Introvert people

Putting together a large number of contemporary tests of personality, Grimes, Cheek, Julie Norem, and Courtney Brown created the STAR test to measure four kinds of introversion. To figure out your primary introverted type, take this online test:

To find out where you stand on each of the four meanings of introversion, answer the following questions by deciding to what extent each item is characteristic of your feelings and behavior. Fill in the blank next to each item by choosing a number from the following scale:

1 = very uncharacteristic or untrue, strongly disagree

2 = uncharacteristic

3 = neutral

4 = characteristic

5 = very characteristic or true, strongly agree

Social Introversion

____ 1. I like to share special occasions with just one person or a few close friends, rather than have big celebrations.

____ 2. I think it would be satisfying if I could have very close friendships with many people.

____ 3. I try to structure my day so that I always have some time to myself.

____ 4. I like to vacation in places where there are a lot of people around and a lot of activities going on.

____ 5. After spending a few hours surrounded by a lot of people, I am usually eager to get away by myself.

____ 6. I do not have a strong need to be around other people.

____ 7. Just being around others and finding out about them is one of the most interesting things I can think of doing.

____ 8. I usually prefer to do things alone.

____ 9. Other people tend to misunderstand me—forming a mistaken impression of what kind of person I am because I don’t say much about myself.

____ 10. I feel drained after social situations, even when I enjoyed myself.

Thinking Introversion

____ 1. I enjoy analyzing my own thoughts and ideas about myself.

____ 2. I have a rich, complex inner life.

____ 3. I frequently think about what kind of person I am.

____ 4. When I am reading an interesting story or novel or when I am watching a good movie, I imagine how I would feel if the events in the story were happening to me.

____ 5. I seldom think about myself.

____ 6. I generally pay attention to my inner feelings.

____ 7. I value my personal self-evaluation, that is, the private opinion I have of myself.

____ 8. I sometimes step back (in my mind) in order to examine myself from a distance.

____ 9. I daydream and fantasize, with some regularity, about things that might happen to me.

____ 10. I am inclined to be introspective, that is, to analyze myself.

Anxious Introversion

____ 1. When I enter a room I often become self-conscious and feel that the eyes of others are upon me.

____ 2. My thoughts are often focused on episodes of my life that I wish I’d stop thinking about.

____ 3. My nervous system sometimes feels so frazzled that I just have to get off by myself.

____ 4. I am confident about my social skills.

____ 5. Defeat or disappointment usually shame or anger me, but I try not to show it.

____ 6. It does not take me long to overcome my shyness in new situations.

____ 7. I feel relaxed even in unfamiliar social situations.

____ 8. Even when I am in a group of friends, I often feel very alone and uneasy.

____ 9. My secret thoughts, feelings, and actions would horrify some of my friends.

____ 10. I feel painfully self-conscious when I am around strangers.

Restrained Introversion

____ 1. I like to be off and running as soon as I wake up in the morning.

____ 2. I’ll try anything once.

____ 3. For relaxation I like to slow down and take things easy.

____ 4. I like to wear myself out with exertion.

____ 5. I often say the first thing that comes into my head.

____ 6. I generally seek new and exciting experiences and sensations.

____ 7. I like to keep busy all the time.

____ 8. I often act on the spur of the moment.

____ 9. I sometimes do “crazy” things just to be different.

____ 10. I often feel sluggish.

How’d you do?

To find out your score for each of the four kinds of introversion,RECODE the following Reverse-Worded items: (1=5) (2=4) (4=2) (5=1):

Social Introversion items: 2, 4, & 7

Thinking Introversion item: 5

Anxious Introversion items: 4, 6, & 7

Restrained Introversion items: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9

Next, add together all the numbers to come up with a total score.

Here’s a guide of how you scored compared to others in the general population:

  • Social Introversion — below 24 low, around 30 average, above 36 high​
  • Thinking Introversion — below 28 low, around 34 average, above 40 high
  • Anxious Introversion — below 23 low, around 30 average, above 37 high
  • Restrained Introversion — below 25 low, around 31 average, above 37 high

This alternative way of assessing introversion is not likely to be embraced by Big Five personality researchers [6]. But if it offers you a more satisfying, personally meaningful way to glean insight into your unique personality, feel free to throw the Big Five framework out the window.

© 2014 Scott Barry Kaufman, All Rights Reserved.

Acknowledgement: Thanks to Connor Child at Qzzr for his help with the online quiz, and Jennifer Odessa Grimes and Jonathan Cheek for their help with this post.

