Plato and his allegory of the cave.

Credits – thoughtco

Plato was born in Athens, Greece, around 429 B.C. He was expected to become a politician by his family but he chose not to for two reasons and took the road of philosophy and mathematics. The first reason was the Peloponnesian War where he found out that some of his relatives were part of a dictatorship and were removed for corruption. The second reason was the death of Socrates who was the biggest influence in Plato’s life. Socrates was executed by the new Athenian government. Plato started writing and became a philosopher. He studied under Pythagoras in Sicily. After returning from there, he founded The Academy, a place where he and other people discussed philosophy and mathematics to come to better conclusions.

Plato’s allegory of the cave proves the power of reasoning over the senses. Personal human experiences will not amount to the truth. Proper philosophical reasoning is the only way to find the truth. To understand his allegory of the cave, you first need to understand his theory of forms. So Plato states that reality exists on two specific levels. First is the visible world which has sight and sound. Second is the intelligible world which gives the visible world its being. For example, when a person sees an ugly face he’s quickly able to identify its ugliness of it. Because in his mind he has an idea of ugly that allows him to point out ugly. He was able to spot the ugliness because he has an abstract idea of what ugliness is. The current state of that ugly face might change in the future because everything keeps changing in the visible world but the form of beauty, ugly etc is eternal and never changes. This is the theory of forms.

Credits- Amelia

Coming onto the theory of caves, The allegory of caves was a conversation between Socrates and Plato’s brother, Glaucon. Socrates asks Glaucon to imagine a world where illusion is believed to be reality. To prove his point further, he asks him to imagine a scenario where there’s a cave and 3 people are locked up inside the cave since their birth. Their necks and legs are chained and cannot escape from the cave. They can only see what is in front of them. Behind and above the prisoners is a fire, and between the fire and prisoners, there is a low wall from where people walk with objects in their heads. Now, these prisoners can only see the shadow of the object and therefore they believe the shadow to be the real form of the object. Because the prisoners have never been exposed to real objects, they start to believe that the real form of that object looks like a shadow. If a shadow of a hammer were to appear, they’d believe the shadow of the hammer to be the real hammer. They are not saying that it’s a shadow because in their reality no shadows exist. They think it’s an actual hammer. One of the prisoners will eventually be able to understand the nature of this illusionary world and would be able to guess what shadow will come next. This will lead to him being praised by the other 2 prisoners.

Suppose, one of the prisoners is set free. He escapes the cave and gets to see the world. He gets angry and frustrated after seeing the real world because he believes the cave illusion to be his reality. When his reality is disproved, he becomes angry, sad and frustrated because he is now forced to believe something else and step out of his comfort zone. Eventually, he’ll be able to make sense of what he has seen and accept that the cave illusion was not his reality. He has now accepted that his past was based on a lie and that is not the way he should perceive things going ahead because he has now found out that it was all an illusion. He goes back to the cave to tell the other prisoners about the real world. When he tells them whatever he has witnessed, they don’t believe him and threaten to kill him if he tries to free them. They are so comfortable in their fake reality that they don’t even want to make the effort of exploring a new possibility because that might lead them out of their comfort zone and face chaos. People mistake what is in front of them as reality and choose to live in ignorance. And when parts of the truth start to emerge in front of their eyes, they get frightened. Because that threatens their ignorant reality. However, a person who pays attention to these flashes of truth and is open to the idea of exploration will always have a better understanding of the world around him. Always aim for reasoning rather than simply believing what seems easy to believe.

Credits- steemit

*I was influenced to write this article after coming across the book Philosophy 101 by Paul Kleinman*


An important step towards enhancing space technology

Space technology is a significant aspect of a society’s development. It has greatly benefitted us in various fields such as education, research, communication, management of natural disasters and overall, in improving the quality of human life. With economical progress, India has been striving towards executing such space missions which not only aid the national development but establish our position in the international space exploration movement that has been rapidly expanding.

Another such progress was made recently when the Indian Space Association or ISpa was launched. It aims to privatize the space sector by allowing private firms to collaborate with the government for achieving the objective of self-reliant space technology as well as providing India with a lead role as the global space hub. Policies to achieve the same would be framed in consultation with the stakeholders.

Who are the members?

Larson & Toubro, OneWeb, Mapmyindia, Bharti Airtel, Ananth Technology Ltd and the like constitute the founding members. Other key members are Centum Electronics, Maxar India, Godrej and many more. These members will work in line with the shared vision of the government and coordinate with the shareholders.

The association’s Director-General is Lt Gen Anil Bhatt (Retd) who also served as the Director-General of Military Operations previously. Mr. Rahul Vatts who is the Director and Chief Regulatory Officer of Bharti Airtel will serve as the association’s Vice Chairman. The association’s first appointed chairman is Mr. Jayant Patil, Director of Defence and Space technologies, L&T-NxT.

What is it based on?

According to the government, four pillars comprise the shared idea of promoting this space reform.

  • Innovation freedom in the private sector– The government wishes to encourage private sector participation in the development of strategies that would shape the future of India in the space sector. Drafting legislation, engaging in research to develop efficient and high-quality devices that cater to the needs of clients across the globe so that India can become a major manufacturer of space-related equipment are some of the aspects which would be handled in a much better manner if many firms work mutually.
  • Government’s enabling role– The government would play an important role in the creation of an environment that is optimal for coordination and cooperation between the members and shareholders. Experts from the government would not only share their ideas but also promote much-needed innovation while keeping national interests at the forefront.
  • Preparing youth for the future- With extensive research and innovation emerges a brilliant opportunity to develop academia which would make the youth enthusiastic to learn more about the industry and contribute towards its expansion. Young minds would get a chance to explore more career options in this field which would enhance India’s global performance.
  • Using the space sector as a developmental source- This reform would aid India’s progress in multiple aspects such as better resource management, interplanetary explosion, more successful space missions, better weather forecasting, country’s imaging and mapping.

