called GABA.
GABA access act as a break in your brain, it brings your mind and body down to rest by neutralizing Glutamate a chemical that causes excitement.
In sleep walkers there’s a glitch in the process that suppresses your boby from moving around namely that you don’t produce GABA.
So that’s why you are moving around when you’re still asleep. There are few causes of GABA deficient in the body:-
Genetic sleepwalking :- when sleepwalking runs in the family
Underdeveloped system:- when the boby simply hasn’t matured enough to produce the proper amount. That’s why it is more common amongst kids.
Depression:- Those who suffer from depression are three times as likely to sleep walk.
You would have probably heard about the myth that you shouldn’t wake a sleepwalker because they’re going through a psychotic rage that could even kill you. But these are myths, if you see anyone sleepwalking, you are asked to wake them up gently, especially if they are in the kitchen or holding a knife.
Recently there was a story about a lady who drove 190 miles in her sleep without hurting or killing herself or anyone. She should be definitely called lucky.
Health is an important aspect in anyone’s life. Fitness is a proof for a healthy person. By achieving a healthy body, we can achieve a healthy mind. Small habit changes in our day-day life will change our life completely in a healthier way. Food is the first thing to take into considering when we talk about health. There are lots of aspects to having a healthy life. I will share with you the small steps that you need to take to start your healthy journey.
The first thing that comes to our mind when we think about being healthy is being on a proper diet. It is not just about what we eat, it is also about when we eat. Healthy food aside, having your food at the right time every day will cut off lots of health issues. Many of us skip breakfast and eat straight at lunch time. You haven’t had anything for the past 12 hours so your stomach is literally empty with stomach acid in it. There are many risk factors when high stomach acid is secreted. The main function of this acid is to digest the food that you intake so better give it some food in the morning otherwise it will cause some serious health issues.
Keep specific timings for your breakfast, lunch and dinner. If you take food at proper timings, it will solve many health issues. Breakfasts should be taken around 7 to 9 AM. Lunch should be taken around 12 to 2 PM. Dinner should be taken around 7 to 9 AM. So make sure you stick to the timings and have a healthy diet!
Next comes the healthy food. Make sure you take vegetables thrice a week and fish twice a week (if you are a non vegetarian) and one cheat day to eat your favorite junk food. Intake of all kinds of food is important. Junk food and outside food from time to time would be fine but making it as a part of your diet would cause major health issues.
Another important factor that ruins your health is lack of sleep. I know most of us have issues with falling asleep at night time and that becomes a routine. The first step to do is to not make it a routine and not normalizing the sleep schedule. If you can only sleep at 1 then consider it a serious issue and work towards changing it.
Ways to stabilize your sleep schedule
Push in all your work within 11 PM and make yourself completely free at night. If you are a work from home dude then plan it accordingly, you require 6 to 8 hours of sleep, that’s all matters.
Avoid using mobile phone or laptop after 11 PM. Make sure you have at least 30 mins gap without screen time before sleeping.
Fitness is achieved by exercising your body regularly. It can be anything that you do. A simple 1 hour walk in the morning will keep you active throughout the day. There are many forms of exercises that you can do. You can workout everyday with simple moves. The ultimate goal is to exercise your muscles and not make them lazy. Some forms of exercise are,
Going to gym
Meditation helps you exercise your mind. It calms and clears your mind. If you start doing it you will definitely see the results in your day to day life.
These are some factors that affects our health and if we bring more concentration into all of this, we can be healthy mentally and physically. Make time to focus on your mind and body.
Few days back i saw a question on a site asking “I want to put my phone aside and study, but i’m not able to do it? Is there any I can get rid of it?”
Well we can say that we all faced this phase where we get too much addicted to Mobile phone and couldn’t keep it aside and focus on other works. A research recently released the details of a study which told us where in the world was the biggest Smartphone penetration:-
But this doesn’t mean that people in this countries are using mobile phones all the time. Based on a 2016 study led by Statistica, it does look like people in those countries might fall into the category of smartphone zombies. The study also said that
Brazilian spend the most hours on average connected to a smartphone as 4 hr 48 mins per day.
Chinese spend the most hours on average 3 hours 3 mins
Followed by U.S 2 hours 37 mins
Italy 2 hours 34 mins
Spain 2 hours 11 mins
South Korea 2 hours 10 mins
One thing range true for all countries in the study, and that was the fact time spent on a smartphone for the average person was up quite a lot from 2012 to 2016.