[1] This list is adapted from Jonathan Cheek’s book review, which can be found here.

[2] As another example, take people who conceptualize themselves as highly introverted because they are very introspective and value their rich inner mental lives, but who score high in enthusiasm and assertiveness on the Big Five test. These folks are being told by modern personality psychologists: “You are really an extrovert who is also high in intellect/imagination.” For those who have spent their entire lives equating their love of thinking and fantasy with their “introversion”, they respond: “huh?” In the Big Five, imagination, fantasy, and introspection are positively associated with Extraversion. But if we do away with the label of introversion in the Big Five, then that allows a person to be introverted in the thinking/introspective sense but also be an extravert in the Big Five sense (high in enthusiasm and assertiveness).

[3] Popular writers on introversion are also not pleased with this psychological imperialism. For instance, in Sophia Sembling’s book The Introvert’s Way, she has a chapter titled “Introverts are Not Failed Extroverts”.

[4] Keep in mind, the Big Five is a descriptive model; it merely describes patterns of covariation between people. The labels used to describe the five personality dimensions are subjective. A lot of the arguments over what counts as introversion come down to a naming game. In my view, it’s really unfortunate that Big Five researchers started to use the label “introversion” to mark the lower end of extraversion. It wasn’t always this way. In fact, the original name for “extraversion” in the Big Five was “Surgency“. If it were up to me, it would have stayed that way, leaving the label “introversion” free to continue roaming the personality landscape. As Jonathan Cheek told me, “if the Big Five folks would just go back to that phrase [“Surgency”], they would not be crossing swords with folk psychology/ordinary language introverts. Perhaps introversion should *not* be used as a label in the Big Five system.” I agree.

[5] Here is the link to the research report about the new STAR scale. You might be wondering: “What about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test? Isn’t that good enough to measure introversion?” Well, no it isn’t. As it turns out, the MBTI extraversion-introversion scale only includes items relating to being talkative, gregarious, and sociable (vs. quiet and reserved). Since there’s not a single item on the MBTI extraversion-introversion dimension that mentions being introspective or reflective, even the MBTI doesn’t measure Jung’s original conceptualization of the term!

[6] Big Five researchers could make the case that each of these four meanings of introversion can easily be mapped onto the Big Five framework. For instance, they could argue that:

-Social introversion is really just “low enthusiasm” (part of the extraversion domain)

-Thinking introversion is not part of the extraversion-introversion domain at all, but really is “high intellect/imagination”

-Anxious introversion is really just a blend of “high neuroticism” and “low assertiveness” (part of the extraversion domain)

-Restrained introversion” is a blend of a number of lower-order extraversion-related traits, including “low sensation seeking”, “low excitement seeking”, and “low activity”.

Hope for the best, but expect less

I’m not in this world to live up to your expectations and you’re not in this world to live up to mine. -Bruce Lee

A friend’s status update on a social media site: ‘Who hurt you? My own expectations.’

Yes, we all have expectations in our lives: what we want out of life and who we want to become. I believe one of the keys to happiness lies within the management of your expectations of people and circumstances. If you do not have expectations, you can never be disappointed. Often we tend to believe that the way we treat others will be the way we are treated in return. But, unfortunately, this does not always happen.

The biggest disappointments in our lives are often the result of misplaced expectations. This is especially true when it comes to our relationships and interactions with others. You need to make sure you enter into relationship with someone who has as big of a heart as you do. If you do not, you may feel as if you are being taken advantage of. You need to find people who appreciate what you do for them and who will reciprocate those actions.

There are two ways to be happy: improve your reality or lower your expectations. Having realistic expectations will allow you to accept the flaws each person has. We need to learn how to take responsibility for our own lives and our own decisions before we can expect others to do the same.

One of the biggest challenges we face in life is learning to accept people for who they truly are. Once you realize that your expectations cannot change people, the better off you will be. Give without expectation, accept without reservation, and love with hesitation. Unrealistic expectations most often do lead to disappointment. Too many people are obsessed with finding the perfect career or the perfect spouse, and as a result become increasingly frustrated when this does not happen in reality.

Expectation is the root of all heartache. Try to remain confident while maintaining positive aspirations; just remember not to make the aspirations so high that they are impractical or unreachable.

Acceptance is an amazing trait that needs to be actively worked toward. When things do not work out the way we had planned, it is much more beneficial to realize that is how life works rather than becoming frustrated at the situation. Have hope rather than expectations and you will tend not to be as disappointed.

