In the atmosphere, because ecosystems play a key role in the global carbon cycle and in adapting to climate change, while also providing a wide range of ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Biodiversity can support efforts to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Conserved or restored habitats can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus helping to address climate change by storing carbon (for example, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Moreover, conserving in-tact ecosystems, such as mangroves, for example, can help reduce the disastrous impacts of climate change such as flooding and storm surges. Ecosystem-based Adaptation Ecosystem-based adaptation, which integrates the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall adaptation strategy, can be cost-effective and generate social, economic and cultural co-benefits and contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. Conservation and management strategies that maintain and restore biodiversity can be expected to reduce some of the negative impacts from climate change; however, there are rates and magnitude of climate change for which natural adaptation will become increasingly difficult. Options to increase the adaptive capacity of species and ecosystems in the face of accelerating climate change include: Reducing non-climatic stresses, such as pollution, over-exploitation, habitat loss and fragmentation and invasive alien species. Wider adoption of conservation and sustainable use practices including through the strengthening of protected area networks. Facilitating adaptive management through strengthening monitoring and evaluation systems. Ecosystem-based adaptation uses biodiversity and ecosystem services in an overall adaptation strategy. It includes the sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. Examples of ecosystem-based adaptation activities include: Coastal defence through the maintenance and/or restoration of mangroves and other coastal wetlands to reduce coastal flooding and coastal erosion. Sustainable management of upland wetlands and floodplains for maintenance of water flow and quality. Conservation and restoration of forests to stabilize land slopes and regulate water flows. Establishment of diverse agrofo
“Water is life” Not only the human being but also for the entire ecosystem water is precious. We all depend on water for many purposes. Water is transparent but it takes the shape of anything when we put it, it’s a pure thing.71 percent of the land is covered by the water on the earth. In which 97 percent of the water is covered by the ocean and only 3 percent of water is in use for drinking and many purposes. It is important to save the water for us and for our future because we totally depend on the water for various purposes. Here we are providing the essay on the save water for informing the importance of water to the students and children for saving the water.
The source of the water is in the form of lakes, rivers, ponds, wells, etc. On the earth’s surface, there is 71 percent of the land is covered by the water and the other 29 percent by the land. In that 71 percent of water, only 3 percent of water is usable which is used by us for many purposes. So it’s not enough water for such large populated countries. As the population is increasing day by day the consumption of the water is also increased. Nowadays public using the water not in a careful manner. They are careless about it.
For example, a kid washing the hands but opened the tap but forgets to close it. So here water is wasting. In some areas like Rajasthan where the temperature of the weather is too hot, the sources of the drinking water are very less. They have to search for the water for miles and miles. So each and every drop of the water is the savior for someone.
Even Farmers want water for cultivating the land. If the lord of the rain is not happy and some places like Rajasthan, Vidarbha in Maharashtra which having the less source of water than it would be difficult for the farmers to cultivate the land. So their life will be ruined because of their income totally depends on the farming which can lead to the farmer to select the option of the suicide.
Different uses of the Water.
1.Water in Agriculture
It is the important role of the water in agriculture. The crop season requires irrigation which is used for agriculture to the proper growth of plants. If there are proper sources of water for farming then farmers are also happy which makes the crops or farms wealthy.
2.Water used for balancing the ecosystem
Not only for human beings is but also important for the entire ecosystem in different ways. Because of the presence of the water in the atmosphere which can absorb the Sun’s rays or heat. The rivers and valleys and other water sources are filled with rainwater.
3.Water for industries
In many industries like the steel industry, chemicals, fertilizers, electricity, textiles, petrochemicals and paper, food, Mining, etc. water is used in huge quantities for cooling purposes, generation of power, cleaning purposes, fire protection and last but not in list air cooling.
4.Water for power
The large volume of water for the purpose of cooling and disposal of fly ash is required for the Thermal power. In the generation of thermal power, water is used.
5.Water for fish, wildlife and recreation
6.Water for household uses
How to save water
1.It is an individual responsibility to save the water and reduce the consumption of the water except the drinking and cooking purposes. We can reduce the consumption of water by proper using of water for the toilet, showering, etc.
2.We can save water per day by slightly saving water from the watering garden, flushing toilet, cleaning purposes, etc.
3.For purposes like toilet flushing, laundry, watering garden, showering, etc. we should use rainwater.
4.Avoid taking a shower for bathing, use the water in the bucket by us in this way we can save 150 to 200 liters of water every day.
5.Rainwater harvesting is one of the best options to save water.
6.We can save 4500 liters of the water per month if we use the washing machine to wash clothes when clothes have to machines capacity.
7.Turn off all the taps after the using water, close it tightly it saves more than 200 liters of water.
8.In the festival of Holi use the dry colors instead of using water and promote playing Holi by using less water.
9.Be aware of the news of people who struggle a lot for searching daily for a drop of water to save us from water wastage.
10.Promote Water conservation programs to spread awareness among the people.
11.Use water in cooler only when required, do not waste it.
12.Do not waste water by sprinkling on house or streets, its just wastage of water.
13.The rainy season promotes tree plantation so because of that plants get water easily through rainwater.
14.Avoid watering plants in the afternoon time especially 11 am to 4 am as the sun rays evaporated so instead of watering plants in the noon water plants early in the mornings or evenings.
Water is life for human beings as well as for our ecosystem also. Saving water is important for us and for our future generation also. We are dependent on water for many purposes. Water is the boon for us which granted by God so we should use the water properly. In some areas where the shortage of water is, they know the value of it. Water is precious for us, ”SAVE WATER SAVE LIFE”.
All work and no play make Jack a dull boy. Ames should form an integral part of our life for its proper development. Sound mind resides in sound body. Physical fitness is a must. For health and physical fitness games and sports are essential. All young men and women in schools, colleges, universities and training institutions should play games.
Even business executives and others engaged in serious and very responsible activities should play some game in their spare time. It is necessary for their good health, physical fitness and mental alertness.
A proper balance should be maintained between work and games. Work would become burden it there are no games and sports. A fair amount of physical exercises, games and sports should form an essential part of our daily life and routine. Study is food for mind, and gaffes are food for body; neither should we be starved or overfed. We can maintain good health by playing games regularly. They keep us active, alert, disciplined, vibrant and bold. Ames develops team spirit, sportsmanship and equanimity. A player takes success and failure in its stride. They teach us the spirit of adventure, patience, tolerance and cooperation.
It is rightly said that the battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton. The hero of the battle was a student of this famous school where he learnt and imbibed all the qualities required to win a battle as a player and sportsman.
India, with half the population of the world, has not been doing well on this front on the national and international levels. It is very sad that no proper attention is being given to games and sports in schools and colleges. There are no proper facilities for these activities. Year after year, Indian teams have shown dismal performance in the international sports events. Unfortunately, in India games are held as a source of mere entertainment. They are not taken seriously, nothing has been done to promote them to the desired standards, it’s really humiliating that our teams should return empty- handed without even a few gold or silver medals. Games and sports can play a crucial role in building our image in the world.
Of late, some worthwhile measures have been taken tar promote games and sports on regional and national levels. The sports Authority of India have begun the Motional Sports Talent Contest for spotting and nurturing sports talent in the country. It is a right step in the right direction. The gifted boys and girls should be caught young for this purpose. Creation of sports awareness among young boys and girls on school level, in their formative years, will go a long way to realize the objective of a “Sound mind in a sound body “
Riot only government agencies but also corporate bodies and business houses should come forward to promote games and sports in a big, and on permanent basis. They should adopt schools and promising boys and girls. There should be more such schools and institutions where sports are given due importance along with liberal education. There should be sufficient budget and fund allocations for the purpose. The promising students should be provided with adequate training and playing facilities. They should be given chances of international exposure and competition at the very school stage.
There are scores of games and sports to choose from according to one’s taste, aptitude and physical fitness. Football, volleyball, basketball, badminton, lawn tennis, table tennis, athletics, weight- lifting, cricket, rowing, yachting, mountaineering are some of the well-known physical disciplines. More and more people, parents, private and public agencies should be involved in the promotion of games and sports. The promising and talented students should be provided with all the modern facilities to develop their skills in various games. They – should be given scholarships, and kept in residential schools with adequate coaching and field-facilities. There are hundreds of students who can really excel in various games and sports by dedicating themselves to the cause, if there is a secure future for them in years to come. The question of security in future is a great source of worry to the players. What about security and income in old age? Such problems should be addressed and solved immediately.
Ames and sports should be above party-politics and undesirable interference. It is high time that we as a nation and democratic country re-orient our attitude and reframe our priorities about games. Proper planning and its effective execution is the need of the hour. Proper development of games and sports can solve so many of our problems related to student unrest and indiscipline. The good habits formed in the playground stand in good stead throughout the life. Ames and sports teach the players obedience, fair-play, team-spirit, co-operation, courage, and tolerance, balance of mind and judgment quickness in decision-taking, punctuality and sense of oneness as Indians.
Our teams go abroad to participate in international sports events. They are our ambassadors and help in promoting the national interests. They can enhance the national image and respect by winning laurels and medals. They can also promote better understanding, cooperation and cultural ties between India and other countries. Exchange of players, sports-persons, coaches and teams can be a good source of international peace, mutual help and development.
Let us rise to the occasion as a nation and take more serious view of games and sports so as to inspire our young men and women with confidence, team-spirit, national pride and strict sense of discipline. Health is wealth and games are a must for our national health and well being. Only healthy, happy and courageous people can provide the desired leadership to the nation. The student of today is the citizens and leaders of tomorrow. Let them be molded into a tough, hard-working, disciplined and dedicated force through proper training and practice of games and sports. Let them have sound minds in their sound bodies. Only then we can hope to rise and become a powerful nation.
The 19th and 20th centuries were marked by great scientific and technological developments. These developments encompassed many different fields like transportation, communication, manufacturing, education, trade, health care and others.
The life of people has become quite comfortable with these scientific innovations as various types of machines have begun to perform complex tasks for them.
