# Ship of Theseus- what makes you?

Ship of Theseus is a paradoxical philosophical theory. It was first found in the writings of a greek philosopher called Plutarch. Theseus was the founder king of Athens. Plutarch writes about Theseus going on a voyage with his crew members. During the journey, they decide to replace the old wooden planks with new ones. They threw away all the old planks and replaced it with new pieces of woods. This leads to the question- is this the same ship that left from athens? Or is it a different ship because every single piece of wood has been replaced? What if there were still 2 old pieces? Would that change the answer?

Thomas Hobbes took this theory a little further. What if a scavenger collects all the old parts the crew members threw in the sea and builds a ship? Two ships arrive at the final port A) the ship made of new planks and B) the ship made up of old planks by scavengers. Now which one is the real ship of Theseus?

A theory called the Mereological theory of identity (MTI) states that the identity of anything is based on its components. So if we try to solve the ship of Theseus by this theory then we will have to conclude that the ship he originally left on and the scavenger-made ship are the same. In other words, we can say A=C. But this would mean that Theseus switched ships during his journey which he did not. Or we can just say that A=B which means the original ship = the newly made ship. But to say A=B would imply that B is not equal to C which would raise doubts because A and C are made up of the same parts. We concluded that A and B are equal even when they are not even made up of the same parts.

Of course, the Ship of Theseus is a larger issue than ships. What is it that makes you yourself? Is it your physical characteristics? If that was the case then every time you cut your hair, you’d become a different person. Is it your feelings and thoughts? Then every time you forget some memory or have a change of heart, you will not be you anymore. People change over time and still believe they are the same from the core. What is it that makes us? This debate goes on to this day.

There is a film named on this topic. It is directed by anand gandhi. It is undoubtedly the best film i’ve ever seen in my entire life. It explores this concept, dividing it into 3 different stories of a blind women, A monk who’s fighting for animal rights and a businessman wanting to do seek an experience out of his bureaucratic life. The story merges in the end. This movie changed my outlook forever.

# Aristotle – The peripatetic thought

Aristotle’s father was a court physician to the Macedonian king Amyntas II. The connection with the Macedonian government held Great relevance in Aristotle’s life. His parents died when he was young. He was sent to Athens by his guardian for further studies. He met Plato there and started to study in his academy for the next 20 years. He was Plato’s student and colleague. When Plato died, everyone thought Aristotle will be the next director of the Academy. But due to his disagreements with some of Plato’s work, He was not offered the position.

Around 338 BC, he returned to Macedonia and started to tutor the son of king Philip II, Alexander(who was later given the tag of “The Great”). When Alexander became the king and conquered Athens, Aristotle moved back to Athens. Plato’s academy headed by Xenocrates was still the top academy there. Aristotle decided to open his school. Aristotle’s school of thought is called peripatetic.

After the death of Alexander the Great, Anti-Macedonian sentiments were high and Aristotle was charged with impiety. He fled to Athens to save his life and spent the rest of his days on the island of Eubea. One of the significant contributions of Aristotle was his creation of logic. He divided the process of learning into three parts. Theoretical, Practical and productive. Logic did not belong to any of the categories. Logic was the first step applied to learning anything. It is used to attain knowledge about anything. Logic helps in establishing truths and errors about reality.

In his book, prior analytics, He talks about the notion of syllogism. It is one of his most important contributions in the area of reasoning. A set of assumptions and affirmations are taken to come to a logical conclusion. For example- All Indians are human, every human is not religious. Therefore, not every Indian is religious. I want to let you all know that it took me 10 minutes to think of that example. The syllogism consists of two premises and that gives us one conclusion. Aristotle created some rules which would allow him to come to a valid conclusion. One example is –

: At least one premise must be universal

: At least one premise has to be affirmative

: If one of the premises is negative, the conclusion should be negative.

Aristotle believed three rules should be applied to every valid thought. Law of Identity, Law of Noncontradiction, Law of Excluded Middle. The Law of identity determines the characteristics of any particular thing. For example – A Human Being has 2 Hands, 2 legs, a stomach etc. These are all characteristics. The Law of noncontradiction means that a single statement cannot be both true and false at the same time. If you’re ugly, you’re ugly. You’re not beautiful. The Law of excluded middle claims that there is no middle ground between truth and false, something has to be either true or false. Although I and many philosophers disagree with this. Every living being is grey and nothing can be so black and white.

Aristotle believed in metaphysics and this is where he had a different thought from Plato. He did not use the word “Metaphysics”. He rather called it first philosophy. Aristotle rejected the theory of forms. To read more about theory of forms, go to the link attacked below.Plato believed the Intelligible world(made up of ideas and thoughts) and the visible world are different and the intelligible world is the true form of reality. Aristotle disagreed. He believed that if you separate those two things then there will be no meaning. Anything can be form or matter or both. He believed that intelligibility is present in everything. He believed that knowledge is gained through specific truths which are gained through experience and also art and philosophy. Wisdom, on the opposing hand, is when a person understands all the fundamental principles of all things and uses that knowledge in real life. He breaks down how things come to be through 4 causes:-

1. The material cause- This explains what something is made of

2. The formal cause- This explains what form something takes.

3. The efficient cause- This explains how something comes into being.

4. The final cause- The final purpose of anything.

Aristotle believed that the ultimate purpose of any human being is happiness. And to attain happiness, one must act with virtue. It is only through virtue that a human being can attain happiness. A person must make decisions with true virtues which he sets for himself according to his past experiences. The ultimate form of happiness, according to Aristotle, was a life of intellectual contemplation and living life with reasoning. The reasoning is what separates humans from animals and is the highest form of living. That’s all about his school of thought.

https://track2training.com/2022/07/23/plato-and-his-allegory-of-the-cave/

# Existentialism- philosophy of Human experience.

Existentialism gathered momentum during the nineteenth and twentieth century. Philosophical thoughts were about nature and truth before existentialism. Philosophers did not lay focus on human experiences. Existentialism aims to focus on human individuality and finding oneself. Though there are massive differences between existentialist philosophers, there is one common ground among everyone. The idea of existentialism is to find oneself and discover the meaning of life.

