Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.

4.Muscles

There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.

Advantage

Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.

Varieties

Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.

History

The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.

Croatian

Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.

Medals won by India in Tokyo Olympics 2020

Neeraj Chopra, Mirabai Chanu, Ravi Dahiya, PV Sindhu, Lovlina Borgohain, Bajrang Punia made India proud.

India completed 48th on the decoration count in Tokyo, its most elevated positioning in more than forty years (if one somehow managed to pass by the all out number of awards, India would have really completed 33rd. Be that as it may, positioning is done essentially dependent on gold awards won). The past best in this period was the 51st position finish at Beijing in 2008, when India won three awards, including Abhinav Bindra’s gold.

India has completed fundamentally higher in the time in which it used to win gold in hockey, yet that time isn’t actually tantamount both due to the many nations that have appeared from that point forward and the extension in the quantity of sports and henceforth decorations. In Moscow, for example, India completed at 23rd position however with simply a single decoration, the hockey gold. A rehash of that at Tokyo would have set India at joint 63rd, a proportion of how unique the two times are.

In London 2012, India had completed 57th notwithstanding winning a larger number of awards than in Beijing on the grounds that the decoration table positions nations by gold, silver and bronze in a specific order and India didn’t win a gold in London. In Rio in 2016, the award count collided with only two thus did the positioning to 67th. From that point, it’s currently gone up almost 20 spots.

SEVEN SAMURAI

1 gold, 2 silver, 4 bronze – India delivered it’s most extravagant ever award pull and the best exhibition ever at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, which finished on Sunday. Here are the people of steel and thunder who made India glad and gave the country something to cheer about in these dull occasions of a lethal pandemic.

GOLD

NEERAJ CHOPRA | Athlete

There were greater names with better records in Tokyo. In any case, while most surrendered to the pressing factor of the large stage, the 23-year-old kid from Haryana’s Panipat area savored and delighted at the time. Following his brilliant toss, millions became enthusiastic on hearing the public hymn at the Olympics interestingly since Beijing 2008. A fitting peak to the narrative of Neeraj Chopra, who risked upon the game while attempting to get in shape and who defeated a grip of wounds to give Indian games its most prominent second on the world’s greatest donning stage

SILVER

SAIKHOM MIRABAI CHANU |Weightlifter

Much was normal from Mirabai Chanu at Rio 2016. She slumped, neglecting to make a solitary quick lift. The strain to convey was smashing at Tokyo 2020. In any case, trained by Vijay Sharma, the obliging 26-year-old from Manipur easily handled the significant burdens to secure a silver happily in the 49kg class. Reclamation had never been seriously fulfilling and better for the one who got logs to accumulate winter fuel for her family as a youngster

RAVI KUMAR DAHIYA |Wrestler

He was positioned world no. 4. In any case, in the approach the Olympics, the spotlight was barely ever on the 23-year-old Olympic debutant from Sonipat. Incognizant, Kumar created a presentation of dazzling dauntlessness and perseverance while following 2-9 against adversary Nurislam Sanayev in the semis. Frantic to escape his iron grasp, the Kazakh bit him severely in his lower arm yet Dahiya wouldn’t give up till the tide was changed. Dahiya contended energetically yet lost in the last to turn into India’s second silver decoration winning grappler after Sushil Kumar. Not really settled competitor, he could well enhance his award tone in 2024

Bronze

Men’s group Hockey

None of them was conceived when India last won an Olympic decoration in hockey. Be that as it may, nothing, not so much as a possibly spirit draining 7-1 misfortune to Australia, could stop skipper Manpreet Singh’s young men from their tryst with the platform. The loss prodded them to convey one standout execution after another, subsequent in a bronze season finisher. The match against Germany was for the ages. You can continue to watch India’s 5-4 victory for the remainder of your lives. However, this group holds the guarantee of a lot more successes to come

PV sindu badminton

the beginning phases in Tokyo, she looked underneath her best. Be that as it may, similar to a finely-tuned accuracy instrument, Pusarla Venkata Sindhu hit the ideal notes as the competition crested.

WHY IS S.RADHAKRISHNAN’S BIRTHDAY IS CELEBRATED ON SEPTEMBER 5 ?

Dr Radhakrishnan was knighted in 1931, and was granted the Bharat Ratna – the most noteworthy nonmilitary personnel grant in India in 1954. He was made a privileged individual from the British Royal Order of Merit in 1963.

In India, September 5 is commended as Teachers’ Day as an accolade for the commitment made by educators to society. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan — India’s previous President, researcher, savant and Bharat Ratna awardee — was brought into the world on this day in 1888. Brought into the world in a helpless Brahmin family in Andhra Pradesh’s Tiruttani, Dr Radhakrishnan was a brilliant understudy and he finished his examinations through grants.

The story behind Teachers’ Day is that when Dr Radhakrishan took the workplace of the second President of India in 1962, his understudies moved toward him to look for authorization to observe September 5 as an uncommon day. Dr Radhakrishnan rather made a solicitation to notice September 5 as Teachers’ Day, to perceive the commitment of educators to society.

Dr. S Radhakrishnan Achievements

An extraordinary researcher, and rationalist, Radhakrishnan was the primary Vice President and second President of autonomous India. Radhakrishnan graduated with a Master’s certificate in Philosophy and created the book ‘The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore’ in 1917 and put Indian way of thinking on the world guide. He then, at that point held the post of Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University from 1931 to 1936, trailed by Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1939, succeeding Madan Mohan Malviya.

Many caps wore by Dr Radhakrishnan:

During his lifetime, Dr Radhakrishnan was a praiseworthy understudy, a commended educator, famous creator and held various posts. He proceeded to instruct at Chennai’s Presidency College and Calcutta University. As a

teacher at the Presidency College in Madras and the University of Calcutta, he was well known among understudies.

He was knighted in 1931 and was granted the Bharat Ratna — the most elevated regular citizen grant in India in 1954. He was made a privileged individual from the British Royal Order of Merit in 1963.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who was probably his dearest companion, had numerous extraordinary comments about Dr Radhakrishnan. “He has served his country in numerous limits. However, most importantly, he is an extraordinary educator from whom we all have learnt much and will keep on learning. It is India’s particular advantage to have an extraordinary savant, an incredible educationist and an extraordinary humanist as its President. That in itself shows the sort of men we honor and regard,” said Nehru.

BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.

Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

Why does a student need to be industry ready & how they can be?

What do you mean by industry ready?

An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.

Importance

A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.

Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.

Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.

How can students be industry ready?

Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-

  1. Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
  2. Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
  3. Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
  4. Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
  5. Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
  6. Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
  7. Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
  8. Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.

So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.

Bahrain

Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.

Seychelles

Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.

UAE

The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused

Philippines

In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Mountain of light: Kohinoor

Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.

Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.

Journey

Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.

It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.

After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.

Cursed?

An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as

He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.

Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.

  • Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
  • Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
  • Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
  • Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
  • Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
  • British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor

This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.

Preliminary inquiry before FIR?

In India, there is no law which gives the police power to conduct preliminary inquiry but there are certain judgements which have stated that in the case of matrimonial disharmony, police can prefer preliminary inquiry before filing FIR.

But let’s first start first definition of “inquiry”

Section 2(1)(g) of CrPC

” Inquiry” means every inquiry, other than a trial, conducted under this Code by a Magistrate or Court.

Now, whether investigation and inquiry the same?

Manubhai Ratilal Patel vs State of Gujarat:-

Investigation by police is neither inquiry nor trial

Section 157(1) in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973:-

Procedure for investigation preliminary inquiry.

(1) If, from information received or otherwise, an officer in charge of a police station has reason to suspect the commission of an offence which he is empowered under section 156 to investigate, he shall forthwith send a report of the same to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of such offence upon a police report and shall proceed in person, or shall depute one of his subordinate officers not being below such rank as the State Government may, by general or special order, prescribe in this behalf, to proceed, to the spot, to investigate the facts and circumstances of the case, and, if necessary, to take measures for the discovery and arrest of the offender; Provided that-

(a) when information as to the commission of any such offence is given against any person by name and the case is not of a serious nature, the officer in charge of a police station need not proceed in person or depute a subordinate officer to make an investigation on the spot;

(b) if it appears to the officer in charge of a police station that there is no sufficient ground for entering on an investigation, he shall not investigate the case.

Police have the authority to not investigate after filing the FIR if the matter is trivial but will have to send the report to the magistrate. Further, on receiving such report, Magistrate may direct an investigation, or, if he thinks fit, at once proceed, or depute any Magistrate according to Section 159 of CrPC.

State of Telengana vs Managipet Reddy

A preliminary enquiry may be conducted pertaining to matrimonial disputes, commercial offences, medical negligence cases, corruption cases etc. The judgement of the court and Lalita Kumari does not state that proceedings cannot be initiated against an accused without conducting a preliminary enquiry. There is no set format or manner in which a preliminary enquiry is to be conducted the objective of the same is only to ensure that a criminal investigation process was not initiated on a frivolous and untenable complaints.

Preeti gupta vs State of Jharkhand

It is a matter of common experience that most of these complaints under Section 498a IPC are filed in the heat of the moment over trivial issues without proper deliberation. A large number of such complaints which are not even bona fide and are filled with oblique motive at the same time Rapid increase in the number of judgement cases of dowry harassment are also a matter of serious concern and it is imperative for the legislature to take into consideration the informed public opinion and the pragmatic realities into consideration and make necessary changes in the relevant provisions of law.

273rd Law commission of India report

Misuse of Section 498-A in many cases has been judicially noticed by the apex court as well as various High Courts. This has also been taken note of by Parliamentary Committee on Petitions (Rajya Sabha). However, misuse (the extent of which is not established by any empirical study) by itself is not a ground to abolish S,498-A. The law on the question whether registration of FIR could be postponed for a reasonable time is in a state of uncertainty. Some High Courts have been directing that FIR shall not be registered under S, 498A (except in cases of visible violence, and the like) till the preliminary investigation is done and reconciliation process is completed. The issue has been referred to a larger Bench of Supreme Court recently. In this regard, the police have to follow the law laid down by the jurisdictional High Court until the Supreme Court decides the matter.

Lalita Kumari vs State of UP

If the inquiry discloses the commission of cognizable offence, FIR must be filed. Scope of preliminary enquiry is not to verify the veracity of or otherwise of the information received but only to a certain whether the information reveals any cognizable offence. A preliminary enquiry should be made time bound and, in any case, it should not exceed 7 days.

Therefore, police can conduct a preliminary inquiry before filing the FIR in matrimonial disharmony cases which relate to Section 498a of IPC as misuse of Section 498-A in many cases has been judicially noticed by the apex court as well as various High Courts. If the inquiry discloses the commission of cognizable offence, FIR must be filed.

Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap
Bladderworts
Sundew
Pitcher plant

All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.

Reason of existence

It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-

  1. Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
  2. In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
  3. This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys

Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.

Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.

WHY RBI WANTS US TO REMEMBER CREDIT CARD/ DEBIT CARD DETAILS?

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is stubborn about its amended rules on the information stockpiling strategy. The RBI has dismissed the proposition made by installment door organizations as to the new guideline that may kick in from January of 2022. The modified guidelines forestall installment aggregators and vendors like Amazon, Flipkart and Netflix from putting away the data of a client’s card on their workers or information bases. The bank goes about as a significant contact between the client and the aggregators. The new change additionally implies that clients with charge cards or Mastercards should punch in their 16-digit card number each time they continue to make an exchange. This will dial back the accommodation, all things considered, yet the point of this change was to get the card data and ensure that installment administrators are not putting away the information on the framework.

Why you Should Memorize those 16 digits on your Credit/Debit Card?

The progressions happen from January 2022 as is normal, then, at that point clients should enter their 16-digit card number, alongside the expiry date and the CVC for every single exchange. This will apply whether you are doing it on a shipper site or online business stage. This will be particularly unwieldy to the clients who have more than one card or have different running memberships, yet toward the day’s end, the fact is wellbeing and information security. That being said, it would work well for you to retain those 16 numbers to streamline the interaction however much as could reasonably be expected.

Try not to Expect Any Rewards Anytime Soon:

The aggregate of the internet business installment model deals with information that is put away; these organizations utilize this information to showcase new things to client socioeconomics dependent on the data they have. This prohibition of information stockpiling will make it harder for them to focus on their clients with explicit arrangements or offers. Tokenisation is one potential arrangement that these players may execute however that would mean concealing the card subtleties with codes.

Going to UPI:

With greater security protracting the course of checkout or exchange, UPI may turn into the more preferred technique for installment. Lately UPI installment strategies have gotten extremely mainstream for their fast and simple installment frameworks. Clients with charge cards may think that it is a lot simpler to utilize UPI for paying on dealer stages.

What Changed?

As the new standards have not come into full impact yet, dealer destinations and instalment doors permit cardholders to store their information on their data sets with just a slim layer of safety to check. Typically, this is finished with the CVV (card check esteem) and a one-time secret phrase (OTP). The RBI dismissed this and the interest for an annulment in the new rules. The peak bank needed to acquire the new rules in July itself however needed to delay it by a half year because of banks not being prepared for it yet. The RBI has done an amazing job to guarantee undeniable degrees of client security as the new principle will keep instalment aggregators from putting away client card subtleties on their foundation that are gotten to by shippers.

When the new rules become effective, even approved card administrators cannot get to information for smooth preparing of chargebacks, complaints, and settling issues. Despite the fact that the speedy and simple cycle is to some degree upset, it guarantees the security of the information, which is at last the best norm of tasks.

Sleepwalking

Did you ever Sleep walked? Here’s what I came to know that every 1 out of 3 kids aged between 4 to 8, sleep walk. And that’s a lot by the way.

Sleep walking formally known as Somnambulish is a strange phenomena where people get up and do things in their sleep, sometimes more than just walking and when they wake up they don’t have any recollection of what they were doing. Moreover, if they find way back to their bed they may not ever know that they were sleep walking.

Sleep walking is nothing about embarrassed about though or terrified for that matter, it’s relatively common. In a recent study Stanford found that 1 out of 3 people sleep walk at some point of their lives. It is specially common among children, between the age of 4 and 8. So what happened when we sleep walk.

Reasons

A leading theory about why we sleep walk is:-

  • In normal sleep cycle, your brains motor system continues to issue physical commands to the body.
  • Whereas those who sleep walks are suppressed by sleep chemical called GABA.
  • GABA access act as a break in your brain, it brings your mind and body down to rest by neutralizing Glutamate a chemical that causes excitement.
  • In sleep walkers there’s a glitch in the process that suppresses your boby from moving around namely that you don’t produce GABA.

So that’s why you are moving around when you’re still asleep. There are few causes of GABA deficient in the body:-

  1. Genetic sleepwalking :- when sleepwalking runs in the family
  2. Underdeveloped system:- when the boby simply hasn’t matured enough to produce the proper amount. That’s why it is more common amongst kids.
  3. Depression:- Those who suffer from depression are three times as likely to sleep walk.

Myths

You would have probably heard about the myth that you shouldn’t wake a sleepwalker because they’re going through a psychotic rage that could even kill you. But these are myths, if you see anyone sleepwalking, you are asked to wake them up gently, especially if they are in the kitchen or holding a knife.