There was a time when man used to walk long distances to reach other places for trade and other pursuits. The invention of wheel enabled him to make hand-driven and animal driven carts to transport various types of goods to different destinations.
With the invention of petrol and the engines that could be used it as fuel came different types of vehicles. Cars, trucks, buses, bikes and other road transport means started being made. This was perhaps the greatest scientific development. People could go to long distances and in large number.
They started going to other countries. Not only the trade flourished but also there was cultural development because of interaction of people of different heritages, beliefs, traditions-each influencing the other in some way. Man conquered the oceans with the making of ships, vessels, boats. Going to other continents became easier. Also with the help of large ships the countries could transport large quantities of products to other places for purposes of trade. The fishing trawlers enabled people to get sea-food in large quantities, adding to their food security.
The biggest achievement in the field of transportation came in the shape of aeroplanes. The Wright brothers made the first aeroplane and flew on it for a few seconds, but most importantly, they gave the idea of the air transport. The idea was subsequently developed by aeronautical engineers into the making of aeroplanes. Today, air travel is perhaps the most important means of travel for its speed and comfort.
A person can have breakfast in India, lunch in London and dinner in some American or African country-thanks to the speedy air-travel. With the development of trade and increase in population, there was a need to build a transport system that could carry a large number of people and heavy amounts of cargo to different places on a regular basis. The answer came in the form of railways which solved both these problems. Crores of people travel to various destinations in trains across the globe. India’s railway transport system is the biggest in Asia.
The latest technological development in this area is the metro railways. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has made a network of metro services in the capital providing sophisticated, comfortable and quick mode of mass public transport system. Similar services are being started in many other major cities in India.
The invention of computers has been another major development in the history of mankind. Broadly speaking, computers are the machines that convert data into information. But with regular upgradation of computer technology, these machines have started to perform the most complex functions.
They are the storehouses of information, disseminators of data, processors of fed information and display systems of the latest positions relating to the area being searched. Invariably all the fields concerned with service industry-including banking, insurance, booking, education, diagnostics, developing, designing, etc. are working with the help of computers-which not only provide accuracy and speed but also variety and attractiveness.
Whereas the new technologies in diagnosis of various diseases have enabled us to detect deformities at exact places in the body and at an early stage of such happening, the treatment has also become easy and sure though expensive. There was a time when lakhs of people died due to epidemics of plague, smallpox, cholera, etc. But, due to research and new treatment technologies involving prevention through immunisation, these diseases are not allowed to assume epidemic and devastating proportions.
Some of diseases like plague, polio, smallpox, etc. have been eradicated. There are medicines for most dangerous of diseases and conditions. Serious ailments like heart trouble, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, liver damage, etc. are kept under control with the use of medication regularly. Medical check-ups have been very convenient and accurate with the help of new machines.
In the field of communication technology, the innovation of mobile phones has revolutionised the society. People can make a call from anywhere to anywhere exchanging valuable information. This has facilitated trade, strengthened relationships and brought connectivity in the society.
The cellphones can also be used to send messages, listen to music, set alarms, store telephone numbers, addresses, etc. Mass media thrives on technology. The TV programmes which run twenty-four hours a day, three-hundred-sixty-five days a year, bring latest news from all over the world. With serials, films, live telecasts and game shows, the TV has become the biggest source of information and entertainment for us. Its value to students through educational programmes and to people in general for increasing their awareness level is highly significant.
There are certain disadvantages of scientific developments. Scientists have made weapons of mass destruction and other warheads which are used in wars. Humanity has already suffered vast damage and destruction in two Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki when America dropped atom bombs on them in the Second World War-in which thousands of people were killed, several thousands were wounded, property worth several crores of rupees was destroyed.
With the making of such dangerous weapons, today’s wars have become highly dangerous. If there is a third World War only God knows what will happen to the world. The terrorists are using dangerous weapons like mines, explosives, machine guns and rocket launchers to terrorise civil society.
Another fall out of scientific development is the pollution of air and water which has reached alarming levels. The factories, industries and vehicles are giving out tonnes of smoke and effluents which are vitiating the air and water which are our main sources of consumption.
Scientific and technological inventions are for the benefit of mankind. It is for us to use them to bring progress and happiness in society. What we require is judicial use of resources at our proposal, banish war and confrontation and adopt methods of sustainable development. We need to enforce strict discipline to stop unscrupulous and illegal use of technologies.
Stringent laws need to be made against cyber crimes. We also have to ensure that scientific development does not become environmentally destructive. Sustainable practices need to be adopted to protect habitats and natural ecosystems. At international level, the world body-the UNO and other leading nations should assume the responsibility of ensuring that science and technology are not misused.
Corruption is ubiquitous and unlimited. It has became all pervading, a world phenomenon. It has increased by leaps and bounds worldwide, in direct relation and proportion to our moral degradation, destruction of character, devaluation of human values and lust for power and money.
It is said that when character is lost everything is lost. There is no character and so we have lost all. The political leaders, the heads of governments and others at helm of the affairs of many nations are corrupt and corruption is contagious. It spreads rapidly and percolates to all the lower levels. It is there in Japan, Italy, Pakistan, Mexico, China, Iran, Iraq, America, and England, etc. There is no country immune from it. There might be a difference of degrees, but as far as its quality, gravity and pervasiveness are concerned, there is hardly any difference.
Corruption in India is rampant and well established in all spheres of our life — public life, politics, administration, business, judicial system, education, research and security. There is hardly any exception. There are scandals and scams in plenty, right from the Bofors scandal to the recent Taj heritage corridor scandal. In foreign countries, when corruption charges are proved there is suitable punishment, but in India there is no system, no tradition to bring the corrupt to trial and then to make him pay for his crime. There is crime but no punishment. It is a salient feature of Indian corruption.
In a write-up, Mr. K. Subrahmanyan has wittily remarked, “Long before our economic globalisation began, India was globalised in respect of political corruption and politician- organised crime nexus. Therefore, smugglers, narcotics’ barons, vice syndicates and protection rackets have become patrons of political parties. The former provides large resources to politicians and the latter ensures no legal enforcement against organised crime.” For example, take the Securities scam. Harshad Mehta manipulated things in such a way as to enable himself to siphon crores of rupees fraudulently from banks, under the very noses of the managers, high officials and other members of the staff of the Reserve Bank of India. Was it because of alleged system failure or because there was collusion between him and the officials concerned? The connivance of one or two cabinet ministers has also been there.
Fingers were also raised at M. J. Fherwani, the then Chairman of the National Housing Bank, who died under mysterious circumstances soon after. Consequently, a Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) was constituted under the chairmanship of Mr. R.N. Mirdha to probe the scandal. The JPC finally submitted its report to the Parliament but nothing happened to the people found involved in the scam. When there was a hue and cry from the Opposition, a couple of ministers were asked to submit their resignations and that was all. As has already been pointed out, we have no system, no tradition, either to punish the guilty or to bring an investigation to its logical conclusion. Moreover, public memory is very short.
There is a parallel economy in operation in India and black money is ever on the increase because of political patronage and collusion. There is a widespread evasion of taxes, to the tune of crores of rupees every year, owing to corruption in politics, administration and enforcement agencies. In return, the political gurus get huge funds to fight elections and bribes for personal accumulations. This helps them to keep themselves in positions of power and influence. The funding from organised black marketers, drug traffickers, underworld dons, mafias and smugglers is actually on a much larger scale than is apparent. This has crippled our economy and turned our planning haywire.
Corruption has become a way of life. There is no effective check on this growing menace because there is lack 6f political will. In spite of anti-corruption departments and squads, it has permeated the rank and the file of the administration. No work can be got done unless the palms of the concerned officials are greased. Lubricant in the form of gratification is a must to make the administrative machinery move smoothly in your favour. First satisfy the officials and then get satisfying results in return.
Often, investigations by CBI and vigilance departments into corruption charges against the bureaucrats have proved futile. Such is the power of manipulation, money and nepotism. Kickbacks, gratifications, bribes, and commissions are the order of the day. Students pay capitation fees to get admission in professional courses, job-seekers purchase positions in the administration, contractors grease the palms of the engineers so as to enable themselves to use sand in place of cement in contractual constructions, businessmen use the appropriate ‘lubricant’ to keep their illegal operations moving smoothly. And then these people, in turn, want to regain their money manifold and quickly by resorting to fraudulent, easy and corrupt means. Thus, there is a vicious circle engulfing all and sundry.
Honest, sincere and god-fearing officials are looked down upon. They are considered simpletons, while the bribe-takers are the heroes. The corrupt officials are doing very well for themselves and their higher-ups patronize and protect them because of their fair share in the bribes. These people, in collaboration, co-operation and collusion with others, are enriching themselves. They have fat bank balances, houses in prime locations, and all the modern amenities. They are really rolling in wealth and comprise the most successful segment of the society. There are a few honest ones but they are not courageous enough to condemn and criticism their dishonest and bribe-happy colleagues. They are silent spectators to their corrupt counterparts, being favoured with important posts and assignments. The honest officers are a demoralized lot. Consequently, the fence-sitters are being pushed on to the bandwagon of the corrupt lot.
Corruption cannot be checked and minimised unless political leaders themselves are honest and have a strong will and desire to stem the rot. The leaders should encourage honest officials and help them to unite against corrupt and dishonest ones. Corruption should be dealt with an iron hand and further rules and regulations enacted to punish the corrupt government servants and administrators. Nepotism, favoritism, and red- tapism, etc., should be eliminated because they form the very foundations of corruption. Improvement in salaries, creation of more employment opportunities can also go a long way in tackling the menace successfully.
Honesty is conspicuous these days by its absence. According to a newspaper report, even the judiciary does not seem to be free from the evil. The former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, E.S. Venkatramaiya speaking in an interview said, “The judiciary in India has deteriorated in its standard because such judges are appointed as are willing to be influenced by lavish parties and whiskey bottles.” He added, In every high court, there are at least four to five judges who are practically out every evening, wining and dining either at a lawyer’s house or a foreign embassy.” Corruption is now so well-organized and entrenched in the system that it requires a will of steel and the courage of a lion to fight it.