According to existentialism, the meaning of life and oneself can only be attained through free will, personal responsibility and freedom of choice. An individual creates his meaning and value through his consciousness. An individual who constantly makes efforts to expand his consciousness and the idea of themselves will always know what it is to exist. Personal responsibility is of great importance. Our choices have consequences. And we are all products of these consequences. It is through personal responsibility, that we get the power to fight our nature. Sometimes a human being has to fight his own nature to attain harmony. Our decision-making gives birth to our natural self.

There is something magical about the truths that we discover that changes the meaning of our existence and brings a new awareness into our life. When we go through a crisis, our body produces emotions like anxiety, angst, absurdity etc. There is certain meaninglessness to our existence. We believe that we have an understanding of how this universe works until we discover something that tells us something else. Those moments, when your world-view is challenged. The things that you thought to be true are false. We find it hard to accept it but a human being who is aware will find a way to accept the new meaning of life. Empathy is of great importance here. We should try to empathise with people around us who are faced with existential questions they are struggling to find the answers to. Everyone goes through a crisis and we should take note of it and build ways for humanity to deal with it in a much more efficient way. Empathising with one another is a good way to start.

Existentialism also lays great importance on authenticity. To be authentic, one must be in harmony with his freedom. One must be able to come to terms with his identity while not letting his background and history play a part in his decision-making. We can often be scared of our past selves and go into a state where we fear that we might again become who we were. This is why it becomes very important to not be controlled by the idea of yourself. You have to let go of yourself. It is the only way you can be yourself. The choices you make should be based on certain values. This brings responsibility to your decision-making.

Existentialism is often associated with atheism. All atheists are not existentialists but existentialists are usually atheists. Religion and existentialism do not go hand in hand. Even the existentialists who place their faith in some higher being accept that religion is suspicious. Existentialism is all about finding the truth about oneself and that will not be possible if we place our faith in some higher being.

* I was influenced to write this article after reading the book Philosophy 101 By Paul Kleiman *

# Plato and his allegory of the cave.

Plato was born in Athens, Greece, around 429 B.C. He was expected to become a politician by his family but he chose not to for two reasons and took the road of philosophy and mathematics. The first reason was the Peloponnesian War where he found out that some of his relatives were part of a dictatorship and were removed for corruption. The second reason was the death of Socrates who was the biggest influence in Plato’s life. Socrates was executed by the new Athenian government. Plato started writing and became a philosopher. He studied under Pythagoras in Sicily. After returning from there, he founded The Academy, a place where he and other people discussed philosophy and mathematics to come to better conclusions.

Plato’s allegory of the cave proves the power of reasoning over the senses. Personal human experiences will not amount to the truth. Proper philosophical reasoning is the only way to find the truth. To understand his allegory of the cave, you first need to understand his theory of forms. So Plato states that reality exists on two specific levels. First is the visible world which has sight and sound. Second is the intelligible world which gives the visible world its being. For example, when a person sees an ugly face he’s quickly able to identify its ugliness of it. Because in his mind he has an idea of ugly that allows him to point out ugly. He was able to spot the ugliness because he has an abstract idea of what ugliness is. The current state of that ugly face might change in the future because everything keeps changing in the visible world but the form of beauty, ugly etc is eternal and never changes. This is the theory of forms.

Suppose, one of the prisoners is set free. He escapes the cave and gets to see the world. He gets angry and frustrated after seeing the real world because he believes the cave illusion to be his reality. When his reality is disproved, he becomes angry, sad and frustrated because he is now forced to believe something else and step out of his comfort zone. Eventually, he’ll be able to make sense of what he has seen and accept that the cave illusion was not his reality. He has now accepted that his past was based on a lie and that is not the way he should perceive things going ahead because he has now found out that it was all an illusion. He goes back to the cave to tell the other prisoners about the real world. When he tells them whatever he has witnessed, they don’t believe him and threaten to kill him if he tries to free them. They are so comfortable in their fake reality that they don’t even want to make the effort of exploring a new possibility because that might lead them out of their comfort zone and face chaos. People mistake what is in front of them as reality and choose to live in ignorance. And when parts of the truth start to emerge in front of their eyes, they get frightened. Because that threatens their ignorant reality. However, a person who pays attention to these flashes of truth and is open to the idea of exploration will always have a better understanding of the world around him. Always aim for reasoning rather than simply believing what seems easy to believe.

