The cow in the field

Credits- dreamstine stock photos.

A farmer is in deep worry because his prize cow has wandered somewhere. The farmer expresses his concern to a milkman. The milkman reassures him not to worry because he has seen the cow nearby. The farmer tries to look for the cow in the nearby field, he sees a large shape that is black & white. He is relieved to see the cow. He visits the field just to be sure the cow is there. The cow is there, but to his surprise, the cow was hiding inside a bush of trees. The black & white thing that he saw was just a big piece of paper. This raises the question: was the farmer right when he said the cow is in the field?

The cow in the field is a classic example of the Gettier problem. It was discovered by Edmund Gettier in 1963. According to Plato, for anyone to attain knowledge, three conditions must be satisfied. Belief, truth and justification. So if a person believes something to be true and can provide a justification for it, he has attained knowledge. The three conditions are called tripartite of knowledge. Edmund believed this theory is wrong. He gave two reasons to prove it wrong. While justification is present, the justification is fallible because there is a possibility that the belief could end up being false. This means that our justification for the truth can be wrong because sometimes the source of our information can be false. Each problem features luck. In all of Gettier’s problems, the belief becomes justified; however, it is due to the presence of pure luck.

Gettier attempted to fix the tripartite theory of knowledge. he came up with 4 theories. Now instead of 3 conditions, he believed knowledge had an extra condition. The four theories are:

1. No False Belief condition: this theory states a belief cannot be based on a false belief. For example, someone at the cake you ordered the night. They ordered another cake for you. When you woke up in the morning, you saw the cake and you didn’t notice that it’s not the same cake you ordered. You think it’s the same cake.

2. Causal connection condition: Between knowledge and belief, there has to be a causal connection. For example, Rohit believes that Pratham is in the room because he saw him in the room. But in reality, he saw his twin brother Latham in the room. Although Pratham was also in the room Rohit didn’t see him. That’s why Rohit’s reasoning is wrong. According to causal connection, Rohit shouldn’t be able to prove that Pratham’s in the room cause he didn’t see him

3. Conclusive reasons conditions: A reason for belief must exist that would not exist if the belief were false. For example, you know a softie is in front of you because there is a softie in front of you.

4. Defeasibility condition: This states that as long as there is no contrary evidence, a belief is known. In the scenario with Rohit, Pratham and Latham. Rohit is entitled to say Pratham is in the room because he doesn’t know evidence pointing to the contrary.

Ship of Theseus- what makes you?

Credits- Medium

Ship of Theseus is a paradoxical philosophical theory. It was first found in the writings of a greek philosopher called Plutarch. Theseus was the founder king of Athens. Plutarch writes about Theseus going on a voyage with his crew members. During the journey, they decide to replace the old wooden planks with new ones. They threw away all the old planks and replaced it with new pieces of woods. This leads to the question- is this the same ship that left from athens? Or is it a different ship because every single piece of wood has been replaced? What if there were still 2 old pieces? Would that change the answer?

Thomas Hobbes took this theory a little further. What if a scavenger collects all the old parts the crew members threw in the sea and builds a ship? Two ships arrive at the final port A) the ship made of new planks and B) the ship made up of old planks by scavengers. Now which one is the real ship of Theseus?

A theory called the Mereological theory of identity (MTI) states that the identity of anything is based on its components. So if we try to solve the ship of Theseus by this theory then we will have to conclude that the ship he originally left on and the scavenger-made ship are the same. In other words, we can say A=C. But this would mean that Theseus switched ships during his journey which he did not. Or we can just say that A=B which means the original ship = the newly made ship. But to say A=B would imply that B is not equal to C which would raise doubts because A and C are made up of the same parts. We concluded that A and B are equal even when they are not even made up of the same parts.

Credits – Ship of Theseus

Of course, the Ship of Theseus is a larger issue than ships. What is it that makes you yourself? Is it your physical characteristics? If that was the case then every time you cut your hair, you’d become a different person. Is it your feelings and thoughts? Then every time you forget some memory or have a change of heart, you will not be you anymore. People change over time and still believe they are the same from the core. What is it that makes us? This debate goes on to this day.

There is a film named on this topic. It is directed by anand gandhi. It is undoubtedly the best film i’ve ever seen in my entire life. It explores this concept, dividing it into 3 different stories of a blind women, A monk who’s fighting for animal rights and a businessman wanting to do seek an experience out of his bureaucratic life. The story merges in the end. This movie changed my outlook forever.

Importance of seeking a spiritual experience.

I went into the Osho centre expecting a breath of fresh air and a new perspective on life. I had reached my saturation point and was seeking something meaningful. I learned a meditation technique there which changed my life forever. So the process, is that you have to lay down and breathe slower than you usually do. After doing that, you focus on your left leg and try to breathe through it. You move your attention towards the right leg and do the same. That’ll make your legs very light and peaceful. After doing this, you move all your attention to your navel centre which is the centre of your body and breath through it. If you do this correctly then that’ll give you immense harmony and peace. It feels as if all the negative vibrations are leaving your body. After this, you move your focus to your heart and breathe through it. And then from the face. In the end, you try to feel your whole body and try to breathe through your whole body. After this, you reflect on your meditation and take 3 deep breaths.

I’ve been practising this meditation for the last 2 months and it has made me comfortable with myself. I am now more accepting than ever, more confident than ever. It gave me a roadmap to working towards myself. Meditation makes you interact with yourself. When you do that consistently, you become more sure of who you are and what you want in life. I feel if you have clarity in life, everything automatically falls into place. Meditation definitely helped me do that.

I also met people from different walks of life in the centre. Middle-aged people, old people and young people doing completely different things. But doing things at their own pace and getting better at dealing with it every day. I came across a man whose name is Aditya. He is a middle-aged man in his 30s. He is not married and lives alone. In India, more often than not you expect a man in his 30s to be married cause that’s what society dictates. But he was completely free and detached from the social bounds we have. He was an artist working as a freelancer for the last 10 years. His energy was just different from the normal crowd. It was so refreshing to meet someone like that.

I always wanted to inculcate meditation in my life but I never had the discipline to do it until I started going to this centre. Meditation is so helpful for any human being because it makes you more conscious about yourself and when you are self-aware, you tend to make better decisions that affect you and you are aware of your flaws and you respect them. You find a way to deal with your vulnerabilities. I’d encourage my fellow members to go and seek out a spiritual experience free from the bounds of bureaucracy. This experience was personally so therapeutic for me and encouraged me to think in different ways and change my brain pattern towards life. It made me conquer my fear. And the only way to conquer fear is to accept it. I’d leave it at that.

Psychedelics substances and their magic.

The world we live in today continues to grow more anxious and ignorant of their surroundings. Information is indeed a boon for humankind but there’s only so much data we can process in a day. The problem is that we have an abundance of data available which is harming us in ways we can’t imagine. To reduce our tension we seek help from pharmaceutical industries but are they worthy of our trust? No. Then, what is our substitute? Or rather I should say what’s better for us? A possible answer can be psychedelic substances. In the recent past, there have been a lot of studies and experiments in the psychedelic environment which have been successful. These substances can help human beings fight depression, anxiety issues and different brain disorders. And this is just one of the realms of possibilities that psychedelics are capable of.