It’s not totally people’s fault that we are addicted to the smartphones. We have this exciting thing in our pocket that flashes, beeps and invites us to use it. NPR in 2018 talked about this manipulative object we carry around with us, that is just so irresistible. The story mentions Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, and what we know as Pavlov’s dog. The psychologist one day realised that when his dog heard a bell or a buzzer, he knew it was feeding time, thereby associate with a sound to eating, which led to the dog drooling and looking excited.
Modern psychologist tells us this is what is happening to us when we hear a beep or a ding inside our pocket; we become excitable, like Pavlov’s dog. Our reward is coming, and we get a hit of dopamine and we want more. We check our phone on average every 15 mins and that make the tech use psychological tricks to keep us checking in.
All the time spent checking in may affect our sleep, our relationship, our work, or even all the creative things we might do to have a flourishing existence. Psychologist tend to agree we should be checking in less, and tech producers need to start thinking about creating less powerful digital drugs. But that isn’t easy because as most people now need those beeps and likes, and need to feel that they are not missing out on something.
Experts even states that putting your phone down, you may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as craving, restlessness, irritability or difficulty in concentrating. So from now on you might turn off notifications, have a plan for the day and stick to it, take off the apps you really don’t need as that might lead to a kind of app surfing. In general, not many people are against these technologies, but we should be focusing on what we might call device quality time, educating ourselves and being productive and creative.
More and more people are dependent on social media for healthcare news and resources in this new era. Today, the idea of following doctors on Facebook is typical. Social media and healthcare go hand-in-hand. When Social media matters across all the industries, then why should healthcare be avoided right?
Since more people are engaged on social media, the medical field has now understood the importance of social media in healthcare and has started incorporating such practices. Healthcare organizations have seriously started examining the role of social media in the patient-physician relationship. Leaders in public health have begun realizing that a comprehensive healthcare brand can be built with the help of social media marketing.
Social media has always been a key to increase public awareness about emerging, new, and annual health issues. It facilitates raising awareness in a way that is as simple as reminding followers about the basic sense of health practices.
When the world around is changing fast, social media is the key that ensures that the public is aware of the latest medical guidelines, issues, and advisories. One of the ways of sharing information is to share them directly through your social posts. Another way is to use social media to direct followers to credible sources of the latest news.
Combat Misleading Information
Social media, due to its very nature, helps spread information quickly to distinct groups of people. That’s great when the information shared is helpful, clear, and fact-based. But unfortunately, there is also a lot of misinformation on social platforms. At times, this misinformation comes in the form of false statements and they are easily ridiculed.
You can cite published research from a credible health resource like the CDC or WHO. But sometimes, the creators of misinformation may use a reputable institution to give credibility to their statements. Then, the institution needs to clarify that they are not the source.
Social media offers institutions a platform to generate statements to stop the masses from believing false facts. So, make your healthcare brand a platform where you share useful information with your followers and stay away from spreading misinformation. More detailed research can help you identify the true facts.
The more the research, the better!
Answer Common Questions
Health organizations and authorities working in the healthcare sector are valuable for all kinds of health concerns. Social media tools offer a creative way for healthcare professionals to address common issues.
For example, the government of India has developed a Facebook Messenger Chatbot. It allows answering questions, directing citizens to the right source, and countering misinformation.
Everything is shrouded in the media’s shadow. If we claim that the media is counting the feathers of the flying sparrow, we are not exaggerating. The role of media has created a stir and sensation in the world , rich or poor, fair or dark, wise or unwise, are enjoying lucretian pleasures and are in the air. Media could play a leading role in creating awareness on the various health issue and this role can’t be disputed. Hillary Clinton Secretary of State of the US has recently commented on AIDS and while speaking that the disease is incurable, she said efforts are to be made. Many efforts are made on health-related issues and role of media have to be included also. There are many health-related problems confronting our country and these include both communicable and chronic diseases. Health department at the center and state play a leading role in the eradication of diseases, including international agencies and governments of other countries. Media has been promoting health-related causes in a big way in helping government departments spreading awareness on various issues relating health and family welfare programs. The MOHFW has various schemes and these are promoted in many private and government-owned media outlets.