*I was influenced to write this article after coming across the book Philosophy 101 by Paul Kleinman*

# The Pre-socratic era (Origins of Western philosophy)

Greek philosophers in the 5th and 6th centuries started to question the world around them. They thought that greek mythology was too vague, and irrational and did not ask the right questions. They were in search of a more rational approach to the truths of life. They questioned where everything came from, what everything was, the role of mathematics and the existence of plurality in nature. They believed that not everything in the world is the same and some materials don’t stay in their present state forever. That’s why they laid the principles of change which they called archê.

The term “pre-Socratic” meaning before Socrates was coined and popularised by Hermann Diels. Socrates was alive at the same time when some of the pre-socratic philosophers existed so this term doesn’t necessarily mean philosophers before the birth of Socrates. It just means a different take from Socrates’ philosophical work. Pre-socratic philosophers produced texts. No texts have survived fully. These philosophies are based on the texts that could be gathered and quoted from the later historian which was usually biased.

There were some different schools of thought during this era. Some of them were The Milesian school, The Pythagorean school, The Eleatic school and The Atomist school. The Milesian school consisted of three important philosophers. Thales was the first. Thales claimed that a single element was water. Thales determined that water could go through changes of state like evaporation and condensation. He also knew that it was responsible for moisture. The second philosopher was Anaximander. Anaximander claimed that the single element was an undefined, unlimited and indefinite substance, known as Apeiron. The thing that separates Hot and Cold, solid and liquid is the Apeiron. His philosophy is similar to the Chinese philosophy of yin-yang. The third and last philosopher from The Milesian school was Anaximenes. He believed the single element to be air. According to him, the air is everywhere and can transform into something else. For example water, objects, clouds etc.

The Pythagorean school was formed by philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras believed that every answer to life can be found through mathematical calculations. Every rationale of life is derived from mathematics. He had a very cult-like following. His students were very true to his rules and ways of life. They’d often follow his exact instructions. His students believed that his studies were the prophecies of God.

The Eleatic school was based in the colophon. It had four main philosophers. The first one was Xenophanes. He did not believe that gods were anthropomorphic or had human characteristics in other words. He believed that there was only one god and he didn’t have a physical form but he can See, Hear, Think and control the world with his thoughts. The second philosopher was Parmenides. He believed that individual experiences don’t amount to the real truth. Truth can only be found through reason and not senses. His foundations hugely influenced Plato and the whole of western philosophy. The school of Elea started using reason to find the truth because of him. The third philosopher is Zeno. He was Parmenides’s most famous student and probably his lover too. He spent most of his life creating arguments that defended parmenides’ ideas. His most famous Argument is about pluralism. The notion that many things exist as opposed to one, will lead to more absurd conclusions. He believed plurality was an illusion. His work was later disproved but was hugely influential. The last one is the melissus of Samos. His philosophy was that what it differs from what it seems. According to him it never really is what it seems.

*I was influenced to write this article after coming across the book philosophy 101 written by Paul Kleiman*

# How To Achieve Emotional Intelligence?

Each of us has a unique personality, as well as varied needs and desires and emotional expression styles. It requires tact and wit to get through all of this, especially if we want to thrive in life. Emotional intelligence is crucial in this situation.

Understanding your emotions, what they’re trying to tell you, and how your emotions influence those around you is emotional intelligence. It also affects how you see other people; you may develop partnerships more skillfully when you get other perspectives.

Self-awareness is the foremost step to achieving emotional intelligence. It simply means being aware of your strength and weakness. It builds confidence and due to this, it doesn’t let emotion rule them in any way. Self-regulation is basically thinking before you act. It doesn’t allow one to be impulsive or jealous and can be gained by controlling emotions there is more thoughtfulness than envy. Empathy one of the essential elements in emotional intelligence . Being able to identify other persons feelings and opinions help them to manage good relationship with others, and makes them avoid being judgemental or stereotypical and through these it can lead to development of motivation and social skills.

To establish social awareness in yourself the first step would be to observe around and be aware of the environment. Before forming an opinion about someone try to put your shoe in theirs and acknowledge their perspective. Coming out of your comfort zone and enjoying the new challenges that life gives you. Moreover, analyze how you cope up in stressful situations do you blame it on others and doesn’t take the initiative by yourself? That’s when you initiate with the practice of humility it will guide you to be aware of your actions and be true to it. Moreover, the main key is to keep an open mind. Whatever situation come and go it will help you understand how the world works. Grow and let others grow.

# How dangerous is Volcanic Lava?

We all know that lava erupting from a volcano can be too hot and dangerous but to what Fahrenheit and how is it monitored?

Lava flows that spontaneously utilise apertures in vents and cracks to escape are closely related to volcanic explosions. Lava extrudes with an amber glow at degrees between 1470°F and 2190°F. Lava cannot compete with the sun, which has an incredible temperature of roughly 10,000° F, even at this temperature. Practically all living things, including people, animals, plants, crops, and even dwellings, are negatively impacted by the intense heat from lava that results from an eruption.

Any substance with a melting temperature lower than 2,190° F may be melted by lava, including rubber, tanks, vehicles, trees, and grass. If it is unable to completely melt the materials, it can ignite them and eventually reduce them to ashes. But we must remember that volcanic lava is unquestionably hazardous and is far stronger than burning of wood or coal, therefore one must be extremely cautious when in its proximity.

The use of GPS devices or transmitters to aid in the most accurate mapping of current lava flows. The signals are obtained by radio waves sent by satellites circling the planet, and they provide crucial information for monitoring lava flows that may be moving closer to populated areas.