Now, effective and strong strategies, backed by strong political will, should be devised to checkmate it. There should be deterrent Punishment for those indulging in corruption. Both giving and taking of bribes should be a cognizable offence. Much depends upon our political leaders, bureaucrats and the enlightened public consciousness. Unless these three units make sincere efforts and show their commitment to the democratic nation and society, nothing much will be achieved to check and eliminate corruption.
A quote says that” one cannot fight Corruption by fighting it” and this is entirely correct. Corruption means the act which stems from Lust or greed for money and going to any and every length needed to get illegal tasks done. Corruption is active in each and every part and country of the world. Corruption cannot be stopped or executed in any way. It can only be finished if it is inside a man’s heart to stop it. There are many methods of Corruption, and the most common one is bribery.
Bribery means the tactic that is used for using favours or gifts for personal gain. There are different types of favours included in this. The other is embezzlement which means withholding assets which can be further used for theft. Usually, there are one or more persons involved who are entrusted with these assets, and it can also be called a financial fraud. The third one is ‘the Graft’ which means illegal use of a politician’s power for personal gain. This one is the most commonly used by Drug lords or Narcotic Barons.
Extortion means to claim any assets, land or property illegally. Favouritism or Nepotism is also in full-fledged flow these days when only the favourite persons or direct relatives of those in power ascend into their potential. There are not many ways of stopping Corruption, but they do exist.
The government can give a better salary to their employees who are equivalent to the amount of work that they put in. Decreasing the workload and increasing workers can also be an excellent way to cease this influential and illegal practice. Strict Laws are needed for stopping this and the best way to compete; this is the way of putting guilty criminals to their End. The government can work to keep the inflation levels low in the country so they can work accordingly. Corruption cannot be fought against, and it can only be stopped.
“Health is wealth” and Health is better than wealth” are well-known and oft repeated sayings. These underline a vital fact of life. Without good health nothing is of much use. If any sensible person is asked what he would prefer, health or wealth. He would immediately answer ‘health’. Without good health and physical fitness life would become a burden and a tasteless thing.
Those who are sick, ill or weak in health are found dejected, nervous, hopeless and without any zest for life and its activities. He who has health and a fit body has hope, inspiration and so everything in fife.
Health goes far, even farther than wealth and any other thing in life. It is a sure key to success. Without physical fitness and good health nothing good or substantial can be achieved. Only the healthy citizens, and men and women make a healthy and happy nation. Only healthy people can work hopefully, steadily, constantly and at people can work hopefully, steadily, constantly and at their best, to achieve better and better results. Again, it is only a healthy man or woman who can desire and strive for perfection. Weak men can never make good citizens, leaders, businessmen, soldiers or a brave people.
Healthy minds reside in healthy bodies. Men and women indifferent to their health cannot either be intelligent or make good artists, poets, public servants and useful members of the society. Most of the great and successful men and women owe their success to their outdoor physical activities, playing habits and exercise in their youth. Their athletic habits, cultivated in their youth, always stood them in good stead later in life. Consequently, they always possessed sound health and mind, leading them to the crowning glory. Their mental vigor, exuberance of thoughts, vivacity and enthusiasm for work came from their robust health, and physical fitness, which they obtained through regular exercise, game and sports, long walks, swimming, horse-riding, yogic postures and such other activities. The way to health, happiness and success lies through physical work, exercise and animal robustness.
Therefore, look to your health, if you have it; praise your luck and stars. If you do not have it, then ponder we over your life-style and try to develop athletic habits. Go to your garden, grasp a spade and engage yourself in digging or wood-cutting. Run a mile early in the morning, play some game like football, volley ball or badminton, and you will soon regain your health and energy. And these in their turn will fill your life with a new hope and meaningfulness. Every man and woman should undertake some physical work or exercise regularly. It is the sound body that brings sound mind with it. It was in the playgrounds of Eton school that the battle of Waterloo was actually won and Napoleon defeated. The toughness acquired in the school playground was turned to good account in the battlefield. It is such physical activities as wrestling, boating, cricketing, sporting, and playing games and exercise which promote national health and strength. The player or a sports-prison who would win races honorably must have an honorable and successful career.
To do one’s work cheerfully and well. Every man and woman should possess a good constitution, and this can be got only by daily exercise in the open air. Physical education should be an integral part of education and training in our schools, colleges and universities. Physical fitness is a must for everybody. It is in the very young age that athletic habits and. love for physical work and exercise should be developed. The best time to have physical exercise is early in the morning and late in the evening. It is heartening to note that yogic exercises, postures etc., have been introduced in our schools and colleges. Through yogic exercises we can develop both our minds and bodies. These exercises are very scientific and time- tested and goes a long way in facing and eliminating stresses, tensions and worries of modern materialistic life.
Yoga, the oldest science of life, teaches us how to work, rest, relax and breathe to maintain good health and mental capacities. Yogic asana and postures help us lubricate the body-machine, keep the muscles and joints running smoothly, tone all the internal organs and increase blood circulation without causing any fatigue. Our body is like a perfect and subtle machine that needs proper maintenance, care and running. Anyone can practice Yoga and maintain his health and peace of mind. People who do not take regular exercise or do Yogic postures easily fall sick. Many of our modern diseases like obesity, diabetes, blood-pressure, mental tension, rheumatism, piles etc., have their roots in our lethargy, comfortable living, ease and convenience of life. They can be very easily checked and eliminated by taking daily physical exercise. Lethargy and inactivity, coupled with easy living, make our body an easy victim of diseases.
From the very young age the boys and girls should be properly trained in physical fitness and exercises. They should be helped to cultivate and develop athletic habits. It may be repeated once again that physical fitness is imperative and should not be neglected. It is high time that we pay more attention and use greater resources to develop and promote national physical standards. We should create a harmonious atmosphere where the body is given no less importance than the mind, because without physical powers there cannot be any mental power. Physical exercise, taken regularly, works like a wonderful tonic both for mind and body. But there should be moderation and there should not be too much of it. Neglect of exercise is as bad and injurious as the overdose of it.
The World Health Organisation commemorates the World Health Day celebration every year on April 7, to create awareness among people about health and cleanliness.
A healthy body holds major components that aid the functioning of the body. The first essential component is the state of physical health. Physical health refers to the state of being physically healthy devoid of any illness or diseases. When one maintains good physical fitness, they tend to have an extended lifespan. The best way to maintain physical well-being is through a balanced diet. Intake of essential nutrients in appropriate quantities helps one manage their physical health.
The next essential component is everyday exercise. To help the body maintain it’s physical fitness, one must never forget to exercise, even if it’s for ten minimum minutes. It is not advisable to consume junk food all the time. Do not drink alcohol or smoke as it is a hazard to one’s health. Lastly, try to take adequate sleep ( 7-8 hours) regularly over the use of the phone. It is best advised to not use the phone two hours before sleep.
The next health component is mental health or mental well-being. Mental health refers to a state of emotional and psychological well-being of the individual. A person’s mental well-being impacts their emotions and behavior in handling situations. The best-recommended way to maintain mental health is by staying positive and meditating.
Subsequently, cognitive and social health add equal importance to a person’s overall well-being state. A person maintains their social well-being through effective communication with other people. A person who attends social gatherings and possesses a friendly nature is stated to be socially healthy. Similarly, one’s cognitive health refers to the regular performance of mental processes leading to an effective state of health. To achieve that, one must consume healthy food and play brain boosters such as puzzles, riddles, chess, etc. This helps one to sharpen their brains.
A healthy body is a sign of a healthy mind, while unhealthy body weakness one’s ability to succeed and excel in life. However, there is this stigma about mental health. To be healthy also include mental health, but people do not consider mental disorders as an issue. Psychological well-being is as equally important as physical well-being. When people criticize mental illness, it instantly creates an adverse impact.
Parents often concentrate only on their children’s physical needs. They dress up wounds and injuries and feed their kids with nutritious food. However, they often fail to notice the crumbling mental health of their child. This is because they do not think mental health is essential. Even among elders, one fails to see their psychological well-being. It is due to a lack of awareness among people.
Therefore, one must be able to identify the signs regarding mental illness. A laughing person is not always a happy person. Never brush off mental illness as a taboo, instead pay attention and save people’s life.
As Mahatma Gandhi quoted, ‘ Health is the real wealth, not gold and silver.’ Thus, a healthy person is a happy person.
Self-love is a popular concept these days, and it looks a little different for everyone. We all have a unique way of loving ourselves. If you’re unsure about how to start showing yourself some love, here are some thought-starters for how to do it today and every day. Read about ’em, try ’em, and then make ’em your own.
1. Create a self-love ritual.
Turn off the TV and unplug from social media for 15 minutes to get centered while moisturizing your skin with intention. As you massage your feet, thank them for getting you to where you need to go; as you moisturize your hands, love them for all the transactions and introductions they’ve helped you with throughout your life. For a moment, stop taking your body for granted and shower yourself with gratitude.
2. Build a precious community.
As much as we would like to think we can, we can’t do everything ourselves. We need the support and love from people around us to stay motivated and on track. Research shows that positive energy is contagious, so whether you’re building a network or planning to go to a fun event, it’s always important to have a community you value around you regularly.
3. Make a “What’s Working for Me” list.
Truly loving yourself comes from self-acceptance. And one helpful step toward getting to that point of self-acceptance is recognizing what you already have that’s great by writing a “What’s Working for Me” list. Once you see it on paper and accept all of the positivity in your life, it will make it that much easier to love yourself.
4. Know that your body is a loving vessel.
Treating your body like a loving vessel will boost not only your self-love but also your energy. Be intentional about what you put into your body, not because you want to look good but because you want to feel good. Feeding your body nutrient-rich foods will have you oozing love out of every pore.
5. Clean out your closet.
Tidying is more therapeutic than you might think, and getting rid of old things will make room for new ones to come into your life. Cleansing your mind can sometimes work in the form of letting go of clothes, shoes, jewelry, etc., that remind you of a certain time in your life that links to a negative vibration. Don’t chase what’s already happened; love yourself enough to know the best is yet to come.