Overall, the launch of the Indian Space Association is a very positive step to benefit various sections of society, ranging from entrepreneurs to youth. It has the potential to transform India into a global leader of the space sector backed by expert interventions from the government and various agencies. Pushing for policies and legislations to enhance India’s growth in terms of critical technology would bring in employment and better wages.

The participation of national and international agencies would bring in more innovation and cooperation. It has the strength to make India a preferred destination for future international investments and which can transform it into a commercial hub. It would also assist in easing the workload of ISRO which has been at the center of India’s space hub developments.


United States

The US boasts the world’s largest GDP (around $20 trillion), low unemployment rates, and top-ranked entrepreneurial infrastructures. With that in mind, the US market is extremely diverse, offering adequate buying power, and government support for local venture funding has been at an all-time high. The American culture has globally influenced many nations and has become the top spot for new startups in 2020.

United Kingdom

Brexit might have scared off some investors, but the UK holds a reliable and extremely well-governed economy. Local authorities have improved taxation policies, seeing a rise in investor profiles, business incorporations, and currently stands at a 0.7% inflation rate as of 2019. Entrepreneurial infrastructure falls close behind the US, and being the country with the lowest corporation tax from all G20 countries, the UK is a great choice to consider.


As Europe’s biggest economic powerhouse, Germany holds a great and extremely well-educated workforce. The nation has been one of the most attractive startup destinations for years, offering business owners and entrepreneurs an opportunity to use the well-funded European markets. As a key member of the EU, Germany sits on a $3.6 trillion GDP as of 2017.


The Eastern Hemisphere has become a popular choice for prominent business investors and, recently, startups. A wealthy nation with high levels of education and political stability, Singapore offers easier market access and free trade agreements. It’s a melting pot of cultures, and their local economy has seen a 2% growth each year.

New Zealand

A different choice from Europe or North America, the island nation has seen a booming economic influx, with more skilled workers, affordable wages, and simple startup procedures. The country has a 0.6% inflation rate, a 3.6% GDP growth, low-interest rates, and local government has become more business-friendly, with easier access to local statistics.


Topaz solar farm and Desert sunlight farm, US

The Topaz solar farm is located in the north-western part of the Carrisa Plains in San Luis Obispo County, California, US. The 550MW plant was developed by First Solar and later acquired by BHE Renewables in January 2012. Commissioned in 2014, the project covers an area of 4,700 acres and is equipped with more than eight million solar modules. Topaz supplies electricity to approximately 180,000 households in California.

The Desert Sunlight solar farm is located in the Mojave Desert in the Riverside County, California, US. Developed by First Solar, the facility is owned jointly by NextEra Energy Resources, GE Energy Financial Services, and Sumitomo Corporation of America. Commissioned in 2013, the power plant is equipped with eight million panels that generate power enough for 160,000 homes.

Solar Star Projects, US

Solar Star Projects comprises two co-located projects, Solar Star 1 and Solar Star 2, in the Kern and Los Angeles counties, Rosamond, California, US. The two projects have a combined capacity of 579MW and comprise more than 1.7 million solar modules installed on 3,200 acres of land. They were developed by SunPower Corporation and owned by BHE Renewables.

Completed in March 2015, the projects supply electricity to more than 255,000 homes. They are equipped with the SunPower® Oasis® Power Plant technology, which positions the panels to track the sun during the day and increases energy capture by up to 25%.

Kamuthi Solar Power Station, India

The Kamuthi solar facility in Tamil Nadu, India, has a total generation capacity of 648MW. Covering 2,500 acres (10km²) and consisting of 2.5 million solar panels, the site is estimated to supply enough power for 750,000 people.

Enel Villanueva PV Plant, Mexico

Located in the Mexican state of Coahuila, the photovoltaic (PV) facility comprises more than 2.5 million solar panels installed across 2,400ha in the Mexican semi-arid region. The 828MW power plant became fully-operational in September 2018 and has the capacity to produce more than 2,000GWh a year.

The Enel Group invested approximately $710m in the construction of Villanueva. The plant’s initial capacity was 754MW, which was increased to 828MW following a 10% capacity extension option added to the energy sales contracts.

Enel deployed a unique pilot programme using digital technologies and automation for the plant’s construction. The programme included the use of GPS-controlled machines for moving the earth, drones for conducting 3D topography, and robots for automatic installation of panels.

Longyangxia Dam Solar Park, China

The Longyangxia solar park has a capacity of 850MW, sufficient to power 200,000 households. The site sits on the Tibetan Plateau in northwestern China’s Qinghai province and spans 27km². The plant is installed with approximately four million solar panels and is operated by State Power Investment Corporation, one of China’s top five power generators.

Phase one of the power plant was completed in 2013, while phase two was completed in 2015, with a total construction cost of approximately six billion yuan ($920.84m).

The project was developed by Huanghe Hydropower Development and is integrated with the 1,280MW Longyangxia hydroelectric power station.


5. British Pound: 1 GBP = 1.27 USD

Bank of England policymakers generally kept pace with developments in other countries over the last several decades and kept the pound more valuable than the U.S. dollar. The British pound  was traditionally worth more than the us dollar, but it declined during much of the 20th century. This decline reversed during the 1980s, and the British pound regained its old advantage over the U.S. dollar.

