Indian political system

Politics in any country involves the ruling party and the opposition. Usually and ideally, political parties are formed based on the same line of thinking and ideology. The left and the right are the two terms usually used by media and political commentators to define the group of people with the same ideological bend of mind. The lefts are usually considered liberal, secular and pro-government ideologies while the right is considered majoritarian, pro-poor and rebellious in nature.

These definitions are not defined anywhere in the constitutions. of any governmental organisations, but are the terms coined by journalists, authors and commentators. For example, in the USA, the democrats are known to be left-leaning while the republicans are known to be right-leaning, in UK Labour party is seen to be right-leaning ideology and the conservative party having a left-leaning ideology. The case is similar in India as well, with Congress having left-leaning ideologies while BJP having right-leaning ideologies.

And for a perfect democracy to work, both the ideologies are necessary. A mature democracy is one where there is a fine demarcation between the two ideologies, but in countries like India, these demarcations are blurry and the left and right ideologies superimpose on each other often number of times.

The political system is built in such a way that, irrespective of what ideologies, policies, processes, institutions, strategy, behaviours, classes or diplomacy that a political party follows, the core vision and objective lie in the development of the country.

But, like always, not everything that glitters is gold, is it not?

Politics is called a dirty game and rightly so, especially in a country like India. Greed, corruption, injustice, bigotry and hatred are some of the very few terms that are usually associated with Indian politics. In this essay on Indian politics, we will not be able to talk about it all, but we will try to touch upon each of the issues.

Politicians usually choose their parties, not because they believe in the ideologies of the party, but because of the winnability quotient in the elections. Elections, unfortunately, is all about money power and muscle power. The ideologies and promises are just the sugar coating that politician do to get votes from people. But even if they follow the ideology of a party, the ideologies itself is flawed and broken from its core. Divide and rule policy followed by the British to rule India is followed by today’s politicians to get votes. Political parties, across the spectrum, try to divide people of India on the basis of religions and class. This is usually called by the term communal polarisation. The gullible voters play into the hands of these political parties and belive the fancy promises they show in the name of development. In a good democratic system, a common man should also be well aware of their rights and responsibilities as a law-abiding citizen.

A good politics consists of the government and its opposition, with both of them working for the development of the country, in their capacities. The opposition parties questions criticise and demands accountability from the ruling party so that the ruling regime is kept in check. The system works fine in its idealistic form. But political parties, with their greed for power, forget their true responsibilities and indulge in dirty games to grab power at any cost. That cost is borne by the common man of the country.

According to our Constitution, India is a “sovereign secular socialist democratic republic.” It has 28 states and seven Union Territories. With a population of approximately 112 crore, India happens to be the largest democracy in the world. Indian polity is a multi-party democracy, based on the adult franchise system of voting. That is any Indian citizen of 18 and above, who is not debarred by law, can vote in the Indian elections, at national, state and local levels.

India is a parliamentary democracy and a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Prime Minister is the head of government. He or she should be chosen by the MPs (Member of Parliaments) of the ruling party or the coalition that comes to power. The Vice President has to temporarily assume the role of President in the event of the death, resignation, or removal of the President, until a new President is chosen by the electoral college. The Vice President of India may also act temporarily as President, during the absence or illness of the President. The Vice President of India is also the Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Mohammad Hamid Ansari is the present Vice President of India.

Executive, Legislature and Judiciary

With the Union Government and State Governments wrest the executive power, while the legislative power is vested on the Union Government and the two houses of Indian Parliament- the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha- and also the State Government and two state legislatures-Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. However, here it deserves a mention that only five of India’s 28 states have Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council, which is also known as the upper house of state legislatures, along with the Vidhan Sabha. The rest of the states don’t have bicameral legislatures, and only have Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly. Each state also has a Governor, who is formally appointed by the President of India. The role of the Governor is somewhat similar to that of President in the national level; he is a titular head of the state in normal circumstances, but can exercise some powers when directed by the Union Government.