Plastic surgery – the name implies an artificial substance – but it is derived from the Greek word “Plastikos” which means to mold or to give form. An important specialty has been taking shape, one that reshapes the lives of patients. So who was the first plastic surgeon?
John Staige Davis was the first plastic surgeon. He played an important role not only at his council group in Hopkins but also in the United States in the plastic surgery. He limited his practice in the field of plastic surgery in those times. He was the only plastic surgeon who was there when World War I took place.
In 1991, Dr. Davis published the first English language textbook of plastic surgery and it is still used today. He sends copies to medical school founder, doctors and at that time no one acknowledged receiving it. And though plastic surgery at Hopkins would not gain the standard they deserved until the next century, Dr. Davis was helping to build the foundation for the entire discipline of plastic surgery in America.
He used to pioneer the transferring tissue techniques known as “Z- plasty” and the use of small deep grafts to heal chronic wounds. He was the founding member of The American Board of Surgery and The American Board of Plastic surgery. Dr. Davis’s work and reputation starts Hopkins on its way to becoming a crossroad and destination for the country’s best plastic surgeons.
In 1942, John Staige Davis was part-time faculty member and was running a plastic clinic even though he was in his 70s by then and beyond his retirement age, two years from then a forth year medical student at Hopkins had the chance observe the master surgeon doing a cleft lip repair.
His successor Dr. Edgerton graduates and proceeds to work by joining the army and was serving at Valley Forge General Hospital in Pennsylvania. He was one of the few surgeon treating thousands of men coming back from combat with disfiguring wounds and burns needing plastic surgery. This horrendous war injuries united skill surgeon in their desire to heal wounded soldiers. This dynamic gave raise to a new and important speciality in medicine.
With the scientific foundation and tissue regeneration, transplantation, and stem cell biology plastic surgery is uniquely poised to make the next major advance in medicine. By regenerating or replacing missing body parts, plastic surgery can transform patients life in ways that could not have been imagined only recently.
John Staige Davis didn’t lived to see plastic surgery receive the recognition and support if required and deserved in the world. But his path-breaking work and clear vision allowed a greater dream to be realized.
India is a land of many religions and cultures, each one known for its unique living style, culinary habitat, folklore, etc. What India is also known for is the 1000 types of sweets and junk food and roadside snacks that you will rarely find in another country, especially outside Asia. With these foods is also a matter of grave concern – the quality and composition of these foods, coupled with the sedentary lifestyle of individuals poses a high risk of obesity.
Given the situation, we are here to guide you with a diet plan for weight loss. This Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days is customized to suit a typical Indian’s need and is based on the Indian diet chart for weight loss.
Science Behind Weight Loss
Before we go through the essentials of the diet plan for weight loss, we must understand the science behind weight loss. The loss and gain of weight are directly proportional to the intake of your calories in the diet. Logically speaking, when you shed more calories than you eat every day, your body balances it by shedding calories. Calories are nothing but carbs – layers of fat.
So, calories burnt is equal to weight shed. However, a diet plan for weight loss cannot help if you stop consuming calories altogether – your body needs its nutrition, and this nutrition must be all around with a proper ratio of carbohydrates, proteins and starch.
So, in order to make the diet plan for weight loss success, one must also focus on burning calories through exercises like walking, running, jogging, swimming, etc. Now that it is clear that we must reduce calorie intake as well as burn calories, let us delve into the Indian diet chart for weight loss. This chart is cumulated with a lot of effort and research to make sure that it can be the best Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days.
Sample Diet Plan for Beginners
Please note that the following plan, the Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days is done through research and must be followed only under the supervision of a registered nutritionist or dietician.
Breakfast – 2 brown rice idlis with sambar
Lunch – Consume only vegetables and meals cooked from olive oil. 2 whole-grain Rotis with mixed-vegetable curry with one dal.
Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.
Breakfast – Paneer sandwich with mint chutney (made using wheat bread)
Lunch – Chickpea curry with brown rice (For non-vegetarians) / Brown rice with dal (for vegetarians)
Snacks – 1 glass masala buttermilk
Dinner – 2 bowls of brown rice with dal and non-green vegetables.
Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.
Breakfast – ½ bowl of sliced muskmelon, 4 pieces of non-salted cashew nuts.