4. Jordanian Dinar: 1 JOD = 1.41 USD

Like the Cayman Islands Dollar, the Jordanian Dinar was pegged to the U.S. dollar at a higher value. The idea was that a stable exchange would help to attract U.S. investment in Jordan. It is crucial to remember that any country can peg its currency to the dollar at any value. However, the currency must keep its value relative to the U.S. dollar to maintain that peg. Jordan successfully did that during the first two decades of the 21st century.

3. Omani Rial: 1 OMR = 2.60 USD

Oman is yet another country that pegged its currency to the U.S. dollar at a fixed exchange rate. The Omani rial  maintained its value against the dollar due to Oman’s historically tight monetary policy and financial restrictions. Omani policymakers have generally restricted the money supply to protect the country against war and conflict in the Middle East. That has impacted the country’s inflation rate, and lending practices in Oman tend to favor risk-averse companies and business ventures.

2. Bahraini Dinar: 1 BHD = 2.66 USD

The Bahraini dinar  was pegged to the U.S. dollar at a slightly higher value than the Omani rial. The Bahraini dinar’s yearly average has remained close to its current exchange rate since 2011, despite the significant effect that low oil prices had on Bahrain’s economy. Bahrain’s inflation rate was also modest and relatively stable.

1. Kuwaiti Dinar: 1 KWD = 3.26 USD

The Kuwaiti dinar was the most valuable government-backed currency as of 2020. Some currencies not backed by governments, such as gold and bitcoin, were actually worth far more. Substantial oil production helped augment Kuwait’s wealth and support the value of the Kuwaiti dinar. Over the years, Kuwait amassed a significant soverign wealth fund. The kuwait investment authority manages this fund and helps to ensure that Kuwait remains prosperous.


Earth is filled with a number of majestic surprises and surreal places with awe-inspiring beauty. There is so much to see that one lifetime won’t be enough to experience all the beautiful places in the world. Every country offers some beautiful places in the world worth seeing and the time required to absorb all the beauty is painfully long.

A small list is not enough to explore all the best places to travel in the world but with some help, you can check a few places out of your bucket list for sure. Whether you want to visit the UK or wish to explore the natural scenic surprises of Chile. You can take a walk through the gorgeous markets of Istanbul or take a hot air balloon ride in Began, the beauty around these best places in the world. All you need to do is to stay patient and know the best way to experience and welcome surprises coming from the beautiful places in the world as you travel.

The Fairy Pools on the Isle of Skye – Scotland

Scotland is filled with a number of beautiful places in the world. Some of the best places in the world include the Fairy Pools on the Isle of Skye. This romantic and inspiring place has made many writers and poets spend their time and create their masterpieces. If you wish to indulge in wild swimming, jump into the icy cold waters of Fairy Pools of Scotland. Located at the foot of the Black Cuillins near Glenbrittle, Fairy Pools’ crystal blue waters are a mind-numbing delight for nature and adventure lovers. This part of Europe has a unique geography. The natural landscapes and scenic wonders get it counted among the best places in the world for the honeymooners, adventurers and photographers.

Loch Ness, Loch Lomond and Edinburgh Castle are some of the most popular tourist destinations in the world located here. With so many Amazing places in the world, how can one not spend some time in Scotland?

Rainbow mountains, China

Rainbow Mountains are one of the many beautiful places in the world that China boasts about. These gorgeous mountains look like a painting. Artists can take a great inspiration from the Rainbow Mountains in China – earth’s natural paint palette. National Geographic counts Rainbow Mountains as one of top geographical wonders of the world. Many travel guidebooks have listed it as must visit amazing places in the world because of the sheer beauty.

Located within the Zhangye Danxia Landform Geological Park, Rainbow Mountains mimic a rainbow painted over the rolling mountains. This is one of the beautiful places in the world you should consider visiting.

The site was named a UNESCO world heritage site in 2009. Not only the Chinese but also the international tourists travel all the way to China to experience the beauty of the one of the best places in the world that this mountain is.

Railay Beach, Thailand

Railay Beach is considered one of the mesmerising and beautiful places in the world because of its natural placement. Isolated by the mainland by limestone cliffs and surrounded by dense jungle, Railay beach’s beauty is unmatchable to any other destination in Thailand. No wonder, Railay Beach is so stunning and laidback, making it counted among the beautiful locations in the world.

Located between the city of Krabi and Ao Nang, Railay is divided into two parts, the West and the East. The Western part is more popular and has better beach with crystalline turquoise waters to charm your senses. Because of so many scenic surprises, this unique Thailand destination is listed among the wonderful places in the world.

Northern Lights, Iceland

Iceland, in general, comes in the list of top three most beautiful places in the world. Its natural setting, mountains, geysers are already amazing and scenic. There are so many beautiful places in Iceland but one reason for which everyone would count this country among best places to travel in the world will be its northern lights.

Northern Light is a spectacular natural phenomenon that takes place in Iceland during winter months. Also known as Aurora Borealis, it occurs due to the interaction of the particles of the sun with the upper atmosphere near the North Pole. It’s one of those out of the world experiences that lingers on in your memory for a lifetime.


What Does Women Empowerment Mean?

Women Empowerment is the process that creates power in women to live a happy and respectable life in a society. Women are empowered when they are able to access opportunities in a variety of fields such as in education, profession, lifestyle, etc., without any limitations and restrictions. It includes raising their status through education, awareness, literacy and training. It also includes the authority to take decisions. When a woman makes a crucial decision, she feels empowered.

Women’s empowerment is the most crucial point for the overall development of a country. Suppose, in a family, there is one earning person, while in another family, both men and women are earning, then who will have a better lifestyle. The answer is simple, the family where both men and women are earning money. Thus, the country where men and women work together develops at a faster rate.