I will be discussing two case studies carried out by robin Carhart-harris who is a neuroscientist at imperial college. The first study revolves around the story of a man called kirk rutter who was in grief after his mother’s demise followed by a break-up and a car accident. Such events can disturb any human being. Kirk was in depression. He couldn’t think of anything but negative thoughts. He felt guilty, disturbed and sad. He called his condition “an automatic circuit” as he lost control over his thoughts. He had been on a lot of different medications but nothing helped him. Finally, he decided to participate in a study conducted by Carhart-harris. Rutter was taken into a room where the researchers studied his brain activity through magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]. Then harris explained to him about the drugs which he’ll receive and told him he’ll neutralize the hallucinogen if he couldn’t handle it. Then the two practised a technique which’ll help him calm down if he becomes overwhelmed. Rutter burst into tears while doing that. The next day he came back and was handed two pills by a researcher containing a synthetic form of psilocybin [psychedelic substance]. He lay on a bed and put on his headphones and an eye mask. The process began, the first hallucinations that he saw were some Sanskrit words and then he went on to reflect on his grief. He took his eye mask off and noticed that harris had an eye in the centre of his face[of course he’s hallucinating] and harris joked “I might be looking very different to you” they both laughed. Rutter talked about his resentment and discussed his life with harris like he never did before. The next day he returned for the second dose which was stronger. The trip was followed by an integration session where he would discuss his experience.

Rutter went on record to say “ This process made me look at grief differently. It was a realization that it wasn’t helping. Letting go was not a betrayal”. Rutter was depressed for more than 6 years before this study.  He was convinced that this experience changed his life for the better. He feared sometimes will the automatic circuit return? But he has some control over it now. 5 years later, his depression has not returned.

The second study carried out by harris included 12 people who were clinically depressed for more than 17.8 years on average. I am stressing over the term “clinically depressed”. They were also given the psychoactive substance available in magic mushrooms called psilocybin. No other medication could help this lad. One week after the oral dose all the patients experienced improvements in their symptoms. After 3 months, 5 of them were in complete remission. Harris said, “this is remarkable in the context of currently available treatments”. These researchers do not claim psilocybin to be the last resort to cure depression. They just claim that this can be done. After all, they were able to cure clinically depressed patients which no other legal medication could do.

The major argument that concerns psychedelics right now is the legalization of the substance. The science community believes that it should be legalized because it can help a lot of people fight their condition. If it becomes legal we can regulate the product and we can also create a safer environment whenever anyone consumes it. Researchers have enough evidence about its therapeutic potential and if this movement is promoted by authorities then it’ll be a huge boon for humanity. Legalization of anything increases the consumer’s safety as it’s labelled and safe for consumption. There are no major arguments against it but some scientists do believe that open consumption of psychedelics can lead to chaos but they have not considered the fact that if it gets legal it’ll be regulated. The scientists have virtually no funding to continue their research on these substances and also the public perception of these substances is very vague and false. Scientists argue that the awareness around this should be increased.

The public perception of these substances is the real problem. People put these drugs in the same category as crack and cocaine which is a very dangerous simplification. Although the majority of people are unaware of these substances but false interpretation dampers the image of the product. Psychedelics are referred to as “party drugs” but they are much more than that. The people who are aware of it are very limited and are unable to successfully communicate about it. Psychedelics needs to step out of its ivory tower and try to spread its importance where people don’t know anything about it. There are some communities in places like Haiti and amazon forest that celebrate the psychedelic culture and fully embrace it. But they are very small in number.

Before 1968, LSD and Psylocibin were legal. There were a lot of reasons for it getting banned. One of the reasons was the irresponsible behaviour of the civilians. People used it without really knowing about the substance. Your environment plays a big role when you are under the influence of psychedelics. If your environment is appropriate then your trip can be very soothing but if it’s not then it can result in psychosis. Some people ended up murdering someone. Although the biggest reason was the tyranny of the US government. Countries that had a well established psychoactive and pharmaceutical industry would’ve suffered huge losses if psychedelics expanded. The USA was one of them. The USA introduced a new classified system called scheduling. Under this system, drugs marked under schedule 1 are dangerous and offer no therapeutic value and the drugs marked under schedule 5 are safe and have some therapeutic value. LSD and Psylocibin were marked under schedule 1 even though enough evidence concluded that these substances have promising therapeutic potential. There was a conference organized between countries that had strong pharmaceutical markets and countries that we’re struggling to establish a pharmaceutical market. You can guess who won. psychedelics became illegal in most parts of the world. President Nixon’s assistant to the president John Ehrlichman went on record to say and I quote “The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. Do you understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.” And after that, the criminalization has never stopped.

My opinion on this is every person who can experience these substances should do it.  I am saying this because I’ve had some personal experiences with LSD. I have consumed LSD a couple of times and I can say without a doubt that It was the most profound experience of my life. What it does is it makes you reflect on your vulnerabilities. It doesn’t matter if you like it or not. You question your rights and wrongs and your worldview. We all are insecure about ourselves but we never take out the time to reflect and introspect. Lsd made me do that. It made me more aware of my surroundings, it made me more empathetic towards people so I can see things from their perspective. And most importantly, it made me resolve the conflicts within me.  I had created an elite class system within me that I was hardly aware of. I used to judge and see people through this class system. During my trip, I realised that and immediately made a promise to myself that I will resolve this. That’s why I chose this topic. I was personally affected and I thought I can explain to people what a wonderful thing psychedelics can be.  Like me, a lot of people find it hard to deal with their conflicts and I genuinely feel LSD can help them. If there’s such an efficient and wonderful medicine available to us, why don’t we use it for our benefit?  There’s a reason we have a DMT receptor in our brain.

I would like to conclude by saying that with proper regulations psychedelics can help human beings increase their quality of life. I’ve given enough evidence to back my statement. All it needs is some support from the government and some positive word of mouth. Soon, there will be a lot of experiments and trials concerning this.

My sources-

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-00187-9

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41591-020-00001-5

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254121216_SocioCultural_and_Psychological_Aspects_of_Contemporary_LSD_use_in_Germany

Genderfluidity

There is no gender behind the expressions of gender, identity is performatively constituted by the very ‘expressions’ that are said to be its results.

Judith Butler

Gender fluidity describes a person’s changing gender expression, gender identification, or both throughout time. That alteration might affect identification but no representation or identification but just not expression. Or perhaps both form and identification change simultaneously.

Gender fluidity may be a means for some young people to experiment with their gender before settling on a much more permanent gender presentation or identity. Some may tend to endure gender in a fluid way for the rest of their lives.Some individuals identify as “gender-fluid.” It usually falls within the transgender and nonbinary category of identities, which includes persons whose gender identification does not correspond towards the sex allocated to them on their birth record.

The distinguish between transgender and gender-fluid.

While some people form their gender identity early on in life, others may identify with one gender initially before switching to another later. A person who was given the gender “female” on their birth certificate, for instance, could identify as a girl up until puberty and then as a guy for the remainder of their life. Even if they are not necessarily gender-fluid, this individual would be seen as transgender. Person with this developmental pattern would only identify as a male until their 20s, at which point they might come to identify as nonbinary before changing their identity back to boy later in life. Due to a shift or changes in their gender identity or sexual identity, this individual may be termed gender-fluid.Yet,it should be known that they may not use the term gender fluid as a form of an identity

The gender-fluid phrase is used to describe someone whose internal sense of self, sexual identity, or gender identification, fluctuates regularly. However, gender fluidity might appear differently to many individuals.

Legalizing Abortion: A human right?

There has been a buzz going around all over the international news and social media since the Supreme Court of the USA ended the right to abortion.
By a decision of seven to two in the famous Roe v. Wade case of 1973, the Supreme Court determined that a woman has the right to end her pregnancy was guaranteed by the US constitution.
In the first three months of pregnancy (referred to as the “trimester”), the decision guaranteed American women the absolute right to an abortion; but, it also permitted limits in the second trimester and prohibitions in the third. However, throughout the years, access has been steadily reduced in more than a dozen states as a result of anti-abortion laws. Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, a lawsuit challenging Mississippi’s restriction on abortion beyond 15 weeks, was being considered by the High Court during its current term. The conservative-majority court effectively put an end to the legal right to an abortion by deciding in the government’s favor. It is believed that this has the power to transform life for women in America. Half of the country’s states will come under the effect of this law.
Furthermore, there have been mixed reactions against this law as some review it as abortion as murder because they believe life is sacred and a culture where life is expendable is promoted through legalized abortion but the majority of them have argued that women should have a right to her body and not be forced to keep the child.
Whatever the case maybe it only depends on the citizens and its voter if the majority is contented with the decision or not at the end of the day.