# The Christian,Muslim conundrum

I sat with my friend clive to know more about his culture. He told me how he was brought up to be a Christian and what were his values. He used to go to church every morning. Then we discussed if he has ever faced discrimination due to his religion. He didn’t feel that he has experienced discrimination. I also asked my Muslim friends if they’ve had any such experiences. They also felt the same way.

All of the people that I interviewed are from a well-to-do backgrounds. This makes me come to my next observation. Are people discriminated against because of their religion or because they belong from a not so well to do background? If you see in our society, Muslim or Christian people who have money don’t have to go through the religious stigma that other people go through. For example, a poor Muslim might have to go through a lot of discrimination as compared to a well-to-do Muslim. In today’s world if you are rich then you’re a powerful man.

I also had the opportunity of meeting a Muslim boy who was not very well-to-do. He told me that in his school, people were always given an opportunity before him. He was the last boy to be considered for every activity and he feels it’s because of his religion. I am not trying to make a stupid assumption but I feel this has some truth to it. In today’s world, if you belong to the higher class of society, you are likely to not go through any hardships due to your religion. Although, that is not completely true because there have been a lot of events where people were either kicked out or denied to take property at a certain place.

This activity led me to discover a lot of insights into the religious stigma that exists around me. I’d encourage everyone to go and ask people from vulnerable backgrounds about their lives. It serves two purposes. They get to share their sorrows and you become more informed about the situation of the matter.

# Traditional clothing around the world.

Our clothing represents our culture and way of life and is more than simply a collection of materials that are stitched together to keep us safe. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that communities have utilized clothes over the ages to convey status, mark significant occasions, and demonstrate togetherness, among many other things. And some of them are:

Kebaya -A traditional blouse-dress set known as a kebaya was first worn at the court of the Javanese Majapahit Kingdom. Women in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, southern Thailand, Cambodia, and the southern Philippines all dress in what is known as the national costume of Indonesia.

Shúkà-The Maasai people of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania typically wear sheets wrapped around their bodies, and the Maa name for this is shúkà. The sheeted clothing is generally red, however, occasionally it is combined with other hues and designs like florals or plaid. The Swahili word for one-piece clothing is kanga, and it is widely used.

Agbada-One of the titles for the sweeping, wide-sleeved robe that men in regions of West Africa and North Africa wear is the agbada. Agbada is a name that varies based on the ethnic group but is derived from the Yoruba language. Intricate stitching is typically used to embellish the clothing, which is worn for particular religious or ceremonial occasions. Aso-oke, the weaving fabric of the Yoruba, a significant ethnic group in Nigeria, is used to make several agbadas. To represent the wearer’s own sense of style, the cloth is available in a variety of hues and patterns.

Sari-India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal all historically wear the sari, which is also sometimes written “saree.” The sari is a neutral item of clothing and is mostly worn by women in contemporary fashion. It may be a completely practical item used every day or a family treasure passed down through the years.

# How leeches can help save lives?

This sounds so unbelievable, isn’t it? Many flinch when they even hear of leeches and would be more startled even if they get stuck to the skin and imagining it as part of their treatment is just shocking. Yet this is what is happening in the operation theatre across many countries. But why leeches,only?

Since bloodletting was a prevalent procedure in ancient Greece and Egypt, leeches have been employed therapeutically for thousands of years. At the time, medical professionals thought that drawing blood from a patient might both treat and prevent disease. Leeches were used more frequently than crude devices for bloodletting. The leeches would begin to feed on blood once they were affixed to the patient’s skin. Clearly, contemporary medical professionals oppose the practice of bleeding. However, many people do think that using leeches in some very specialised medical circumstances help saving lives and limbs.

Hirudin, an anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug that serves to prevent blood clots and lessen the quantity of blood clogged in tissues, is found in leech saliva. Even when the leech is removed, other compounds in its saliva keep the wounded area’s circulation flowing, giving time for new veins to develop and current ones to enlarge to carry more blood. In addition, the procedure is painless because when a leech bites, a naturally produced anaesthetic numbs the region.

However,in leech farms around the nation, leeches are raised with the intention of being used medicinally. Before attaching to the patient, they are cleaned, and they are always used once. They are sedated and discarded as medical trash after they have eaten and pruned off the patient.

# Zikavirus: A new terror?

Similar to West Nile, yellow fever and dengue viruses is the zika virus. Zika is mostly spread by mosquito bites and is carried by contaminated Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, however, it can also be contracted to intrauterin. Zika may affect anybody, but because to the possibility of embryonic microcephaly and other brain abnormalities, pregnant women are particularly at risk. It’s possible for this virus to spread sexually. It has been documented that sexual partners of sick men and women can spread the disease.

Presently, there is no established vaccine or cure. However, to prevent this disease it should be made sure to get rid of old tyres and make holes in the swings’ bottoms, clean out blocked gutters.
Insecticide treatment for rain barrels, weekly water changes, or emptying of birdbaths.During the first week of sickness, closely adhere to the precautions to avoid mosquito bites in order to help stop others from getting sick.

# The Aghoris And The Idea Of Cannibalism

“Humans eating humans” is a unique form of ideology, Isn’t it? But this is surprisingly a real fact and this is what cannibalism means in layman’s terms. Those who knew about this belief through history books, movies and etc might assume that it is all in the past but confoundingly it’s a no. Cannibalism is still followed by Aghoris in India. But who are they?