Need for Women Empowerment

History says that women were ill-treated. The Sati Pratha in the ancient times to the girl child abortion in the present scenario, women continue facing such violence. Not only this, heinous crimes against women such as rape, acid attack, dowry system, honour killing, domestic violence, etc., are still happening in India.

Out of the total population, 50% of the population should consist of women. However, due to female foeticide practices, girl child numbers are decreasing sharply in India. It has also impacted the sex ratio in India. The literacy rate in girls is very low. Most of the girls are not even provided with primary education. Moreover, they are married early and made to raise children and shoulder only household work. They are not allowed to go out and are dominated by their husbands. Women are taken for granted by men as they are considered their property. Even at the workplace, women are discriminated against. They are paid less for the same work as compared to their male counterparts.

Steps to Empower Women

Women can be empowered in various ways. It can be done through government schemes as well as on an individual basis. At the individual level, we should start respecting women and start giving them opportunities equal to men. We should promote and encourage them to take up jobs, higher education, business activities, etc. The Government has come up with various schemes such as Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana, Mahila-E-Haat, Mahila Shakti Kendra, Working Women Hostel, Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana, etc. to empower women. Apart from these schemes, we as individuals can also empower women by abolishing social evils like the dowry system, child marriage. These small steps will change the situation of women in society and make them feel empowered.


The smartphones we possess today have come a long way from the first rendition of the telephone back in 1876 when Alexander Graham Bell invented and patented the first short-range phone. But like people, phones have evolved throughout history to cater to our lifestyles and needs.

Here’s a look at how telephones have transformed over the years…

Short-Range Phone: Despite a number of individuals from around the world who’ve contributed to the invention of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell was the first to receive a patent for his short-range phone in 1876. Testing out the phone in his Boston laboratory, he rang his assistant Thomas Watson, and become well known-for saying, “Mr. Watson, come here – I want to see you.”

Candlestick Phone: The candlestick phone became popular in the 1890s through the 1930s. Separated by two pieces, it featured a mouth piece (transmitter) mounted at the top of the stand, and a receiver (ear phone) that the user would hold to their ear during a call.

Rotary Phone: Pushing out the candlestick phone, the rotary phone came about in the 1930s when manufacturers began to combine the mouth piece and receiver of the candlestick phones into a single unit. When dialing a rotary phone, what originally started as lugs, but evolved into holes, one would then rotate the dial to the number that they wanted and then would release the dial.

Touch-Dial Phone: On November 18, 1963, the Bell System unveiled the first electronic touch-dial phone system with touch-tone dialing. It would become the worldwide standard for telecommunication signaling. Using audible tones for each of the digits on the push-button keypad, specific frequencies were designated to each row and column. The tones helped the switching center determine which key was pressed.

First Mobile Phone: On April 3, 1973, Motorola researcher and executive, Martin Cooper, made the first mobile telephone from handheld subscriber equipment. Weighing in at 2.4 lbs and measuring at 228.6 x 127 x 44.4mm, Cooper was said to have called a rival telecommunications company and let them know he was talking to them on a mobile phone. The prototype was able to give a caller 30 minutes of talk-time and took about 10 hours to charge.

Cordless Phone: Cordless phones became a hot commodity in the 1980s but was originally invented by a female Jazz musician named Teri Pall in 1965. The handset cord of the telephone was replaced with a radio link. However, Teri’s invention would not hit the consumer market until a decade and a half later.

First Portable Phone: Even though Martin Cooper invented the first mobile phone, the first portable mobile phone was the MicroTAC which was introduced in 1989 as “an innovative new “flip” design”, where the “mouthpiece” folded over the keypad, although the “mouthpiece” was actually located in the base of the phone, along with the ringer. Up until its release, most cellular phones were installed as car phones due to the inability to fit them into a jacket pocket.

Nokia: Through the mid-90s and into the early 2000s, Nokia mobile phones catered to consumers, with interchangeable faceplates, customizable designs, the first WAP browser, internal antenna, T9 Text messaging, and eventually an LCD screen and internet connectivity.

First Camera Phone (Sanyo SCP-5300): Possessing the first camera phone, the U.S. finally adopted the Japanese trend in November 2002. The clunky clamshell design could capture photos at 640×480 pixels and had a basic flash, white balance control, self-timer, digital zoom, and various filters (sepia, black and white, and negative colors.)

Crack-Berry (BlackBerry): Blackberry made waves with their popular RIM communication device in 2003 which possessed a phone, PDA, and e-mail system all in one hand-held phone. The term crack-berry came about when users constantly checked their e-mail and sent short messages through their device.

Sleek Mobile Design (Motorola Razr): First developed in 2003, the Motorola Razr hit it big when it was marketed as a fashion phone due to its sleek and thin profile. Over its four-year run, they sold over a 130 million phones and were named the best-selling clamshell phone in history.

Smartphones: Dating back as far as 1997, it wasn’t until Japan became the first mobile market to popularize the smartphone in 1999. As BlackBerry, Palm, HTC, Windows Mobile, Samsung, Nokia, and Motorola made a name for themselves in the early 2000s, their smartphones had the capability to email, fax, and search the internet. As the smartphone craze escalated, cell phone manufacturers tested a number of functionalities that would help them capitalize on the new trend. From sliding, flipping, rotating, vertical, and even multiple keyboards, touchscreen smartphones made their way into the market which also introduce the stylus. However, the functionality these phones offered were still targeting more business users versus consumers.