Recently there was a story about a lady who drove 190 miles in her sleep without hurting or killing herself or anyone. She should be definitely called lucky.

India and South Asia

Southeast Asia is comprised of ten countries namely Burma, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. All these countries are members of Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Burma (Myanmar) shares a contiguous land and sea frontier with India while Thailand, Indonesia and other countries in the region share
common maritime frontiers. Needless to say, that they are India’s close neighbors, with whom its relations date back to time immemorial. The history of the ancient Southeast Asian Kingdoms, i.e. Funan, Champa, Cambodge, Pagan, Dwarabati, Srivijaya and Majapahit indicate India’s intimate cultural ties. The art, architecture, epic and language have had similarities and their origin and growth cannot be understood in proper perspective without understanding their Indian counterparts. Ashoka the Great, had sent his emissaries, Sona and Uttara to spread the gospel of Buddhism in the region of Burma, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. These nations declared Buddhism as their state religion. The impact of Hinduism still remains as part of their indigenous culture and religion. The ethnic Malays accepted Islam as their religion but the Muslims in Java have not yet disowned their Hindu traditions. Some of them still believe in animism and worship many spirits in different names. Bali remains a Hindu dominated society, and adherents of Buddhism
can be found in all parts of the Southeast Asia.


Malacca, Sunda and Lombok are the important sea-lanes linking East Asia with the rest of the world. Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand are industrially advanced. Singapore has an effective service sector in the field of finance, airlines, computers and shipping. Mainland Southeast Asia has diverse mountain ranges and rivers running from North to South, and most of them originate in Tibet. The main rivers are Mekong passing through Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Other rivers are Irrawadi, Chindawin and Salween in Burma, Menam Chao Phraya in Thailand,
Song Koi (Red River) and Song Bo (Black Rivers) in Vietnam. These rivers bring rich alluvial deposits regularly to make the land fertile. Most fertile areas created by these rivers are lower Burma, Central Thailand, Tongking and Mekong deltas. Thailand and Vietnam are the largest rice exporting countries in the world. This unit examines various aspects of socio-economic-political features of South-East Asian countries. India’s relations with ASEAN countries are analysed in this Unit. India attaches great importance towards pursuing good neighbourly relations with the countries in Southeast Asia. The policy of “Look East” is the strategy of the Indian diplomacy ever since 1991 and its major thrust has been to improve India’s existing ties with the ASEAN region, and promote trade, investment, tourism, science and technology relations. Indian policies are endeavored to resurrect close historical and cultural ties, which were marred during the colonial period. The Cold War paradigm in the past prevented India to attend various issues in its bilateral relations but the situation changed only after the end of the Cold War. Various initiatives have been taken to rejuvenate our economic, cultural and strategic connections. Total bilateral trade with ASEAN countries has shown increasing trends from 5.98 billion in 1998-99 to 7.98 billion in 2002-03.


ASEAN investments which were dismal during the Cold War period, started coming and confidence was displayed on both sides. Various packages for the promotion of tourism were mooted and now it is not limited only to visit Buddhist sites in Bodh Gaya. India is willing to attract investments from the ASEAN region and they have been advocating liberalisation and free trade. ASEAN is trying to reciprocate the Indian gestures. They recognise the importance of
India as a great market where they find the existence of middle class people in millions. Besides, they have common historical, religious and security interests. Both of them support the policy of democratisation, liberalisation and free trade. Both are opposed to the rise of fundamentalism and terrorism and both are supporting human rights to be universally respected.

Role of civil services in a democracy.

In a democracy, the civil services play an extremely important role in the administration, policy formulation and implementation, and in taking the country forward towards progress and development.

Democracy is an egalitarian principle in which the governed elect the people who govern over them. There are three pillars of modern democracy:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive
  3. Judiciary

The civil services form a part of the executive. While the ministers, who are part of the executive, are temporary and are reelected or replaced by the people by their will (through elections), the civil servants are the permanent part of the executive. 

  • The civil servants are accountable to the political executive, the ministers. The civil services are thus, a subdivision under the government. 
  • The officers in the civil services form the permanent staff of the various governmental departments. 
  • They are basically expert administrators. 
  • They are sometimes referred to as the bureaucracy or also the public service. 

Importance of the Civil Services :

  1. The civil service is present all over India and it thus has a strong binding character.
  2. It plays a vital role in effective policy-making and regulation.
  3. It offers non-partisan advice to the political leadership of the country, even in the midst of political instability.
  4. The service gives effective coordination between the various institutions of governance, and also between different departments, bodies, etc.
  5. It offers service delivery and leadership at different levels of administration.

Functions of Civil Services

  • Basis of Government: There can be no government without administrative machinery. 
  • Implementing Laws & Policies: Civil services are responsible for implementing laws and executing policies framed by the government.
  • Policy Formulation: The civil service is chiefly responsible for policy formulation as well. The civil service officers advise ministers in this regard and also provides them with facts and ideas.
  • Stabilising Force: Amidst political instability, the civil service offers stability and permanence. While governments and ministers can come and go, the civil services is a permanent fixture giving the administrative set up a sense of stability and continuity.
  • Instruments of Social Change & Economic Development: Successful policy implementation will lead to positive changes in the lives of ordinary people. It is only when the promised goods and services reach the intended beneficiaries, a government can call any scheme successful. The task of actualising schemes and policies fall with the officers of the civil services.
  • Welfare Services: The services offer a variety of welfare schemes such as providing social security, the welfare of weaker and vulnerable sections of society, old-age pensions, poverty alleviation, etc.
  • Developmental Functions: The services perform a variety of developmental functions like promoting modern techniques in agriculture, promoting the industry, trade, banking functions, bridging the digital divide, etc.
  • Administrative Adjudication: The civil services also perform quasi-judicial services by settling disputes between the State and the citizens, in the form of tribunals, etc.

Accountability of a Civil Servant :

The civil servants are responsible to the ministers of the departments in which they serve. The ministers are accountable to the people through the Parliament or State Legislatures, and the civil servants are accountable to the ministers. They should ideally serve the elected government of the day, as government policies are the functions of the civil services. However, an impartial civil servant is also accountable to the Constitution of India on which he has taken an oath of allegiance.

Problems Affecting Civil Services Today :

  • Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building.
  • An ineffective incentive system that does not reward the meritorious and upright civil servants.
  • Rigid and outmoded rules and procedures that do not allow civil servants to exercise individual judgement and perform efficiently.
  • Lack of accountability and transparency procedure, with no adequate protection for whistle-blowers.
  • Political interference causing arbitrary transfers, and insecurity in tenures.
  • An erosion in ethics and values, which has caused rampant corruption and nepotism.
  • Patrimonialism (a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader).
  • Resistance to change from the civil servants themselves.

Key Facts about Democracy in India :

  • Democracy in India federal republic.
  • Democracy in India is headed by the President as the head of the state and Prime Minister as the head of the government.
  • There is a parliamentary form of government at the central level.
  • There is a universal adult franchise.

THE INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE

British ruled over India for almost 200 years. India witnessed an array of events before attaining independence in the year 1947. The freedom struggle not only liberated us but also proved to be a significant step in the making of the nation. The Indian freedom struggle was beautified by the sweat and blood of various freedom fighters.

East India Company started dominating India in the 18th and 19th centuries. East India Company entered into India as a trading company but gradually it started influencing the political affairs of India as the East India Company got itself involved in the politics. It marked the beginning of the British Raj in India.

First War of Independence

The First War of Independence is also known as the Revolt of 1857 or Sepoy Mutiny. It all started in Barrackpore when sepoys were asked to bite the cover of the cartridges from their rifles to remove it. They realized that the cover was greased with beef and pork. One person who stood out of the crowd during the revolt of 1857 was Mangal Pandey who shot his sergeant. Later on, when he was arrested and hanged, the soldiers boycotted the new rifles and marched towards Delhi. They declared the then Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, the true emperor of India.

The Domino Effect of the Movement

  • Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi, fought against the British because they didn’t allow her to proclaim her adopted son, Damodar Rao as the heir of the kingdom and wanted to seize the state of Jhansi. The Britishers refused to accept him as the heir under the Doctrine of Lapse which stated that an adopted son could not be declared as the heir to the throne.
  • Tantia Tope helped Rani Lakshmi Bai to run away to Gwalior where she died while fighting and Tantia Tope was also hanged eventually.
  • Kuwar Singh led the revolt in Bihar and died eventually.
  • Begum Hazrat Mahal also led the revolt but ran away to Nepal later on.

Effects of Revolt of 1857

  • The rule of the East India Company ended in India and India was put under the direct rule of the British crown.
  • Indian National Congress was formed by A.O. Hume in and Womesh Chandra Banerjee was declared the first president of INC.
  • The biggest province of British India, Bengal, was portioned by Lord Curzon in 1905. It was done to apply the formula of divide and rule and create a rift between Hindus and Muslims.

A lot of other freedom fighters started participating in the freedom struggle – Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Ajit Singh, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, to name a few. All of them played a vital role in the freedom struggle. Swami Dayanand Saraswasti formed the Arya Samaj.

Moderates and Extremists – There were moderates and extremists. Moderates wanted nominal British rule. They wanted the British people to understand the plight of the Indian mass and consider Indian people and work in favor of the local people. The Extremists on the other hand wanted complete independence. They demanded ‘Purna Swaraj’ and opted for methods such as the boycott of foreign goods. Their approach was more radical.

Moderates comprised of people like Dadabai Naorojia and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra were together known as ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’ and they were the extremists.

Formation of the Muslim League – Muslims demanded a separate platform and hence, Muslim League was formed in 1906 at Dacca.

The Lucknow Pact – Congress and the Muslim League signed the Lucknow Pact in December 1916 to work together for Indian Independence.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

British introduced the Rowlatt Act that curbed the basic fundamental rights of the Indian people and allowed the police to use their strengths devilishly. On April 13, 1919, thousands of people gathered in the Jalliawalan Bagh at Amritsar. It was a peaceful gathering to oppose this law.

British troops and General Dyer marched to the park. General Dyer commanded the troops to open fire on thousands of innocent people gathered at the park that included women and children too. There was no way for them to escape and many of them jumped into the well.

This whole incident made the Indian citizens furious and gave birth to the Non-cooperation movement, also called the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Non-Cooperation Movement, 1920

 Non-Cooperation Movement was introduced in 1920. During this movement, the foreign cloth was burnt and honorary titles given by the British were surrendered. Several students left government colleges and schools and lawyers also stopped their practices. People boycotted elections.

In February 1922, at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, twenty-two policemen were killed when the enraged peasants burned off a police station. The non-cooperation movement was called off after the Chauri Chaura Incident.

Simon Commission

In 1927, a commission was sent to India by the British Government in England to bring about some political reforms. It was headed by John Simon and all the members of the commission were British. It had no Indian representative. This enraged the Indian Citizens and created a widespread revolt. The commission was met with the slogans like “Simon, Go back” on their arrival.

HSRA

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was founded in 1928 at Ferozshah Kotla in Delhi. It was founded by Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekar Azad, Sukhdev, and other people who wanted to end British rule.

On 17 December 1928, Bhagat Singh, Azad, and Rajguru killed the police officer who was responsible for the lathi charge that resulted in the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

On 8 April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central  Legislative Assembly. The bomb was harmless because they did not intend to hurt anyone but “to make the deaf hear”.

Their slogan ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ became very famous. Unfortunately, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru were hanged to death on 23rd March 1931.

Dandi March

To break the Salt Law, Gandhiji started a salt march of 375 Km from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi.

It was utterly wrong to tax salt since it is the most basic and essential ingredient of our food. This march took 26 days and Gandhiji broke the salt law at the end of this march by collecting and boiling the salt found on the seashore of Dandi.

Gandhi Irwin Pact of March 1931

An agreement was made between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin. The terms of the agreement included the release of political prisoners except for those who were involved in violent acts, permission to collect and manufacture salt and return the confiscated lands and properties.

Government of India Act, 1935

In August 1935, The Government of India Act was passed for the establishment of an all-Indian federation where it was allowed to make relatively independent decisions while remaining within a federation.

The government was allowed to conduct elections for the provisional legislatures and these elections were held in 11 provinces. Congress won the elections of 7 out of 11 provinces.

Bose and INA – Subas Chandra Bose, played a major in the Indian freedom struggle. He raised the Azad Hind Fauj, also popular by the name of the Indian National Army. This army aimed to free India from colonial rule. He also tried to get the support of Adolf Hitler but died under mysterious circumstances.

The Quit India Movement

In 1942, The Quit India Movement was launched at the Bombay session of the All India National Congress. Gandhiji asked people to ‘Do or Die’ to end the British Raj in India. He said, “We shall either free India or die in the attempt. We shall not live to see the perpetuation f our slavery”.

The British responded repressively and all the prominent leaders were arrested.  But the rebellion brought the British rule to an end.

Towards Independence

Photo by Studio Art Smile on Pexels.com

Muslim League was adamant about wanting a separate nation from the Hindus as they feared that Muslims might go unrepresented. Hence, they announced 16th August 1947 as ‘Direct Action Day’. This resulted in riots. Thousands of people were killed in these riots. The partition caused violence and many people were forced to leave their homes and run for their lives.

Partition took place and a new nation was born – Pakistan. We got independence. Our nation was finally free and the British rule had ended.

This historic event will always remain bittersweet for us. Yes, we got freedom and that is why this struggle was important. A lot of sacrifices were made. People suffered, people left their homes and some even watched their close ones leaving them behind. We celebrate Independence Day on 15th August every year. We fly kites and celebrate the freedom we are entitled to today. We also remember those sacrifices and feel proud.

Sources

https://www.britannica.com/topic/East-India-Company

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Rebellion_of_1857

https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/ncert-notes-doctrine-of-lapse/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucknow_Pact

https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/revision-points-moderates/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhi%E2%80%93Irwin_Pact

E-Commerce – Benefits and Disadvantages

Long gone are the days when you had to venture through 7-8 shops before buying a desirable mobile or shoes. It didn’t take long to get all of those suitable things you crave to be present on your few clicks which was quite unimaginable back in a decade or so.

The growth of E-Commerce escalated with double or even triple digit annually around mid-1990s and this escalation was a result of the launch of the first web browser, aptly named “World Wide Web”. Also, the sheer development of internet and its usage was a major catalyst in the E-Commerce boom. By the end of 2020, 60-70% of the world has connected to internet. Amazon, eBay emerged as the major dominators in the world of E-Commerce with Amazon still keeping up its level till date.

The development and evolution of e-commerce has made our life easier and less hectic. One can give countless advantages of it like convenience, security etc. but what about the benefits which get cloak under the blanket of the obviously known advantages?