DISASTER – AN UNPREDICTABLE EVENT

Preparation through education is less costly than learning through tragedy

                                                                                 ~ Max Mayfield

When a person dies because of a disaster, the whole family behind him is left helpless and in a state of sorrowful environment. Recently, during a landslide in Manali a young girl lost her life due to disastrous landslide and many other people suffered too. A harsh reality of life where we see that how life is so unpredictable that anytime anywhere someone or the other becomes victim of such disasters without realising that his/her end is near. People who are saved from such disasters when stuck in such a situation find themselves fortunate that they were not the one. So, we must be accept the fact that life is not predictable so in order to deal with such a situation we must take active part in dealing with the disaster. As no one knows when a disaster would occur and  we may lose thousands of lives. 

What is a disaster?

A disaster is basically a sudden event where there is a lot of destruction of life and property.Earthquakes, tsunamis; floods are few examples of disaster which occur in different areas and regions at anytime.

How can the disasters be managed?

In order to deal with the situation of disaster, people must keep themselves prepared for all the situation which may occur in future .They must learn that how each disaster must be dealt for example in an earthquake, we must cover our head with a book or some sought of stuff that could protect us from unforeseen contingencies that may happen.

We must be prepared at home, at our workplace and know about the community vulnerability that how much are location may get affected from the disaster that may occur.There are certain tips that we must keep in mind while a disaster is known to affect our destination:

Tsunamis

  • We must listen to a radio/TV to remain updated regarding disaster
  • We must stay away from floods and damaged areas until it is safe

Floods

  • Stay clear of bridges over fast-moving water.
  • We must keep an eye out for evacuation alerts.
  • We must try to move to higher ground.

Earthquakes

  • Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.
  • Stay inside until the shaking stops, and it is safe to go outside. Most injuries occur to people trying to move a different location inside the building or try to leave.
  • Do not use the elevators.

We must remain alert everyday and everywhere and keep ourselves trained for the upcoming calamities. It is well said:

  “Training proves to be the key ingredient for handling any disaster”

WORDS : Changing the world


Words have always been impacting the world in one or the other ways, be it in written form or spoken. Literature has shaped the present world from a confined mindset to a mindset which accepts everything easily and fight logically.


Positive impacts

  • Words have definitely played a great role in bringing the world to a stage of minimal illogical practices prevailing in the ancient world such as Sati Pratha, racism and many more.
  • Words of wisdoms has educated the world and helped it to reach the technically equipped world. Definitely the credit goes to the people who imagined the impossible and had courage to bring it true.
  • Words of courage has most us the fundamental rights. Countries like India, South Africa have gained their freedom by the courageous words of their freedom fighters.
  • Philosophical words have made their way in understanding human emotions and valuing it that now every company has a Human Resources Department and they are able to target their potential clients.
  • Even words have entertained the world and made their way to everyone’s heart and helped most to get different perspectives on a single matter. Works of the great writers are still remembered even after years and is even relevant in modern world.


Negative impacts

  • Once spoken, the words won’t return
  • The biggest problems of the words are that once they are said or written, it can’t come back. So, most of the times it eventually hurts the sentiments of the people. The current world being the digital era, trolling becomes the centric problem for the people online. Tolling is nothing but harass words said online to damage the identity of the individual or group of people. Since, the trollers are behind the account, it seems easy for them to generate hate. These hate words can damage the mental peace of an individual, can break through their confidence, can lead them to depression and worst steps can be taken by them.
  • Words have the greatest power to influence the people and most people use them to take their works from others. Bad influence is a major issued faced by the present-day younger generation as they are mostly online and online is only filled by the influencers. Good influencers exists but bad ones too. Insisted of thinking logically and rational, most of the younger kids blindly follows the words. This needs to be changed in the digital world to let the world grow into the better version.

Thus, words are creating impact on each one of us. So, watch out the words, process it before allowing it to impact your mind. Neglect the harmful words and hit like for the useful words.

Computer literacy is an essential.. find out why?

Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently.
Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs
and other applications that are associated with computers. The precise definition of “computer
literacy” can vary from group to group. However, “computer literate” often connotes little more
that the ability to use several specific applications (such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft
Internet Explorer) for certain very well-defined simple tasks.

The great thing about computer knowledge, though, is that learning begets learning. Once you
figure out how one part works, it gets easier to dive into other parts and figure out how things
work.
And the benefits of having some basic computer knowledge under your belt extend way beyond
just the tech industry, especially in the 21st century. And here’s why:

They Make You a Better Problem-Solver

Problem-solving skills are universal and can be applied to virtually every part of your life, and
work, regardless of industry. From identifying an issue and breaking it down into parts to problems.

They Future-Proof Your Career

Virtually every career and industry is becoming more tech-reliant. From agriculture to education,
all are integrating tech into their day-to-day operations. It’s clear – those who have tech skills and
are comfortable working with technology will have a much easier time adapting to changing
expectations.

They Make You a Better Collaborator

Connecting with others from diverse backgrounds increases the ability to understand multiple
perspectives. Learning from and with others all over the world is possible with digital tools like
Twitter and Skype, to name a few. Students can work beyond their classroom walls to find
answers to real problems. By engaging in this type of collaboration, individuals are even more
prepared to participate successfully in our global economy.

They Make You a Well-Rounded Individual

Having a well-rounded set of skills and knowledge will serve you well, both professionally and
personally. Being able to list basic tech skills on your resume will make you more attractive to
virtually every employer out there, regardless of industry. And as more and more people become
involved in the tech industry, having at least a passing knowledge of what it’s all about can come
in handy when networking personally or professionally.

They Make You a Better Leader

Companies are now reliant on technology and as a manager or CEO, it’s important to be able to work effectively with either a department that handles web development or with an outside
agency that handles the same. And if you don’t know the first thing about the jobs those
departments or agencies do, it makes it a lot harder to work with them in a way that’s both
efficient and productive.

The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.

Stephen Hawking

Why Child marraige should be banned ?

Child marraige refers to a marraige ( formal or informal ) of a child aged less than 18 to another child or an adult. In india a third of the global total girl children are married . Although child marraige is banned in india but this practice is still prevalent in many parts of the country like UP , Bihar , Maharashtra etc . It is a global issue as it is also prevalent in countries like Niger , Bangladesh , Mali , Chad , Guinea and Nepal .

Child marraige is primarily a poverty driven practice. A girl child is seen either as a burden or a ‘commodity’ which can be married off or sold for money. Often a girl loses all the future prospects of education after the marraige . Also , girls are forced to become a mother as soon as they get married in many countries. This puts them at a higher risk of STDs , teenage pregnancy , abortion and premature births. They are involved in household activities and have no chance of making a future or career.

A young boy who is put in a child marraige may not be ready to accept fatherhood. He may not be able to earn livelihood for the family.

Often in a child marraige , parenthood is inadequate and the marraige can be unstable . Most of the times there is no legal consent taken from either gender . Child marraige can leave children emotionally and physically traumatised and scarred for their life . In an age where they should study , play , make friends and discover themselves , they are involved in parenting and earning for the family. Child marraige is menace that should be completely erased from the world .

Empowering children by giving them education and spreading awareness among the masses regarding the hazards of child marraige can be done to stop this practice. Laws and practices will also help in curbing this menace. Proper incentives and opportunities should be provided to a poor family so that they do not get their children married off early . Overall , if a society works for completely eradicating this practice , then we can surely save children and teenagers from losing their youth and their future.