The Cristiano Ronaldo Effect

Cristiano Ronaldo one of the best footballers in the world currently and an all time great has used his social media influence to bring down the image of a big brand Coca Cola  . What he did is not unknown to most of us . In just a minute thirty seconds he caused a whooping loss of six billion dollars to such a big brand . He took two bottles of Coca Cola and set it aside . And just said ” ” Drink Water ” . It has caused great damage to the brand name of the company . The power and influence which such big players have is shown to all of us very frequently . 


Understanding digital marketing

At present, the world is going digital and more and more companies across the world are having an online presence. Digital Marketing has truly made differences in the field of advertising and marketing. The traditional marketing strategies are no more used by companies as internet media is more reliable and optimum. The internet marketing is highly effective, financially feasible and more comprehensive. Digital marketing provides powerful techniques to generate business and efficiently boosts the present scale to zenith levels.

Ever increasing rise in internet usage

The Internet has totally changed the way in which people used to buy required things and even the way in which different businesses provide their products and services. With the reduction in the price of smartphones, there has been a rise in the internet usage. This has resulted in the development of online businesses. Right from the cell phones to personal computers, garments to shoes, books to gadgets, people are increasingly using the internet to buy different products and services.

Online business challenges are the strength of digital marketers

With the organizations busy running their business, they are not able to invest quality time to understand top, middle, and bottom objectives to engage the audience. Digital marketer comes to your rescue as it lowers the business costs considerably. They help the business survive and grow by targeting the right people at the right time. They also identify and prioritize the key performance indicators by auditing your customers’ behavior on various digital platforms. Digital marketers analyze the performance of your online business industry and help companies make informed data-driven decisions for optimal customer experience.


Groundwater is a critical resource for food security, providing 40% of the world’s irrigation . Millions of farmers depend on groundwater irrigation to help produce 40% of the world’s agricultural production, including a large proportion of staple crops like rice and wheat . Yet, groundwater reserves are becoming rapidly depleted in many important agricultural regions across the globe . While the extent of current and projected groundwater depletion is well documented , the potential impact of this depletion on food production remains poorly quantified. Furthermore, it is unclear whether there are any adaptation strategies that may reduce the projected negative impacts of groundwater depletion on agricultural production. Yet, such information could help identify which adaptation strategies should be prioritized in which regions to ameliorate and avoid large production losses in the areas most at risk for groundwater depletion.

It is especially critical to quantify the impacts of groundwater depletion on crop production in India—the world’s largest consumer of groundwater—where groundwater provides 60% of the nation’s irrigation supply. Tube well construction has rapidly increased since the 1960s across India, allowing farmers to increase cropping intensity, or the number of seasons when crops are planted in a given year, by expanding production into the largely dry winter and summer seasons . This increase in cropping intensity is credited for much of the food production gains achieved over the past 50 years across India. However, because of high rates of extraction, aquifers are rapidly becoming depleted across much of India, with the northwest and south predicted to have critically low groundwater availability by 2025 This is of concern given that India produces 10% of global agricultural production and is the second largest producer of wheat and rice. Furthermore, a majority of India’s rural population, approximately 8% of the world’s population, depends on agriculture as a primary livelihood, and a reduction in agricultural production will negatively affect household welfare .

Very few studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of groundwater depletion on agricultural production in India. To date, efforts have largely relied on modeling approaches , which necessarily make assumptions about the relationship between groundwater use and crop productivity. With such an approach, it is difficult to account for real-world constraints that may reduce the efficiency of groundwater use, such as inefficient pumps and the inability of some farmers to irrigate at full capacity. Accounting for these limitations is particularly critical in regions like India, where water use efficiency is low and extremely heterogeneous across the country . Only one previous study  has incorporated empirical data on the relationship between irrigation use, crop production, and groundwater depletion. However, because of data limitations, this study relied on coarse district-level agricultural census statistics that do not distinguish between whether a crop is irrigated by groundwater or other sources, like canals. Thus, to date, it has not been possible to empirically estimate the association between groundwater use, crop production, and groundwater depletion, which is critical for accurately estimating the potential production losses that may occur when overexploited groundwater is lost.

Hockey vs. Cricket

Hockey is the national sport of our country India . Still people love to watch Cricket  far more than cricket . Hence the cricketers are paid 10 times more than even the highest paid  hockey players . Even the highest paid sports are cricketers . So Cricket should be declared the National Sport of our country India . The importance that the game Hockey deserves is not given to it . So we should not only watch Cricket but also watch Hockey and other sports . That is all we can do on our part . We can not do more than this .


This conflict between Allopathy and Ayurveda is very old. It is believed that the use of modern medicine in India i.e. Allopathy started in the 16th century. At that time there were no doctors. Rather Acharya, Vaidya, Rishi and Hakim used to treat people and the methods of treatment were also quite different.

It is said that during that time millions of people died due to numerous diseases spread. It was only due to these diseases that Allopathy found its way into our country and gained people’s trust. Since then the conflict between Ayurveda and Allopathy started, which continues till today.

Ayurveda, one of the ancient methods of treatment, is considered to be 3 to four thousand years old. It is made up of two words from the Sanskrit language Ayur and Veda. Ayur means life and Veda means science. That is, Ayurveda means the science of life.

There are 114 verses in the Atharvaveda which refer to treatment by Ayurvedic method.

Many major diseases have been described in the Atharvaveda such as fever, cough, abdominal pain, diarrhea and skin diseases.

Apart from this, 67 medicines are also mentioned in the Rigveda, 82 medicines are mentioned in the Yajurveda and in the Samaveda, some mantras related to Ayurveda are described.

While Allopathy is the modern method of treatment, Ayurveda is the ancient method of treatment. One of the major reasons for the conflict between the two is that Ayurveda is seen to be associated with religion.