People rarely behave exactly the way you want them to. Hope for the best, but expect less. And remember, the magnitude of your happiness will be directly proportional to your thoughts and how you choose to think about things. Even if a situation or relationship doesn’t work out at all, it’s still worth it, if it made you feel something new, taught you something afresh.

Farm Laws 2020: Consequences and Implications

What are these laws?

The farm bills 2020 were combination of three farm bills that were brought by the central government as Ordinances in the early half 2020 with an aim of improving the dilapidated condition of the agriculture industry.

These were later passed by the Parliament of the country (which remains another contentious issue) and became a law by the assent of the President towards the end of the 2020 and are being protested against at large.

The three bills and the provisions are as follows:

  1. Essential Commodities Amendment Bill 2020

Provisions

This Bill states that there will be no regulations imposed on the stock limits until there is either 100% increase in the price of horticulture produce or 50% increase in the retail price of nonperishable agricultural items.

Aims

It is aimed at maximizing the number of cold store facilities and silos by involving the private players to store essential food commodities in the facilities available with them since the government alone cannot take care of the huge produce across the country in the limited spaces available.

Disadvantages and their feared consequences and implications

The biggest issue that is associated with the Bill is that there is a possibility hoarding by the large buyers thereby leading to an artificial scarcity and thus resulting in inflation (which any nation can ill afford).

  • The Farmers’ Produce, Trade and Commerce Bill 2020

Provisions

This is the most elaborate Bill amongst the three Bills that were tabled, it has provisions regarding the setting up of an electronic market, the contact farming that can be done only between a farmer and a sponsor, the methods of redressal, the setting up of a parallel market to the APMC markets independent of state interference and taxation, interstate trade and removal of all barriers and setting up of an “Price Information and Market Intelligence System”.

Aims

The aim of bringing this to the floor of the House was to increase competitiveness, removal of the middle men, shortening of the supply chains and proving the farmers with an alternative market structure which is tax free to help them sell and get better prices.

Disadvantages and their feared consequences and implications

The farmers and the workers of the APMC system fear that since a parallel market will be created with better benefits; their market may crash in a few years leaving the stakeholders at the mercy of the big corporate houses who will later exploit them by being the price makers, the natural death of APMC markets will not be responsibility of any government thereby rendering the people involved jobless, the state revenue will be majorly hit since the new market structure will not give them revenue as the provision of the tax has been ruled out( already the GST system has hit the state revenues), the small farmers will be still forced to sell at the Mandis because they do not have the capacity and finance to do interstate trade hence only the big farmers stand to benefit from this system.

  • Farmers’ (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services 2020

Provisions

This Bill elaborately explains the provision of the contact farming, between whom can it be done, the terms of trade to be mentioned, the methods of redressal, etc.

Disadvantages and their feared consequences and implications

The most controversial provision is regarding the redressal where no civil court will have a say in the settling of the disputes between the parties involved in the contact farming. The settlement has a three-tier set up where first the Conciliation Board, then the Sub Divisional Authority and then the Collector will settle the disputes if none of the three work out only a Joint Secretary of the Government of India will be then able to have a final verdict. The farmers fear that the bureaucratic structure may not listen to them as they have less bargaining power, etc. The small traders will also risk themselves when entering into the contract as they will have to comply with all the rules and will be slapped with heavier penalties if they are at fault.

Advantages of the laws

The advantages are where the farmers cannot sign the contracts between themselves saving the small peasants working on the lands of big landlords from being exploited, in any circumstance the farmers’ land cannot be leased out to the sponsor if the farmer fails to fulfil the terms of the contract and is unable to pay the punishment fee.

Conclusion

In conclusion if we look at the larger picture then the major stakeholders like small and marginal farmers, the states, the small traders all stand to lose out in this process making this law non inclusive. The ills of the existing system of agriculture can be done away simply by making no changes in the familiar existing structure of the Mandis and setting up of a parallel market instead. The foremost step that the government should have taken was to change the structure such as facilitate irrigation, stop the overuse of groundwater for crops like paddy in water scarce areas of Punjab and Haryana, stop the burning of stalks by introducing scientific methods of clearing them to make the soil productive and fertile in natural ways, set up agricultural banks to facilitate the credit and set up agri schools for farmers to learn to increase the productivity and the capacity of production, implement the existing laws properly in the states(Bihar and Madhya Pradesh being some of the many) where the APMCs do not function and the contract farming takes place in order to set a good precedent which can eradicate the fears regarding the laws and the consequences and implications of them.