Advantages

1) Economy – The Indian E-commerce market is likely to grow to US$ 200 billion by 2026 from US$ 38.5 billion as of 2017. Much of the progress for the industry has been prompted by an upsurge in internet and smartphone penetration

  • On October 23, 2020, Flipkart acquired a 7.8% stake in Aditya Birla Fashion and Retail, a subsidiary of the Aditya Birla Group, for Rs. 1,500 crore (US$ 203.8 million). (IBEF, 2021)
  • In October 2020, Amazon India collaborated with the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) to enable users to book and reserve train tickets on Amazon. (IBEF, 2021)
  • In October 2020, Flipkart acquired a 140-acre land at Rs. 432 crore (US$ 58.87 million) to establish their largest fulfilling center in Asia, in Manesar, Gurgaon, in a bid to scale their fulfilment infrastructure to cater to increased demand post COVID-19. (IBEF, 2021)
  • In October 2020, Amazon India invested over Rs. 700 crore (US$ 95.40 million) into its payment unit, Amazon Pay. (IBEF, 2021)

2) Cost reduction – E-commerce is affordable and requires less investment when compared with a physical store. This is also a good opportunity for an individual and a new seller who wants to earn an income but doesn’t have the required capital to run his business. Sellers also don’t have to spend a lot of money to promote their product. The world of e-commerce has several affordable and quick ways to advertise a product. E-commerce is a virtual channel and sellers can easily show off their products. In e-commerce sellers can compare the products on their own by using different tools. This gives them a good idea of product alternatives available, the standard rates, if a product need is fulfilled. This one is more benefit for the customers too so the people are more confident about the product they are buying. (Amazon, 2020)

3) Boon in the current COVID situation – World wouldn’t have asked a better boon than getting your essentials and suitable needs at home without going out in this deadly pandemic which has been haunting the world now for more than a year. This doesn’t only keep you safe but also keeps the fatal infection from contracting.

By now, we all have at least got an idea that internet has become an amazingly powerful tool to conduct business electronically. Many companies have jumped into e-commerce realm after seeing its potential and profit margin. Now here kicks in the concerns related to e-commerce business. Increasing relevance of this field also increases privacy concerns. The dearth of consumer protection legislations also starts lurking around. Indeed, the dark side of e-commerce is not short listed.

Disadvantages

1) Security – One of the biggest drawbacks to ecommerce can be the lack of reliability and security due to poor implementation. Online transactions are mainly processed via debit card, credit card and internet banking and in very few cases via the “cash on delivery” option. Website owners try to take all available precautions to protect card details. However, what if the website is hacked by cyber criminals? This is a harsh reality with ecommerce websites. It is important to remain vigilant and proactive in protecting the website and, primarily, customer-related information. Security has been an issue from the start and is considered to be one of the main disadvantages of e-commerce.

2) Lack of Privacy – The privacy invasion problem is a serious drawback of e-commerce. A customer must provide their personal information before purchasing. Some websites do not have advanced encryption technology that can protect their personal information from hackers, and this is very important. The leakage of this confidential information can create many problems for a consumer.

3) Huge technological cost – E-commerce requires advanced platforms to improve performance. If you run into issues in the form of software, network, or domain issues, you will not be able to offer smooth transactions. The right technical infrastructure is expensive and requires large investments. It also needs to be updated regularly to accommodate changing times. The cost of running a successful business is a disadvantage of the e-commerce portal.

Conclusion

E-commerce is generally defined as the automation of routine business processes and operations and their transfer into virtual space. This process significantly increases business efficiency and simplifies daily routine work. Recent research has shown that businesses are moving quickly between local businesses. Many companies are using the internet and e-commerce in more convenient ways to market their products in the local market. Most of the online retailers are cheaper than the same products they sell, which is the main reason why today’s online stores are gaining market share. Some online stores have exceptional terms where you don’t have to pay for a certain amount for home delivery. For e-commerce sales as the reports are automated. It is convenient for small businesses to go online as they can easily compete with the larger ones. In addition, online sales save costs, there is no need to rent an in-store point of sale, and storage is not always required. It is much easier to access overseas markets through the internet. The biggest shortcoming of online stores is that they cannot display a product before buying it.

REOPENING OF KOTA COACHING

CM Gehlot has given signals for opening of the coachings in Rajasthan. In his prior meetings, UDH minister Shanti dhariwal advocated the importance of issue and dependence of students career , Gehlot said Coachings likely to open by August on several laid conditions.

Demand of OFFLINE CLASSES-

Covid 19 pandemic had brought our students future to a back foot. Online education though has open wings for new doors and opportunities but also could not be counted as substitute of offline education yet. Students from all over the nation are looking forward for offline classes. Kota being the one of the biggest coaching hub of India also withholds the future of future engineers, doctors and officers.

PANDEMIC AND SITUATION

States all over the India are one by one coming forward with way out and opening of various services. Bihar, Tamil nadu , and Uttar pradesh government has given nod to the decision.

With upsurge of 3rd wave , the condition around is still doubtful. Increased vaccination though has upraised the chances to make things work out. Second round of dosage is began acorss the nation and soon vaccination to be announced for age group of 12-18.

About 1.5 to 2 lakh JEE and NEET aspirants prepare from Kota, which has success rate around 20- 30% . Kota gives 100% accordingly environment to grown and learn and high competitive atmosphere. Since past few years , students consider Kota as their best place for preparation and also results have been great.

Life and dependence on coaching institutes

Kota has a big hand in running of economy of Rajasthan also it has been opportunity for different classes to get employment. Since this pandemic scenario and people losing there main source of income, unemployed has increased severely which has a retarded effect on the lifestyle.

Lower income groups such as street vendors, book stores, stationer, greengrocer etc. whose main buyer were students of kota , have lost their jobs which hits them hard in the situation.

Seeking solutions

With strict rules laid down as per the safety of students as well as citizens there could be space for opening of “education hub”.

  • Proper Vaccination and mask compulsion for citizens as well as students.
  • Institutes can run with 50% of attendance alternately.
  • Online and offline both mode could work hand in hand.
  • Proper sanitization of the place and following the rules of distance maintenance.

Lord Dalhousie – Founder of modern India

Lord Dalhousie was an able administrator, though forceful and tough. His contribution in the development of communication-railways, roads, postal and telegraph services-contiributed to the modernization and unity of India. His notable achievement was the creation of modern, centralized states.

Other measures with the same object were carried out in the Company’s own territories. Bengal, long ruled by the Governor-General or his delegate, was placed under its own Lieutenant-Governor in May 1854.

A department of public works was in each presidency, and engineering colleges were provided. An imperial system of telegraphs followed. The first link of railway communication was completed in 1855.

The construction of massive irrigation works such as the 350-mile Ganges Canal, which contains thousands of miles of distributaries, was a substantial project that was particularly beneficial for the largely agricultural India.

He created an imperial system of post-offices, reducing the rates of carrying letters and introducing postage stamps. He created the department of public instruction; he improved the system of inspection of goals, abolishing the practice of branding convicts; freed converts to other religions from the loss of their civil rights; inaugurated the system of administrative reports; and enlarged the Legislative Council of India

.

To the civil service he gave improved leave and pension rules, while he purified its moral by forbidding all share in trading concerns, by vigorously punishing insolvents, and by his personal example of careful selection in the matter of patronage.

Another consequential set of reforms, were those aimed at modernizing the land tenure and revenue system.

BR Ambedkar: Social Justice


The contribution of Dr B.R. Ambedkar in Indian Democracy is not to be forgotten. As a Chairman of the Constitutional Committee, he gave a shape to our country of a complete Sovereign, Democratic, Republic based on an adult franchise. In the Constitution of free India all the citizens have been guaranteed social, political and economic equalities.

Baba Saheb BR Ambedkar’s name is written in gold letters throughout Indian history as the creator of social justice. Not only was he the creator of the constitution, but also the creator of social justice and the messiah of the oppressed. If Mahatma Gandhi gave us the direction and lesson of morality, then Baba Saheb shaped the social aspect without exploitation. It had, in the truest sense of the word, a democratic and antiquated goal. He spent his whole life promoting the poor, exploited untouchables. and classes with problems.
It has been a gloomy historic fact of Indian society that lower castes have been exploited and subjugated upon by the upper castes and for that reason the lower castes have mostly also been the lower classes economically and vice versa.

During the freedom movement there were many leaders and movements throughout India. The most protruding voice of and for the lower castes bad emerged in the person of B.R. Ambedkar who came from the untouchable Mahar caste in what is today Maharashtra. Even today Ambedkar is a hugely influential symbol who is followed by many political forces throughout the length and breadth of India. Ambedkar’s aim in his own words was to get justice for the ‘last, the lost and the least and he emerged as a sort of revolutionary leader of India’s Hindu untouchable and other castes. His intention was to fight for their equality and seek better-quality living conditions for them and reach education among them and get suitable representation for them in elected bodies and in government services.


During the freedom struggle. Ambedkar’s emphasis on issues related to social justice forced the leaders of the national movement to take these up as part of the agenda associated with the main demand for unshackling the country from the chains of colonialism. Ambedkar was a highly educated person with great academic accomplishments and a lawyer by training. His views on social justice are to be found in his books and speeches.
His most important works are Annihilation of Caste (1936). Who were the Shudras (1946) and The Untouchables (1948). Also, his writings like What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables. He put forward vivid well researched attacks on the exploitative Hindu caste system chiefly with respect to how untouchables were treated and struggled all his life to secure legal and constitutional safeguards for their rights. It is stimulating in spite of the fact that he had attacked Gandhi’s Congress Party’s views and attitudes on the caste system quite harshly and in a scathing manner in
his writings, despite of that Gandhiji suggested Ambedkar’s name to head the committee to draft the Constitution.


Ambedkar in his work “Who Were the Shudras?” questioned the whole Hindu social order and tried to create a theory that the Shudras were not a separate varna or caste but were originally Kshatriyas who in a struggle with Brahmins were manipulated out of the kshatriya caste by the Brahmins and were deprived of the sacred thread.
He proposed a hypothesis that the untouchables were originally disciples of Buddha and were Buddhists but the Hindus led by the Brahmins to try to undermine Buddhist influence and stop its spread put the untouchables in a corner and started branding them untouchables. He believed the root of all lack of social justice in India was the caste system that created the environment for exploitation of man by man- of the Shudras and untouchables by
the brahmins and other higher castes. He believed that democracy cannot be achieved in India without first establishing social justice through the annihilation of the caste. Hence, he took a position that contradicted both the position of Congress and Gandhiji, who first wanted political reform and independence from the British colonial government, and the socialists and Marxists who wanted economic equality also established themselves first.

THE PRESENCE OF THE U.S. MILITARY TROOPS IN AFGHANISTAN.

AFGHANISTAN: BACKGROUND AND U.S. POLICY ( in brief )

Afghanistan emerged as a significant U.S. foreign policy concern in 2001, when the United States, in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, led a military campaign against Al Qaeda and the Afghan Taliban government that harbored and supported it. in the intervening 19 years, the United States has suffered over 22,000 military casualties in Afghanistan and congress has appropriated approximately $144 billion for reconstruction and security forces there. In that time, an elected Afghan government has replaced the Taliban; improvement in most measures of human development is limited; and future prospects of gains remain mixed.

The United States and its international partners are removing their military forces from Afghanistan as part of a withdrawal announced by President Biden on April 14, 2021, heralding a possible end to the nearly two-decade U.S. military presence in the country. In a February 2020 agreement with the Taliban, the Trump Administration preventing other groups, including Al Qaeda, from using Afghan soil to recruit, train, or fundraise toward activities that threaten the United States or its allies.

INTRODUCTION :-

This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. policy in Afghanistan, with a focus on the ongoing U.S. military withdrawal and its implications for a number of factors, including :

  • security dynamics and the ongoing conflict between the Afghan government and the Taliban.
  • the social and political gains made in Afghanistan since 2001; and
  • intra- Afghan negotiations, which began in Doha, Qatar, in September 2020, but appear tp have since stalled.

The report also provides information on question about the future of U.S. development and security aid to Afghanistan.

BACKGROUND : U.S.- TALIBAN AGREEMENT

After more than a year of negotiations, U.S. and Taliban representatives signed a bilateral agreement on February 29, 2020, agreeing to two “interconnected” guarantees : the withdrawal of all U.S. and international forces by May 2021, and unspecific Taliban action to prevent other groups from using Afghan soil to threaten the United States and its allies.

In the months after the agreement, several U.S. officials asserted that the Taliban were not fulfilling their commitments under the accord, especially with the regard to Al Qaeda. U.S. officials also described increased Taliban violence as “not consistent” with agreement. Although no provisions in the publicly available agreement address Taliban attacks on U.S. forces in non- public annexes accompanying the accord. Some lawmakers have raised questions about the executive branch’s decision to classify these annexes.

Challenges for women

The status of women in India has been subject to many changes over the span of recorded Indian history. Their position in history deteriorated early in India’s ancient period, especially in the Indo-Aryan speaking region and their subordination continued to be refined well with India’s early modern period.

Even though, women nowadays are aware of their basic rights like right to vote, right to freedom etc but most women of India are unaware of their rights because of illiteracy and the oppressive traditions. Some of the challenges faced by India women are:

=> Gender discrimination: Women face discrimination right from the birth in the form of female foeticide and infanticide.

=>Major socio-cultural challenges such as patriarchy and gender inequality in society is the main cause of women’s deprivation by way of health, food and nutrition, more susceptible to mortality and contributing to unbalanced male female ratio as well as in the sphere of education, employment, wages and that of political representation. Subsequently this has led to increasing violence and denial of human rights, liberty, equality and justice.

=> The patriarchal family system that prevails in India gives more rights and authorities to the male enabling them to enjoy more power over the female in the family. So women are suppressed, oppressed, harassed, subjugated and deprived of even their basic rights till date.

=>Illiteracy and traditional beliefs and practices of family have prevented a great majority of women from access to health care and knowledge about their rights and privileges resulting in high rate of maternal mortality and morbidity. The high mortality rates among women as revealed by maternal death due to various diseases indicate that women health in general and reproductive health in particular are neglected in our society.

=> Rising crime and violence against women is only due to social stigma that women are weaker section of society. Due to financial constraints and acute poverty, young girls are often married at a very early stage.

=> Political challenges such as less political participation and Pati panchayats affects the role of women in decision-making process in society. Even after the reservation in Panchayats, women leaders are often used as a rubber stamp by their male family members thereby affecting the significance of the laws enacted by the government for women empowerment.

Conclusion:

Rightly did Swami Vivekanand say, “Just as a bird cannot fly with one wing only, a Nation cannot march forward if the women are left behind”.Men and women are two halves of a perfect whole. Therefore the women ought to be empowered as well as respected.

UAPA Act

Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967 is a law that aims at preventing any unlawful activities by any association that might jeopardise India’s sovereignty and integrity. Parliament has recently passed the UAPA Bill in 2019 which have made some changes in the existing law.

Amendments:

In the existing law, only the associations/groups are termed “terrorist organisations”. However, in the new bill, individuals can be designated as ” terrorists “.

The new existing law states that the power to conduct investigations on cases related to UAPA rest with officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or ACP and above whereas the new bill provides this power to officers of the rank of inspectors and above. The changes are not made on aspects related to arrest and bails.

In the existing law, the NIA must have prior permission from the Director General of Police before seizure or attachment of properties. However, the bill gives the power to NIA to approve of the seizure or attachment of the property without any permission from the DGPs.

International Convention for Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism(2005) has been added in the amendment.