6. Don’t compare yourself to others on social media.
We’ve all done it. Browsed through social media only to see our favorite media personalities in the middle of a photoshoot for their new books, just after they had awesome shopping sprees and right before the post about their engagements. WHAT?! But remember that these positive pics on the Internet don’t always tell the whole story, and everyone—yes, everyone—has bad days.
7. Explore your spirituality.
Faith is the foundation for self-love. Whether or not you’re religious, believing in something opens up your soul to the beauty of belief and trust. It will build your intuition and help you make decisions based on your intuition. When you explore your spirituality, it will also take you on a journey to learning things about yourself, and those new thoughts, feelings, passions, and raw emotions will make you appreciate yourself for being authentically you.
8. Do something you’re good at.
If this isn’t the ultimate self-esteem booster, I don’t know what is! Self-esteem and self-love often go hand in hand, and participating in a hobby you’re good at will not only boost your endorphins but will bring out the best version of you. If you love to cook, then cook! If you love to run, then grab those sneakers, head outside, and run.
9. Find your happy place.
Think of a place that makes it simple to just be. Sit quietly and embrace the here and now, not thinking about what’s due at work or what bills need to be paid.
10. Build your letting-go muscle.
We’re constantly holding onto things in our past, which can weigh heavy on our souls and even give us low self-esteem. The more blocks we clear, the more we can really live big in the area of self-love. Although we may do this as a way to protect ourselves from hurting, it’s really only holding us back from moving forward to reaching optimal self-acceptance and loving who we are.
This quarantine, chances are that each one of us has binge-watched at least one series or movie on the web. With the advent of online web-based entertainment apps and ever since the Star Network introduced Hotstar to the public and Netflix found its way into the Indian market, the web content has become just too full of quality to ignore. There is quality in the plot, acting, scripts, and more importantly the freedom of choosing bold content. That is the primary reason why well-accomplished actors and directors are choosing the web platforms while some great new actors are being unearthed.
However, over the last two years, there have been so many platforms with so many quality shows that the catalogue seems simply endless. The two domains that have attracted a majority of the crowd are crime/action and comedy. But we are spoilt for choices to such an extent where identifying a really good show has just become impossible. Some raging shows may not be up to the mark while some undiscovered gems are critically well acclaimed but don’t often make the headlines. In this article, we have compiled a list for you of the 10 best crime series on Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Voot, and Zee5. These are all high-octane, action-packed, crime thrillers that are sure to leave you gasping for more at the end. Here are the 10 best Indian crime series On Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Voot and Zee5:
Gore, gruesome deaths, murders, suspense, and thrill. If these things hook you on, Abhay is a must-watch for you. Revolving around the story of Abhay – a forever-frowning cop from the Special Task Force, this original inspired by true events hooks you on from the word go. Every episode is packed with intriguing mysteries, fascinatingly tantalizing deaths and engrossing cases. Produced by crime expert B.P. Singh – best known for the TV show “CID” which was the longest-running TV show on the Indian small screen, the show does not know how to disappoint.
9. Asur: Welcome to your dark side –
Starring Bollywood veterans Arshad Warsi and Barun Sobti, Oni Sen’s directorial venture “Asur” is a mythic-crime thriller that takes you on a journey of murders, suspense and the supernatural. Set in the scenic city of Varanasi, it follows the story of Nikhil Nair (Barun Sobti) and his mentor Dhananjay Rajput (Arshad Warsi) as they race against time to take on a dangerous serial killer out on a rampage in the
8. Jamtara – Sabka Number Ayega – Netflix
When the world of technology meets crime, the most common cybercrime is identity fraud. Jamtara deals with a true story of phishing activities in the Jamtara district of Jharkhand state. When Soumedra Padhi read an article about the same in a newspaper, he got hooked and sent his research team to collect more information. The result was seen four years later as Padhi weaved his research team’s efforts to direct a gripping story with a spellbinding screenplay.
7. Mirzapur – Amazon Prime Video
If you haven’t seen a Mirzapur sticker or meme out there, ask yourself this: What am I doing with my life? Primarily shot in the titular district of Mirzapur, the series was received very well by young adults and the critics. Starring Pankaj Tripathi and Ali Faizal in leading roles, this is a typical gun-first-words-later mafia movie with corrupt politicians, daring dons, and bold language.
6. SHE – Netflix
Featuring an undercover female constable who is ordered to use her sexuality as a weapon to infiltrate a gang, this thrilling crime show is written by Imtiaz Ali and author Divya Johri. Officer Bhumika Pardeshi has been recently inducted into the Anti-Narcotics Group and her first assignment is to capture an underworld drug lord. With twists and turns each episode, this is a riveting tale of the true power of seduction and the protagonist is a great example of beauty with brains.
5. Sacred Games – Netflix
You had to be living under a rock if you haven’t heard of the Sacred Games. Starring Saif Ali Khan as Inspector Sartaj Singh, Nawazuddin Siddiqui as Ganesh Gaitonde, Radhika Apte as Anjali Mathur and Pankaj Tripathi as the Guruji, the series revolves around a threat to a city that is supposed to be destroyed in 25 days. With a highly unpredictable plot and twists like never seen before, the Sacred Games has been listed in the New York times 30 best TV shows of the decade – and deservedly so!
4. Rangbaaz – Zee5
Rangbaaz is the true story of a gangster Prakash Shukla of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. The man who studied at DDU became the second most wanted man in India at one point of time, and this series is a retelling of his story.
3. Special OPS – Hotstar
Created by Neeraj Pandey and starring Kay Kay Menon, Karan Tacker, Vinay Pathak and Vipul Gupta in leading roles, the film centers around Kay Kay Menon’s character – Himmat Singh as he studies the patterns in all terrorist attacks on the country and is convinced that one man is responsible for all this. The episodes see him and his team of five try to track down the ultimate mastermind before another explosion or terrorist attack can rock the country.
2. Delhi Crime – Netflix
The series focusses on the aftermath of the brutal Delhi Gang-Rape Case of 2012 where 16 men in a moving bus raped and assaulted a 23-year old physiotherapy intern and assaulted her male friend accompanying her. The series revolves around the efforts of the Delhi Police in searching and apprehending the men responsible.
1. Breathe – Amazon Prime Video
Reduce any dark circles and under eye bags you’ve accumulated from years of having fun.
Us human beings are imperfect creatures. We know we’d like to get in better shape, but that chocolate cookie looks mighty tasty. We know we have to wake up early, but there’s only one episode left on the Netflix show we’re binging on. We know we should apply sunblock religiously, but we forget to bring the bottle with us to the beach.
That’s life. But that doesn’t mean we can’t form some habits and best practices for mitigating the inevitable effects of a life well-lived. For every late night chatting over drinks, for every day out in the sun and for every bed time we didn’t have the energy to apply eye cream, there are as many tips and tricks we can use to fight signs of aging.Nobody’s perfect.
Why Do We Get Eye Circles?
To be honest, even if you’ve spent your life diligently treating your skin as carefully as you possibly can, we’re all going to show signs of aging sooner or later – and that includes under-eye bags and dark circles.
Over time, skin naturally loses collagen and grows thinner, so regardless of what kind of skin you have or what good habits you maintain, veins will inevitably start to show through the thin skin around your eyes. As we already know, exposure to the sun speeds up the process of collagen breaking down, so your best weapon against under-eye circles are disciplined and consistent sunblock application habits from a young age. (Wearing sunglasses while out in the sun helps, too – less squinting = fewer crows feet!)
The best habits, however, can’t change your genes! Genetics are the biggest determinant of what kind of skin we will have and what we’ll look like as we age. Those of us that have inherited fair or thin skin tend to show under circles more easily than others due to the fact that when our blood pools in the capillaries under our eyes, it’s simply more obvious through lighter skin.
Unfortunately, as more and more blood accumulates there, your delicate capillaries begin to stretch and strain under the weight, leading to more leaking and blood pooling – and ultimately even darker under eye circles.
Yet for others, dark under eye circles and under eye bags aren’t caused by either aging, sun bathing or genetics. Sometimes it’s a simple matter of allergies. Year-round allergies like those to dust or mold, or seasonal allergies many of us experience in the spring trigger the release of histamines, which cause an inflammatory response. That means our blood vessels become inflamed and swell – including those under our eyes.
Okay, so That Explains Why I Have Dark Under Eye Circles. but How Do I Get Rid of Under Eye Bags?
Experiment with the following routines to see which one works the most effectively for you. Remember to use patience and consistency when trying out a new routine. Follow the routine every day for 4 to 6 weeks. If after that period of time, you still don’t see the results you want, move on to the next practice and see if that works better for reducing your dark under eye bags and circles.
The Best Routines for Getting Rid of Dark Circles and Under Eye Bags
1. Cold Compress
In the morning or evening – or better yet, in the morning AND the evening – apply a cold compress for about 10 minutes. If you have a mask you can keep in your fridge and pull out twice a day, that’s the easiest way to try this dark circle reducing method. Just make sure to keep it clean and give it a good soapy scrub a few times a week!
To try this method twice a day, chop a fresh cucumber into thick slices and then refrigerate for 30 minutes. Then, leave the slices on your eyes for 10 minutes. Rinse your eye area with warm (but not hot) water after using.
3.Cucumber Juice + Lemon Juice
If cucumber slices don’t work for you, try mixing equal parts cucumber and lemon juice and then use a cotton ball to apply to your under-eye circles. (DO NOT get lemon juice in your eye!) Leave the solution on your skin for 15 minutes and then rinse with warm water.
4. Rose Water
Rose water doesn’t just smell fantastic – it can also soothe and rejuvenate tired skin. Like cucumber, it’s a mild astringent, so it can work as a skin toner. Just soak cotton makeup remover pads in rose water for a few minutes, and then let the soaked makeup pads sit on your CLOSED eyelids. Leave them for about 15 minutes twice daily.
Tomatoes are high in lycopene, a substance that’s excellent for your cardiovascular health, vision and your skin. Lycopene can help create softer, more supple skin, as well as decrease the appearance of dark under eye circles.