Lunch – Whole-grain rotis (2) with any green leafy vegetable of your choice.
Snacks – 1 cup of watermelon/few assorted berries
Dinner – salad, 2 chapatis with one vegetable. Keep away from bananas the entire day.
Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.
Breakfast – Oats with milk (No added sugar or any other sweetener)
Lunch – 1 Whole-grain roti with vegetable sabzi/ Dal with veg or non-veg sabzi and brown rice
Snacks – 1 banana
Dinner – ½ cup sautéed vegetables with 1 bowl of brown rice
Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.
Breakfast – 1 pear or guava
Lunch – 2 whole-grain Rotis with mixed-vegetable curry with one dal.
Snacks – 1 banana
Dinner – 2 chapatis with any homecooked pulses
Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.
Breakfast – 2 tomatoes and 1 glass of milk
Lunch – one pear and one apple
Snacks – yogurt with dry fruits
Dinner – brown rice with dal (1 bowl)
Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.
Give yourself a pat on the back if you’ve followed this for six days, there’s just one more day to go and you will officially be in the dieting regime for a whole week! Moving to the diet plan for weight loss for the last day of the week, now.
Breakfast – one glass of carrot or beetroot juice
Lunch – Milkshake (2 bananas + 1 glass of milk + a dash of cocoa powder)
Snacks – 1 glass buttermilk
Dinner – salad, 2 chapatis with one vegetable. Keep away from rice the entire day.
Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.
That concludes your diet plan for weight loss. But remember: dieting takes time and dedication; be patient and you will see the results. Do you think this is helpful? Do you think there can be some changes to this Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days? If so, do let us know down below in the comments section.
The previous article was all about the process of inflammation. This article is about vaccines.
The vaccines fall under the type of artificial active acquired immunity. This is artificial because we are giving the vaccine externally and this is active because the body is generating the antibodies/response and it is acquired because we are getting the immunity and it is not present by birth. You must have known what immunity is at least by now.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins (antigens). So these vaccines are nothing but the pathogen itself but it cannot cause any disease, instead, it triggers the immune system.
This is a quick recap of the principle of working on vaccines. The vaccine contains the pathogens as a whole or the surface antigens only. These antigens stimulate the immune system. If the immune system had a memory about this antigen, then it would immediately produce an antibody, and phagocytosis of the antigen occurs by the macrophage aided by the antibody. In this scenario, the antigen is new and there is no memory, therefore the immune system struggles and takes time to produce the antibody.
So the antigen reign over the body and this can lead to inflammation. As a result, some of the symptoms of inflammation like fever, heat, pain in the area of application, and swelling may appear. The chances of them are rare and also severity is less (last for a few hours/days) since the pathogen is attenuated.
Once the immune system produces the correct antibody, phagocytosis of the antigen occurs and hence the causative agent is eliminated from the body (primary response). So if the same or similar pathogen which has disease-causing ability enters into the body, the memory triggers the immune system to produce the correct antibody. So a heightened and rapid response is generated in order to kick away the pathogen quickly (secondary response).
There are three types of vaccines:-
Live- infection is caused without any harm – measles & polio
Dead- doesn’t last long, requires booster dose- cholera
Microbial products- involves non-infectious pathogen, capsule and toxoid- anthrax, diptheria
Hence using the vaccine as a stimulus, the body is able to generate a response that is stored and can be useful for preventing the disease caused by the pathogen.
There might be an idea to generate vaccines for all diseases so that all humans are protected. But there are some difficulties in this which are listed below:-
There are new microbes being discovered every day and no one knows which microbe can cause disease. There can be multiple microbes causing the same or similar disease. So being immune to one microbe doesn’t mean being immune to the disease
The disease-causing microbe can undergo mutation meaning that there can be changes in the genetic material and hence the antigen can change. In this case, the antibody which was stimulated by the vaccine won’t work. A suitable example is a common cold, it is impossible to produce a vaccine that covers all mutants of viruses
The pathogen has to be genetically modified so as to remove its disease-causing ability which is easy to say but difficult to implement
Also, it is important that the antigen chose for the vaccine must be close to that of the original causative agent of the disease. If the original pathogen is not so close to that of the vaccine, then it will not work
Hence all these above points explain the difficulties in producing a vaccine. Despite these many research organizations in many countries have produced vaccines especially for the pandemic and dreadful diseases like the COVID-19, hepatitis, polio, etc. in which some vaccines provide lifetime immunity to some of the diseases. We must take a minute to appreciate those who have done immense work and their contribution is stopping some of the dreadful diseases.