Conclusion

Human Rights groups are openly opposing the proposed changes in the laws. According to them, notifying an individual as a terrorist without giving him an opportunity of being heard violates the individual’s right to dignity and reputation, which is a facey of right to life and personal liberty under Article 21.

Further, the ambiguous nature of the act affects federal structure of the nation as it gives more power to the central government. Branding anyone a terrorist without any judicial process, legal consequences and defence and limited justice for the accused and curtailing the powers of the State Police Forces are among the concerns with regard to the bill.

The idea behind passing of such amendments was to strengthen the security of a nation from external state and non-state actors. However, an integrated approach should be followed while making such amendments to create a balance between human rights, fundamental rights and national security.

How Should a Fresher Prepare for a Job Interview? Basic Tip!

As a fresher, when you step outside and have no idea, how to prepare and how to prepare for Interviews, Then this article is for you.

I am 24 years old, working with an NGO, still a fresher, but I have fought a lot to get off-campus placement. So I will tell you some basic steps as a fresher, how you should proceed to prepare for the interviews. I am assuming, you know the basic tips before your job interview

Be Confident

Be confident, you have prepared well and this should show in your confidence level in the interview.

Try to appear your best at the Interview

Your appearance should convey that you have taken the interview seriously.   Do not try to turn up in the interview in a manner that does not suit you.   Some basics in grooming will help.

a.       Well Groomed Hair
b.      Well Pressed Shirt
c.       Polished Shoes

Know about the company/organization

You should learn as much as you can about the company.  A good place to start is the company’s website.  If you have been referred through a friend also have a frank discussion with him or her.  Also, do a google search  on the company to understand what others are saying about the company.

Be prepared with questions for the Interviewer

Most interviewers will give you a chance to ask questions.  Use this opportunity to show your knowledge and interest in the company.  Also this is a good opportunity to clear any doubts that you have.

Address the Interviewer politely

It is always polite to refer to the Interviewer as SIR or Ma’am.  You can also address them their Surname (Mr. XXX or Mrs. XXX).  Do not use terms such as Honey, Girl, Dude, Yaar etc.

Do not be argumentative

Present your viewpoint and be professional.  If you do not agree with something the Interviewer has said do not spurn it as invalid.  Learn to understand their point of view even if it clashed with your own.  This does not mean that you need to accept their point of view.

Answer clearly and directly

Spell out your ideas as clearly as you can.  Also try to substantiate your ideas with examples.  Don’t be overly wordy and try to keep your answers to the point.  Do not try to deviate too much from the question.

Experience is not what happens to a man.
It is what a man does with what happens to him

Aldous Huxley

GO and Get that JOB!  Good Luck!

Pegasus – A malicious software

Pegasus, a malicious software, has been developed in 2010 by the Israel firm, the NSO(Niv Carmi, Omri Lavie, and Shalev Hulio-company’s founders) group. It was initially discovered for iOS devices later it extended to the Android devices.

Birth of Pegasus:

2016 – Hackers send malicious link to the targeted persons(smartphones,laptops) via text messages and email. This process was given a name called “spear fishing”.

2019 – Pegasus got updated where a single missed call on WhatsApp can infiltrate a device and even delete the record of this missed call which makes it difficult for the user to know what had happened to their device.

Also in the same year, WhatsApp Pegasus exploited a bug in its code to infect more than 1,400 iPhones and Android phones. These include journalists, government officials and human rights activists. But soon WhatsApp done away with the bug.

2021 – The Pegasus Project,an international investigative journalism effort, proved that various governments used the software to spy on opposition politicians, government officials, activists, journalists and many other.

Working of Pegasus:

=> Once the Pegasus got installed in a device, the entire control of device is in hacker’s hands. It gives access to hacker to gather data and forwards to the third party without the consent of the user.

=> It can read messages, emails, take screenshots, access contacts and know browser history.

=> Through hijacking, hacker gets access to microphone and camera turning it into a real-time surveillance device through capturing all activities in the phone’s vicinity.

=> Pegasus sends back the private data of the user to the hacker including contact list, calendar events, passwords, text messages and live voice calls from popular messaging apps thus accentuating the chances of user being blackmailed.

=> It is a software that can compromise a phone without the user having to click on a single link called “Zero-link-attack“.

=> Business executives, activists politicians, heads of state, many Royal Family members of Arab, journalists were found to be on the targeted list.

How to detect:

Mobile Verification Tool: A tool to check whether your phone has been targeted to attack or not and works with both iOS devices and Android. It has been developed by researchers at Amnesty International.

Measures taken to mitigate cyber crimes:

International Telecommunication Union: It is a specialized agency within the United Nations which plays an significant role in development and standardization of telecommunication and cyber security issues.

Budapest convention: An international convention which seeks to address Internet and computer crime by improving investigative techniques and increasing cooperation among nations. India is not a signatory to this convention.

Conclusion:

The government need to take certain measures to restrict the usage only for authorized agencies and purposes. Unrestricted usage will become power to hackers and a pain to the society. To reap the benefits of this software, proper implementation is necessary.

Afghanistan-India-Taliban

India-Afghanistan relation:

The relation between India and Afghanistan dates back to the post independence period. Both Government of India and Royal government of Afghanistan have happily signed the Treaty of Friendship in 1950.

India-Taliban relation:

In 1996, the capture of Kabul by Taliban have posed serious threat to the Indian interests and influence in Afghanistan. Hijacking of IC flight 814 and followed landings in Kandahar, Afghanistan added fuel to the existing disturbances between India and Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The U.S have shown it’s heroic characteristics in it’s invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 when it ousted Taliban from Afghanistan. The situation is saved for India. This gave vaccum for the India to regain its influence in Afghanistan and made investments worth over $3 billon. From then onwards economic and defense ties have cemented between India and Afghanistan.

Current situation in Afghanistan:

The withdrawal of U.S troops from Afghanistan base gave an opportunity for Taliban to bag more territories under its control. Over third of Afghanistan which tantamount to more than 400 districts have came under Taliban control.

Is this gonna be headache to India?

Yes of course it is. As India made huge investments in Afghanistan, there is a need for India to be concerned about the political situation in Afghanistan.

About the talk-to-the-Taliban option:

Considering the investments made in Afghan, it is necessary for India to count all it’s stakeholders. As Taliban powers have accentuated with the withdrawal of U.S troops, India should think about the talks with Taliban in order to safeguard it’s interests.

India should develop stronger ties with Taliban as anything less than that would give more space to occupy for Pakistan which pose threat to India’s internal security.

Taliban was also in desperate need of recognition in international community. So the chances for Taliban welcoming India’s partnership are more likely.

As Russia, China, Iran and Pakistan are competing to portray themselves as shapers of Afghanistan’s political and geopolitical destiny, India cannot be the odd one out in this regard.

The proactive approach would aid India open up the congested north-western frontier,proceed for back channel talks with Pakistan, to give way for India’s continental strategy.

Recommendations:

India talks with Taliban shouldn’t dilute the existing cordial relationship between India and Afghanistan.

India should shed it’s inhibitions and replace the hesitant and indulge in open talks with Taliban instead of doing backchannel talks.

Taliban even in a desperate need for recognition in international community so it is obvious that Taliban would be intrigued to have more global partners.

India should adopt a layered approach in dealing with the issues in Afghanistan. Safeguarding India’s interests should be short term goal while finding a solution for political situation in Afghanistan being the long term goal.

India should be the part of unfolding great game in and around Afghanistan.

Conclusion:

Non-engagement with Taliban would do more harm than good. The talk-to-the-Taliban is indeed the best of the many less than perfect options available to India. Any step taken in the direction of developing talks with Taliban is welcoming in both strategic and economic sense.

Farm Loan Waiver

Before diving to the details about loan waiver let’s all get an idea about what actually is loan waiver.

Farm loan waiver: To assist the farmers who are in distress, the Government came up with the process called Loan waiver. In accordance with this, the government will pay defaulted loans taken by the farmers. There is a timeline vis-a-vis when this process took it’s birth but acknowledging those details are meant to eat your time. But dont worry I will fill you about the details in gist/crisp manner.

2016-18: States too have followed the footsteps of Union Government and adopted loan waiver. Ex. Madhyapradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamilnadu, Telangana, Andhrapradesh etc.

Budget -2008: Agriculture Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme (ADWDRS) promised to pay loans taken by the small&marginal farmers and other farmers offering waiving percentage 100% and 25% respectively.

2017- Considering the problems faced by farmers during demonetization, the Budget (17) announced 60 days of interest waivers to farmers.

Arguments in favor:

=>Few people opine that the situation of farmers since a decade(2008-18) have became worse with post-subpime crisis (2008), global financial crisis (2008) ,droughts (2017, 18), and demonetization (2016). These have raised issues like dropping down prices and demand for the products example being textile industry in international market and are forced to sell them in domestic market at cheaper rates

=>In addition to this, the government have came up with the plans of restructuring for loans by corporate borrowers which reinforced support-farmer people to demand for same as debt waiver.

=>Violent agrarian agitations in Maharashtra, Uttarpradesh and Madhyapradesh also made it visible the pathetic plight of the farmers.

=>Farmers are being more prone to Debt Overhang (where all the income earned so far was used to repay accumulated debts) and are forced to use savings/income in buying farm inputs(seeds, fertilizers, pesticides)

Challenges associated with loan waiver:

” Loan waivers undermine credit culture. NPA problem will get aggravated ” __ ex-RBI Governor Urjit Patel

“Farm loan waiver should not form part of election poll promises”__ Former RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan

These are only individual opinions but serious measures are yet to be taken and implemented.

=>Impact on behavior: Loan waiver reduces the hard working capacity and chances for developing negligent behavior/lack of discipline in farmers are more likely.

=>Partial Coverage: Out of 100% loans borrowed by farmers only 60% are from formal sector(banks,NBFCs) and rest of the borrowings are from informal sector (Marwadi, Shroff). So even though government announced loan waiver significant percentage of farmers deprived of benefit.

=>Feedback: Comptroller and Audit General (CAG) commented on ADWDRS which implemented in 2008 ,as it is prone to serious exclusion and inclusive errors. Also Economic Survey-2017 pointed out that loan waivers haven’t contributed neither in accentuating GDP contribution nor in development of farmers.

=>Multiplier Effect: WHO recommended 5% of GDP to health sector whereas the actual allocation was less than 2%.The amount allotted for waiving tantamount to 1.5% of GDP. So it would be justifiable for the government to invest money in the schemes which promotes welfare for majority of populace than in the schemes which have serious implications on other developmental expenditure.

=>Fiscal Deficit: It would be burdensome on state governments implementing the waiver process and there are also chances that a particular state would end up in inflation too. Ex: Report in 2017 by RBI quoted that ₹88000 crores used as loan waiver by 7 States ( Uttarpradesh. Maharashtra etc) notified as a states with inflation.

=>No recognition: Loan waiver focussed mainly on cultivators and the truth that agricultural workers are also being impacted was neglected.

Farmers distress is a real and pressing problem.But the government intervention has hurt more than it has helped.Loan waiver is not a magic wand that could solve the long-standing problems, it could only be used as a temporary relief (like a bandage to serious wound).There are certain issues to be considered in this regard to get ushered in right direction. Like proper identification of vulnerable farmers, enhancing non-farm works, improving technology , expansion of irrigation cover ,focussing on long-term solutions etc.

Hope you have enjoyed the article. Happy reading!

How to Crack the MPHC Exam 2021 in First Attempt?

It is possible to crack the MPHC Exam in the very first attempt by the candidates if they put in the required efforts and possess the burning desire to ace the exam. It is necessary for the aspirants who wish to give the MPHC exam.

Candidates must develop a clear idea of the syllabus of the exam and also exam pattern to start a preparation. And most important thing is to manage your time perfectly.  If you have limited time before the exam then just practice as many MPHC practice tests as possible to get a good grip over the syllabus.

  • After developing a clear understanding of the syllabus and exam pattern, attempt previous year papers of the MPHC exam. To understand the syllabus better, candidates can read the [MPHC 2021 Syllabus] article.
  • Be consistent with your MPHC preparation.
  • It is of paramount importance that candidates are well acquainted with the latest exam pattern. To make the candidates aware, we have devised this detailed article on [MPHC 2021 Exam Pattern].
  • Prepare a proper strategy based on the time you can devote to the exam and stick to it.
  • Study thoroughly the topics that form a major chunk of the exam and revise them on a regular basis.
  • Give sufficient time to every section of the written test as all the papers are of equal weightage.
  • To pass this exam with flying colors, you can choose the {EduGorilla’s Sectional Tests}.
  • This article highlights the methods and tricks that candidates can use to ace the exam.

Tips to Crack MPHC

Cover the Basics

  • A clear idea of basic concepts at the beginning of preparation helps you in building your knowledge over other concepts as everything is interlinked. For this, you should have a better idea of the syllabus.
  • First, check where you stand in the preparation by attempting previous year papers of the MPHC exam and start analyzing your strengths and weaknesses.
  • Don’t rely completely on your strong areas of knowledge. Keep working on the areas that you are not great at.
  • If you are not clear about the basics then follow some good books to grasp the fundamental concepts.

Do a Self-Reflection

  • Know your strengths and weaknesses before the actual exam as it is crucial in determining your score.
  • If you are still wondering how to clear JAIIB in first attempt, grab a few previous year papers of the exam and evaluate them.
  • By attempting a MPHC mock tests, you can analyze your grey areas as we offer a report card that contains detailed information about your strengths and weaknesses. Doing this at the beginning of preparation saves a lot of your precious time.

Practice MPHC Preparation Tests

  • Practice enhances your learning abilities and improves your performance.
  • You can realize your mistakes and increase your accuracy level by attempting MPHC mock tests regularly.
  • Adopt a weekly or fortnightly routine to practice mocks from months before the MPHC exam.
  • Work on weak areas to improve your overall performance.
  • You can also keep a note of the time you are taking and manage the time accordingly by practicing a number of practice tests.

Prepare a Study Routine

  • You should dedicate a good amount of time to prepare to get the expected results. Keep all your works aside for some time and focus completely on the MPHC Exam preparation to get it in your first attempt.
  • Make time for revision in your timetable.
  • Plan a weekly revision schedule to keep a tab on everything that you studied during the past week.
  • If you can manage your time in the morning, dedicate these hours to covering new concepts of the syllabus.
  • Make sure that the timetable you devise for your exam preparation is realistic enough to be followed on a daily basis.

Written Test

Principles & Practices of written test

  • This paper comprises 150 questions and the chapter include elementary knowledge of general English & general studies {vocabulary, synonyms, etc.}, elementary knowledge of computer, translation of passage in shorthand to English, shorthand test, computer knowledge test, etc.
  • Solving questions from these topics help candidates in attempting questions from other chapters interlinked to these particular topics.
  • Practice previous year question papers and sample papers for MPHC to get acquainted with a variety of questions.

Legal & Regulatory Aspects of MPHC

  • You can rely completely on {MPHC practice tests} to solve questions from this section.
  • Prepare short notes to memorize details from this section.
  • Use the time you have in preparation wisely and don’t be anxious while writing the actual exam to get good marks.