To gain the medical benefits of the lycopene found in tomatoes, mix equal parts tomato juice with lemon juice and then use a cotton ball or makeup remover pad to apply it to your under eye area. (Again, PLEASE do not get lemon juice in your eyes.) Leave the solution for 10 minutes and then rinse with warm water, twice daily.
A tasty concoction of tomato juice, lemon juice and mint leaves to drink daily will also help improve your overall health as well as your skin.
6. Cold tea bags
If you don’t have a cold compress or mask to use, substitute with tea bags. Many teas like green tea have the added benefit of antioxidants, which have anti-inflammatory properties that help soothe strained capillaries in your under eye area.
To use cold tea bags as a compress, soak a tea bag in clean water and then place in the refrigerator for 30 minutes. Then, place the tea bags on your eyes. Leave for 10 minutes or so twice daily before removing and rinsing the area with warm water.
To harness the power of vitamin C to treat your under eye bags, grate some potatoes. Extract the juice from the potato and soak some cotton makeup remover pads in the juice. Place the pads on your eyes for about 10 minutes and then rinse with warm water.
Dairy products like milk are a great source of vitamin A, which contains retinoids that are great for keeping skin looking bright and young.
To gain the benefits of milk’s vitamin A, soak a cotton makeup remover pad in a bowl of cold milk for a while. Use the pad to apply the milk to your under eye bags and let it sit for about 10 minutes, twice daily. Rinse with warm water.
Vitamin E helps fight the effect of free radicals that cause signs of aging like wrinkles. Before bed at night, apply a drop of oil (a little goes a long way) to your dark under eye circles, gently massaging it into the skin. Leave this on your skin overnight and in the morning, rinse with warm water.
The term ‘globalisation’ means integration of economies and societies through cross country flow of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and the people. The essence of globalisation in a broad sense is connectivity in all aspects of human life. Although economic forces are an integral part of globalisation, it would be wrong to suggest that they alone produced it. It has been driven forward above all by the development of information and communication technologies that have intensified the scope and speed of interaction between the people all over the world.
India became independent as one of the poorest countries of the world. The British colonial rule had destroyed the self-sufficient agrarian economy. The then Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru preferred mixed economy for planned economic development of the country. As a result of this, public sectors were set up along with a number of private enterprises, but like the socialistic model of economy, the mixed economy of India has not produced profitable results. A number of public sectors became sick and the growth rates of production began to fall. While the poverty of the people continued to grow at an alarming rate, there was an acute balance of payment crisis and due to low domestic savings, there was no adequate capital for investment. There was also the shortage of resources to provide educational and health facilities to a large growing population. Moreover, there was high rate of inflation and the balance of payment deficit was around $10 bn. In such a situation, PV Narsimha Rao government was compelled to introduce the policy of liberalisation, privatisation and Dr Manmohan Singh, the then Finance Minister played an instrumental role in the adoption of new economic policy (1991).
In the midst of all these developments, globalisation was adopted by Indian Government during 1990-91 when Indian economy was in a very bad shape. It was, however, adopted not as a solution to deteriorating Indian economy but to enable itself to get further foreign exchange loans from World Bank as its foreign exchange reserves were reduced to mere 3 weeks outflow. To rectify its ailing financial health, government simultaneously decided to amend its economic policies and go for privatisation and liberalisation of its economy. These decisions had immediate positive effect However, globalisation has proven to be double edged weapon. It did help government temporarily meet its emergent need of foreign exchange but it has, as a byproduct, caused some permanent damage to Indian economic system and Indian social structure.
For thousands of years, different countries have been doing trade with one another. But the process has got a tremendous boost in about last two decades due to high handed policies of International Monetary Fund, World Bank and World Trade Organisation who have been working on the agenda of developed countries like USA. They practically forced under developed countries to adopt full throttle globalisation by opening up their local markets to world trade by reducing artificial barriers to such trade. Development of advanced means of communication and transport, internationalisation of financial market and unprecedented mobility of goods, capital, data and manpower have further given boost to the recent process of globalisation.
As the process of interconnecting the diverse world order, globalisation has touched almost all spheres of human life: social, economic, political, cultural, environmental etc. On the economic front, the trade with other countries has tremendously increased; inflow of men, money, material, labour, technology etc from foreign countries to India has also increased; it has given nations access to global markets, technology, financial resources, quality services and skilled human resources; increased the purchasing capacity of nations through the creation of sizable middle class; high quality and low cost products flooded Indian markets, thus increasing consumers choice. In the agricultural sector, new varieties of farm equipment, new agricultural practices, application of biotechnology like drought resistant, pest resistant crops etc are emerging due to globalisation. Apart from these positive aspects, there are some negative developments also which are attributed to globalisation process only. Due to the interdependence of Indian economy and world economy, it has become very difficult for the government of India to insulate its economy from the economy. Indian people now prefer global brands over Indian brands because they are cheap, more fashionable and easily available. Steep and fast reductions in custom duties have snatched large part of Indian market from Indian industry and passed it on to imports from established global players. For its survival in the face of global competition, Indian industry has transformed itself from labour intensive to capital intensive by adopting global technologies and automatic machinery, which has resulted in the high rate of unemployment in India.
Improved economic conditions, increased recognition of human rights, unprecedented mobility and interaction of people from different countries have dented local cultures of people the world over. India is not an exception in this case. Indian family system is shifting towards nuclear family system instead of the joint family system. These nuclear families are getting further divided due to strained relations of partner. Old and handicapped persons in the families are being forced to support themselves without any support from their children.
Globalisation has undermined the traditional role of women in homemaking, farming, handicrafts, handlooms etc., and resulted in a relatively better environment for women. Today, women are working in all spheres of Indian economy and are enjoying the fruits of “empowerment process” brought in by globalisation. At the same time, their security has become a major issue in this changing scenario and they are bearing the double burden of family as well as that of the job because the role of men in India have not changed much. People today, especially the young, developed an identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture, which includes an awareness of events, practices, styles and information that are a part of the global culture. There is the development of a bicultural identity or a hybrid identity, which means that part of one’s identity is rooted in the local culture while another part stems from an awareness of one’s relation to the global world.
We cannot say that the impact of globalisation has been totally positive or negative. It has been both. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalisation can be observed on the Indian culture. Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing Indian is to be approved unless recognised and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. This should be checked in order to preserve the rich cultural diversity of India and to ensure the fulfillment of the principle of self-sufficiency.
Technological and Cultural impact of globalization in India
With the process of globalization, there is an access to television grew from 20% of the urban population (1991) to 90% of the urban population (2009). Even in the rural areas satellite television has a grown up market. In the cities, Internet facility is everywhere and extension of internet facilities even to rural areas. There is an increase of global food chain /restaurants in the urban areas of India. Excessive Multiplex movie halls, big shopping malls and high rise residential are seen in every cities. Entertainment sector in India has a global market. After economic liberalization, Bollywood expanded its area and showed a major presence in the global scale. The industry began to explore new ways to become more global and modern. In India, modernity is observed with the West. Therefore, Western philosophy began to be incorporated into Bollywood films. As these new cultural messages began to reach the Indian population, Indian moviegoers were pushed to re-evaluate their traditional Indian cultural ideology. Bollywood movies are also distributed and accepted at international level. Big international companies (Walt Disney, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures) are investing on this sector. Famous International brands such as Armani, Gucci, Nike, and Omega are also making investment in the Indian market with the changing of fashion statement of Indians.
Impact of globalization on education in India
There is immense effects observed in educational sector due to globalization such as literacy rate become high and Foreign Universities are collaborating with different Indian Universities. The Indian educational system faces challenges of globalization through Information technology and it offers opportunities to evolve new paradigms shifts in developmental education. The distinction between formal, non-formal and informal education will vanish when move from industrial society to information society takes place. Globalization promotes new tools and techniques such as E-learning, Flexible learning, Distance Education Programs and Overseas training.
It is observed in current Indian society that through globalization, women have gained certain opportunities for job options and to recognize women’s rights as a part of the human rights. Their empowerment has given considerable opportunities and possibilities of improving employment conditions through global solidarity and co-ordination. It is found that the growth of computer and other technologies enabled women with better waged, flex timings, and capacity to negotiate their role and status in home and at corporate level.
India is blessed with a vast and rich heritage. One has only to see the various architectural marvels and cultural institutions that dot the geographical expanse of India to glimpse the richness of our heritage.
The science and technology of ancient India was quite advanced. Many historians believe that most of the scientific advances believed to have been made in Europe had been achieved centuries ago in India. Such advances covered major fields of human knowledge and activities like mathematics, astronomy, physics, medicine, metallurgy, surgery, fine arts, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding, navigation, etc.
Indian mathematicians have made important contributions to the study of the decimal number system, zero, negative numbers, arithmetic and algebra. The study of linguistics was initiated by Indian grammarians who began the trend by first attempting to catalogue and codify the rules of Sanskrit. Even today, the main terms for compound analysis are taken from Sanskrit.
India is the birthplace of Ayurveda and Yoga; these systems are now finding many followers in the West. India’s rich spiritual tradition has attracted many troubled Westerners, fleeing the materialistic and spiritually empty worlds they inhabit, to her shores, seeking solace and salvation. India’s urban civilization traces its roots to Mahenjodaro and Harappa, now in Pakistan.
Their planned urban townships were very advanced for their time. Metallurgy is central to most civilizations. The science of smelting was highly refined and precise in ancient India. As early as the 5th century BC, Herodotus, the eminent Greek historian, noted that iron was used in the arrows used by Indian and Persian soldiers.
The idea of the atom is derived from the classification of the material world into five basic elements by Indian philosophers. This classification has been in existence since the Vedic age (c.1500 BC). Indian monuments testify to the different influences in her history – Buddhist, Indo-Saracenic, Victorian, Mughal, etc.
Classical Indian music and dance have a wide fan following all over the world. Each state has its own art forms which are well documented. Imposing and architecturally splendid temples, mosques and churches embody the diverse religious and cultural influences that have made India unique. Cuisine too is an important part of our heritage.
As Indians, we ought to be proud of our rich heritage and strive to preserve it for our descendants by respecting it and ensuring its survival.