The British were well aware that the expansion of Allopathy in India would not be easy. Earlier, when smallpox spread in India, it was treated by Ayurvedic method. But then in the year 1796 the smallpox vaccine was developed and the British started using this vaccine in India. This smallpox vaccine saved the lives of people and thus won the trust of people.

It is said that the Acharyas and Vaidyas opposed it, but the British suppressed this opposition.

Today there are a total of 69 thousand government and private hospitals across the country, while the number of Ayush hospitals is just 3600. These include 2 thousand 827 Ayurvedic hospitals, 252 Unani hospitals, 264 hospitals of Siddha system of medicine and 216 hospitals of Homoeopathy.

It is said that Allopathy saves 20 lakh people every year in the world and it is estimated that between 2000 and 2030, 7 crore deaths due to 10 diseases will be averted due to allopathic medicines. Apart from this, the market of Allopathy is also very big.

This is why today people want to become doctors but do not want to become doctors of Ayurveda.

While allopathic treatment has so far saved the lives of crores of people all over the world, yoga and Ayurvedic treatment have also taught people about having a healthy lifestyle.

Both are efficient methods for medical treatment. Every method has its own importance. The bitter truth is that there is a conflict between the interests of human beings regarding these systems.


The busy and hectic lifestyle demand complete concentration and devotion towards the works, the human beings are prone to feel unproductive and unmotivated. At times, the individual feels that they ae not making enough efforts or their efforts are not bearing the desired results, they compare their progress with other and get disappointed. As a result, they lost their motivation to work and doubt their ability to achieve the goals. We need to have self-confidence and should always make attempts to stay motivated.
Indeed, it is not possible to stay motivated or enthusiastic all the time, especially when there is nothing desirable or enthusiastic happening in your life. For instance, this pandemic and nationwide lockdown has compelled the individuals to stay at home and work from their residence. This has affected the mental health of the individuals as they have lost the motivation or inspiration to work from their home. The specific place and the environment that is created in the work space is different from working from the comfort of their home.
This article includes certain basic ways and tips that might help you to stay motivated and adopt a vigorous and productive lifestyle that make you want to work.

1. ACHIEVE YOUR GOALS: It is very important to set goals, your goals can be personal, financial, professional, academic, etc. The individuals who set goals have an objective to do certain work and have aim to achieve. Setting up goals motivates you to work for fulfilling your goals. Often, the individuals set up goals that are difficult to achieve, it is good to challenge yourself, but we should begin with completing small tasks so that it motivates us and encourage us to take up big things in life. It is advisable to divide you task into small parts and then set up your goals accordingly, start with completion of the short-term goals to achieve long-term success. Write down your goals and schedule your day in such a manner that you’re able to give enough time to achieve every goal and also perform other day-to-day activities.
It is difficult and demotivating when we are unable to achieve our goals, we end up giving up and doesn’t try anymore. There are few tricks that can motivate you to keep working to achieve the goals. Vision your life when you achieve your goals, imagine what would your life look like once to achieve your goals and achieved what you desire. This shall encourage you to work harder to achieve the goals. Always prepare well for the task you have to complete, even for the smallest thing.

2. AVERTISING YOURSELF: Advertise yourself and your work among your family and friends. The way you dress up, speak, walk, address, everything makes a great impact on your actions and achievements. However, it is not always necessary to dress up formally to work, dress simply and make up your mind in such a manner that you feel to work. The chose of your cloth accommodates your mood at a particular point of time. The way you speak and the ideas that your mind come up in your mind while a conversation also defines your personality. Talking with your friends or other people around you and able to respond to them wisely also provides motivation to an individual. Advertise the things that you learned whether through your educational institutions or the self-learned things, also talk about your talents and hobbies. It helps others to know you more and decide what kind of person are you.

3. BRAINSTROM YOURSELF: There are very effective ways to brainstorm yourself all at your own without any assistance from any person or group. That means you can conduct brainstorming sessions for yourself at any time of the day and as many times as you want. Through brainstorming you work by yourself and for yourself, there are few tips to use advanced brainstorming techniques:
• Use creative thinking to start off your approach from a different angle.
• Spark off new ideas by getting stimuli from brainstorming and not people.
• Challenge your current way to thinking to expand your approach.
• Ask questions to yourself and try to answer themselves of your own. In case you’re able to answer, try to figure out the reason.
• Don’t bound yourself with only one single idea or thought. 

4. COMMUNICATE WITH YOURSELF AND TRY TO CONTROL YOUR EMOTIONS: No-one knows you better than you yourself do. Thus, always spend some time alone without any gadgets, communicating with yourself and doing your favorite activity or hobby. The individual should possess complete knowledge about oneself and know your weaknesses to work upon them. The first step of self-communication starts with the inner self, know yourself to know the world around you. No-one is perfect, however, self-introspection and lead to near perfection. In case you don’t have anyone around to talk to you about how you feel, try talking to yourself. You can also write down your thoughts both positive as well as negative, this helps to analyses how positive or negative ideas are staying in your mind. Later, you have to train your mind to avoid all the negative ideas or thoughts around yourself. Learn to control your emotions, getting sad at small thinks can cause overthinking and brings negative thoughts to your mind. Try to speak up the things that trouble you in spite of keep thinking about them continuously. This might be difficult but prove to be worth it when you started feeling more joyful and happy as you no more allow any negativity to bother you.

5. GET RID OF THE BAD HABITS: Change your habits for a better and healthy lifestyle. The human gets attracted to the things that are easy to do without knowing about there after effect. Thus, it is very important to differentiate between the good and bad habits to evaluate their effect upon our lives and control the bad activities. Here are some tips to break the bad habits and bring a long-lasting change in individual life:
• Be clear about the habit that you feel is bad and causes ill-effect and prepare your mind to overcome that activity.
• Set yourself a goal. For instance, if you plan to reduce your screen time, set a time limit and adhere to that strictly.
• Try to adopt more good habits and divert your mind from the bad habits. 