The Aghori Babas of Varanasi, India, are renowned for their ghastly and terrifying quest for heavenly salvation and their practice of devouring corpses. They contend that the dread of death, which is the most intense fear experienced by people, prevents them from attaining enlightenment. One can achieve liberty by overcoming this fear. They are one of the hermits who turn to cannibalism to get through the obstacle of spiritual freedom.

The central tenet of Aghori religion is that everything in the world, even corpses, is equally sacred. There is no such thing as good or bad according to them. The Aghoris strive to transcend all divisions, recognise the false essence of all divisions already in existence, and find eternal happiness by uniting with ultimate presence. However, traditional Hinduism disapproves of this rite. Aghoris are outspoken critics of inequality and the caste system’s enduring effects, which historically segregated Indians into rigid social groups.Also, they don’t harm any other human around them.

While some techniques are as easy as mindfulness, others could be quite strenuous and combative. There is no acceptable or thorough reason for cannibalism. It has been used by several societies and civilizations for a variety of reasons. It makes no sense in general. Instead, it is designed to fit the religious framework of the culture in which it is practiced.

# Living In Mountains.

Great things are done when men and mountains meet; This is not done by jostling in the street.

William Blake

A excellent way to escape the stress and hustle of city life is to live in the mountains. Literally, it is a refreshing change of pace. The beauty of the mountains might daily keep you speechless. Living in the hills provides solitude and a chance to reconnect with nature. A mountain house merely makes sense for you if you enjoy outdoor activities like hiking or snowboarding and frequently visit the mountains.Also, the mountains are the ideal location if you want cold summers and snowy winters. Similar to how there are several lake lives, there are various mountain lifestyles.

With significantly cooler climates at greater elevations, the mountains are a fantastic place to escape the hot weather. Awe-inspiring landscape is also present. There is clean air, and investigations have also shown that residing at higher altitudes can enhance heart health, promote weight loss, and lengthen life. The mountains offer seclusion and a variety of enjoyable pursuits throughout the year, including skiing, sledding, hiking, bicycling, and animal observation. For those who enjoy experiencing the season, the colder months are chilly and covered in snow.

There are certain drawbacks to living in the mountains. Compared to a city dweller, you are more secluded. To go to places where you may buy groceries and other necessities, you might have to travel a fair distance. If you’re used to life in the capital, it can take you some time to get used to that. Internet access and other communications networks may be more difficult for those who live in mountainous areas.

# Genderfluidity

There is no gender behind the expressions of gender, identity is performatively constituted by the very ‘expressions’ that are said to be its results.

Judith Butler

Gender fluidity describes a person’s changing gender expression, gender identification, or both throughout time. That alteration might affect identification but no representation or identification but just not expression. Or perhaps both form and identification change simultaneously.

Gender fluidity may be a means for some young people to experiment with their gender before settling on a much more permanent gender presentation or identity. Some may tend to endure gender in a fluid way for the rest of their lives.Some individuals identify as “gender-fluid.” It usually falls within the transgender and nonbinary category of identities, which includes persons whose gender identification does not correspond towards the sex allocated to them on their birth record.

The distinguish between transgender and gender-fluid.

While some people form their gender identity early on in life, others may identify with one gender initially before switching to another later. A person who was given the gender “female” on their birth certificate, for instance, could identify as a girl up until puberty and then as a guy for the remainder of their life. Even if they are not necessarily gender-fluid, this individual would be seen as transgender. Person with this developmental pattern would only identify as a male until their 20s, at which point they might come to identify as nonbinary before changing their identity back to boy later in life. Due to a shift or changes in their gender identity or sexual identity, this individual may be termed gender-fluid.Yet,it should be known that they may not use the term gender fluid as a form of an identity

The gender-fluid phrase is used to describe someone whose internal sense of self, sexual identity, or gender identification, fluctuates regularly. However, gender fluidity might appear differently to many individuals.

# The Night Economy

Do you like going to films or clubs with your loved ones at night too? Events or concerts are usually after 5 pm or the nightlife to be precise and that is what the ideas of the night economy are. Huge cities with upbeat nightlife usually have more profit than any daytime industry.

The foundation of a night time economy that benefits everyone is cooperation. It involves bringing together all interested parties, including city planners, designers, builders, managers, investors, community organizations, governmental agencies, private industries, and tourism organizations. The nocturnal economy can then encourage inclusiveness and social harmony. Develop the creative and artistic sectors.Bolster regional economies with money.Expand the cultural and tourist offerings.

Some of the daytime demand will move to the night if the industry starts to operate on a night shift; for example, if you opt to go grocery shopping at 1am on a weekday rather than on Saturday. This is a substitute that does not increase productivity overall, but it is beneficial since it will relieve daytime traffic congestion in a country like India. New economic activity, such as companies that add another additional shift, as well as the development of new firms and business models will result in increased production.

# Origin of Bonsai Plant: Ancient Japan

Most of us at least once in a while have come across a bonsai plant during a visit to friends’ houses or close ones. It is treated as the best gift for the occasion. Many believe it helps in purifying air, helps to release stress, and makes one physically active. But what could be the story behind this plant?

In the Japanese art form of bonsai, tiny trees that resemble the size and shape of real trees are grown in pots using cultivation methods. The traditional Bonsai art represents wisdom and elegance. Japanese bonsai trees often reached heights of one to two feet and required years of specialized maintenance. The twisted look of the branches, trunks, and roots was achieved by retaining the proper form while the tree developed using bamboo and wire.