Indian Customs and Traditions
The Indian festivals are a reflection of the country’s culture and tradition. There is a set traditional pattern in which these are celebrated. This pattern is being followed since the ancient times. These celebrations offer a great way to meet and greet our loved ones and bring in positive energy. These are a part of our rich heritage.
Indian Art Forms:A part of Its Heritage
Indian monuments add to the galore of its heritage. Each of our monuments is known for its marvellous architectural design. Taj Mahal, Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Ajanta and Ellora Caves, Sun Konark temple, Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Brihadishwara Temple, Hawa Mahal and Mysore Palace are some of the heritage monuments of our country.
Our culture, tradition, monuments, literature and various art forms form a part of our heritage. These have been appreciated worldwide. We are proud to be a part of a country with such a vivacious culture.
Indian Heritage: A Gift from the Older Generations to the Younger Generation
Indian heritage is vast and vivid. It is vast because of the large number of religious groups residing in our country. Each religious group has its own set of customs and traditions which it passes on to its younger generation. However, some of our customs and traditions remain the same throughout India. For instance, our tradition includes respecting our elders, helping the needy, speaking the truth and welcoming guests and treating them nicely. Our traditions teach us to inculcate good habits and make us a good human being.
Our cultural heritage is thus a precious gift from our older generation to help us become a better human being and build a harmonious society.
Value of Indian Heritage for New Generation
Our cultural heritage has remained intact since centuries however its charm seems to be declining in the current times. It seems like the new generation does not seem to value our cultural heritage as much.
Our society has seen tremendous changes in the last few decades. The colonization of our country by the British brought western culture to our country. The age old traditions began to change. Today, Indian attire is highly influenced by the Western culture. Our ancient education system of gurukul was replaced by new kind of schools and many other changes were brought about in that era. Since then, there has been no looking back.
Our society has seen numerous changes. For instance, our joint family system faded away giving way to the new nuclear family system. The growth in technology and the advent of internet and smart phones have further distanced us from our cultural heritage. The western culture allures the youths of the country and most of them look down upon our culture and traditions
The young generation is so engrossed in its own world and has become so self centric that it does not pay much heed to the cultural values given by the elders
Invoking Love and Respect for Indian Heritage
It is the duty of the elders to invoke love for the Indian heritage in the younger generations. This must be done from the very beginning only then we can preserve our rich heritage.
One way of invoking love for our heritage is by acquainting the young generation with our glorious past. This would help in invoking a feeling of pride in them and they would be inspired to continue the tradition and also pass it on to the new generation. This needs a collective effort by the teachers as well as parents.
Schools must teach students about the Indian heritage and how it has survived for centuries. They must also share the importance of preserving it.
Young generation must not only preserve the cultural heritage of India but should also be progressive towards preserving the monumental and natural heritage of our country.
The Indian national movement was undoubtedly one of the biggest mass movements modern society has ever seen. It was a movement which galvanized millions of people of all classes and ideologies into political action and brought to its knees a mighty colonial empire. Consequently, along with the British, French, Russian, Chinese, Cuban and Vietnamese revolutions, it is of great relevance to those wishing to alter the existing political and social structure.
Various aspects of the Indian national movement, especially Gandhian political strategy, are particularly relevant to these movements in societies that broadly function within the confines of the rule of law, and are characterized by a democratic and basically civil libertarian polity. But it is also relevant to other societies. We know for a fact that even Lech Walesa consciously tried to incorporate elements of Gandhian strategy in the Solidarity Movement in Poland.
The Indian national movement, in fact, provides the only actual historical example of a semi-democratic or democratic type of political structure being successfully replaced or transformed. It is the only movement where the broadly Gramscian theoretical perspective of a war of position was successfully practiced; where state power was not seized in a single historical moment of revolution, but through prolonged popular struggle on a moral, political and ideological level; where reserves of counter-hegemony were built up over the years through progressive, stages; where the phases of struggle alternated with ‘passive’ phases.
The Indian national movement is also an example of how the constitutional space offered by the existing structure could be used without getting co-opted by it. It did not completely reject this space, as such rejection in democratic societies entails heavy costs in terms of hegemonic influence and often leads to isolation – but entered it and used it effectively in combination with non-constitutional struggle to overthrow the existing structure.
The Indian national movement is perhaps one of the best examples of the creation of an extremely wide movement with a common aim in which diverse political and ideological currents could co-exist and work – and simultaneously continue to contend for overall ideological and political hegemony over it. While intense debate on all basic issues was allowed, the diversity and tension did not weaken the cohesion and striking power of the movement; on the contrary, this diversity and atmosphere of freedom and debate became a major source of its strength.
Today, over sixty years after independence, we are still close enough to the freedom struggle to feel its warmth and yet far enough to be able to analyze it coolly, and with the advantage of hindsight. Analyze it as we must, for our past, present and future are inextricably linked to it. Men and women in every age and society make their own history, but they do not make it in a historical vacuum, de novo. Their efforts, however innovative, at finding solutions to their problems in the present and charting out their future, are guided and circumscribed, moulded and conditioned, by their respective histories, their inherited economic, political and ideological structures. To make myself clearer, the path that India has followed since 1947 has deep roots in the struggle for independence. The political and, ideological features, which have had a decisive impact on post-independence development, are largely a legacy of the freedom struggle. It is a legacy that belongs to all the Indian people, regardless of which party or group they belong to now, for the ‘party’ which led this struggle from 1885 to 1947 was not then a party but a movement – all political trends from the Right to the Left were incorporated in it.
What are the outstanding features of the freedom struggle? A major aspect is the values and mean ideals on which the movement itself was based and the broad socio-economic-and political vision of its leadership (this vision was that of a democratic , civil libertarian and secular India, based on self-reliant, egalitarian social order and an independent foreign policy).
The movement popularized democratic ideas and instructions in India. The nationalists fought for the introduction of a representative government on the basis of popular election and demanded that elections be based on adult franchise. The Indian National Congress was organized on a democratic basis and in the form of a parliament. It not only permitted but encouraged free expression of opinion within the party and the movement. Some of the most important decisions in its history were taken after heated debates and on the basis of open voting.
From the beginning, the nationalists fought against attacks by the State on the freedom of the press, expression and association, and made the struggle for these freedoms an integral part of the national movement. During their brief spell in power, from 1937-39, the Congress ministries greatly extended the scope of civil liberties. The defence of civil liberties was not narrowly conceived in terms of one political group, but was extended to include the defence of other groups whose views were politically and ideologically different. The Moderates defended Tilak, the Extremist, and non-violent Congressmen passionately defended revolutionary terrorists and communists alike during their trails. In 1928, the Public Safety Bill and Trade Disputes Bill were opposed not only by Motilal Nehru but also by conservatives like Madan Mohan Malaviya and M.R. Jayakar. It was this strong civil libertarian and democratic tradition of the national movement which was reflected in the constitution of independent India.
The freedom struggle was also a struggle for economic development. In time an economic ideology developed which was to dominate the views of independent India. The national movement accepted, with near unanimity, the need to develop India on the basis of industrialization which in turn was to be independent of foreign capital and was to rely on the indigenous capital goods sector. A crucial role was assigned to the public sector and, in the 1930’s there was a commitment to economic planning.
From the initial stages, the movement adopted a pro-poor ordination which was strengthened with the advent of Gandhi and the rise of the leftists who struggled to make the movement adopt a social outlook. The movement also increasingly moved towards a programme of radical agrarian reform. However, socialism did not, at any stage, become the official goal of the Indian National Congress through there was a great deal of debate around it within the National Movement and the Indian National Congress urging in the 1930s and 1940s. For various reasons, despite the existence of powerful leftist trend within the nationalist mainstream, the dominant vision within the Congress did not transcend the parameters of a capitalist conception of society.
The national movement was, from its early days, fully committed to secularism. Its leadership fought hard to inculcate secular values among the people and opposed the growth of communalism. And despite the partition of India and the accompanying communal holocaust, it did succeed in enshrining secularism in the constitution of free India.
It was never inward looking. Since the days of Raja Rammohan Roy, Indian leaders had developed a broad international outlook. Over the years, they evolved a policy of opposition to imperialism on a world-wide scale and solidarity with anti-colonial movements in other parts of the world. They established the principle that Indians should hate British imperialism but not the British people. Consequently, they were supported by a large number of Englishmen, women and political groups. They maintained close links with the progressive, anti-colonial and anti-capitalist forces of the world. A non-racist, anti-imperialist outlook, which continues to characterize Indian foreign policy, was thus part of the legacy of the anti-imperialist struggle.
In my view, India’s freedom struggle was basically the result of a fundamental contradiction between the interests of the Indian people and that of British colonialism. From the beginning itself, India’s national leaders grasped this contradiction. They were able to see that India was regressing economically and undergoing a process of underdevelopment. In time they were able to evolve a scientific analysis of colonialism. In fact, they were the first in the 19th century to develop an economic critique of colonialism and lay bare its complex structure. They were also able to see the distinction between colonial policy and the imperatives of the colonial structure. Taking the social experience of the Indian people as colonize subjects and recognizing the common interests of the Indian people vis-à-vis colonials, the national leaders gradually evolved a clear-cut anti-colonial ideology and critique of colonialism were disseminated during the mass phase of the movement.
The national movement also played a pivotal role in the historical process through which the Indian people got formed into a nation or a group of people. National leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjee, Tilak, Gandhiji and Nehru accepted that India was not yet a fully structured nation but a nation-in-the-making, and that one of the major objectives and functions of the movement was to promote the growing unity of the Indian people through a common struggle against colonialism. In other words, the national movement was seen both as a product of the process of the nation-in-the-making that was never counter-posed to the diverse regional, linguistic and ethnic identities in India. On the contrary, the emergence of a national identity and the flowering of the narrower identities were seen as processes deriving strength from each other.
The pre-nationalist resistance to colonial rule failed to understand the twin phenomena of colonialism and the nation-in-the-making. In fact, these phenomena were not visible, or available to be grasped, on the surface. They had to be grasped through hard analysis. This analysis and political consciousness based on it were then taken to the people by intellectuals who played a significant role in arousing the inherent, instinctive, nascent, anti-colonial consciousness of the masses.
The Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian National
Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2.1869 A.D. in a trading family of porbander, a small town in Kathiawara. His full name was Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi and his father was the Diwan of Rajkot. He went off to South Africa after marriage and worked as barrister there for twenty years. In South Africa, he had his first brush with apartheid. Once while he was traveling in a train, he was thrown out of the first class compartment despite having a ticket. This made him swear that he would do his best to erase apartheid from the face of his world. He went back to India only to find that his own country was being ruled by the British and his fellow citizens were being treated harshly by the British. Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle Like other great men in history, Gandhi took his time to grow and develop his techniques to ensure that his actions made an impact. His faith in different religions was commendable. His listened to the teachings of Christianity with the same belief and faith he read the Hindu scriptures with. Gandhi arrived in India on 9 January, 1915. Initially, he spent a year visiting various places in India to have an understanding of the situation. His political engagement started in the 1917-18 period when he took up the issues of Champaran indigo farmers, the Ahmedabad textile workers and the Kheda peasants. These struggles witnessed his specific method of agitation, known as Satyagraha, which had earlier developed in the South African context and through which he was partially successful in achieving his goals.
Geography as a university discipline got recognition in the early decades of the 19th century in the German universities and subsequently in the French and British universities.
During the period of evolution, geography, like all other sister social science disciplines, faced many philosophical and methodological problems. Geography did not develop as a well-regulated
It followed a process of varying tensions in which tranquil periods, characterized by steady accretion of knowledge, are followed by crisis which can lead to upheaval within subject discipline and breaks in continuity. In each phase of tranquillity and crisis, geographical literature was and has been written with changing philosophies and methodologies; the philosophy and methodology being largely governed by the individual beliefs of the author, the political system, the social requirements of the people of the region and its economic institutions.
The last twenty-five years can be regarded as a period in which enormous geographical literature has been produced. This literature in the shape of books, research papers and monographs pertains to teaching, research, professional employment and pragmatic plans for the public and private bodies. Geography up to the Second World War, however, was regarded as a discipline providing general information about topography, relief features, weather, climate, mountains, rivers, routes, towns, cities and seaports.
Geography for most of the people was nothing but general knowledge. In the recent past, geographers have, however, adopted a new strategy in the restructuring of their courses and designed the syllabi around the theme of social welfare, making the subject the principal source of awareness of local surroundings, regional milieu, environmental pollution and world environment.
Geographers are venturing into the areas of environmental management and problems of pollution to make the social environment conducive for the proper development of individuals and societies. In order to achieve the welfare target, geographers are attacking social problems and exploring the causes of socio-economic backwardness, environmental pollution, and uneven levels of development in a given physical setting. Now, the main objective of geographical teaching and research is to train students in the analysis of phenomena, so that they can take up subsequently the problems of society as the fields of their research and investigation, thereby helping the local, state and national administration to overcome the regional and intra-regional problems.
The social problems are being tackled with approaches ranging from positive to normative, from radicalism to humanism, and from idealism to realism. In brief, geographers are increasingly concerning themselves with the problems of society, conditions of mankind, economic inequalities, social justice, and environmental pollution.
For the reduction of regional inequalities and for the improvement of the quality of life, the main concern of geographers is with what should be the spatial distribution of phenomena instead of with what it is. It is in this context that the spatial inequality in social amenities and living standards is investigated by geographers to trace the origin of disparity rather than to condemn injustice.
Historically, in the initial phases of its development, the main area of employment of geography students in the developed countries was teaching. In the Third World countries, geographers even today are not much actively involved in the process of planning and development. Regrettably, research had less important place in the geographical profession than in many of the social and physical sciences.
Moreover, the research done by individuals mainly remained confined to the libraries and has hardly been utilized for the purpose of planning. Unfortunately, the policy-makers in developing countries like India do not seem to be aware of the spatial dimensions of their problems of policies. Another reason is widespread ignorance of and even prejudice against geography particularly among the present generation of decision-makers whose opinions have been shaped by the experience of the previous generation school geography—when geography occupied a low place and was, as a subject, considered to be nothing more than general knowledge.
In fact, in most of the social fields, very little contribution had been made by geographers, and in the past they could not significantly suggest alternative strategies for the spatial organization of space. The last three decades have, however, seen some particularly important changes in the subject-matter, philosophy and methodology of geography. The major issues on which the geographers are concentrating include poverty, hunger, pollution, racial discrimination, social inequality or injustice, environmental pollution, and use and misuse of resources.
Some of the leading works which have been useful in the public policy making are: Geography of Crimes, Black-Ghetto, and Geography of Social Well-being. The quantitative revolution of the 1960s in geography gave to it some kind of intellectual vigour so essential for the rigorous analysis required in any public context and in the formulation of proposals for public policy.
It is an encouraging fact that now geographers all over the world are envisaging research on social problems with a welfare theme. They are working with a pragmatic approach to overcome the problems of inequalities. In fact, the objective of welfare geography is the evolution of the social desirability of alternative geographical state.
Scientific revolution entered in geography in the early 1970s. The pragmatists advocated the use of scientific methods (positivism) for finding solutions to human problems. It is with this intention that scholars like David M. Smith has adopted the welfare approach while discussing the problems and prospects of human geography.
The welfare geography has been defined differently by different scholars of geography. In the words of Mishan, “theoretical welfare geography is that branch of study which endeavours to formulate positions by which we may rank, on the scale of better or worse, alternative geographical situation open to society”. While Nath expressed ‘welfare geography’ is that part of geography where we study the possible effects of various geographical policies on the welfare of society. In the spatial context, Smith defined welfare geography as the study of “who gets what, where and how”.
The geographical ‘state’ or situation, in the sense used above, may refer to any aspect of the spatial arrangement of human existence. It may relate to the spatial allocation of resources, income, or any other source of human well-being. It may concern with the spatial incidence of poverty or any other social problem. The expression may also be used in desirable industrial location pattern, the distribution and concentration of population, the location of social services facilities
transportation network, patterns of movement of people or goods and any other spatial arrangement which has a bearing on the quality of life as a geographically variable condition. And beneath them all, in the type of society—the economic, social, political structures that generate the pattern.
The welfare approach, nevertheless, has had different meanings in the different periods of human history. The humanist endeavours in various periods of different nations and societies like Jewish, Christians, Muslims, Confucians, Hellenistic, Scientific, Realists, Marxist and Existentialists, and many other forms of humanism appeared on the map of intellectual history.
The geographers who are mainly concerned with the problems of society and trying to formulate pragmatic proposals for public policy clarify the description and explanation of the phenomena. On the basis of such analysis they evaluate their plans and prescribe suitable strategies for balanced development.
Description involves the empirical identification of territorial levels of human well-being—the human condition. This is a major and immediate research area in which surprisingly little work has been done in India and in other developing countries. Explanation covers the how…It involves identifying the cause and effect links among the various activities undertaken in society, as they contribute to determining who gets what and where. This is where the analysis of the kind of economic, demographic and social patterns mentioned above logically fits into the welfare structure.
Evaluation involves making judgement on the desirability of alternative geographical states and the societal structure from which they arise. To say that one spatial pattern of human well-being is preferable to another is to say that a higher level of welfare is attached to it. Such judgements must be made with reference to equity as well as the efficiency criteria with which the geographer is more familiar. Geographical patterns of all kinds can be judged with respect to their profit maximizing and cost minimizing criteria.
Prescription requires the specifications of alternative geographical state, and alternative societal structures designed to produce them. Prescription involves answering the ethical question: who should get what, where? Implementations is the final process replacing as a state deemed undesirable by something superior. It covers the question of how, once it has been decided who should get what, where. Just what role should be adopted by geographer qua geographer in a changing world.
In the contemporary world, there is a growing awareness among geographers that all physical development has a potential income redistributive impact. Any development proposed at any time in space has the capacity to benefit some people in some places more than others. It would be very difficult to construct anything anywhere which would be of equal benefit to every citizen. This is because of this situation that the benefits of government developmental policies in developing societies do not percolate down to the lowest strata of these societies.
Geographical distance and accessibility mean that some people will be better placed to enjoy the advantages or disadvantages, whether the structure is hospital, school, road, railway, community hall, cinema, theatre, park, recreational place or sewage works. Therefore, location decisions and plans for spatial allocation of resources must be made with utmost care, if the benefits and penalties are to be proportional among the population in a predictable and equitable manner. In such public policy decisions, geographers’ role becomes imperative as they have the basic training in the spatial and temporal analysis of phenomena.
Spatial allocation problems are associated with identification of priority areas, planning routes, location of factories or other sources of employment, spatial arrangement of facilities providing medical care, housing complexes, shopping centres and allocation of land for different urban and recreational uses. Each of these decisions can be made in a number of ways, and each decision can have a different impact. Geographers by their training can build up more sophisticated knowledge of the process of development. This involves disentangling complex networks of economic, social and cultural relationships and also the ecological relationships in a balance, so easily disturbed by ill-conceived ‘development’ projects. Geographers by allocation, analysis and synthesis of space can contribute, successfully, meaningfully and effectively to the formation of public policy.
In developing countries like India there is a high degree of internal inequality. In the Third World nations wealth and power are still largely in the hands of a small urban elite or big landlords. The most obvious example is South Africa. In India also, more than 50 per cent of the population is below the poverty line while over 50 per cent of the total national assets are in the hands of only two dozen families. Moreover, in India, most of the economic activity is concentrated in metropolitan cores, though still over 70 per cent of the total population is residing in the rural areas. The urban biased industrial and social infrastructural policy adopted by planners is widening the gap between the rich and the poor on the one hand and rural and urban population on the other.
The highly advanced countries like U.S.A., Canada and Australia also have spatial variations in levels of human well-being. In the United States, the general material standard of living is higher than anywhere else in the world. Yet, millions of Americans, especially Negroes, live in poverty and social deprivation in ghettos—city slums. In parts of the rural south of U.S.A. (Texas, Georgia, etc.) people can be found living in conditions as bad as anywhere in South Africa. In these urban slums, the rate of crimes and drug addiction is fairly high.