It gives immense satisfaction and pleasure to adopt a health lifestyle with good habits and a positive schedule, therefore, start from today and motivate yourself to be a better version of yourself.

Plastic- Inseparable part of our lives

Imagine thousands of plastic bags floating around you forever

Inventions and discoveries lay a tremendous impact on the human race and development. Yet, few human creations can metamorphose into a curse. Nearly a hundred years ago, humanity created the most durable and cheap material -plastic. In a flash, plastic reached the deepest trenches, in the air we breathe and even in our stomachs. Barely 10% of the plastic we produce gets recycled whereas, the rest of the plastic contributes to climate change. Today these estimations may seem ordinary numbers, yet incautious measures can lead to the extinction of our race. Unbelievably we produce 3,000,000 plastic bottles in just 60 seconds; how horrifying is that? Our irrational use of plastic has affected the abundance of the entire ecosystem. The fishes are floating at the brink of extinction. We are the ones to condemn; hence it is our responsibility to wonder about potential solutions. Binish Desai-the recycle man has that solution. Amidst the Covid pandemic, the masks and PPE kits have made their way to the oceans. Binish Desai came up with an extraordinary idea to make eco-bricks out of them, recently introducing ‘Brick 2.0’. Furthermore, hundreds of women have started using menstruation cups to limit the plastic waste created by sanitary pads. Therefore, together we can beat plastic pollution. The story of our ecosystem is a tale older than ours. The majesty and abundance of the creatures out there are beyond our foresight. Each creation is unique and a mystery for us. Yet, our reckless management of plastic and other resources has affected the entire ecosystem. Our environment would collapse before we get a chance to know everything about it. Hence, together we need to think of solutions. We know that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; only be transformed. Similarly, nothing is a waste in nature; scrap produced today can be transformed into something productive tomorrow. Together we can build a sustainable future if we start recycling now. A very efficient way to cease plastic pollution is brand audits and cleaning drives. They help to collect plastic and hold the brand guilty of who created the plastic waste in the first place. The most generous aid we can give to the ecosystem is minimizing plastic usage from our surroundings. We can switch to a bamboo toothbrush and go for a waterless car wash. In addition, social media gives us a platform to contribute even in this pandemic. Social media let us share and debate upon solutions in an efficient way. Furthermore, we need to consider that we are genius at planning; however, we fail to execute our solutions. Discussing the solutions will only help us when we work upon them. Hence, always try to buy products of brands that believe in sustainability. Together let us unwrap the layer of plastic we laid on our mother Earth. Remember tsunami of throwaway plastic is awaiting us tomorrow if we stop recycling. “Only when the last tree has died, the last river has flourished, we will realize that we cannot eat the money”. Your contribution matters!


A person is what he/she believes to be, mind is too powerful, it can make hell out of heaven and heaven out of hell. Meaning to say is that mind plays a vital role in everyone’s life.It manages all the function and bring new thoughts. When a person get the thoughts, the basic idea is to note it down in a page with a pen and implement in the individual’s life. I am just a person who learns each and every time, has a keen interest to discover new things and innovative ideas. A long journey has been done from a person , what I was and what I am today. There is a huge difference. To be a law student, one should maintain the rhythm , flow of study, calm mind and day to day researches. One should develop the different skills and overall development always matters. We always take from the society, but there is always a time, when we need to give society, a path to follow, or a change.

Life always gives a chance to achieve something, to turn bad into good, negative into positive, its just we need to catch the time and move with it. So, I am here to experience the platform and to be a part of this organisation with helping in the development of the organisation. Self- motivation and motivating others for a good life is very much essential, and through this at a large, it is possible that the massage could reach to more and more people, and the policies of this organisation adds up to it. It is an honor to be a part of it.


Self-love Culture: Is it Healthy?

Importance to the individual and the self is a phenomenon that came by as a product of modernity. With more emphasis on self-accomplishment and success becoming often defined as what you are able to make of yourself, talks about what is important to the self and how to understand our own personalities have increased. Nowadays we see a large number of people who propagate what is known as the ‘self-love’ culture. The self-love essentially prioritizes the well-being of the self and calls for the acceptance by each person of their own individuality.

woman in black shirt holding white flowers
Photo by Masha Raymers on

This movement which is increasingly seen in online spaces and urban settings have its benefits as well as adverse effects. We can say that it is extremely necessary, especially when we have a society that is constantly finding fault with us and setting standards that very few are able to stick to. Everyone who does not meet those standards, whether it be about success or beauty or relationships, are considered as failures. Many companies are designed in such a way that they prey on insecure individuals and make a profit by offering them products that supposedly will make them ‘enough’. However, this is a false hope. in this situation, it is absolutely crucial that we have counter-narratives that dispel these myths of success and encourage people to understand their own uniqueness. We should not buy into the ideas that are marketed for the sake of money nor give into traditions that place unwarranted emphasis on appearances and performances. This idea can even cause serious mental health issues when one is constantly seeking the approval of others to be worthy of love.

The problem with this self-love culture, however, is when it goes out of hand and becomes almost narcissistic. People tend to get obsessed with their own selves and will do anything they have to in order to secure what they think will bring them fulfillment. This is dangerous because such an individualistic outlook might lead them to take advantage of others and even cause them harm. It also makes them egoistical and unwilling to accept any criticism. They forget that loving oneself does not mean loving everything about one’s own self and being against all kinds of change or betterment. In fact, if one is loving, one should be willing to change or work towards bettering aspects of their personality which might be potentially hurting themselves or others. Anger issues is an example of an aspect like this.