Learning rules

  • Learn all the important topics.
  • Try to cover the entire syllabus of the written test section as it can act as a strength in your preparation for the MPHC exam.
  • Follow the right books to cover various topics of this section and revise regularly to remember all the concepts. Check previous year papers to know the type of questions and prepare all the topics in the syllabus.

Tips to Cover the Full Syllabus

  • To clear the paper of Legal & Regulatory Aspects of law, it is important that candidates prepare themselves based on the updated syllabus and stay confined to the latest exam pattern.
  • Along with this, candidates should refer to various subject-centric books to get a detailed understanding of the topics that are important in the MPHC exam.
  • Candidates should prioritize all the important topics of the exam in their preparation schedule in order to get a decent score.
  • Candidates should focus on long-term exam preparation as it would make them prepared enough to score well. It also strengthens the basics of the candidates.
  • Candidates need to keep their focus and determination in place during the entire process of preparing for the MPHC.
  • To prepare better candidates can make use of flowcharts and diagrams as it develops a strong understanding of the concepts.
  • Since time management is a major factor of every exam, by regular practice, candidates can increase their speed in solving the question paper and manage the time accordingly.
  • Candidates should divide their time according to the time the candidate takes to cover the syllabus in a particular subject.
  • By applying all these tips, candidates will succeed in their exam preparation and come out with flying colors

FAQS on How to Crack MPHC exam in First Attempt?

Q. Is it possible to crack MPHC just with six months of preparation?

Ans. Yes, it is possible to clear it.

Q. What are the steps to be followed to get good marks in the exam?

Ans. Have a clear idea of the syllabus and exam pattern, dedicate ample time for preparation, follow standard books, and practice previous year papers and MPHC test series.

Q. Do candidates have to apply separately for each attempt at the MPHC exam?

Ans. Yes,  aspiring candidates need to apply separately for each attempt at the MPHC exam.

Photo by Michael Burrows on Pexels.com

Hyperthyroidism Awareness

It is important to remember that hyperthyroidism can occur at any age. While most may present with a rather typical constellation of symptoms, many may present with exacerbation of pre-existing conditions which may make the diagnosis initially elusive. Worsening anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, panic attacks, palpitations, hypertension or diarrhea may not initially signal that the thyroid is involved. Clinicians must have a low threshold to check thyroid function early to rule out a component of hyperthyroidism.

Once a suppressed thyrotropin (TSH) has been detected, further investigation with serum triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxine (free T4) can help delineate overt from subclinical disease. A thorough history of past thyroid disease, as well as current medications and supplements, can help detect any pre-existing diagnoses or exogenous sources of thyroid hormone or over supplementation with iodine. More commonly, hyperthyroidism is due to either Graves diseasetoxic multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma. Distinction between these can usually be made with the assistance of a thyroid uptake scan, TSH receptor antibody measurement, and thyroid ultrasound. An additional physical exam finding of exophthalmos can further support the diagnosis of Graves’ disease. Understanding the etiology can help guide patient expectations. A small percentage of patients with Graves’ Disease may undergo spontaneous remission after 1 to 2 years, which may prompt patients to wait before considering a definitive treatment option.

With confirmation of the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, focus is on hormonal control with an antithyroid medication (ATM, most commonly Methimazole in the United States). This may be augmented with beta-blockade, steroids, cholestyramine or SSKI for those who are difficult to control.

Many patients may need further consideration for definitive management with either radioactive iodine ablation (RAI) or thyroidectomy. Your local resources may also influence these options, but it is critical to understand that all three treatments (ATM, RAI and thyroidectomy) are possible options. Certain patient factors and priorities may alter the preferred definitive treatment. Smaller gland size, easy to control hormones, and lack of eye symptoms are factors that may favor continued ATM management. A large goiter with compressive symptoms, difficult to control hormones requiring high dose medications/ multiple modalities, pregnancy, severe eye disease, multiple nodules within the thyroid with or without thyroid cancer, or desire for rapid and reliable hormone control may favor thyroidectomy. RAI is a good option for patients with a smaller gland size, and a desire to pursue definitive management but avoid surgery.

There are also relative contraindications for treatment options. ATMs may have serious side effects, like agranulocytosis or liver failure, which prevent further use, or may cause skin eruptions making long term use intolerable. Additionally, high dose requirements or fluctuating doses may make long term use of ATMs not reliable. Women who are pregnant, wanting to become pregnant in the next 6 months to 1 year, breast feeding or have small children in the home will want to avoid RAI. Patients with severe eye involvement, have a large goiter with compressive symptoms, or are smokers should also avoid RAI. Thyroidectomy will be a poor option for patients with multiple previous neck operations on or around the thyroid due to internal scarring, or who are high risk for general anesthesia. Additionally, if they have a history of previous gastric bypass surgery, they are higher risk for major complications from hypocalcemia/hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy.

To help the patient navigate these decisions, it is important to allow them the opportunity to discuss each treatment option with respective physician experts – medical management with endocrinology, RAI with endocrinology and potentially nuclear medicine as well, and thyroidectomy with the thyroid surgeon.

In summary, patients with hyperthyroidism require medical control, as well as a clear understanding of the etiology of their hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma have more than one treatment option, and it is important for patients to be educated and engaged in treatment decisions.

For Further Reference:
American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and other causes of Thyrotoxicosis| by the American Thyroid Association

Introvert people

Putting together a large number of contemporary tests of personality, Grimes, Cheek, Julie Norem, and Courtney Brown created the STAR test to measure four kinds of introversion. To figure out your primary introverted type, take this online test:

To find out where you stand on each of the four meanings of introversion, answer the following questions by deciding to what extent each item is characteristic of your feelings and behavior. Fill in the blank next to each item by choosing a number from the following scale:

1 = very uncharacteristic or untrue, strongly disagree

2 = uncharacteristic

3 = neutral

4 = characteristic

5 = very characteristic or true, strongly agree

Social Introversion

____ 1. I like to share special occasions with just one person or a few close friends, rather than have big celebrations.

____ 2. I think it would be satisfying if I could have very close friendships with many people.

____ 3. I try to structure my day so that I always have some time to myself.

____ 4. I like to vacation in places where there are a lot of people around and a lot of activities going on.

____ 5. After spending a few hours surrounded by a lot of people, I am usually eager to get away by myself.

____ 6. I do not have a strong need to be around other people.

____ 7. Just being around others and finding out about them is one of the most interesting things I can think of doing.

____ 8. I usually prefer to do things alone.

____ 9. Other people tend to misunderstand me—forming a mistaken impression of what kind of person I am because I don’t say much about myself.

____ 10. I feel drained after social situations, even when I enjoyed myself.

Thinking Introversion

____ 1. I enjoy analyzing my own thoughts and ideas about myself.

____ 2. I have a rich, complex inner life.

____ 3. I frequently think about what kind of person I am.

____ 4. When I am reading an interesting story or novel or when I am watching a good movie, I imagine how I would feel if the events in the story were happening to me.

____ 5. I seldom think about myself.

____ 6. I generally pay attention to my inner feelings.

____ 7. I value my personal self-evaluation, that is, the private opinion I have of myself.

____ 8. I sometimes step back (in my mind) in order to examine myself from a distance.

____ 9. I daydream and fantasize, with some regularity, about things that might happen to me.

____ 10. I am inclined to be introspective, that is, to analyze myself.

Anxious Introversion

____ 1. When I enter a room I often become self-conscious and feel that the eyes of others are upon me.

____ 2. My thoughts are often focused on episodes of my life that I wish I’d stop thinking about.

____ 3. My nervous system sometimes feels so frazzled that I just have to get off by myself.

____ 4. I am confident about my social skills.

____ 5. Defeat or disappointment usually shame or anger me, but I try not to show it.

____ 6. It does not take me long to overcome my shyness in new situations.

____ 7. I feel relaxed even in unfamiliar social situations.

____ 8. Even when I am in a group of friends, I often feel very alone and uneasy.

____ 9. My secret thoughts, feelings, and actions would horrify some of my friends.

____ 10. I feel painfully self-conscious when I am around strangers.

Restrained Introversion

____ 1. I like to be off and running as soon as I wake up in the morning.

____ 2. I’ll try anything once.

____ 3. For relaxation I like to slow down and take things easy.

____ 4. I like to wear myself out with exertion.

____ 5. I often say the first thing that comes into my head.

____ 6. I generally seek new and exciting experiences and sensations.

____ 7. I like to keep busy all the time.

____ 8. I often act on the spur of the moment.

____ 9. I sometimes do “crazy” things just to be different.

____ 10. I often feel sluggish.

How’d you do?

To find out your score for each of the four kinds of introversion,RECODE the following Reverse-Worded items: (1=5) (2=4) (4=2) (5=1):

Social Introversion items: 2, 4, & 7

Thinking Introversion item: 5

Anxious Introversion items: 4, 6, & 7

Restrained Introversion items: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9

Next, add together all the numbers to come up with a total score.

Here’s a guide of how you scored compared to others in the general population:

  • Social Introversion — below 24 low, around 30 average, above 36 high​
  • Thinking Introversion — below 28 low, around 34 average, above 40 high
  • Anxious Introversion — below 23 low, around 30 average, above 37 high
  • Restrained Introversion — below 25 low, around 31 average, above 37 high

This alternative way of assessing introversion is not likely to be embraced by Big Five personality researchers [6]. But if it offers you a more satisfying, personally meaningful way to glean insight into your unique personality, feel free to throw the Big Five framework out the window.

© 2014 Scott Barry Kaufman, All Rights Reserved.

Acknowledgement: Thanks to Connor Child at Qzzr for his help with the online quiz, and Jennifer Odessa Grimes and Jonathan Cheek for their help with this post.

[1] This list is adapted from Jonathan Cheek’s book review, which can be found here.

[2] As another example, take people who conceptualize themselves as highly introverted because they are very introspective and value their rich inner mental lives, but who score high in enthusiasm and assertiveness on the Big Five test. These folks are being told by modern personality psychologists: “You are really an extrovert who is also high in intellect/imagination.” For those who have spent their entire lives equating their love of thinking and fantasy with their “introversion”, they respond: “huh?” In the Big Five, imagination, fantasy, and introspection are positively associated with Extraversion. But if we do away with the label of introversion in the Big Five, then that allows a person to be introverted in the thinking/introspective sense but also be an extravert in the Big Five sense (high in enthusiasm and assertiveness).

[3] Popular writers on introversion are also not pleased with this psychological imperialism. For instance, in Sophia Sembling’s book The Introvert’s Way, she has a chapter titled “Introverts are Not Failed Extroverts”.

[4] Keep in mind, the Big Five is a descriptive model; it merely describes patterns of covariation between people. The labels used to describe the five personality dimensions are subjective. A lot of the arguments over what counts as introversion come down to a naming game. In my view, it’s really unfortunate that Big Five researchers started to use the label “introversion” to mark the lower end of extraversion. It wasn’t always this way. In fact, the original name for “extraversion” in the Big Five was “Surgency“. If it were up to me, it would have stayed that way, leaving the label “introversion” free to continue roaming the personality landscape. As Jonathan Cheek told me, “if the Big Five folks would just go back to that phrase [“Surgency”], they would not be crossing swords with folk psychology/ordinary language introverts. Perhaps introversion should *not* be used as a label in the Big Five system.” I agree.

[5] Here is the link to the research report about the new STAR scale. You might be wondering: “What about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test? Isn’t that good enough to measure introversion?” Well, no it isn’t. As it turns out, the MBTI extraversion-introversion scale only includes items relating to being talkative, gregarious, and sociable (vs. quiet and reserved). Since there’s not a single item on the MBTI extraversion-introversion dimension that mentions being introspective or reflective, even the MBTI doesn’t measure Jung’s original conceptualization of the term!

[6] Big Five researchers could make the case that each of these four meanings of introversion can easily be mapped onto the Big Five framework. For instance, they could argue that:

-Social introversion is really just “low enthusiasm” (part of the extraversion domain)

-Thinking introversion is not part of the extraversion-introversion domain at all, but really is “high intellect/imagination”

-Anxious introversion is really just a blend of “high neuroticism” and “low assertiveness” (part of the extraversion domain)

-Restrained introversion” is a blend of a number of lower-order extraversion-related traits, including “low sensation seeking”, “low excitement seeking”, and “low activity”.

Education is life

Today the World is becoming a superficial place. Our time appoints the absurd, making social networks as a real-world by a considerable part of the younger generations.

It is a virtual reality, more precise than high-definition video games, more addictive and harmful to the mind and the body.

This fake reality indeed kills the neurons converting people into zombies led by a leader of unknown appearance.

Ignorance acts as the lock, and manipulation working as the key entering every mind. Then, it hacks and promotes war even over the most absurd topic that any influencer shares in a post.

The social network profile becomes an epicentre of empty universes, universes that conflict with the real-life, where, as in the war, leads to the destruction of entire generations.

Using actualized tools, but the same indoctrination mechanisms used in the world wars. Again, the end justifies it, annulling individuals’ conscience and making them members of the social mass.

Even though each social profile is seemingly unique, there is no perspective on what life is in its essence. The network is a game that only favours some private interests.

We know the truth: countries born from interests, wars arise, passions move. Interests motivate greed. Greed sooner or later destroys life. Life, which, without a doubt, is the only thing we have.

Blood wars are no longer an option in our time across the rich countries. New wars are too expensive and risky.

Wars are now abstract. Wars involve factual powers whose shadow is unknown and whose attacks are directed to control the terrestrial and the extraterrestrial.

The end of empires has never come. In our time, empires are mainly commercial, managing everything that allowed us to be free.

Now empires dictate what to be and how to be.

Indeed, commercial or blood, all war implies the destruction of every trace that makes us human.

Every war, directly and indirectly, destroys our soul and breaks the only thing we take when we leave.

War destroys what we have lived and what we will no longer discover for ceasing to be ourselves.

There are not strong leaders to help us. Corruption and secrets are always leaked by someone who is behind the scenes.

We are the unique leaders of our time; we are the bosses of our destiny.

We must not perish. Responding to Hamlet, the worthiest thing for the soul is to fight for our fortune, live our lives, and rebel against this wild sea of misery.

The only thing that saves us from interest, the only thing that separates us from greed, the only thing that allows us to see reality is education.

However, all education is written by the victors and not by the vanquished. Our salvation involves investigating, delving into every little remorse and lack of meaning of our multiple thoughts.

The only thing that educates us is ourselves.

What do I mean when I say “Education for Life?” I can present the problem and the solution. The problem is that people in traditional forms of education usually approach it from the standpoint of just preparing a person for a job. But one’s job isn’t the definition of one’s life—it’s only that which enables you to have enough money to meet your needs. Our lives encompass a much broader arena than one’s capacity to earn money. Any educational system that teaches only job skills or offers only intellectual information is neglecting the essential needs of human beings. The solution is a form of education that trains us in that which is most relevant to us—how to find lasting happiness in life.