Additionally, painters frequently grafted new branches onto old ones to obtain a specific form. While some plants sprouted leaves and flowers, others even produced fruit. Bonsai trees were recognized as a highly revered form of art by the 14th century.

The coveted plants quickly found their way from the monks to the palaces. The trees developed into prestige and honor symbols, just like in China. Early in the 1600s, Japanese bonsai underwent another evolution. The adept artisans started trimming the plants, removing everything save what was absolutely necessary. Because of this, a minimalist appearance was produced, which symbolizes Japanese philosophy and the idea that “less is more.” All socioeconomic groups were able to purchase bonsai plants throughout the Middle Ages (1185 to 1603). More individuals had to learn the technique of bonsai due to the rising demand, and soon small trees could be found in practically every Japanese home.

# Extinction of Newspapers

In before times it wasn’t unusual to go to a coffee shop or restaurant not too distant past and see customers engrossed in a newspaper story while enjoying their coffee or food. These days, it’s more common seeing the same customers glued to a smartphone, tablet, or other media device. The conventional newspaper has suffered as a result of the proliferation of digital gadgets with wi-fi capabilities and the overall rise in accessibility to computers. It is just a question of time until newspapers as we once knew them go extinct. With each successive year, the causes of this extinction become more and more clear.

The younger generations were raised in an age where they could use computers as well as other digital content tools. Almost every one of their knowledge and much of their enjoyment is now accessible to them at the press of a button or display. Younger generations have evolved to anticipate immediate news, which traditional newspapers do not provide.

Not just members of the younger age choose internet news sources for their news. As the majority of adults have greater access to devices with internet capabilities, they rapidly learn how convenient it is to read news stories as it occurs. By the time the regular newspaper arrives from the front door the following morning, several digital media sites have already reported the headlines online. Newspapers must go online if they want to contend with this pace.

Newspapers printed will probably go extinct and switch to digital format in the coming years. Publications can only make money by shifting their focus from news articles to authoritative essays and distinctive opinion pieces written in a magazine-style, barring unforeseeable changes in audience behaviour. Even then, more effort would be required to persuade the public that reading inkjet printing is still useful. Reviving a print newspaper would be a difficult endeavour given the competition, where known and reputable voices are now online bed partners with young, creative perspectives.

Furthermore, physical newspapers will inevitably last a long time, but they will never again be as prevalent as they used to be.

# Henna and its medicinal benefits.

The art of medicine consists in amusing the patient while nature cures the dieseases .

In East Asia countries henna has a prominent role in any celebration or occasion. It shows the richness of an east Asian culture with beautiful designs on hand. It’s scientifically termed Lawsonia Inermis.
Its earliest known usage was in Egypt around 1200 BC, when pharaohs’ hair and nails were dyed, as well as when they were being mummified. It was even rumored that Cleopatra personally decorated her body with henna.
The natural cooling action of henna, which gives skin a pleasant tingling feeling, maybe its most well-known feature (similar to chewing spearmint gum and drinking cold water). When this virtue was found, desert dwellers began using henna to keep their bodies cool. They created an air-conditioning effect by creating a henna paste and applying it to oneself. For as long as the henna stain lingers on the skin, the feeling is felt all over the body. The henna streaks were quickly transformed into works of art by the desert inhabitants. As a result, the tradition of henna emerged.
Coming to its benefits it has long been used medicinally, including as a poultice to treat burns and dermatitis and as a coagulant for open wounds. Ringworm and other microbial or fungal skin problems can be treated topically using fresh herbs. Henna’s benefits for heart health are among the least recognized. You can experience a hypotensive impact from henna water or seeds, which reduces stress on the cardiovascular system and significantly decreases blood pressure. Limiting the accumulation of plaque and platelets in the artery and cardiovascular can help prevent heart disease.
Moreover, henna has long been associated with bringing affection, wealth, and protection from wealth. It is true when one says the best medicine is usually what nature provides.

# Computer literacy is an essential.. find out why?

Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently.
Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs
and other applications that are associated with computers. The precise definition of “computer
literacy” can vary from group to group. However, “computer literate” often connotes little more
that the ability to use several specific applications (such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft
Internet Explorer) for certain very well-defined simple tasks.

The great thing about computer knowledge, though, is that learning begets learning. Once you
figure out how one part works, it gets easier to dive into other parts and figure out how things
work.
And the benefits of having some basic computer knowledge under your belt extend way beyond
just the tech industry, especially in the 21st century. And here’s why:

## They Make You a Better Problem-Solver

Problem-solving skills are universal and can be applied to virtually every part of your life, and
work, regardless of industry. From identifying an issue and breaking it down into parts to problems.

Virtually every career and industry is becoming more tech-reliant. From agriculture to education,
all are integrating tech into their day-to-day operations. It’s clear – those who have tech skills and
are comfortable working with technology will have a much easier time adapting to changing
expectations.

## They Make You a Better Collaborator

Connecting with others from diverse backgrounds increases the ability to understand multiple
perspectives. Learning from and with others all over the world is possible with digital tools like
Twitter and Skype, to name a few. Students can work beyond their classroom walls to find
answers to real problems. By engaging in this type of collaboration, individuals are even more
prepared to participate successfully in our global economy.