Things to expect from your first counselling or therapy session

A counselling session is meant to help a person with certain mental or emotional problems and giving them advice and suggestions on how to cope up with them. Counselling is done primarily for the purpose of solving issues related to mental health . Major issues that have become common today are depression , anxiety , bipolar disorder and trauma which can even lead to an outcome as drastic as suicide.
Therapy can prove to be a very effective solution for such mental issues . There are many types of therapy such as cognitive behavioral therapy , psychoanalytic therapy , exposure therapy etc. Talking to a psychologist or doing some activities as directed by them can make changes in your overall mental and emotional health. You should choose your therapist according to your needs and convenience , for example if a girl feels more comfortable in sharing her experience with a woman then she can choose a female therapist .

When you sit for your first counselling session , there are some things which you can expect to happen . First of all , you may feel overwhelmed while sharing your experience with the therapist and it is totally normal . If you feel like crying , then you should cry . There is no need to hold back as you are sitting in the therapy to solve your problems . Giving an honest and true account of your feelings and emotions is important.

Your first session is not the only session you are going to sit for , there will be many in the coming future. So dont expect big results from your first experience . A mental issue that has developed over years or months needs time . Change will happen slowly and it will take some time to again start feeling better.

You should try sharing maximum with your therapist . Dont try to hide anything unless and until it is really something that you dont want anyone to know. There is no need to feel ashamed or judged as everyone makes mistakes . Make full use of your space and be comfortable before your start interaction . The therapist is not sitting there to judge you or punish you.

At some stage you may feel that sitting for the session was probably a mistake or you should not have done this . Remember you must have come for counselling only after feeling that there is no other option. If you feel that your therapist is not able to understand you appropriately or you dont feel that you struck a vibe or rythm with them , then you can very well change your therapist. You are not supposed to proceed if you dont feel so.

Your first session may be a little overbearing and can leave you feel light headed at the same time. You may feel guilt , remorse , anger or irritation while interacting and calm , relaxed and peaceful after the session.

Overall , your first counselling session is supposed to set you on a path to recovery from a mental issue. Dont be nervous or afraid as it is not an examination or a test . One thing that you can do to avoid being a little spontaneous during the session is to plan what you want to say and how you to say that. Planning will aid you in sharing your experience in a systematic manner . Take your time to plan and try to stick to your plan. So psych yourself up and All the very best to you for your first session !

Biofuel and its Types: An Overview

Biofuel is a renewable fuel, which can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels. They are produced from biomass- plant or algae material or animal waste. These sources of biofuel are also known as feedstock. A few examples of feedstock used to produce biofuels are: Vegetable/ Edible Oils (like Canola oil, Safflower oil), Non-Edible Oils (like Almond oil, Salmon oil), Animal fat (Lard, Tallow) and other sources such as Algae, Fungi and Bacteria.

There are four categories in which Biofuels are classified. They are: First Generation, Second Generation, Third Generation and Fourth Generation.

  • First Generation Biofuels: They are made from starch, sugar or animal fats using conventional methods such as fermentation, distillation and transesterification. Hence, they are also called conventional biofuels.
  • Second Generation Biofuels: They are made from woody biomasses as well as agricultural residues and wastes like corn stalk and bagasse.
  • Third Generation Biofuels: They are made from oil extracted from algae.
  • Fourth Generation Biofuels: They are made from electro fuels and solar fuels. Electro fuels are obtained by storing electricity produced from renewable sources in the chemical bonds of liquid or gaseous fuels. Solar fuels are obtained from common materials (example: Carbon dioxide) by the action of solar energy.

There are four common types of Biofuel. They are Bioethanol, Biodiesel, Biogas and Biobutanol

Bioethanol

It is a type of biofuel used as an alternative automobile fuel source. It is produced from feedstocks like sugarcane, algae, corn or various other biomass. The feedstocks are treated with enzymes and undergo the process of fermentation. Bioethanol, along with carbon dioxide, is a by-product released during the whole process. It is majorly used as an alternative fuel to gasoline in internal combustion vehicles.

Advantages of Bioethanol:

  • Ethanol undergoes complete combustion and hence bioethanol burns more clearly in air than petroleum fuels
  • It is a renewable energy resource
  • Any fuel spills are more easily biodegradable

Disadvantages of Bioethanol:

  • Typical automobile engines may need to be modified to use biofuel
  • The production process is slightly expensive
  • Some amount of carbon dioxide gets released along with bioethanol in the production process

Biodiesel

Biodiesel is obtained from natural sources such as triglyceride containing vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification. It is used in vehicles, aircrafts, railways, as a heating oil and for cleaning oil spills. The structure of biodiesel is similar to that of petroleum diesel fuel. Apart from that, in engines, it operates similarly to petroleum diesel fuel. Thus, it can be used easily in engines requiring little modifications to the engines.

Advantages of Biodiesel:

  • It helps to lubricate the engine which in turn decreases engine wear
  • It does not have sulfur content hence it doesn’t contribute to acid rain

Disadvantages of Biodiesel:

  • Biodiesel can release nitrogen oxide which can lead to the formation of smog
  • Its cost varies according to feedstock used and market conditions

Biogas

Biogas is a renewable energy source; a natural fuel. It is produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is produced by the aerobic digestion of organic matter. Biogas comprises of primarily methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes.

Advantages of Biogas:

  • The slurry produced after the production of biogas can be used as manure
  • There is less emission of greenhouse gases
  • It is a renewable energy source as it is produced from waste which gets generated everyday in enormous quantities
  • It is a healthier alternative to the use of firewood for cooking in rural areas

Disadvantages of Biogas:

  • The production process is temperature dependent, as the bacteria need a temperature of around 37°C for digestion. As a result, in areas with a cold climate, there is an extra requirement of heat supply
  • Biogas contains methane, a highly flammable material. If proper care is not taken while handling, it may come into contact with oxygen and violently produce carbon dioxide
  • Despite purification, biogas still contains impurities which may lead to metal corrosion
  • It is unable to be used on a large scale as there is no efficient production system

Biobutanol

Biobutanol is an alcoholic biofuel gaining traction. It is produced by the fermentation of sugar in biomass through the action of microbes. Clostridium acetobutylicum is a commonly used microorganism species. The sugars then get broken down into various alcohols, including butanol. Since it is obtained from biomass it is called Biobutanol. Its major use is as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It also shows potential as an industrial solvent.

Advantages of Biobutanol:

  • Biobutanol has a low vapor pressure, which means that it has a low volatility and a lower risk of evaporation
  • It has fewer emissions than other petroleum fuels. Compared to gasoline, it reduces carbon emissions by 85%

Disadvantages of Biobutanol:

  • The yield obtained and the speed of production are partially dependent on the microorganism used
  • The separation of butanol from the fermentation broth is slightly costly

In the age of global warming, it is necessary for governments and scientists to carry out more research into different biofuels and ways to harness them efficiently. This will not only reduce global warming to an extent, but also helps conserve fossil fuel and build towards a healthy and green future for our planet.

Importance of Discipline

Discipline refers to the act of making people obey laws. In addition, it means adhering to certain accepted standards of conduct. Discipline is certainly a vital part of everyone’s life. An unruly life is a life full of chaos and confusion. Most importantly, discipline makes a person a better person. Discipline is a vital factor.

Why Is Discipline Important?
First, discipline helps a person to become more focused. In addition, the instructor tends to focus too much on his job, his activities, or his goals. Discipline, in turn, helps a person to avoid various distractions. A sense of sincerity and seriousness comes from discipline. As a result, high-quality focus is the result of discipline.

Discipline brings great honor to a person who is from others. A person who is disciplined by nature can take the respect of others. Bringing discipline into one’s life is a daunting task. As a result, people are drawn to such a person who is able to fill his life with discipline.

Another significant effect of discipline is good health. A qualified person has the right routine. Therefore, a trained person has a set time to eat, sleep, get up, exercise, work, etc. Moreover, such a person is very strict about his diet. As a result, all of these steps ensure the health and physical well-being of the person.