We deeply need proper training in “how-to-live” skills such as how to find the right mate, how to raise our children, how to be a good employee, how to get along with our neighbors, and how to concentrate our minds so that we can draw success into all our endeavors. There are many such skills that are essential to prepare a child for adulthood, and in traditional education many of them are completely ignored. Education for Life is a system that prepares the child to face the challenges of living as a human being, and helps him to achieve balance and harmony in all he does. What we’re really talking about is preparing everyone, not just children, for true maturity. This is a much bigger concept than just coming of age. As defined it in the book, Education for Life, maturity is the ability to relate appropriately to other realities than one’s own. You’ll find that even people of advanced years are often childish and immature with regard to this definition, yet this ability to relate to others’ realities is what education should accomplish.

Hope for the best, but expect less

I’m not in this world to live up to your expectations and you’re not in this world to live up to mine. -Bruce Lee

A friend’s status update on a social media site: ‘Who hurt you? My own expectations.’

Yes, we all have expectations in our lives: what we want out of life and who we want to become. I believe one of the keys to happiness lies within the management of your expectations of people and circumstances. If you do not have expectations, you can never be disappointed. Often we tend to believe that the way we treat others will be the way we are treated in return. But, unfortunately, this does not always happen.

The biggest disappointments in our lives are often the result of misplaced expectations. This is especially true when it comes to our relationships and interactions with others. You need to make sure you enter into relationship with someone who has as big of a heart as you do. If you do not, you may feel as if you are being taken advantage of. You need to find people who appreciate what you do for them and who will reciprocate those actions.

There are two ways to be happy: improve your reality or lower your expectations. Having realistic expectations will allow you to accept the flaws each person has. We need to learn how to take responsibility for our own lives and our own decisions before we can expect others to do the same.

One of the biggest challenges we face in life is learning to accept people for who they truly are. Once you realize that your expectations cannot change people, the better off you will be. Give without expectation, accept without reservation, and love with hesitation. Unrealistic expectations most often do lead to disappointment. Too many people are obsessed with finding the perfect career or the perfect spouse, and as a result become increasingly frustrated when this does not happen in reality.

Expectation is the root of all heartache. Try to remain confident while maintaining positive aspirations; just remember not to make the aspirations so high that they are impractical or unreachable.

Acceptance is an amazing trait that needs to be actively worked toward. When things do not work out the way we had planned, it is much more beneficial to realize that is how life works rather than becoming frustrated at the situation. Have hope rather than expectations and you will tend not to be as disappointed.

People rarely behave exactly the way you want them to. Hope for the best, but expect less. And remember, the magnitude of your happiness will be directly proportional to your thoughts and how you choose to think about things. Even if a situation or relationship doesn’t work out at all, it’s still worth it, if it made you feel something new, taught you something afresh.

7 important tips to manage aggression in children

Manage child aggression: To develop a sound value system, tell them stories. For very small children, stories should be pleasant, free of fighting and violence, about animals and nature, sharing and caring. When they are five or six, it is okay to introduce stories with good people and ‘bad’ people.

child, who wanted to be perceived as the strongest of all, would speak loudly, look angry and hit everyone to prove his strength. When his grandfather came to visit, he behaved in the same way with him. However, his grandpa was never agitated and just smiled at his actions. The child was bewildered as he was only used to getting yelled at for what he did. The more he was yelled at, the stronger he would become, is what he thought!

Grandpa shares the Buddha story

The grandfather asked him if he would like to hear a story and the boy agreed. “Once upon a time, there was an enlightened master called Buddha. He travelled across the country teaching people how to be peaceful. Once while he was going through a forest, a tribesman called Angulimala came to him. He was a frightening man. He wore a garland of fingers of people whom he had sacrificed so he would be the strongest and feared the most. He wanted to have Buddha’s finger as the hundredth and complete his sacrificing ritual. Buddha smiled at him and said, “I am happy to be of use to you”. There was no trace of fear in him. Nobody had ever smiled at Angulimala. No one had ever spoken to him so kindly. The very presence of Buddha did something to him. Angulimala felt very weak for the first time in his life. He felt like a feather in front of a mountain. He realised that real strength is in having unshakable calmness, peace, and in compassion. He fell at Buddha’s feet. He was changed completely.” The child listened to every word from his grandpa with rapt attention.

Look out for the media children are exposed to

When you feel helpless or weak, the need to assert your strength comes out as violence. Where do children get the idea of violence? They see their parents, neighbours, friends, so many programmes on TV or videos on the mobile phone — all this exposure leaves impressions and has a strong impact on the minds of children, more than we know. They are sensitive even to suppressed violence. If you are angry inside but still act as if everything is okay, children will know it.

Handling aggression

Children get angry or show aggression for seemingly very silly reasons. But the real reason is something else, a sense of insecurity that has crept in somehow. That is why in olden days, parents would never show anger in front of a child. They would not even argue or use harsh words. Public display of anger was considered a weakness. Today, anger and aggression comes up at the drop of a hat. Any minor difference of opinion is enough to prompt the arrows to fly. We don’t know how to draw a line between expressing a difference of opinion and displaying aggression. If your child is aggressive, look into your own lifestyle. What are you doing? Are you yelling at your housekeeper or at your pet? Are you yelling at your own spouse? Or any one for that matter in front of the child? Are you sad? What is your reaction? And it does not matter that out of the 365 days, you have acted in aggression may be only a couple of times. Those few days are equally important for the child. This is why we need to meditate and practice pranayama or deep breathing techniques. Heyum Dukham Anagatam — stopping the misery before it comes — that is the benefit of yoga, because in life prevention is better than cure.

Engaging children in meaningful activities

The other important thing is to engage them in meaningful activities, and sports that allow them to channel their energy constructively. Just playing video games or watching TV with no physical activity only increases restlessness and makes them prone to aggression. You will notice that the day your child has more screen time, the more difficult he or she becomes to handle. Encourage them to go out and play, engage with real people, run and fill their lungs with some fresh air. In the olden days, movies were classified as suitable for watching only under parental guidance. Parents would control what a child can see. Today, it is a common occurrence that the elders are all engrossed in watching soaps on TV and are oblivious to the child who is also watching and taking in all the exaggerated emotions that are projected. It is very important to be sensitive about what their tender senses are exposed to. They should not be bombarded with heavy impressions.

What kind of stories are we telling our children?

To develop a sound value system, tell them stories. For very small children, perhaps around three or four, stories should be pleasant, free of fighting and violence, about animals and nature, sharing and caring. When they are five or six it is okay to introduce stories with good people and ‘bad’ people. Every culture has its stories of heroes who protected the innocent and fought villains who were up to no good. Through these stories they understand that the purpose of strength is to protect and not to hurt. They learn that the hero, the stronger one, is calm and collected.

While it is important to reprimand anger, it is equally important to recognise when they are gentle and appreciate them. When I was a child and would sometimes get angry, my grandmother would ask me to go to a certain corner of the house and leave my anger there. She would say that the angel in that corner would take the anger from me and go far, far away. I would believe her, go stand there and in a minute, come back smiling! Schools today don’t teach children how to deal with negative emotions. This is an important aspect of moulding the character of the child. Teachers should be strict about encouraging the right attitude in children. They should recognise the strength of a child who is able to walk away from a fight and not just react and hit back. They should reward and give attention to calmness in a child. Many times, an aggressive attitude in a child comes out from simply wanting attention. So, you can teach them by ignoring their sulking or shouting, and praising them and giving extra attention when they are well-mannered. And parents should give teachers the space to discipline the child if necessary. It is okay if your child has been naughty and the teacher has disciplined him or her. Parents must encourage reverence towards the teacher. If they say, “Who is he or she to tell my child what to do!” the child will not listen or respect the teacher anymore. When this happens, learning stops.

Food is important

The food that we give to our children also has a role to play. Too many sweets, fried food (like chips) and oily food increase restlessness in a child. Also, their food must be freshly cooked as far as possible and not packaged items kept in cold storage. Encourage them to enjoy fruits as much as chips; perhaps one chip-one fruit can be the deal! Where possible, it is advisable to avoid food products made from genetically modified grains and vegetables. The food has a direct impact on the mind and when consumed over a period of time, has a definite impact on the nature or attitude of the child.

Above all this, as parents, it is important to spend quality time doing ‘nothing’ with your child. Just sitting with them without looking at our mobile phones, giving complete attention to what they have to say, just being with them 100 per cent gives a great sense of security to the child. An insecure child is more likely to succumb to aggression than one who feels secure and attended to.

Teach children that the one who smiles come-what-may is stronger.

Show them when to stand up for what is right, and when to walk away from a fight.

As much as you can, protect their innocence.

As much as you can, give them pride in non-violence.

Tips for safe internet banking

All through the year, banks and financial institution are taking up innovative measures to protect its customers from such banking frauds. But sometimes it’s our very own negligence that makes us fall prey to such thefts. Whilst, both the banks and financial institutions are doing their part, we should too adopt a cautious attitude to protect ourselves. So, to help you out in this process, we have a gathered a list of some tips for safe internet banking that you can consider doing.

Digital advancements have made our lives much easier, we can now order food or purchase things in the comfort of our homes. These rapidly evolving advancements are also transforming the banking and financial sector in India. Whether someone is transferring funds, paying a bill or applying for such loans such technologies are enabling customers to do it in a more efficient and effective way. The number of users opting for internet banking is expected to double by 2020, making India an important hub for financial innovation. However, internet banking, just like like any other medium if not done with utmost precaution can prove to be risky. There are scams like phishing( fraudulent means for attaining confidential information) associated with internet banking which enables a third-party to access and misuse your personal information.

Banking online has made managing money a lot more convenient than it used to be. We don’t have to visit the bank to transfer our funds, or wait for the next paper statement to know what the balance is. All that information is at our fingertips. But while online banking has made things easier for us, it’s also made things easier for thieves.

Criminals don’t need to plan a heist to rob someone’s bank account anymore. All they need to do is wait for you to let your guard down and expose your personal information, or send out a virus that will collect the information. The only way to avoid becoming a thief’s next victim is to carefully guard your personal information and always practice these online banking safety tips. 

1. Don’t access your bank accounts on public Wi-Fi

When you’re on public Wi-Fi, hackers can more easily access your computer and steal personal information from it. You should never access your bank’s website through a computer, tablet, or mobile phone unless you’re on a secure Wi-Fi network with a password, or using your own cell phone data connection. This is much more difficult for thieves to hack, so it keeps your information safer.

2. Avoid saving your login information

Some websites give you the option to save your login information for future use, but if someone uses your computer or mobile device after you, they could gain access to your bank accounts. To at least help prevent this from happening, many banking sites now time out after a certain number of minutes of inactivity, and do not save your information.

3. Use strong passwords and change them often

Strong passwords have a mix of upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. Many banks now require your online accounts to carry a password meeting these requirements. You should also change your password every couple of months, and use different passwords for all of your online accounts so that hackers will have a more difficult time gaining access to your information.

4. Use two-factor authentication whenever possible

Two-factor authentication is the next level of security that many banks are now offering. Usually, you give your bank your phone number, and it texts a code when you log in online. Some banks also enable you to request a code via email or a phone call. You must enter this code in addition to your password to log in. This way, even if someone has stolen your password, they cannot access your accounts. It’s another hoop to jump through, but it could help keep your money safe, so set it up if your bank offers it.

Internet Banking

The innovations of information technology and internet have opened the new horizons to the Banking service delivery to the customers. Banking services are available on the finger tips of the customer via Internet Banking. Internet Banking, Net Banking or online banking allows you to perform various financial and non-financial transactions in your account with a click of button without visiting branch or ATM. It offers you a whole lot of features that earlier available only with the branch

In today’s fast-paced life, you need on-demand banking solutions for a better lifestyle. Internet Banking service gives you complete control over fund in your accounts online. Say bid-adieu to long queues and tired teller counter clerk. Now do banking from the comfort of your home or office, vacations ANYWHERE and ANYTIME!

Internet banking allows banking user to get connected to it’s bank’s internet banking portal to perform desire banking functions. If you are a Bank customer then you can avail Internet Banking facility after having received secure access of your net banking account from your bank. After secure login you will have direct access to your account. All the banking functions, financial and non-financials, that bank has made available on the internet banking mode will be displayed in menu of your online user account. You can select to perform any transaction and further result will be as per the policy for the nature of the service.

Your internet banking works on the concept of data centralization in the core banking system and allowing restricted access through net banking channel.

You must be apprehensive about the safety and security of online banking. Nelito’s Internet Banking product has following features to make your banking safe and secure:

  • Internet Banking product is developed on SSL protocol and 128-bit encryption technology to provide a secure channel for data exchange – which keeps your online banking data secure and safe.
  • Customer login is also verified at 2 levels by userid-password combination and PAN Number or Date of Birth authentications.
  • 2 Factor Authentication (2FA) requires you to input OTP (One Time Password) sent only on to your registered mobile number for all key transactions.
  • Your login session gets expired after a certain period in case there is no activity in your logged in session. This secures any unauthorized access to your logged in session.
  • Tracking of wrong OTP and passwork attempts.

Thus your Netbanking is safe, fast and secure, enabling you to perform your banking transaction with total peace of mind .

Range of services and features on internet banking includes:

  • Account Balance of all accounts linked to your customer ID
  • View and Download account statement.
  • Fund transfer through NEFT & RTGS
  • Avail Different Deposit Schemes and Banking Services like insurance, credit cards, demand draft etc.
  • Cheque Status and Stop Payment Request
  • Pay government taxes
  • Pay online your utility bills like Electricity, Telephone, Subscription payments along with Charity and Donation.
  • Recharge your mobile/DTH connection.
  • 24 x 7 Money Transfer through IMPS
  • Set up standing instructions for transfer of fixed amount to be executed at fixed intervals.
  • Various non-financial transactions like cheque book request, profile change, KYC, inquiries 

India’s deep ocean mission

Deep ocean

• Below 200 meters – little or no light. • Depth at which light begins to dwindle, typically around 200 meters (656 feet).

• Extreme conditions:
 Temperature reduces to 4°Celsius – constantly stays near freezing.
 Pressure – ranges from 40 to over 110 times the pressure of Earth’s atmosphere.

• Creatures exist microorganisms in hydrothermal vents, deep sea corals, fish, and other bizarre creatures.
• Harsh conditions – difficult to explore. • 95% of the ocean is unexplored and unutilised. • Countries exploring the deep ocean – China,France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, and Russia.

• Deep ocean mission of India – in line with, GoI’s Vision of New India by 2030.
 Blue Economy – one of core dimensions of growth.

Deep Ocean Mission

• Multi-ministerial multi-disciplinary programme.

• Objective – explore deep ocean for resources and develop deep sea technologies for sustainable use of ocean resources.

• Phase-wise implementation for 5 years.
 First phase – 2021-2024.

• Estimated cost – Rs. 4077 crores.

• Mission mode project to support the Blue Economy Initiatives of GoI.

• Nodal implementing Ministry – Ministry of Earth Sciences.
• Six major components:

  1. Development of Technologies for Deep Sea Mining, and Manned Submersible.
     Development of manned submersible – will carry 3 people to a depth of 6000 m in the ocean + scientific sensors and tools.
     Development of Integrated Mining System for mining Polymetallic Nodules from 6000 m depth in the central Indian Ocean.
     Future commercial exploitation of minerals in
    deep ocean.
     Blue Economy priority area – ‘exploring and
    harnessing of deep sea minerals and energy’.