## They Make You a Well-Rounded Individual

Having a well-rounded set of skills and knowledge will serve you well, both professionally and
personally. Being able to list basic tech skills on your resume will make you more attractive to
virtually every employer out there, regardless of industry. And as more and more people become
involved in the tech industry, having at least a passing knowledge of what it’s all about can come
in handy when networking personally or professionally.

## They Make You a Better Leader

Companies are now reliant on technology and as a manager or CEO, it’s important to be able to work effectively with either a department that handles web development or with an outside
agency that handles the same. And if you don’t know the first thing about the jobs those
departments or agencies do, it makes it a lot harder to work with them in a way that’s both
efficient and productive.

The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.

Stephen Hawking

# Risk Profile

Risk Profiling refers to the evaluation of an individual ability to take risks. It assists in making the risk profile of the investor.

As psyche of every person differs from others.

People can be classified as:-

Risk-Averse -Don’t want to take up the risk.

Risk seeker– Is one who is willing to accept greater financial risk in exchange for more profits.

Risk Neutral- These people are neither risk seekers nor averse.

Due to it, new investors can plan their investments by knowing where they stand and what is right for them Mutual Funds, Shares, or Crypto.

Some other benefits –

•It helps in taking the right risk as per requirements and capacity.

•Bring the right investment opportunities to light, so a balance of risk and reward can be achieved.

•Help to identify psychological reactions to unexpected fluctuation in the market.

•Plan for the worst-case scenario.

# Myth Or Science?

We have come across a lot of myths our entire life. You might have heard your parents saying if a black cat crosses your path then it is a bad omen. If you cut your nails at night then evil spirits will attract you. But did you ever imagine from where do these beliefs got their existence? People say these are just superstitions and have no scientific background. But it is not true. The people who made these beliefs were actually more scientific than us. Every ritual we follow always has some science or a valid reason behind it. Today we will be exploring the reasons and science of some of these myths or rituals.

## Black cats and bad omen

A lot of countries believe in the fact that black cats when cross your path bring bad omen. Nowadays it has just been a superstition. But at ancient times there existed a valid reason for this. In older times, people used to travel on bullock carts or horse-driven carts. When a black cat with its glowing eyes would come in between the path it will spook the animals. As a result, to calm them down the riders would take a break and feed them water and food.

## Opened umbrella inside the house

It is said that if an umbrella is kept open inside the house brings bad luck. The actual reason behind this myth is, the umbrellas in older times were made of hard pointy metals. So if anyone keeps an umbrella open inside the house, there were chances that someone might get hurt. And this is how the myth came into existence.

## Chilies and lemon will avoid misfortune

People usually hang 7 chilies and lemon outside their workplace to avoid misfortune. According to superstition, the goddess of misfortune will not enter the shop or store if they do this. They believe that the goddess of misfortune likes sour, spicy flavors and if we hang lemon and chilies then she will eat it and will lose the urge of entering inside the workplace. The real reason behind this ritual is, in ancient times, chilies and lemon were used as DIY insecticides. As a result, they used to hang it outside their workplace to avoid insects and pests.

## Cutting nails at night attracts evil spirits

The main reason this belief got its existence is that back in those days there was no electricity. If we cut our nails at night there were chances that we will cut a small area of our skin as well. To avoid this, cutting nails at night was prohibited.

## Haunted Peepal trees

Many people still agree that Peepal trees at night are home to witches. But this is not true. There is a very basic scientific reason for this myth. We all know that at night time, trees absorb oxygen and emit carbon dioxide in the air. Peepal trees are very large in size and as a result, the amount of CO2 emission will also be higher. CO2 is not good for human health and as a result, there were made restrictions to go near Peepal tree at night.

## Sleeping in north direction is harmful

Earth has magnetic fields around the north and south poles. Likewise, our body also has poles where the head is considered as the north pole and the leg as the south pole. Also, it is obvious that opposite attracts and similar repels. So, if we sleep with our head in the north direction then the magnetic forces will repel causing disturbances to the brain. As a result, it is said that we should not sleep in the north direction.

To conclude, there are proper scientific reasons for all the myths and practices. Though some of them need not to be followed at present days. But there are some that will be good for our health if we follow them. The practices performed in ancient times had valid reasons but were spread in a wrong way. And that is why we find them superstitious now.

# E-LEARNING: Pros and Cons

E-learning system was one which wasn’t preferred by everybody before the pandemic. A live classroom session can never be the same as an online class session. In my opinion, classes through the internet are not generally interactive as much as a live class session because individuals might feel a little shy or uncomfortable with online interactions. There are chances for less clarity or more misunderstanding between a group or individuals. Nothing can actually beat the comfortability of attending live classroom sessions. But online classes are not that really bad!! Though they are used in rare cases, they are still quite helpful. They are technological improvements to help man save time, money and energy. In the present condition where people are battling bravely against the coronavirus pandemic, schools, college and other educational institutions are shut down. There was no time for these institutions to weigh the positives and negatives of e-learning because it became the necessary default. It is because of the improvements in technology that a child is not stopped from learning. The present generation is already accustomed to the use of technology and therefore it is a blessing in disguise because there would be no problem in the context of adjusting or learning or comfortability. E-leaning has provided a virtual place for individuals and mentors to interact with each other, learn and grow. They do have some pros and cons which are discussed below:

PROS OF E-LEARNING:

• COST EFFECTIVE- E-learning is useful because it can be accessed from any desired destination. It is a least cost way to learn any course or subject. One just needs a computer or mobile phone and there is no need for any other materials or tools. It is the most affordable learning option without any difficulties.
• FASTER DELIVERY- Generally, the organisation of real training sessions requires a lot of time and money. With the invention of e-learning, all these costs are not incurred due to virtual classrooms and sessions.
• ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY- Nowadays, there is a lot of campaigns and awareness programmes about pollution. E-learning has not only allowed people to learn from their comfortable place but also prevented pollution from their vehicles.
• PERSONALIZED TRAINING EXPERIENCE- A person can attend their trainings at their own pace in e-learning because during real classes, the trainers might move on faster will trainees find it difficult to adapt to the pace.
• INTERNET CONNECTION- Internet connection is 24*7 and a person can attend their course anytime, anywhere at their comfort.
• ENCOURAGES INDEPENDENT LEARNING- An individual needn’t be dependent on somebody to learn something. A small pay for a training or course can help a person to learn independently without hassles.

CONS OF E-LEARNING:

• TECHNOLOGY ACCESS- E-learners have to use technology in order to access the courses and trainings. The learner may neither have an experience or knowledge to use the technology nor an internet connection.
• TECHNICAL GLITCHES- E-learning comes with a lot of technical glitches which are not very easy to rectify. It needs a technical knowledge to handle such a situation. Thus, in such situations the absence of such knowledge can provide problems to a person.
• PEER INTERACTION- There would be less of peer interaction. There is anonymity between the fellow mates attending the same training. Except the trainer, we never know who is on the other side of the screen.

# Corruption:Big issue

Corruption can be found everywhere: corporate, government, courts, media, and civil society, as well as in all sectors, from health and education, infrastructure, and sports.

Corruption can affect all of the politicians, government officials, civil servants, business people, and members of the general public.
Political corruption, all of the bad in India. It is the main cause of concern is that corruption is weakening the political body and damaging the special importance of the society’s management team. Currently, the policy is only intended to be used for the criminals, and the criminals should be in the policy.

The punishment for corruption:

The prevention of Corruption Act, the Public Servants Act of 1988, or the Impact of the civil Servants Act be punishable by imprisonment of a minimum of six months and a maximum fine of five years of age and over.

Causes of Corruption in India
• * None Of The Instructions And Timely Punishment
* The lack of unity in the community
* Insufficient knowledge of the fundamental rights of the
* Lack of transparency in the activities and operations of the
• Lack of accommodations
* The lack of adequate education, and the justice system
* Unhealthy Relationships, in order to Encourage competition, India
* A lack of effective management and implementation of the
* The Lack Of Financial Stability, And India

The treatment of corruption in the country

please call for Political parties under the RTI
To Create A Right To Take Part In The Indian Politics
Improving the information technology and E-government
A Transparent tax system with a clean and clear execution
Reforms in the police department, and the full force of the Justice system
More Than Insight Into The Number Of Government Jobs
To keep inflation at a low level
Speed up your decision-making, and to increase the number of courts

# what is more valuable ?

A debate which is going don’t know from how many years…on topic “what is more valuable marks or knowledge?”

marks are just like a pass by which you can enter in the job but you can remain permanent there just by your knowledge/skills….wherever you may go you will not carry your mark sheets or report cards there.. but you will carry your mind….

you will carry your problem solving skills …

you will carry your analysis power….

MARKS AREN’T THE PROOF THAT A PERSON IS USELESS

A movie “3 idiots” which has proved that if you even become a topper by cramming and you think that you have achieved something big then my friend you are wrong…..completely wrong..a parrot can also repeat the words by cramming them but that doesn’t mean he is skilled!!!!! he has knowledge about that language in which he is speaking!!!!!

If you have good marks and you have achieved it, by learning that subject than ,it is called an achievement not then when you have 91 marks out of 100 and you don’t know about that subject……a night before study for exam can’t give you knowledge it can only provide you passing marks and you know what ??? even now many students thinking about it…….IT REQUIRES A CHANGE..

ANOTHER ASPECT …..

Many college students want CERTIFICATES they just participate in any event just for the sake of so called CERTIFICATES….they just don’t care about learning from events all they want just a 8.5 x 11 inches size certificate..

And why not may be they have seen that a bundle of certificates help them in getting placed in companies that’s why they first look towards certificates and then for skills..

In current scenario we see that every student is running behind job everybody wants a job which provide handsome salary..and why not?

we usually see if we have proof of our gained knowledge then we may have chance to get placed otherwise……

I must say if students are running towards marks and certificates then here is not only their fault… the whole society , the companies are forcing them to do so…THE FAULT IS NOT ONLY OF STUDENTS… IN THIS THOSE PEOPLE MATTERS WHO HAVE MADE THESE TERMS& CONDITIONS ….THIS SYSTEM HAS TO BE CHANGE FOR A BETTER CHANGE….

I again say that marks are just a key to get entered in the job field it doesn’t provide guarantee that you will remain permanent there…but in this whole scenario the knowledge… the skills.. that you have gain, provides you guarantee that not only in job rather wherever you go you will not have to beg….you will succeed… you will succeed…

SO FROM NOW JUST FOCUS ON GAINING EXPERIENCE ,KNOWLEDGE ,NEW SKILLS NOT ON COLLECTING SOME PIECE OF PAPERS…….