Self-control is a wonderful benefit of discipline. The disciplined person controls and controls his actions better. A person who has quit is careful not to use his words when talking to others. Moreover, such a person makes sure that his conduct is always honorable and appropriate.

Having more time is a valuable benefit of staying in education. A trained person will certainly have more time than an uncontrolled person. This is because a disciplinarian will not waste time on trivial or useless activities. In addition, a qualified person will not spend too much time on any one job. By following this method, people will have more free time with them. This free time certainly would not have happened if it had not been purified.

Time management is the most popular form of discipline. Time management uses time as a controller. In addition, time management uses a watchdog as a ruler. Most importantly, time management ensures that time management takes place in the right way. In addition, time management marks each task within the time limit. As a result, each task and task must begin and end at a specified time.

Load-based instruction is one way. In addition, this approach enables members of the organization to understand solutions to the problem. Load-based instruction includes placing instructions for changing performance in the future. Again, this happens by following good examples of respect.

Another important way to discipline is to punish someone. This method involves reprimanding, hitting, or hitting people. Most notably, this approach is helpful for schoolchildren. This is because; many students are rude and naughty. Therefore, small talk or instructions may not work with them.

In conclusion, discipline is a very important quality that we should have in all areas of life. Discipline is a stepping-stone to success. Moreover, discipline is beneficial for us. Most important, discipline keeps our bodies, mind, and soul in control.

Yoga

Yoga is an art of ancient times which helps us to keep our mind at peace and our body fit. Yoga helps us to maintain control of our bodies and our minds. It is a good way to get rid of stress and anxiety. Yoga gained little popularity and is now spreading to all regions of the world.

The Origin of Yoga
Yoga is actually derived from the Indian subcontinent. It has been around since ancient times and is made from yogis. The word yoga comes from a Sanskrit word that translates primarily as association and guidance.

In the early days, the followers of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism practiced it. Gradually, it found its way to the West. From then on people from all over the world practice yoga to relax their minds and keep their bodies balanced.

Moreover, in the aftermath of this yoga revolution, India is known for its yoga worldwide. People around the world are beginning to see the benefits of yoga. There are several workshops and now there are even professional yogi who teach this ancient practice to people to learn about it.

Surya Namaskar in Yoga
Surya Namaskar is a series of tweleve exercises in yoga. In addition to strenuous physical activity, Surya Namaskar is also known to have excellent physical and mental effects.

There are tweleve different exercised in Surya Namaskar. You need to do these fixed twelve exercises everytime you do Surya Namaskar. In addition to good health, Surya Namaskar also offers the opportunity to express gratitude for the sun for sustaining life on this planet.

Benefits of Yoga
Yoga has many benefits if we look at it carefully. You will find relief from constant practice. As it keeps diseases in our mind and body. In addition, when we practice a number of asanas, it strengthens our bodies and gives us a sense of well-being and health.

In addition, yoga helps to shape our mind and our mental faculties. We can achieve the highest level of torture through yoga and learn to strengthen our emotions. It connects us with an unprecedented environment and improves our well-being.

In addition, you can improve your self-discipline and self-awareness from yoga if you do it regularly. You will gain strength if you do it consistently and help you live a healthy life without problems. Anyone can practice yoga no matter how old you are or whatever religion you follow.

June 21 is celebrated as World Yoga Day where people are informed about the benefits of yoga. Yoga is a wonderful gift for humanity that helps us stay healthy and maintain our health. You also have a higher level of patience when doing yoga which helps keep negative thoughts away. You get greater mental clarity and better understanding.

In short, yoga has several benefits. Everyone has to do it to keep his life safe and to benefit from it. It is the secret to a healthy and long life without the use of any artificial methods such as drugs or other shortcuts of any kind.

Save Electricity

Electricity is an important source of prosperity. It permeates our daily lives. Life without electricity would be impossible to imagine now. We generate electricity using coal or natural gas. However, people do not see the natural resources to act as limited and non-renewable. We need to save electricity so that we can save these resources.

In other words, electricity serves humanity very much. We must stop wasting energy. The earth will lose its light if there is no electricity. In addition, careless human behavior should be examined. We must understand the importance of electricity in order to save ourselves from the darkness.

The need for electricity
Electricity is needed in almost every area of life now. We need it to live a comfortable life full of all the resources and services. The earth will sleep without electricity. For example, all of our health and education facilities are electrified. If there is no electricity, the surgeon will not be able to perform the operation. In addition, students will not be able to access practical information.

Similarly, car mechanics in garages and factory engineers rely on electricity. In addition, passengers at the train station and at the airport can only travel safely through electricity.

In addition, the various modes of transportation depend on electricity only. Trams and metrics carry thousands of people every day. All of this is happening only because of electricity. Electricity enriches our modern life and helps to make it better.

How to Save Electricity
First of all, we must all understand that even a small step will be very helpful in saving electricity. For example, if everyone in each household turns on a fan when not in use, thousands of watts of electricity can be saved.

Similarly, if we use our air conditioners, heaters, ovens, refrigerators and so on properly, we can save a lot of electricity effectively.

In addition, try to use more natural light. Do not store unnecessary lights in the morning and in the afternoon. Do what is done with natural light as it is enough. We have to replace all our old equipment because it consumes a lot of electricity. In other words, we should strive to make our homes work harder.

In addition, always remember to turn off your electrical gadgets when not in use. These devices use at least 10% of electricity even when not in use. Therefore, take them out to save energy.

In addition, try to reduce the amount of time you spend watching TV. Encourage children to read and play outside instead. Similarly, try using laptops instead of desktops. Desktops use more power than a laptop. You should also turn off the fans when using your air conditioner, thus avoiding unnecessary waste.

Most importantly, installing solar panels can be extremely helpful. They are very economical and help save a lot of energy. Solar panels will help to consume less energy and economically. Similarly, industries that use megawatts should install generators. This can help to get cheap electricity by natural means.

Tips for safe internet banking

All through the year, banks and financial institution are taking up innovative measures to protect its customers from such banking frauds. But sometimes it’s our very own negligence that makes us fall prey to such thefts. Whilst, both the banks and financial institutions are doing their part, we should too adopt a cautious attitude to protect ourselves. So, to help you out in this process, we have a gathered a list of some tips for safe internet banking that you can consider doing.

Digital advancements have made our lives much easier, we can now order food or purchase things in the comfort of our homes. These rapidly evolving advancements are also transforming the banking and financial sector in India. Whether someone is transferring funds, paying a bill or applying for such loans such technologies are enabling customers to do it in a more efficient and effective way. The number of users opting for internet banking is expected to double by 2020, making India an important hub for financial innovation. However, internet banking, just like like any other medium if not done with utmost precaution can prove to be risky. There are scams like phishing( fraudulent means for attaining confidential information) associated with internet banking which enables a third-party to access and misuse your personal information.

Banking online has made managing money a lot more convenient than it used to be. We don’t have to visit the bank to transfer our funds, or wait for the next paper statement to know what the balance is. All that information is at our fingertips. But while online banking has made things easier for us, it’s also made things easier for thieves.

Criminals don’t need to plan a heist to rob someone’s bank account anymore. All they need to do is wait for you to let your guard down and expose your personal information, or send out a virus that will collect the information. The only way to avoid becoming a thief’s next victim is to carefully guard your personal information and always practice these online banking safety tips. 

1. Don’t access your bank accounts on public Wi-Fi

When you’re on public Wi-Fi, hackers can more easily access your computer and steal personal information from it. You should never access your bank’s website through a computer, tablet, or mobile phone unless you’re on a secure Wi-Fi network with a password, or using your own cell phone data connection. This is much more difficult for thieves to hack, so it keeps your information safer.

2. Avoid saving your login information

Some websites give you the option to save your login information for future use, but if someone uses your computer or mobile device after you, they could gain access to your bank accounts. To at least help prevent this from happening, many banking sites now time out after a certain number of minutes of inactivity, and do not save your information.