With this, we come to the end of the series. I hope that all the concepts explained in this were simple and clear and also would have inculcated an interest in immunology. By now, it would be clear how the immune system protects us from several microbes and diseases.
The previous article dealt with the types and functions of immunoglobulin. This article provides a complete explanation of the process of inflammation.
Inflammation is the process of protection which was seen as one of the six mechanisms of innate immunity.
Inflammation is one of the body’s responses to the invasion of foreign particles. This is an important process in the human body that occurs to drive away from the pathogen. Inflammation is one of the stages seen in healing. Some of the changes that can be seen in the target site are:-
Changes in blood flow (mostly blood loss)
Increase in platelets (to plug the damaged vessel)
Increase in immune cells
Supply of nutrients
The word inflammation refers to a burning sensation. Hence there are five cardinal signs in inflammation namely:-
Functioleasia (loss of function)
These cardinal signs as well as the changes occur due to some mediators which are basically chemicals and also due to the action of various immune cells.
Bradykinin, histamine, serotonin
Decreases blood pressure
This inflammation can be either acute or chronic. As seen earlier, acute stays for a shorter time but produces more vigorous pain whereas chronic stays for a longer time with less vigorous pain. If the causative agent has been driven away then healing occurs either by complete restoration or scar formation. There are chances that the acute inflammation can become chronic which can be worse. It can lead to several diseases and complications.
The pathogen in order to establish its supremacy in the human body, it has to pass through the epidermis which is the outermost layer of the human body. This is known as SALT skin-associated lymphoid tissues. Hence T and B lymphocytes are prominent in the skin. Most of the pathogens get destroyed in this stage. Let us assume that our pathogen is strong and it had passed through it. The next layer it encounters is the dermis. As we go deep inside the skin, more and more immune cells get involved. In the dermis the following immune cells are seen:-
Mast cell – produce histamine and serotonin
T helper cells – it provides help to other immune cells
The next stage is the hypodermis which has a large number of macrophages and neutrophils that phagocytosis the pathogen. Hence these following processes help in defending against the pathogens.
When a particular pathogen say a virus enters the cell, the immune system will get alerted through signals and they immediately send the correct immune cell to the target site. This occurs since either the immune system gets information naturally or artificially through previous infection or vaccine. This leads to the classification of immunity in humans.
So now we will consider a new and strong pathogen that has not been recognized by the immune system and has dodged those barriers and has entered inside the skin. Now it multiplies at a rapid rate and colonizes that particular area. Hence the cells in that area start to die and they release several signals like TNF, cytokines, interleukins. This gets combined with other signals like histamine, serotonin released from immune cells. Some of these signals produce direct effects on the target site as seen in the table.
An array of these signals triggers the immune system and it, in turn, starts the inflammation process and the cardinal signs are observed. This process lasts for some time and as it occurs; the pathogens decrease in number through phagocytosis and subsequently vanishes from the body. This can be observed by a decrease in the signs. After this process, the targeted site starts to heal and the immune system learns how to defend the pathogen when it enters the next time.
Now the damage caused by the pathogen has to be repaired by the process of healing.
The pathogen will rupture and damage the outer layer of blood vessels known as endothelium resulting in blood loss. Hence the blood vessels start to contract to prevent further loss. Also, a plug is formed at the site of leakage by the platelets. Then the process of inflammation occurs; clearing out the dead cells and the pathogen. In the proliferative stage, new blood cells are formed by a process known as neovascularisation and the new epithelium is formed. In the last phase, the newly formed cells become stronger and flexible. Hence the combination of these steps brings the affected area back to normal.
Hence the inflammation is an essential process in the immune system and it has to occur to prevent the conspiracy of the microbes. The next article is about vaccines and their principle of working.
Ever thought why do we get attract to someone? Well everyone has different answer to it. For some it can be the way one look, smiled, walk or may be their was an unusual aura around that one.
What is attraction?
Attraction, especially in a romantic way, is a complex process that take place in our brains, and has had it’s roots since it’s beginning of the humankind. It’s our minds way of telling us who has the potential to be our partner, our friend, or even our soulmate, and is based on a complex blend of our interest, values, experience, and desire. Physical and romantic attraction, which are often focused on, are only small facets of a much larger equation.