Polymetallic nodules (PMN)

• Manganese or ferromanganese nodules.

• Potato-shaped, largely porous nodules.

• Found in deep sea – in abundance carpeting the sea
floor of world oceans.

• Metals – manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt,lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium.
 Nickel, cobalt, manganese and copper – of economic and strategic importance.
• 15 year contract of India with International Seabed Authority (ISA) in 2002 – for exploration of PMN in CIOB.
 Extended 5 more years – 2017-22.
 Presently allocated an area of 75,000
sq.km. – located 2000 km away from southern tip.
 Estimated polymetallic nodule resource potential – 380 million tonnes.
 Nickel – 4.7 million tonnes
 Copper – 4.29 million tonnes
 Cobalt – 0.55 million tonnes
 Manganese – 92.59 million tonnes

2.Development of Ocean Climate Change Advisory
Services
 Developing observations & models to understand &
provide future projections of important climate variables on seasonal to decadal time scales.
 Blue Economy priority area – coastal tourism.

3.Technological innovations for exploration and
conservation of deep-sea biodiversity
 Bio-prospecting of deep-sea flora and fauna including microbes.
 Studies on sustainable utilization of deep-sea
bio-resources.
 Blue Economy priority area – Marine Fisheries and allied services.

4. Deep Ocean Survey and Exploration
 Explore and identify potential sites of multi-metal Hydrothermal Sulphides
mineralization along the Indian Ocean mid-oceanic ridges.
 Hydrothermal Sulphides or seafloor massive sulphides – only metal-bearing deposits of (current) commercial significance that form
at active plate boundaries – high concentrations of copper, zinc, lead,arsenic, cobalt, silver, gold and other metals.
 Blue Economy priority area – deep sea exploration of ocean resources.

5.Energy and freshwater from the Ocean
 Studies and detailed engineering design for offshore Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powered desalination plant.
 Blue Economy priority area – off-shore energy development.

6.Advanced Marine Station for Ocean Biology
 Development of human capacity and enterprise in ocean biology and engineering.
 Research into industrial application and product development through on-site business incubator facilities.
 Blue Economy priority area – Marine Biology, Blue trade and Blue manufacturing.
• Benefits:
 Attempts to indigenise technologies by collaborating with leading institutes and
private industries.
 Design, development and fabrication of specialised equipment, ships and setting
up of required infrastructure – will spur the growth of the Indian industry, especially the MSME and Start-ups.
 Generating employment
 Research vessel for deep ocean exploration to be built in Indian shipyard.
 Capacity development in Marine Biology.

Unemployment-hindrance to development

Unemployment became a never ending war problem in front of our country .But the outbreak of covid19 make this problem more dense. Now along with the problem of unemployment the problem of disguised employment is in front of us. Unemployment means the numbers of individuals in the state are finding jobs for which they are fit, and they are willing to, but not getting that. Or simply a person is willing for a paid job or searching for one. It is a curse to society and decreases the economic growth of the country. The particular age group of unemployment is adults. The main reason for unemployment is the rapidly increasing population is one of the most affecting factors of unemployment. Slow economic growth, industrial growth is also the main reason for unemployment.
Unemployment leads to an increase in poverty and sets back the economic growth of the country. The women’s unemployment rate is higher in rural areas than in urban sectors of the country. Unemployment also misguides or makes our youth helpless to do criminal activities. The migration of people from rural to urban areas for the search of the job also affects it. As the demand for jobs is high and the number of posts is less. Unemployment is also a reason for our youth is getting addicted to drugs. Due to lack of a job, they get addicted to drugs, alcohol, and may even get into criminal activities. The government, as well as the society or we, should focus on population control and make people aware of its ill effects, long-time advantages, and ways to control which help the government to provide jobs to needy ones if there are some limited members.
Agriculture is the backbone of our economy. Agriculture in India is not developed enough to accommodate all the unemployed youth. Our agriculture is still dependent on old and traditional ways of farming. And our education should also be upgraded as it mainly focuses on practical aspects of learning, should offer the vocational course and with that indirectly it will give the job to teachers.

Mob lynching-to what extent correct?

Mob Lynching is an open punishment applied by a gather that does not have the authority to do so. Most times, lynching occurs when a group believes that a person has committed a crime, even if it has not been trialed or convicted. lynching’s practice may include public hangings, tar, and feathering, or other forms of extreme punishment or execution performed in public. Lynching differs from uncommon types of punishment because the public performs it outside the legal system. This is often handled by a group of people. Lynching is a mob justice in which ordinary people come together to terrorize or punish someone they think violates a legal, moral, and social standard. Today in our society cases of mob-lynching occur in the name of homecoming, love jihad, cow protection, and self-defense camps, the longstanding issues of communalism against the community are being expressed now as violence. The crowd is making a target of people .also many cases recorder where There is an attempt to provoke communities suffering from such attacks. 

The instant “justice” of the crowd also reveals the breaking of people’s confidence in law and order. mass lynching cases are mainly caused by the spread of rumors, suspicions, or religious beliefs. If we understand the events in what order they happened then, we may consider that some were the consequences of caste-based horrors, some were because of religious beliefs, and the rest was because of false news or rumors.

No doubt we should respect religious beliefs, but what if few people kill a person based on suspicion or suspicion? But the main question is that too what extend it is justified to take law in the hands. And to do injustice with someone in the name of the justice. Now need of the time is that government itself investigate the matter and give punishment to those who are culprit.

 

Evil corruption

Corruption refers to a form of criminal activity or dishonesty. It refers to an evil act by an individual or a group. It includes activities like bribery or embezzlement. Most people in positions of authority are susceptible to Corruption. Corruption certainly reflects greedy and selfish behavior. Bribery is the most common method of Corruption which involves improper use of favors and gifts in exchange for personal gain. the favors include money, gifts, company shares, sexual favors, employment, entertainment, and political benefits. Also, the personal gain can be – giving preferential treatment and overlooking crime.

One important way of preventing Corruption is to give a better salary in a government job. Many government employees receive pretty low salaries. so they resort to bribery to meet their expenses. So, government employees should receive higher salaries. , high salaries would reduce their motivation and resolve to engage in bribery. By Increasing the number of workers we can curb Corruption. In many government offices, the workload is very high. This provides an opportunity to slow down the work of government employees. Consequently, these employees then indulge in bribery in return for faster delivery of work. Hence, this opportunity to bribe can be removed by bringing in more employees in government offices.

Strong laws are very important for stopping Corruption. strict punishments need to be meted out to guilty individuals. Furthermore, there should be an efficient and quick implementation of strict laws. Applying cameras in workplaces is an excellent way to prevent corruption. Above all, many individuals would refrain from indulging in Corruption due to fear of being caught. Furthermore, these individuals would have otherwise engaged in Corruption. Furthermore, the politician supports them due to the benefits they receive. Corruption is a great evil in society. This evil should be quickly eliminated from society. 

Prominence of education

Education is the act of discovering things around us. And so the prominence of the education in a person life. To discover the real meaning of life. We need to educate not ourselves but our environment also. Education helps us to easily recognize and deal with any difficulty and makes balance throughout the whole life in every aspect. Education is the first and foremost right of every human being. And therefore we have the right to education in our constitution. Without education we are incomplete and our lives are useless. Education helps us to set a goal and go ahead by working on that throughout life. It improves our knowledge, skill, confidence level, and personality. It empowers us intellectually to interact with others in our life. Education brings maturity and teaches us to live in a society with changing environment. For adaptability, education is a must. It is the way to social development, economic growth, and technological development. For being a proper social person we need to educate ourselves.

Education plays a great role in everyone’s life by building personality, improving knowledge and skill, and providing a feeling of well-being for a person. Education has been divided into three categories in our country as Primary education, Secondary education, and Higher Secondary education. It develops our analytical skills, character, and overall personality. Education plays a pivotal role in nourishing his present and future by ensuring aim of the life. 

Every child must to go school at his/her appropriate age as everyone has equal rights to education from birth. The growth and development of any country depend on the quality of the education system set for young ones in schools and colleges. However, the education system in every area of the country is not the same so the proper growth and development of the people and society vary according to the weak and strong education system of the particular region. The future of our country is the youth and the more our youth will learn more advanced our nation will become.

Agony of covid19

COVID has not only affected us by entering our bodies but the agony of Losing family members, jobs, income, a completely disrupted education system, and constant fear of what next have severely damaged the peace of people. Even doctors, nurses are under the agony of constant threat and tremendous work pressure. Oxygen plants are being constructed and vaccines are being produced, however, what the mind has been going through cannot be cured by steroids or vaccines.

These are some of the thoughts that haunt many of us who are infected or have lost people close to us due to COVID. Whenever we surf the internet through information pieces or even when we watch the news, we see they offer COVID helpline numbers, hospital details, and other valuable information on how to tackle COVID. In the same way, we can have a COVID Mental Health support helpline, wherein people can interact with therapists or more precisely connect to somebody who can listen and feel empathetically.

At this point advice like yoga, meditation, or “keep yourself engaged” does not work. There has to be sharing, there has to be handholding throughout the process of recovery. To heal completely from COVID or COVID implications the mind needs to be healed as well and we all have to pay attention to this

Mental Sickness

Covid-19 has shaken the entire world. Even though Major Pharma companies have developed vaccines intending to end the pandemic. we are still struggling to find an end to this pandemic. One of the issues that India faces is the delay in immunizing the population again Covid-19. The delay is partly due to overpopulation. And If the vaccines are not effective against the new variant, it needs to be redesigned to combat the new variant, prolonging the pandemic.

Due to covid, our country has to suffer Major economies struggle to cope with the health care burden as millions of infected people need hospitalization for several days, depending on the severity of the disease.

No one knows when lockdown will be enforced again to control the situation. Many are losing their families and not allowed to attend the final rites due to strict quarantine and lockdown measures. Along with these major problems This disease has seriously created mental health issues, and it may take years to recover from such mental health conditions. Governments have to set up a separate budget to manage increasing mental health issues. The freedom to move around has now been crippled by Covid-19, and most people in lockdown are confined in a small space, limiting them to have face-to-face interactions with their dear ones and friends. It has affected people from all walks of life and has led to mental health issues. It is hard to find a common solution to all as mental health issues differ from person to person. Students are the worst affected community as Many schools and colleges have resorted to online teaching, which isn’t as good as a regular session. 

The digital screen has now become our portal to communicate with the outside world. Many children have lost their parents in this second wave in India and have become orphans since then. There were several appeals to the Government of India requesting to support the children who have lost their parents/guardians/adopted parents. In such a drastic situation people are feeling alone. The best thing to overcome negative thoughts is by performing regular meditation and yoga, listen to music, news, recall sweet memories, watch favorite movies, plays, and read books. Only by overcoming our negative thoughts we can overcome mental sickeness.

Why unemployment occurs?

Being 2nd in terms of the population can seem a curse to our country especially in terms of employment. The competition that youngsters face these days is because of this population. Even those who get a job didn’t get the desired salary. Most employees are not paid in proportion to the work that we put in. What’s more, this is not a new problem or one that has been created by a single government. In our country, low monthly incomes are a norm – across all states, and as a consequence, wage inequality remains high. Wage growth significantly trails economic growth in the country. The sluggish growth of our GDP has led to a rise in inequality and widened the economic divide between rural and urban India.

The sad part is that India’s unemployed are mostly the higher educated and the young. And those who have jobs are not satisfied enough. If you believe that only a few people at the top are getting huge paychecks, think again. Because data suggest that we aren’t creating too many high-paying jobs either. And even though labor productivity has risen in India, growth in remuneration has remained slow. The sad part is statistic, graphs of unemployment are still the same. The new jobs and opportunities are nothing in front of our population. This problem needs to review and can be to some extent need to be solved through bargaining power. Skilling, sometimes, multi-skilling at all levels is the most effective way to fight the wage crisis and the coming job crisis -the crucial designation before talent can be matched with demand. If the skilling exception isn’t corrected, job seekers will end up in the bad job trap. Skills produce productivity, and productivity brings with it higher pay.

The problem is that the business power of workers in India is low and getting more worse. Wage changes are also a result of changes in the way of production. Throughout the last few years, production has become more capital intensive or less dependent on labor in nearly every manufacturing industry in the organized and unorganized sectors. This is true, if to a lesser extent, for agriculture and services as well. While technical know-how and increased use of machinery is a change that needs to be welcomed since it translates to increased productivity, in labor surplus economies like India, the enhanced productivity does not automatically translate to higher wages for employees. Therefore need of the time is to cope up with the desired need of the institutes and became more high tech by learning more digital skills.

Pandemic, Placement, and Future of young generation.

Covid19 binds us to our shelters, and study remains restricted to computer screens. In one way or another way, covid19 does impact the life of the people. So to the final year students. Due to covid19 outbreak and lockdown, many students did not receive their job letters those who received them faced delaying joining dates even after getting hired. some students did not get a call back from the employer regarding their status of employment. Along with elders, students were hoping too for things to get back to normal But the second wave of the virus crushed all the hopes of the students. Students will have to set in the new normal of digitization.


Firms have changed their hiring process also from full-time to unpaid or stipend-based internships, to cut costs. Companies are even reducing the number of hiring employees and are also offering comparatively lower compensation packages. Only a few companies have joined so far for placement in the but only with minimal vacancies. besides affecting the health sector, Covid19 has also posed major setbacks for small businesses and it’s going to affect freshers.

Marginal or no placements have hugely affected students. There’s a persistent fear of remaining unemployed even after college ends. Sadly, the institutions no longer take the responsibility of getting their students placed and ensuring their economic and financial safety. Also, there’s a lack of strategy behind planning placement drives. Government should interrupt to negotiate between the colleges and companies for the interest of the students.. The government has to put in extra effort to ensure that unemployment levels among the youth do not increase further. A lot of people lost their jobs during the pandemic. Now, the challenge in front of freshers is to compete with those who are experienced enough but unemployed. Our state should look into this matter and try to create job opportunities for the youth so that the number of unemployed population could be declined.

ENTRANCE EXAM- A NECESSITY?

It is known to all that the CBSE 12th Board examinations have been cancelled due to the on going pandemic. However, the Government did not announce it on its own. The decision was taken after many parents have started worrying about the coronavirus and their ward’s safety. The cancellation was requested also because the classes were taught in online mode and the current grade 12 batch (2020-2021) were passed in their 11th grade without an examination. There were rounds of discussions that were conducted on how should the board examinations be kept offline considering the present situation and the safety of the students. Finally, on 1st of June, considering the consequences of the pandemic, Government of India announced the cancellation 12th CBSE Final Examinations. This decision has given much more confidence to the parents and their worries faded away. However, the next dilemma is about the marking formula that the CBSE would adopt for the students. These marks are very much important for students with which will be the basis for their undergraduate degree courses. For the purpose of resolving, the Government has appointed a 13 member committee to recommend the criteria to evaluate the grade 12 CBSE students.