3. Use strong passwords and change them often

Strong passwords have a mix of upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. Many banks now require your online accounts to carry a password meeting these requirements. You should also change your password every couple of months, and use different passwords for all of your online accounts so that hackers will have a more difficult time gaining access to your information.

4. Use two-factor authentication whenever possible

Two-factor authentication is the next level of security that many banks are now offering. Usually, you give your bank your phone number, and it texts a code when you log in online. Some banks also enable you to request a code via email or a phone call. You must enter this code in addition to your password to log in. This way, even if someone has stolen your password, they cannot access your accounts. It’s another hoop to jump through, but it could help keep your money safe, so set it up if your bank offers it.

Fake currency of ₹17.82 crore recovered, seven arrested

NEWS

• Regarding the Fake Currency circulation in the country.

• Few facts related to it –
the measures taken by the
Government.

Fake Indian Currency note

• Refer to counterfeit currency notes circulated in the Indian economy.

Reserve Bank of India’s annual report for 2020-21

• Overall FICNs in circulation – decreased as compared to
the previous year.

• Fake banknotes of Rs. 500 denomination increased.
Increase of 31.3 per cent – compared to previous year.

• Decline in counterfeit notes detected in other denominations.

• Total of 2.09 lakh fake banknotes of all denominations were detected – significantly down from 2.97 lakh fake notes
detected during 2019-20.

MEASURES Taken BY THE
GOVERNMENT

• Terror Funding and Fake Currency

  • constituted in the National
    Investigation Agency.
    Conducts focused investigation
    of terror funding and fake
    currency cases.
  • • In 2018 – advisory on terror
    financing – issued to States/
    Union Territories.

• In 2019 – Guidelines issued – to States/ Union
Territories – investigation of cases of high
quality counterfeit Indian currency notes.

• Training programmes – conducted for the State
Police personnel.
 Fake Indian Currency Notes – source of Terror
Financing •

FICN Coordination Group – Ministry of Home
Affairs – share intelligence information among the
security agencies of the states/centre.
 Helps in countering the problem of circulation of
fake currency notes
• Government has Strengthened the provisions
in the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act,

  1. • Assists in combating terror financing by
    criminalizing – circulation of high quality
    fake Indian currency as a terrorist act.
     Allows takeover of any property that
    are used for terrorism
    • Increased security at the international
    borders – to ensure no external forces
    disturb the internal security

Child Labour

This is a word you might have heard of in the news or in the movies. It is a crime in which children are forced to work at a very young age. It is to be expected that the children will be to carry out responsibilities such as working and fending for themselves. There are some guidelines, restrictions, and limitations of the work.

The average age for a child to be appropriate, in the work are considered to be at least fifteen years old or more. Children at this age will not be allowed to enjoy any kind of work is very impressive. Why do we do this? As a child, taking away the children from having a normal childhood, a good education, and the physical and mental well-being. In some countries, it is illegal, but in the end, it’s a long way from being completely wiped out.

Causes of child labour
Child labor, for a number of reasons for this. While a few of the reasons as to why this may be used in some countries, there are a number of reasons that are specific to certain regions and territories. However, if we look at the root causes of child labour, and we’re going to be in a position to fight, the better it will be.

First of all, it is the countries with high rates of poverty and unemployment. If a family does not earn enough, and they are the children of the family, so that they do not have enough money to survive. However, as the adults in the family, the unemployed, and the young people who work for them.

In addition, if people do not have access to education, they are going to have on their children to work. The manual only care about the profit, in the short term, and this is the reason why they have to do things so that they are able to survive in them.

In addition, it is save to save the setting out of different industries, which is one of the most important causes of child labour. They are the children, since they are then they will have to pay less for the same work, but as a grown-up. As children, more than adults, and even fewer wages, they prefer children. They can easily influence and manipulate them. They only see their profit and this is the reason why you have to involve the children in the factories.

The abolition of child labour
If we want to eradicate child poverty, and we need to make some of the most efficient and effective solutions that will save our kids. It will also help to improve the future of the country are dealing with these social problems. To begin with, there could be a number of trade union organizations, who are working to prevent the occurrence of child labor. This should help a child to engage in this work, the punishment of those who are with them.”

In addition, we need to keep parents in the loop as they learn the importance of education. If we, free of charge to the education, training and awareness, in which we are going to be able to educate more and more children do not have to do with the child. In addition, in order to make the people aware about the harmful effects of the use of child labour, it is a must-have.

In addition, to the family of the control measures that must be taken into account. This will help to lessen the burden so you have fewer mouths to feed, and her parents are going to be enough to get them to work, rather than a child. In fact, each and every family in need of in order to get a promise of a minimum income to the government in order to survive.

In short, the government and the people need to come together. Of the jobs that could be given to those who are in abundance, so that they are able to earn a living, rather than having to put their children to work. The children are the future of our country, and we can’t expect them to be, in order to maintain the economic conditions of their families, instead of having a normal life.

Global Warming

Global warming is a term that we all are aware of. However, the significance of this, it is still not clear to most of us. Let us start with knowing what global warming actually is. Global warming means the increase in the Earth’s temperature gradually because of greenhouse gases. There are a number of different activities, which will increase the temperature gradually. Global warming, melting of ice from glaciers up quickly. This is very damaging to the earth, as a human being. It is very challenging to control global warming, but it’s not going to be a difficult one. The very first step in solving a problem is to identify the root cause of the problem. Therefore, we need to first understand what the root causes of the global warming of the earth, and that will help us to continue to deal with them. In this paper, the global Warming of the planet, we must find the causes and solutions of global Warming in the face of the earth.

The causes of global Warming
Global warming has become a serious problem, and needs serious attention. It didn’t matter that may occur as a result of a single cause of action, however there are a number of reasons. For these reasons, both natural and man-made. The natural causes include the release of the greenhouse gases that are not in a position to move away from the earth, causing the temperature to rise.

In addition, the volcanic eruptions were also responsible for the global warming of the earth. That is to say, these eruptions release tons of carbon dioxide, which contributes to the global warming of the earth. Also, methane is also a major concern, and are responsible for the warming of the earth.

After that, the excessive use of cars and burning fossil fuels, which results in an increase in the levels of carbon dioxide. In addition to his activities as a coal mining and cattle-breeding are very harmful to the environment.

So, that is one of the most important sources for the absorption of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, it’s just going to go away, and it is going to be something to take care of is the gas. Thus, it will result in an overall warming of the earth. These steps need to be taken in order to halt the global warming of the earth, and the earth well.

The Global Warming Solutions
As mentioned above, it can be a challenge, but it’s not out of the question. Global warming can be stopped, if there’s a concerted effort. For private persons and the authorities of both the action to be taken in the direction of achieving it. We should take steps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the environment.

In addition, they will monitor the use of the fuel. Switching to a hybrid car, as well as to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. In addition, people can opt for public transport or a car together. Then you are recycling should be encouraged.

For example, if you are going to buy, carry your own bag. Another step you can take in order to reduce the consumption of electricity, in order to prevent the release of carbon dioxide. For the government to be a part of it, they’re going to be in the control of industrial waste and the emission of harmful gases into the air. Deforestation should be stopped immediately, and the planting of the tree of life, and should be encouraged.

In short, each and every one of us should be aware of the fact that the earth is not a good sign. It’s going to be treated, and we are able to help with the healing. The current generation needs to take responsibility to stop the global warming of the earth, in order to prevent the suffering of future generations. It is, therefore, in every step, no matter how small, is a great deal of weight, and it is very important to stop the warming of the earth.