Self-love is healthy as long as it doesn’t lapse into the other extreme of being obsessed and infatuated with everything about ourselves. Man being a social animal has to live in relationship with others and anything that hinders that will potentially hurt him as well. It is a tightrope walk of loving oneself and accepting our personalities, flaws and all, and being cocksure of our supremacy and infallibility as an individual. We should love ourselves enough to identify things that could potentially be hindering our growth as a person while also keeping in mind that it is not our performance in the world out there that defines our worth. If we are able to be secure in our identity thus, evolving and changing, and embracing it, then we will also be willing to take constructive criticism as well as discern between what should be taken seriously and what should not be.

Why should we care about light pollution?

Among the various kinds of pollutions that we discuss about and find measures to deal with in the contemporary world , light pollution is probably the one least known and consequently least discussed. This is particularly a problem in developed countries and the metropolitan cities of the world owing to the increased commercial activity. Lights are always on and roads are always illuminated. People work longer into the night and many go to sleep late as a routine. This phenomenon is increasingly seen in different parts of the world as we move towards greater urbanization and longer days of work.

aerial photo of cityscape at night

Light pollution is also known as luminous pollution. It refers to the excessive use of artificial light to such an extent that it is obtrusive and starts harming the environment. This is a direct result of our modern and industrial lifestyle. Light pollution is important because it is also a way through which humans leave their carbon imprint on the planet. It is seen that increased light pollution can create health issues as well as be harmful to wildlife and the natural environment. It affects nocturnal animals more and can even have an effect on the physiology of plants. It can disrupt normal migration patterns and the biochemical rhythmic cycles of nature which rely on the variations of light and dark during the day. In humans, it can cause stress, headaches, fatigue, sleeplessness, and many lifestyle disorders. It can even cause depression or cardiovascular diseases. Light pollution makes it extremely difficult to see the night sky as it is without the extraneous lights that tend to get in our eyes thereby dimming our view of the sky. The peace of the night sky and the view it offers has become difficult to find. Increased light pollution also interferes with research related to astronomy and can lead to calculation errors as well. This interference is the reason even astro-photographers search for places where there are no extra lights to click pictures of the night sky. These dark spaces where only natural illumination is present are decreasing at a rapid rate. Many researchers opine that the darkness of the night is essential for us and have to be reclaimed. The excessive light used causes a massive waste of energy also which directly increased the carbon footprint that humans leave on the planet.

We can do much to reduce light pollution if we are thoughtful and take some simple measures. Making sure that we do not use an unnecessary amount of illumination in our homes and streets is an effective method that can help. Turn off lights that are unnecessary. Wastage of light energy has to be reduced as well. So, we can use light bulbs that are energy efficient and use light shields to reduce glares. LED lights if used well can be an answer here. We can also work towards policies that seek better strategies of utilizing light energy and is eco-friendly. Spread awareness about this issue and help others to use their lights efficiently. All these will aid us in protecting our planet better and being responsible guardians of it.

Benefits of Learning Music

Music is one of the greatest gifts ever given to mankind. It has played an important role in the development of civilization and is an intrinsic part of all cultures. With a greater emphasis on overall personality development, we see many people opting to learn skills that are not academic in order to develop their talents. Co-curricular activities are necessary for the wholesome growth of a child as well as for the well-being of the individual at all stages of life. Learning music is one such activity that is fun and invigorating for people of all ages. This could mean being trained to sing, to play instruments or even to learn music theory like a subject in school. The number of music schools are on the rise in most of our urban cities. Many of them teach Western Music like an academic discipline with syllabus textbooks and exams. Indian classical and Carnatic music centres as well as other forms of traditional music are also taught, and one just needs to decide what to learn based on interest and talent.


Learning music has multiple benefits, particularly for students. Let us look at some.

  1. It helps with cognition and brain development

Learning music involves utilizing multiple senses and processing information in particular ways that enhance brain functions and improves cognition. Faculties of perception and understanding are bettered through regular music lessons and practice. Researchers also say that the left side of the brain which accommodates the facilities of reasoning and understanding language also develops better if one is trained in music. They will also be better at coordination and listening.

  1. It helps with academics

Owing to the heightened cognitive abilities that learning music provides, students of music will also be able to perform better in academics. This is because their senses are trained and their ability to understand concepts, retain them in memory and even to use language well can be positively influenced by this. This is not to say that music training makes you a genius in every way but that it improves your individual capacities and helps you become more aware of who you are and how you perform.

  1. It nurtures discipline

Excelling at any skill requires a lot of attention, practice and discipline. This is especially true of music. It is in regular and thoughtful sessions of focused practice that one develops the skill over time. This also influences the other aspects of our life and will help with managing time and being disciplined with various other activities.

  1. It increases self-esteem and health

Musical training lets the individual explore his own individuality and interests. In a highly competitive world, it also increases his self confidence since he knows he is capable of using his talents and skills. It creates a healthy mindset where he recognizes that he is trained well and able to use what he has learnt in real life. It is also proved to be beneficial to physical health as a healthy frame of mind will also positively affect the body.

  1. It opens up new possibilities

Music lets us explore our own talents but also opens up new worlds which we can explore. We can become acquainted with multiple cultures and their practices, which will instill respect and appreciation in us. We will learn to appreciate diversity and the rich heritages of our own and others’ histories. One can become invested in learning instruments or musical styles of a different culture and grow in our understanding of humanity. Music itself can becomee a career for those especially talented in that arena and challenges the idea that only those who are academically strong can be successful in life.