The next question comes- the mode of admission in colleges. Is there an entrance exam or not? Generally for those who opt for engineering and medical have an entrance test and those scores are also considered important during the admission. Requests are placed by many people about the cancellation of entrance exams for engineering and medical for joining universities. The decision is still pending from the part of Government which will be arriving soon. In my opinion, entrance exams are useful in filtering the best candidates with good knowledge about the subject. There are many pros and cons for entrance exams. Some reasons are given below on why an entrance exam needs to be held.

MERITS OF HOLDING ENTRANCE EXAMS

As we know, college life is a turning point in a student’s life as it is considered as the first step to future career. The first push for students to take up entrance exams is to join the college of their dreams. Secondly, not all are good at all the subjects; Entrance exams can help the candidates to test their own mettle in their particular subject of interest and prove that they are knowledgeable in their field of interest. The exams test the knowledge of an individual in terms of analytical, numerical, comprehension and current affairs. Entrance exams also help students to dig deeper in their subject and learn more and more and thus here will be never ending learning that even successful completion of entrance exams will not be their ultimate goal. By attempting the exam, one need not necessarily pass the exam but he/she can understand the areas where they need to improve and where they stand in the crowd in aspects of knowledge in that subject. Finally, only deserving candidates get the seats in the college. There is no scope for any bias in the selection process.

RELEVANT LINKS:https://admission.aglasem.com/entrance-exams/ https://www.careerindia.com/entrance-exam/

The ruthless approach of private institutes.

Right to education a right that is just on the paper. The pandemic situation makes access to education more challenging. The expensive fees of institutes, colleges, and tuition teachers along with the cost of digital gadgets. Make it a dream for the unprivileged child. Along with expensive gadgets, the additional cost of the internet is a matter of concern. This all thing make together cost of education very expensive. That is not affordable for all. The Pandemic hit makes our environment full of grief. Many lost their loved ones as well as earning hands. The question is in that situation how an innocent child pays for the education expenses. the answer is simple. The unprivileged child eventually drops out of school. People have to deal with financial pressure and subsequent anxiety. The pandemic has financially impacted the Indian middle and upper-middle class. Also many lost their jobs during the covid19 hit. The savings are diverted towards the needs. The reduction in earnings with the additional monthly cost of electricity, rent, and other bills make education cost impracticable.

Even during this time that certain private colleges are charging mercilessly an expensive amount of fees. This has put enormous pressure on families that sometimes have only one earning member per family. OR those who lost only earning members of the family. They have continued with their regular scheme of fees without issuing even the slightest bit of deduction. Even the government is not supporting the pitty family;
Even though government gives the judgment that Colleges should not charge more than the students’ tuition fees because they practically have online-only classes. Many students think it is not justified to charge students for the facilities they are no costs such as the library, sports grounds, canteen, etc. Some colleges have given ridiculous explanations about electricity bills, infrastructural cost and maintenance fees. But on the ground private institution didn’t care about this judgment and continue to charge whole fees from the students.
The colleges even ruthlessly pressuring the students and the parents to pay the semester fees on time, which would result in serious consequences if not paid. Private colleges are still looking at their profit margin even during a pandemic. The second wave hit more badly than the first wave. half of the population is covid positive. and admitted to the hospital looking for the medicine, oxygen cylinder, and ICU wards. The grief situation as well as the financial expense in the medical treatment. Given the scarcity of beds, private hospitals are charging a huge amount to the patients’ families. They have no option but to comply. The medical expenses are an additional burden that they have to bear. The bills keep adding and resulted in borrowing .and then never adding a circle of depth began. In such a sad situation how can a student pay his fees?

The students not only have to give compulsory examinations but they also have to pay with the financial expenses. Owing to this expense, students in the middle and lower strata of society are thinking to drop out the college. They are taking up whatever odd jobs they can get with little pay to support their family. Many of them had plans to pursue degrees post-graduation, but they have no option but to give up given the circumstances. In certain families with more than two children, it is becoming an increasing burden for the earning member to keep up with the rising expenses.

Lack of income source, lack of money, and diversion of savings towards basic needs as well as medical expenditures are some of the reasons stated by students facing such a crisis. Even authorities are not assisting the common people. Government is silent on this issue. That’s the reason many students give theatre life as being hopeless by committing suicide. Students want the college to either waive off the fees or provide them with some aid or assistance. The absolute lack of understanding for students has been reflected by these colleges. The mental fatigue and pain caused by this constant pressure are harmful to the well-being of students and parents as well.
It is unfair on the part of private colleges to seek their profits during the pandemic situation. Instead of charging such a high amount, they should either waive it off for students going through a financial crisis or charge them just the tuition fee. The students are already facing mental pressure and anxiety. There is a lack of accessibility to online education existing already. Some have had to purchase laptops, good mobile sets, and costly data packs to attend classes. To assume that everyone’s financial condition will remain unaffected because they belong to a privileged background is wrong and fallacious.
Some colleges are giving excuses that they have to pay to there teachers. Therefore they have to ask for money. But it is not convincing enough for the students who have time and again asked for a breakup of the fee structure. The students are helpless at this point. Even after approaching multiple authorities, they have not received a helpful solution. We can help these needy students through our small contribution. We common people should assist those who are in need.

Child Labor and the miserable fate of unprivileged children.

Youth is the future of the country. if this statement is true. Then why our country is not able to eradicate the sin of child labor? we encounter the term child labor every time. and take it very casually. That’s the reason it still prevails within our society. we can find children doing work in 

Every city, lane, and corner of society. We have been taught since our childhood that child labor is wrong. the future is in the hand of the young fellow who is making their livelihoods in factories, big industries, and local vendors and shops working endlessly.

Why this young fellow has to deprived of their education? why their childhood is stolen from them? why do they bear to do the work from such a young age? While other children are enjoying their childhood.Why some unprivileged kids have to work with heavy machinery and weapons under a huge risk to their health, just to earn a two-figure income to afford a single meal. children have to resort to working and earning, instead of learning. who is responsible for their worst situation? The ones who should be earning are the young and unemployed youth, who are sitting at home without any scope for jobs. who will take responsibility for them? The need of the hour is to provide these children education They are the future of India, and they deserve an education.

Child labor means exploitation of children through any work that deprives them of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially, or morally harmful.  The practice of child labor is a crime ad people employing it people are the biggest criminals of Indian society. Another reason why child labor is wrong is that by making a child work, we are decreasing the quality of our education system and spoiling the innocent life of that child.

These children are suffering in the dark world of mental and physical pressure. by allowing these children to work in our houses and societies, as by employing them we are spoiling their future and career.

child labor is the evil part of society and needs to be eliminated. 

By taking the labor of children we are spoiling the life of an innocent child for their cheap labor and our selfish motives. If we want to maintain the quality of the education system, we have to educate children, especially those from rural areas who are deprived of education, basic amenities, and other advancement opportunities.

For the progress of society and our economy, this evil practice needs to be removed. so that our economy will be balanced so flawlessly that there will be no cases of poverty and child labor in the upcoming years. We should not forget that child labor arises from poverty, so we need to eradicate their poverty level through the power of education leading them towards their career goals.

The lack of knowledge and skill leads to child labor. Therefore the need for time is to increase the accessibility of education to everyone. we need to start moe initiatives like mid-day meal. to increase the reach of students to education.

Digital Disparity.

Covid19 expanded the digital divide. And shows the disparities within the society between the rural and urban, rich and poor. Lockdown compelled the shift to the virtual model. some of the students managed to receive an education without any obstacles. but many unprivileged students have been deprived of it. resulted in drop out of college and institutes due to the financial crisis of lockdown. Before the pandemic differences prevail in access to education but corona widened the gap. Rural areas have severe internet connectivity problems but Half of India’s population is living in rural parts of the country.

India is the second-largest populated country in the world. But it is a developing country. to maintain education for all during the lockdown when the schools are shut is quite challenging. the digital divide between the government and private institutes can be witnessed. Virtual learning wasn’t much challenging for private school students. Unlike the students of the government schools, who didn’t have access to the digital equipment. the Unprivileged children can’t afford access to quality internet and gadgets. Thus being deprived of education. The right to education is meaningless in the covid scenario. The government needs to bridge the digital divide to ensure students’ education. Some students are ahead of others. As many students drop out of school due to financial problems.

 Access to the internet on their mobile phones is a matter of concern as well. The need of the time is to provide digital infrastructure and tools access to unprivileged ones to access online classes. The digital divide has led to incidences of student suicides. many students committed suicide after drop out. Even in urban areas, disparities prevail. those living in slumps and downtrodden areas can’t afford education.

The government needs to focus on technology and extending the vision of digital India.

Those who have access to education face many hurdles such as in assembling notes, in paying attention due to bad network coverage. Getting time to do self-study is also difficult. preparation of online tests is another problem. seeking notes from some of the online sources is also difficult because some websites charge for the subscription which is not possible for everyone. students have to sit in front of the computer screen for many hours and Practical knowledge is not possible during the pandemic because it is hard for the students to perform practical virtually. even for teachers, it is difficult to prepare presentations for the students. 

pandemic hit increases our dependence on technology. The focus had always been on practical knowledge and skills. we are being actively tested for our knowledge without any proper structure of assessment. Most importantly, not all teachers are not good at technical stuff to manage classes or material distribution.

. COVID-19 also raised prominent questions about the need, significance, and value of virtual learning platforms. The majority of the students have been affected negatively and therefore the government should come up with such education policies that would benefit all the students. Common people also need to volunteer to lead a hand to needy people.

The complex paradigm of streams.

“Now what?”This question every student encounter in life after completing school. A career plan is the most significant and difficult question of life. Our whole life depends on this small question. Sometimes we choose our path and sometimes our society decides for us. 

The question  “What do I want to do in life?” is hard to answer.

It is tough for a school student to find their path at such a young age, because of the complicated model of ‘streams’. Studying science means you are limited to the medical and the engineering line. Studying commerce means being captured in chartered accountancy, banking, and finance and learning humanities imply that I must choose to become a lawyer or journalist.

The problem is the high competition within society The tragic fact is that we can never come back from this model of education, studies, and streams. we don’t have the right to choose subjects that are a combination of different streams. The reason streams are a challenge for us is that they directly affect our careers. Choosing a career is choosing life. As a career is related to financial independence. The question became more significant. every parent expects from there child to pursue a career that has the reputation, high earning prospect, and quite popular in society. Boys, in particular, are supposed to choose a career that can support their families financially one day. Today passion and happiness don’t matter when it comes to a career. The thing that matters for society is the reputation of the career. For society, boys should not go for teaching jobs, fashion designing and cooking are something that society doesn’t consider ideal jobs. some jobs are called ‘feminine jobs’ not meant for boys. Like cooking is related to females. Some jobs get undermined like fashion designing is compared to tailoring.

Students’ choices are also impacted badly by the stereotypes and repercussions. and they have to choose paths unwillingly as per society’s concern. Even though we are heading towards an impartial society, such differences prevail in our society. The ‘pay scale’ affects the choice of career. Women are still paid less and the gender pay gap continues to widen. 

Lack of awareness of new opportunities is a major challenge that school students face. We are not aware of the options beyond the ‘visible careers’. Visible careers are those careers that we see in everyday life, such as doctors, teachers, engineers, journalists, politicians, and businessmen. We lack knowledge about other options we have. There is a world beyond these visible careers: such as being a therapist, an urban planner, a singer, a beautician, a blogger.

so many jobs are available now because of the internet. such jobs can provide a great opportunity to the newcomer. Like social media marketing, a YouTuber, a blogger, a digital marketer. But the problem is students don’t have access to and knowledge of this career.

 Your career should be based on your strengths. The best choice of career comes from one’s passions and hobbies. Your career should inspire you and be the reason for your existence. It is you who can decide your career, not others. and being yourself and the following passion makes you happier.

Traditional education system how much effective?

Covid Pandemic left many Indians unemployed. While unemployment has always been a cause of attention for India. But mandatory experience and training made it more worse and challenging. the lack of practical skills holds us back. The recent unemployment numbers among educated youth show the drawback of India’s faulty education system and the lack of the right learning opportunities for young professionals.

 The government of India wanted to create a workforce of skilled professionals but the coronavirus pandemic made the situation drastic and critical. There was a time when a degree could help a person getting a desired job. But with more competition., a degree is not sufficient itself. The biggest issue is practical knowledge with theoretical knowledge. Classroom learning is more focused on theory. When students step into the professional world, they find themselves not capable enough to handle the work because of the drawbacks of our education system. Our country has educated unemployed people. Shows the inadequacies in our education system.

companies want educated fellows with practical skills. That our education system is unable to give. Because it is limited to academics. Youth lack new-age skills that companies need from their employees. With limited online and offline courses for industry-specific training such as engineering, IT, etc., Most young professionals lack confidence while dealing with problems at their workplace. Moreover, since schools, colleges and universities are following the traditional system of education. it acts as a hurdle when professionals come to face real-life circumstances.

Students need to develop new skills. So that student can learn something above education and makes students ready to be professionals. India has the potential to be a preferred destination for global sourcing. Skill development can bring this to reality by instilling more confidence in young professionals. As their skill increases their employability will increase, and ultimately lead to the nation’s financial growth.

The government needs to assist India’s workforce informally trained. With immediate competition, we need to adopt better strategies too. we need to improve standards of education and adopt newer methods. The higher the standards of training and skill development, the better our workforce can be. The country National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) can also contribute to solving the problem by creating more awareness and come up with suitable programs that can help professionals.

Transformation can only come with the government. The education system, industries, and students collectively understand and recognized the significance of skill improvement.

A new version of Censorship.

 As per the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MEITy), social media platforms like Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, and Instagram have to follow the new Guidelines of government failing which can lead to a ban. guidelines were issued in February 2021, and social media platforms had around 3 months to acquire these guidelines. The companies are yet to respond to the Intermediary Guidelines. The decision taken due to the fake headlines do nothing but spread fear among people. 

According to the constitution, India is a democracy at least on pen and paper. However, certain powerful people in the Central Government, to strengthen power, are now trying to silence free speech on social media. Free speech is a right granted to all human beings globally. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) recognizes it as a fundamental right. India happens to be one having this right. This means, Indian citizens should have access to this right, and it’s the government’s responsibility to see that this right is being protected.

Yet, these powerful individuals within the Central Government, have time and again gone to unbelievable measures to control this right. 

. The disappointed young people of today turn to social media to express their objections about everything they found mistaken or unsuitable. Be it a person of any class, culture, community, and religion. everyone turns to the internet. And the only way to check these critics would be by introducing “Agreement Officers”.That is exactly what the government has done through its intermediary guidelines to check who’s saying what on the internet.

If this guideline came into being. There exists no mechanism for the common mass to raise their voices. The only time when the masses get to raise their voice is during the elections. But then again, it’s the media that controls the elections these days. Unfortunately, reporting is done in such a way that we’re persuaded in support of a particular political party. This plan, if achieved, will badly affect the very foundation of our democracy.

Criticism makes democracy strong. But these guidelines go against it.

Maybe government believes that criticism isn’t important anymore and hence has concluded that the internet should be controlled. It’s dishonest of this country to say that other countries are trying to crush free speech.

The government needs to come into a discussion with the social media companies and the common people. But the government didn’t give a single thought to it. It is nothing but censorship in disguise.