Health is Wealth

Growing up, you may not have heard of the concept of “Health is Wealth”, but in the core it is still not clear to most people. Generally, people get confused in a good health and free from any kind of diseases and illnesses. Even if it is a part of the event, and it is not at all a good health, it’s all about. In other words, it’s hard to live a healthy life, a person needs to be healthy and beautiful, both physically and mentally. For example, if you’re constantly eating junk food, but you don’t have a disease, it does not make you healthy and fit. You do not have the consumption of healthy food, which is, of course, means that you are going to stay fit and to stay alive. Therefore, in order to really live, not just survive, you will need the basic necessities of a healthy lifestyle.

It Is The Most Important Component Of A Healthy Lifestyle:
If you would like to obtain a healthy life style, you’re sure to be a few changes in your life. How to maintain a healthy lifestyle requires a consistent practices and a disciplined approach to life. There are lots of habits you might want to take, such as a regular exercise program to maintain your fitness level. It also affects your mental health, and if you are looking to improve your self-confidence, it will automatically be updated.

In addition, it helps in the prevention of obesity, and in order to help you to burn extra fat from your body. After that, it’s a well-balanced diet is of the utmost importance. If you are taking the right amount of food, vitamins, proteins, calories, and much more, your immune system will be strengthened. This, in turn, will help you to fight against the disease, and the strong, resulting in a disease-free life.

In particular, the health and safety standards, which play an important role in the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle. Your well-balanced diet and regular exercise, it will be completely useless if you’re living in an unhealthy environment. You need to always maintain the cleanliness of their surroundings, in order to avoid the risk of contracting an infectious disease.

The Benefits Of Having A Healthy Lifestyle:
So it’s clear, now, in good health is a luxury that everyone wants to be, but some of them are not going to be able to afford it. This is the point in and of itself, the member states of the importance of living a healthy lifestyle. If a person leads a healthy lifestyle, he or she will be relieved of the stress of seeking medical attention, and from time to time.

On the contrary, if you are in poor health, most of the time, you are able to spend your time spent in the hospital, and the bills are going to take away your peace of mind. Therefore, having a healthy lifestyle means that you will be able to enjoy your life. Likewise, if you have a relaxed mind all the time, you will be able to keep your loved one happy.

In addition, a healthy lifestyle that will push you to do better in life, and motivate you to achieve higher goals. What usually happens is that people who are very wealthy in terms of money, is in good health. This just proves that all the riches in the world will do you no good, when there is a lack of a healthy lifestyle.

In short, a healthy lifestyle, which is the highest blessing that should not be taken for granted. It is indeed the source of all happiness. Money can buy you all of the luxuries in the world, but it cann

MENSTRUAL HYGIENE: A MATTER OF CONCERN

INTRODUCTION
Menstrual hygiene: A challenging development issue
The major reasons behind menstruation still being a taboo in the Indian society are illiteracy, poverty and lack of awareness.

WHAT IS MENSTRUATIONS?
The blood coming out from vagina normally occurs as part of a woman’s monthly cycle called menstruation or periods. Every month, our body prepares for pregnancy. The uterus, or womb, sheds its lining in case of no pregnancy . The menstrual blood is partly blood and partly tissue from inside the uterus. We can say that periods are the onset of puberty in girls. During this time a girl goes through several physical and psychological changes in her body. It is associated with bleeding along with stomach ache , nausea as well as mood swings.
After the onset of puberty , it brings various rules, restrictions, isolation and changed expectations in the girls life by the society. These changes in attitude towards girls such as restrictions on their self expressions, schooling, mobility and freedom has far reaching consequences on the mindset of women.
MENSTRUATION- A TABOO
In the Indian society menstruation is still considered as a taboo. Till now, adolescent girls are not given proper information about menstruation. People create major hurdles in educating girls about menstrual hygiene.

Mothers also don’t talk with their daughters about this topic because they feel shy while expressing the terms. Another reason they don’t discuss this topic is because most of them lack scientific knowledge on puberty and menstruation.
Most of the people in India, especially the girls are illiterate. This is one of the reasons for which menstruation is still a relevant taboo in our Indian society. The other important reasons are poverty and lack of awareness about menstrual health and hygiene.
Very less number (less than 18 percent) of Indian women use sanitary pads.

According to the latest National Family and Health Survey 58 per cent of young Indian women (15-24 years) use a hygienic method of protection (mostly sanitary pads) which is a significant increase from the 12 percent using pads in 2010. This is a consequence of greater attention to menstrual hygiene management over the past few years in India. This not only prevails in the Indian society but is a global issue.


On a global level, at least 500 million women and girls lack adequate facilities for menstrual hygiene management. The lack in appropriate information on sanitation and hygiene facilities, especially in public places like schools, workplaces or health centres can pose a major obstacle to women and girls.

In many families women’s freedom is still in the hands of patriarchal discourse. With the evolution of these cultures, there has not been any significant change in people’s attitudes and mentality towards menstruation.

In some families menstruation is still denoted as an unclean or embarrassing thing. For them even mentioning menstruation in public or private places is embarrassing. Most girls feel embarrassed to go to a medical store to buy sanitary pads for them. There are also many girls who cannot afford to buy the Sanitary Napkins.

Most of the girls in financially unprivileged families drop out of school when they begin to menstruate. More than 77 percent of girls and women in India use an old cloth, which is often reused, ashes, newspapers, dried leaves and husk sand during periods.

During these periods women are not allowed to participate in day-to-day activities. They are not allowed to enter the house or carry in with their household chores. They are even restricted from entering the kitchens. They are restricted from entering the temple. They are not even allowed to any sacred places and also not allowed to perform any rituals. They are restricted from doing all these works because they think that a menstruating woman is impure and everything she touches turns impure or bad. They think after menstruation a woman must be purified before entering the house or other places.
While menstruating, a woman goes through several psychological trauma and mood swings . During this time they should be given proper care but instead they are treated poorly by the society.

CONCLUSION
To prevent the troubles faced by the menstruating women in our society, we must give them proper education about menstrual health and hygiene, provide financial support or distribute sanitary napkins to the unprivileged women so that they don’t have to suffer the ill fate.

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Mobile Phone – Good or Bad?

Cellular telephone is often also called “mobile smartphone”. It is a tool especially used for a voice call. Currently technological advancements have made our existence clean. These days, with the assist of a cellular smartphone we can effortlessly talk or video chat with all and sundry throughout the globe by just transferring our fingers. Today cellular phones are available in various shapes and sizes, having extraordinary technical specifications and are used for some of functions like – voice calling, video chatting, textual content messaging or sms, multimedia messaging, internet surfing, e mail, video video games, and images. For this reason it’s miles called a ‘smart smartphone’. Like each device, the cellular cellphone additionally has its pros and cons which we will discuss now.

Benefits of mobile smartphone

1. Now we may be related to our buddies, loved ones at any time we want thru many apps. Now we can communicate video chat with whoever we want, through just working your mobile phone or smartphone. Apart from this cellular also keeps us up to date about the entire world.

2. These days mobiles cellphone has made our life so easy for every day life activities. Today, you can investigate the live site visitors scenario on mobile telephone and take appropriate decisions to reach on time. Together with it the weather updates, reserving a cab and many extra.

3. With the improvement of cellular era, the entire entertainment world is now beneath one roof. Each time we lose interest with habitual paintings or in the course of the breaks, we are able to concentrate to music, watch movies, our favourite indicates or just watch the video of 1’s preferred song.


4. In recent times mobiles are used for lots kinds of legitimate paintings from assembly schedules, sending and receiving documents, giving shows, alarms, job applications, and many others. Cell phones have become an vital device for every running human beings

5. In recent times mobiles are even used as a pockets for making bills. Money will be transferred nearly instantly to buddies, family or others by using cell baking in the phone. Also, you will effortlessly access his/her account details and recognize past transactions. So it saves quite a few time and also trouble-unfastened.

Hazards of cellular telephones

1. Now day’s human beings have come to be hooked on mobiles. Even if we don’t want to cell we surf the net, play games making a actual addict. As cellular phones have become smarter, humans became dumber.