Psychologist look at the ingredients of attraction is in a form of pyramid, split into 4 different sections.
The base of the pyramid is made up of health and status:-
Status – 1. internal (confidence, self set, beliefs) 2. External (person’s job, possession and appearance.
Health – Physical attributes, smell, basic level of intelligence.
If the potential partners passes these initial requirements then we move to the center of the pyramid, which are the emotional factors:- includes
trust comfort someone wants,
their emotions intelligence, and
The final portion of the pyramid is “Logic”.This is the part that differentiate us from other animals, and is the part where our brains seriously
considers whether we are totally compatible for that person.
It ensure that the other person is aligned with us in term of what they want – things such as marriage, children, even the city they want to live.
According to this model, the more alignment there is, the more attraction there is, but it doesn’t always have to follow from bottom to top – like online dating.
What makes someone Attractive?
The answer to this questions make come to our mind is physical traits. Due to the influence of media, we tend to favor women who is younger, and more feminine features, in men on the other side, qualities such as broad shoulders, a deep voice, and strong jawline are highly upon.
Scientists suggest that, these also have an evolutionary origin because these traits are associated with a higher chance of producing health offspring and passing of good genes. Also, values, culture, and the environment, that we grow in also plays an important role.
Hence, attractiveness is complex, there’s a number of different perspective to consider, and at the end of the day, there’s very little we can choosing who we are attracted to. As each person looks for unique set of traits and, while physical traits are often focused there are far more factors that come into play. A person’s upbringing, behavior and even lifestyle have major influence. The most important thing to remember is to be happy and make the most of it.
The previous article dealt in detail with immunoglobulin and how they help in phagocytosis. This article is about the types of immunoglobulins, their functions.
The types of immunoglobulins are based on the types of light and heavy chains. There are two types of light chains namely the kappa and the lambda. An immunoglobulin contains either kappa (K-K) or lambda (L-L) but does not have a mixture of both (K-L not possible). About 60% of the immunoglobulins in humans have kappa chains.
So, the classes of immunoglobulins are based on the heavy chain. So based on this condition, there are five classes of immunoglobulins namely:-
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) – gamma
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) – mu
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) – alpha
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) – delta
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) – epsilon
These immunoglobulins have certain configurations and play different roles in the human body. The immunoglobulin G is present the most. It constitutes about 80% of the total immunoglobulin. These are mostly present in the blood, plasma, and other body fluids. This immunoglobulin has the lowest carbohydrate content when compared to the rest. This immunoglobulin has a half-life of 23 days which is the longest of all. Some of the unique features and functions of this immunoglobulin:-
This is the only immunoglobulin which can cross the placenta (this is a unique feature because this immunoglobulin provides immunity to the foetus inside the womb and also after birth for some months. Presence of others may indicate infection)
This helps in killing bacteria and viruses by opsonisation (the process of covering the pathogen with a protein coat such that the pathogens become more presentable to the immune cells)
Activate complement by classical pathway (The complement system, also known as complement cascade, is a part of the immune system that enhances the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promote inflammation, and attack the pathogen’s cell membrane)
Unique catabolism (breaking down of molecules) based on concentration
There are four sub classes (G1, G2, G3 and G4) out of which 1,3 and 4 cross the placenta and offer immunity
Also involves in the Rh immunization (there are two types’ Rh+ve and Rh-ve based on the presence of Rh factor in blood). The mother being Rh+ve and child the opposite is not a problem in the first pregnancy but can be fatal in second, killing the foetus.
The immunoglobulin M constitutes about 5-10% of total proteins. This is a pentamer structure with a J chain. This weighs about 900000-1000000 and is the heaviest of all. They have 5 days of half-life. Some of its features-
Presence in newborn indicate congenital infection as they don’t cross placenta
Short lived, so their presence indicates recent infection
First Ig to participate in primary response
Play an important role in ABO blood grouping (discovered by Landsteiner). There are 8 types of blood groups based on antigen, antibody and Rh factor
Immunoglobulin A is also known as the secretory immunoglobulin and is mostly present in body secretions (tear, saliva, sebum, mucous, and milk) in which they are dimer and are monomer in blood. They constitute 10-15% of the proteins. They also have a J chain and secretory piece. Their half-life is 6-8 days.