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Role of civil services in a democracy.

In a democracy, the civil services play an extremely important role in the administration, policy formulation and implementation, and in taking the country forward towards progress and development.

Democracy is an egalitarian principle in which the governed elect the people who govern over them. There are three pillars of modern democracy:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive
  3. Judiciary

The civil services form a part of the executive. While the ministers, who are part of the executive, are temporary and are reelected or replaced by the people by their will (through elections), the civil servants are the permanent part of the executive. 

  • The civil servants are accountable to the political executive, the ministers. The civil services are thus, a subdivision under the government. 
  • The officers in the civil services form the permanent staff of the various governmental departments. 
  • They are basically expert administrators. 
  • They are sometimes referred to as the bureaucracy or also the public service. 

Importance of the Civil Services :

  1. The civil service is present all over India and it thus has a strong binding character.
  2. It plays a vital role in effective policy-making and regulation.
  3. It offers non-partisan advice to the political leadership of the country, even in the midst of political instability.
  4. The service gives effective coordination between the various institutions of governance, and also between different departments, bodies, etc.
  5. It offers service delivery and leadership at different levels of administration.

Functions of Civil Services

  • Basis of Government: There can be no government without administrative machinery. 
  • Implementing Laws & Policies: Civil services are responsible for implementing laws and executing policies framed by the government.
  • Policy Formulation: The civil service is chiefly responsible for policy formulation as well. The civil service officers advise ministers in this regard and also provides them with facts and ideas.
  • Stabilising Force: Amidst political instability, the civil service offers stability and permanence. While governments and ministers can come and go, the civil services is a permanent fixture giving the administrative set up a sense of stability and continuity.
  • Instruments of Social Change & Economic Development: Successful policy implementation will lead to positive changes in the lives of ordinary people. It is only when the promised goods and services reach the intended beneficiaries, a government can call any scheme successful. The task of actualising schemes and policies fall with the officers of the civil services.
  • Welfare Services: The services offer a variety of welfare schemes such as providing social security, the welfare of weaker and vulnerable sections of society, old-age pensions, poverty alleviation, etc.
  • Developmental Functions: The services perform a variety of developmental functions like promoting modern techniques in agriculture, promoting the industry, trade, banking functions, bridging the digital divide, etc.
  • Administrative Adjudication: The civil services also perform quasi-judicial services by settling disputes between the State and the citizens, in the form of tribunals, etc.

Accountability of a Civil Servant :

The civil servants are responsible to the ministers of the departments in which they serve. The ministers are accountable to the people through the Parliament or State Legislatures, and the civil servants are accountable to the ministers. They should ideally serve the elected government of the day, as government policies are the functions of the civil services. However, an impartial civil servant is also accountable to the Constitution of India on which he has taken an oath of allegiance.

Problems Affecting Civil Services Today :

  • Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building.
  • An ineffective incentive system that does not reward the meritorious and upright civil servants.
  • Rigid and outmoded rules and procedures that do not allow civil servants to exercise individual judgement and perform efficiently.
  • Lack of accountability and transparency procedure, with no adequate protection for whistle-blowers.
  • Political interference causing arbitrary transfers, and insecurity in tenures.
  • An erosion in ethics and values, which has caused rampant corruption and nepotism.
  • Patrimonialism (a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader).
  • Resistance to change from the civil servants themselves.

Key Facts about Democracy in India :

  • Democracy in India federal republic.
  • Democracy in India is headed by the President as the head of the state and Prime Minister as the head of the government.
  • There is a parliamentary form of government at the central level.
  • There is a universal adult franchise.

The Kargil War

Here’s what happened between India and Pakistan!

The Genesis:

Twenty-two years ago, on JULY 26, the Indian Army with armed forces recaptured all posts in Kargil, Jammu and Kashmir which were captured by Pakistan’s Army. Since then it is a day to commemorate the victory of the Indian Army over Pakistan’s Army. This is called the ‘Kargil war’ or ‘Kargil conflict’. The Kargil war became the first ‘live’ war in South Asia and it was given such detailed media coverage all over the world.