2. Extensive utilization of mobiles has resulted in less meet and talk more. Now human beings don’t meet bodily as a substitute chat or touch upon social media.

3. It is a primary challenge now of losing one’s privacy because of an awful lot cell usage. Today anyone should without problems get entry to the statistics like in which you stay, your pals and own family, what’s your career, in which is your property, etc; by using simply easily browsing via your social media account.

4. Because the usefulness of mobiles has improved so their costing. Nowadays human beings are spending a lot amount of cash on buying smartphones, which can alternatively be spent on more beneficial such things as schooling, or other useful things in our lifestyles.

Conclusion

A cellular telephone ought to each be superb and poor; relying on how a person uses it. As mobiles have become part of our lifestyles so we ought to use it in a right manner, carefully for our better hassle-unfastened life as an alternative using it improperly and making it an endemic in life.

How do you maintain a cheerful and upbeat mood when on lockdown?

Even if we’re closed, we believe it’s as vital as ever to stay connected, motivatad, and supportive of one another. We enter an area where we  can really reflect as everyone of us is  influenced by the present health issue. We all had our aspirations and  ambitions, as well as plans for the  remainder of the year, not long before  the coronavirus outbreak. Nonetheless, it appears that life has been put on wait indefinitely. Some of us have  acclimated to our peculiar circumstances, while others may feel lonely or  demotivated.

Some of us may have assumed the  pandemic would be over by  mid-summer, but Covid-19 cases are  still being reported over the world, particularly in India, and many  businesses have been forced to file for  bankruptcy.

After months and months of trying to  be positive, it may sound clichéd at this time, but honestly, what other option do we have? Should we fold, stop, or give up?

To assist you get through these trying  times, we’ve put together some mental health and well-being advice that we  hope will help you continue to look  after yourself:

1. The importance of routine cannot be overstated.

Set short-term goals that aren’t too demanding but will get you going, such as a 14-day challenge to run 30 minutes every day.

If you want to stay happy and motivated, you need a routine.Making a thorough schedule is a good habit to get into. This way, even if you fail to complete a task on your to-do list, you can always keep track of what needs to be completed and delegate it to the next day.

Revisiting your milestones so you may assess your progress at regular intervals and appreciate any successes you achieve This is an excellent moment to fine-tune, get everything running smoothly, and enhance aspects that you may have neglected when at full sail.

When the horizon seems too far off, shorten the distance by setting achievable goals.Set attainable goals to shorten the gap between you and the horizon when it feels too far away.

2. Health is wealth.

Always remember, like the ancients did, to treat our bodies with the highest respect.

Fitness, in my opinion, is essential for being positive and optimistic. Regular exercise can help you enhance your mental health and mood, which I’ve discovered can make you feel more optimistic and happy about things.

Taking care of yourself physically and mentally also allows you to develop and realise personal goals. Consider doing some backyard push-ups and sit-ups, as well as purchasing some at-home gym equipment. Set weekly goals, break them down, and gradually increase them as your skills improve.

Good diet is essential for good health, especially when the immune system is under attack. Sugar, salt, and fat should all be consumed in moderation. Consume an adequate amount of fibre. Make fresh food a priority. Take advantage of meal delivery choices if you want to eat out.

3. Pay close attention to your emotions.

It’s important to remind ourselves that it’s okay to feel bad every now and then. We’ve all had them because they’re an unavoidable part of life. After all, we wouldn’t know joy if we didn’t have pain. Make contact with your loved ones.

Limit your exposure to media coverage, as it might cause worry and panic. Choose precise times of the day when you’ll receive updates, and make sure they’re from reputable sources.

If necessary, get additional assistance: You can call some support lines to get answers to your questions or to request assistance. You don’t have to be afraid or embarrassed to contact one of these organisations. Keep in mind that the most important thing is to keep healthy!

4. Keep yourself occupied.

Because we are always so busy, time has become a valuable commodity. Now that we have more time on our hands, we should make the most of it.

Painting, drawing, attempting a new dish, or writing may all be very calming ways to express yourself creatively.” There are a plethora of methods to be present – after all, painting is a type of meditation.

Keep your cool by reading a book or listening to a podcast. Because it allows you to multitask, a podcast is a wonderful alternative to reading.

5. Be optimistic and spread positivity.

Negativity, I feel, depletes energy, whereas positive generates it. And right now, you, as well as your family and friends, need all the positive you can muster.

This, too, will come to an end. We shall overcome these adversities and emerge stronger and better than we are now. Let’s make this our objective. Let’s hope for the best. When you’re positive, I believe you have something to give. Positive thinking can help you stay motivated while also motivating those around you. Is there any land on the horizon? No, not just now. However, I am confident that it exists, and I am more motivated than ever to achieve it.

“It always seems impossible until it’s done.” ―Nelson Mandela

Malnutrition

A good level of nutrition is important to consistently keep our body healthy and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Combined with good physical activity and right amount of nutrients, it gives rise to a strong immune system, a healthy weight and lifestyle.

Malnutrition is a condition that develops due inadequate consumption of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients that are necessary to maintain a proper functioning of the organs”. Though this condition is present worldwide, it is mainly noticed in developing countries which have high poverty rate, low financial aid and poor sanitation facilities. Malnutrition and undernutrition are two words that are often used interchangeably but they are not actually synonyms. Undernutrition is in fact a part of malnutrition. Undernutrition is often due to lack of availability of nutrient-rich food and overweight and obesity which is mainly due to large consumption of processed foods leads overnutrition condition. Malnutrition however consists of both undernutrition and overnutrition. There are around 1.9 billion adults worldwide who are overweight, while 462 million are underweight. As per the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) almost 14.5% of the Indian population is malnourished. Deficiency of every nutrient creates specific health issues. Malnutrition can lead to:

  • Short term and long term diseases
  • Injury or damage recoveries at a slow rate
  • Difficulty in focussing
  • Higher risk to infections
  • Muscular weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Weak immune system

WHAT CAUSES MALNUTRITION?

There can be many reasons depending upon the type of malnutrition

  1. Low consumption of food- Some people are malnourished due to the low intake of food which might be related to their economic position which implies lower nutrients absorbed by the body.
  2. Mental health-Malnutrition can occur with people having issues related to mental health such as depression, schizophrenia and amnesia etc.
  3. Consumption of alcohol- Heavy consumption of alcohol can lead to gastritis which makes it difficult to absorb nutrients and digest food. Thus intake of unhealthy foods can lead a person malnourished.
  4. Low income- Not all families are financially well off to supply their members with a whole meal rich in nutrients nor afford to buy fruits, vegetables, meat and milk etc. Poverty is also another reason for malnourishment as they might not get food every time.
  5. Diseases- Chronic ailments are also a cause for malnutrition.
  6. Food habits- Food habits play a major role in healthy lifestyle of an individual. Consumption of processed food spoils health as it is not freshly cooked.

SYMPTOMS OF MALNUTRITION

  • Depression
  • Lack of appetite
  • Loss of fat
  • Difficulty to focus/concentrate
  • Longer healing time for injuries
  • Loss of fat or muscle mass
  • Constant sickness/ illness
  • Tender bones
  • Skin which is pale and dry
  • Anemia
  • Brittle nails
  • Joint ache
  • Bleeding gums
  • Sparse hair
  • Either skinny or bloated
  • Gastrointestinal problems

Malnutrition can be prevented if a person eats a balanced diet, engages in physical workout regularly, avoids processed and preserved foods and consume food low in carbs and fat. Malnutrition can make an enormous impact in the economy of a country especially when it is developing, the impacts are of course negative. It will seriously affect the productivity and mortality rates of a nation thereby generating inefficient human resource capital in the future.

RELEVANT LINKS:https://vikaspedia.in/health/nutrition/malnutrition/malnutrition-causes-and-types https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/malnutrition