The secretory piece protects the Ig from enzymes and juices
Complement activation by alternate pathway
Intracellular microorganism killing
First line of defense against some microbes
Immunoglobulin E is a dimer similar to IgG. This is present in low concentrations (about 0.3) and has the weight of about 1,90,000. These have a half-life of about 2 days and can become inactivated at 56 C.
Associated with allergic reactions like asthma, hay fever and anaphylactic shock
Bind with the Fc of mast cells and basophils resulting in degranulation and release histamine which causes allergy
Mediate the some immunity reactions
No complement activation
Provide immunity against helminthes
The last is immunoglobulin D. It is present in low concentrations and on the surface of B lymphocytes. They constitute 0.2% of proteins. They have a half-life of 3 days. The IgM and IgD bind on the B lymphocyte to help in antigen identification.
Hence these were the different types of immunoglobulins and the mechanisms by which they help with immunity. The next article is about the process of inflammation.
The previous article was about the different types of immune cells. This article is about a special molecule in immunity known as immunoglobulin.
There might be a question that what is so special about this immunoglobulin. There is a reason for this. These molecules play an important and inevitable role in the phagocytosis of pathogens. To understand this, it is essential to know about immunoglobulins.
The immunoglobulin is a gamma globulin, a specialized group of proteins (glycoprotein) produced in response to pathogens. It is produced by the plasma cells (a globulin protein present in the plasma). These constitute 25-30% of the blood proteins.
There are two important terms that are more commonly known by the most, they are the antigen and the antibody. The antigen is the molecule present on the surface of the pathogen and can stimulate an immune response. There is a small part of the antigen called the epitope which interacts with the antibody. The epitope is known as the antigen determinant site. An antigen can have unlimited epitopes.
On the contrary, the antibody is the molecule produced in response to the antigen in order to kick it away. The part of the antibody which interacts with the antigen is called a paratope. An antibody must have at least 2 paratopes. These antibodies belong to the immunoglobulins. All antibodies are immunoglobulins but not immunoglobulins are antibodies. To understand how the antibody helps in immunity, it is essential to understand the structure of an antibody/immunoglobulin. The image below shows the general structure of an immunoglobulin:-
There are two chains in an immunoglobulin namely the light chain and heavy chain. The light chain has 212 amino acids (the building block of protein) and the heavy chain has 450 amino acids. Each chain has two types namely the constant and variable. These regions are based on the amino acid sequences. Half of the light chain (1 out of 2) is constant and the rest is variable. A quarter of the heavy chain (1 out of 4) is variable and the rest is constant. These are linked by two types of sulfide bonds namely the intra (H-H AND L-L) and inter (H-L). These molecules contain carbohydrates (CHO) hence these are called as glycoproteins.
The tip of the variable regions of the heavy and light chain is hypervariable in nature and these constitute the antigen-binding site (Fab). These are hyper-variable because they have to produce amino acid sequences complementary to that of the antigen so that they can interact together. The other site is called a crystallizable region (Fc).
Having known all this, now it will be convenient to explain the process by which the antibody plays in the prevention of infections.
There are millions of substances that pass through the blood every day. So there must be a criterion/substance to identify them whether they are pathogenic. This is where antigen comes to play. These antigens present on the surface of the pathogens alert the immune system which then identifies this as a pathogen. So in response to the antigen, a suitable antibody is secreted and deployed to the target site. On reaching the antigen, the Fab region binds with the antigen.
The ultimate aim of the immune system is to abolish the pathogen and one way is by phagocytosing them. This is done by the macrophages. But it is essential for them to identify the substance before engulfing it. This is where the antibody comes to play. The Fc region of the antibody combines with the receptor of the macrophage. This facilitates the process of phagocytosis.
Hence the antibody acts like a bridge between the source (antigen) and the destination (macrophage) aiding in phagocytosis. This is essential because in most of the cases the macrophages, it is difficult to identify the non-self-objects and this is where antibody helps.
In the case of the new pathogen, the antigen is new, and therefore their might not be a suitable antibody. In that case, the macrophage cannot phagocytocise the pathogen and it reigns in the body causing infection and disease.
The next article is about the types of immunoglobulins.
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