India
India

The War

It was an armed conflict fought between India and Pakistan from May to July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir(now Ladakh). In India, they referred to it as “Operation Vijay”. The war took place between 3 May -26 July 1999 which was exactly two months, three weeks, and two days.

Cause of War

It began with the infiltration of both regular Pakistani troops and terrorists into Indian territory. The intruders positioned themselves in key locations that gave them a strategic advantage during the start of the conflict. They disguised themselves as Kashmiri militants on the Indian side of LOC.

The Indian Army 

The Indian Army was lead by Gen.Ved Prakash Malik of Indian ground troop and ACM Anil Yashwant Tipnis of Indian Air Force. In India, the operation was given the codename “Operation Safed Sagar”.

The Indian Army, supported by The Indian Air Force recaptured the majority of the positions in the Indian side of the LOC. The Indian Army had a strength of about 30,000 which was strong enough to win Pakistan Troops.

The Cost of War

The victory came at a high price. The official death toll on the Indian side was 527 and 1623 wounded, while that on the Pakistani side was between 357-453 and 1000+ wounded. But also for India, it created a good impact on the stock hike by 30% from the end of the Kargil war to February 2000.

The Indian Army after victory at Kargil
The Indian Army after victory at Kargil

Kargil Vijay Diwas

The Indian Army declared the mission successful on July 26, 1999. Since then the day has been celebrated annually as Kargil Vijay Diwas.

INDIAN POLITICS

INDIAN POLITICS:

 

 

Governmental issues, basically talking, alludes to the exercises encompassing a nation’s administration. With regards to an enormous popularity-based nation like India, governmental issues turn out to be truly muddled. This Indian governmental issues paper will illuminate the legislative issues of India.

Background of Indian Politics:

Governmental issues in India, similar to some other vote based nation, includes the decision party and the resistance. In India, the arrangement of ideological groups has occurred based on a belief system. Besides, the Indian ideological groups have a place with the left and the privileged political range.

Radical legislative issues depend on the upsides of secularism, progressivism, and resistance. Interestingly, conservative legislative issues favor the benefits of being supportive of the government, methodical, moderate, and customary.

There are no meanings of left-right legislative issues anyplace in the Indian constitution. Moreover, these terms were given by analysts, creators, and writers. Additionally, it has been seen in India that a few lawmakers can change their ideological group and belief system.

In fact, for a steady popular government, it is vital that both political belief systems, the privilege and left, work next to each other. Accordingly, a few times, the nation might be under traditionalist impact while liberal goals may rule at some other point. The two significant ideological groups in India, BJP, and Congress, obviously exhibit the two distinctive political ranges of both ways separately.

Problem with Indian Politics:

For a vote-based system to work appropriately there should be a legitimate division between the political philosophies. Be that as it may, in India, the boundary between these belief systems will in general get foggy, consequently bringing about the superimposition of one philosophy over the other. This is surely not a sign of a developed majority rule government.

The political arrangement of India endures because of the conflict of various political belief systems. Besides, such conflicts can end up being very terrible. Generally essential, such conflicts are negative to the improvement of the country overall.

Different issues influence Indian governmental issues like contempt, foul play, debasement, insatiability, and bias. Because of every one of these issues, Indian legislative issues are known as a filthy game. Such issues can likewise drive numerous scholarly and prominent people to avoid Indian governmental issues.

Some of the time the Indian lawmakers may pick an ideological group, not on account of the philosophical position, but instead because of the triumphant likelihood in the races. This is a truly miserable truth of Indian governmental issues. Also, it shows that such government officials care more about their very own advantages instead of the interests of ordinary citizens.

Conclusion of Indian Politics:

Indian politics is a colourful drama and, according to some, its the great circus of the country. Despite such negative connotations, no one can doubt the enormously important role that politics has played in India. Most noteworthy, it is a crucial aspect of Indian democracy.