The persistence of widespread poverty in American slums—the most affluent society in the world—is a contradiction which underlines the failure of economic growth under a capitalist system to uplift the lives of all people to current standard of decency. In 1976, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 12 per cent (26 million) Americans have income below the officially recognized poverty line.
One of the arguments put forward by the capitalist for the existing regional and intra-regional inequalities is that peoples are not born equal and they cannot be equal in their societies owing to the unequal distribution of the means of production. In fact, the chance of birth into a particular family or group in a particular locality, immediately constrains a child’s opportunity.
This situation gets further aggravated if the socio-political and economic organization is planned with an urban-biased or rich people-oriented policy. The planners in consultation with geographers can construct general social amenities which can benefit all sections of the society. Geographers, however, cannot be a panacea to all the ills, inequalities and socio-economic imbalances.
They know it much better than any other experts that they cannot make all deserts fertile, eliminate drought and create mineral resources where none exist in nature. There are physical limitations in the development of societies living in harsh environment. Such people, however, can have better chances of development if their resource base and needs of society will help to highlight fundamental issues of choice, efficiency and equity. Moreover, it would be useful in the provision of public services and other aspects of local life quality.
Geographers have the ability to analyze the spatial dimension of environmental problems and more particularly, to handle, analyze and interpret spatially distributed data. This awareness of and facility of handling the spatial dimension, which is a major ingredient of all problems of environmental and resource management, is something not generally provided by those in other disciplines and tends to be overlooked if a geographer does not provide it.
A welfare society needs better allocation of commodities, better distribution of commodities and better allocation of means of production among individuals (groups or classes) and among places. All these things are more easily achievable if geographers who deal with the man-environment interaction and examine the spatial distribution of phenomena are actively involved in the process of planning and formulation of public policies at the local, regional, national and international levels.
In countries like Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Israel, Denmark, U.S.S.R., France, New Zealand and Australia where geographers in collaboration with other scientists design public policies the use and beneficial effects of resources are reaching all sections of the societies. Geographers in India can provide pragmatic proposals for solving the various socio-economic and employment problems facing the rapidly increasing population.
By their efforts geographers can consider the causal relationships between inequity, the spatial organization of society and social structure. Public policies about reorganization and redistribution can be designed through planning by the experts who have expertise in man-environment interaction and spatial analysis of phenomena. For this purpose, geographers have to assert themselves through their applied and utilitarian researches.
Politics in any country involves the ruling party and the opposition. Usually and ideally, political parties are formed based on the same line of thinking and ideology. The left and the right are the two terms usually used by media and political commentators to define the group of people with the same ideological bend of mind. The lefts are usually considered liberal, secular and pro-government ideologies while the right is considered majoritarian, pro-poor and rebellious in nature.
These definitions are not defined anywhere in the constitutions. of any governmental organisations, but are the terms coined by journalists, authors and commentators. For example, in the USA, the democrats are known to be left-leaning while the republicans are known to be right-leaning, in UK Labour party is seen to be right-leaning ideology and the conservative party having a left-leaning ideology. The case is similar in India as well, with Congress having left-leaning ideologies while BJP having right-leaning ideologies.
And for a perfect democracy to work, both the ideologies are necessary. A mature democracy is one where there is a fine demarcation between the two ideologies, but in countries like India, these demarcations are blurry and the left and right ideologies superimpose on each other often number of times.
The political system is built in such a way that, irrespective of what ideologies, policies, processes, institutions, strategy, behaviours, classes or diplomacy that a political party follows, the core vision and objective lie in the development of the country.
But, like always, not everything that glitters is gold, is it not?
Politics is called a dirty game and rightly so, especially in a country like India. Greed, corruption, injustice, bigotry and hatred are some of the very few terms that are usually associated with Indian politics. In this essay on Indian politics, we will not be able to talk about it all, but we will try to touch upon each of the issues.
Politicians usually choose their parties, not because they believe in the ideologies of the party, but because of the winnability quotient in the elections. Elections, unfortunately, is all about money power and muscle power. The ideologies and promises are just the sugar coating that politician do to get votes from people. But even if they follow the ideology of a party, the ideologies itself is flawed and broken from its core. Divide and rule policy followed by the British to rule India is followed by today’s politicians to get votes. Political parties, across the spectrum, try to divide people of India on the basis of religions and class. This is usually called by the term communal polarisation. The gullible voters play into the hands of these political parties and belive the fancy promises they show in the name of development. In a good democratic system, a common man should also be well aware of their rights and responsibilities as a law-abiding citizen.
A good politics consists of the government and its opposition, with both of them working for the development of the country, in their capacities. The opposition parties questions criticise and demands accountability from the ruling party so that the ruling regime is kept in check. The system works fine in its idealistic form. But political parties, with their greed for power, forget their true responsibilities and indulge in dirty games to grab power at any cost. That cost is borne by the common man of the country.
According to our Constitution, India is a “sovereign secular socialist democratic republic.” It has 28 states and seven Union Territories. With a population of approximately 112 crore, India happens to be the largest democracy in the world. Indian polity is a multi-party democracy, based on the adult franchise system of voting. That is any Indian citizen of 18 and above, who is not debarred by law, can vote in the Indian elections, at national, state and local levels.
India is a parliamentary democracy and a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Prime Minister is the head of government. He or she should be chosen by the MPs (Member of Parliaments) of the ruling party or the coalition that comes to power. The Vice President has to temporarily assume the role of President in the event of the death, resignation, or removal of the President, until a new President is chosen by the electoral college. The Vice President of India may also act temporarily as President, during the absence or illness of the President. The Vice President of India is also the Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Mohammad Hamid Ansari is the present Vice President of India.
Executive, Legislature and Judiciary
With the Union Government and State Governments wrest the executive power, while the legislative power is vested on the Union Government and the two houses of Indian Parliament- the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha- and also the State Government and two state legislatures-Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. However, here it deserves a mention that only five of India’s 28 states have Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council, which is also known as the upper house of state legislatures, along with the Vidhan Sabha. The rest of the states don’t have bicameral legislatures, and only have Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly. Each state also has a Governor, who is formally appointed by the President of India. The role of the Governor is somewhat similar to that of President in the national level; he is a titular head of the state in normal circumstances, but can exercise some powers when directed by the Union Government.
Rules are important whether in sports or life. A game of cricket or football can’t be played without rules.
A game with no rules in force will finally end in chaos and disturbance. So is true with the society and the country as well.
A country also needs to be governed by definite rules, that all of its citizens and government institutions must follow, to maintain order and discipline.
There has to be a definite way in which democratic elections are conducted; the powers of the judiciary, executive, and the legislative; powers vested in states and union; fundamental privileges are given to the citizens, etc all are defined in the constitution.
When the Indian Constitution did come into effect?
What had been the Dominion of India became the Republic of India after the constitution came into effect. It replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the principal governing document of the country.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, the Chairman of the constitution drafting committee, presented the draft constitution to the then President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 25th November 1949, subsequently it was adopted by the constituent assembly on 26th November.
The constitution of India came into force on the day when the final session of the constituent assembly was held on 26th January 1950.
Salient Features of Indian Constitution
The constitution of India has several salient or distinguishing features that separate it from the leagues of other constitutions around the world. The most distinguished and significant salient features of the Indian constitution are defined as under.
Longest handwritten constitution
The constitution of India is one of the lengthiest and most detailed constitutions of the world. The English version of the constitution has 117,369 words contained in 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules, and 115 amendments as of 2020.
The lengthiness of the Indian constitution was necessitated by the diversity of India. The constitution became larger in order to accommodate several demographic differences of the state of India.
Parliamentary form of government
The constitution of India stipulates a bicameral legislature, that is, the power and authority are shared between two separate houses, in this case, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.Opposite of bicameral is a unicameral legislature where only one house is present. In a bicameral setup debates and discussions play an important role in the passage of a bill.
A rigid and flexible constitution
The constitution of India is neither completely rigid nor flexible. A constitution is said to be rigid when it is difficult to make amendments, like the constitution of the United States.On the contrary, the constitution of India has been amended 103 times since it came into force, but all the amendments have to pass through definite tests and mandatory requirements.
The constitution of India is therefore considered a perfect blend of rigidity and flexibility.
The preamble to the constitution.
The preamble of the Indian constitution is its introductory paragraph that declares the constitution’ss fundamental philosophy and purpose.
It declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. It also states some objectives like, securing justice, liberty, and equality to all the citizens and promoting fraternity in order to maintain national unity and integrity.
The constitution of India is quasi-federal because it combines the features of both the federal government and the unitary government.
The Supreme Court of India has also stated that India has a federal structure with a strong bias towards the center.
Federal features of the constitution are – supreme law, a bicameral legislature, dual government policy, a written constitution, a rigid constitution, independent judiciary, and revenue sharing.
On the other hand, unitary features of the constitution are – single constitution applicable to the union and states, unequal representation of states in the Rajya Sabha, the unequal division of power between the center and states, states depend on center, non-rigid constitution, unified judicial system and proclamation of emergency.
Fundamental rights and duties
The constitution of India describes the fundamental rights and duties of all the citizens of India irrespective of the states, region, religion, or ethnicity.
The seven fundamental rights provided by the constitution to every citizen are – right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies.
Fundamental duties are enshrined in the constitution to promote integrity. Some of the important fundamental duties are to uphold the sovereignty and unity of India, to preserve rich heritage, to safeguard public property, etc.
Directive principles of state policy
The directive principles of state policy are contained in Part IV of the Indian constitution. These are the sets of instructions meant for the states.
Basically, they constitute the instructions to the legislature and the executive that are mandatory to be followed whenever the state frames new legislation.
Adult suffrage means that any Indian citizen irrespective of gender, caste, or any other difference, has a right to vote to elect the government, provided that he or she is above 18 years of age.
This right is guaranteed by Article 326 of the constitution. Initially, the age of voting was 21 years but after the 61st amendment also called the Constitution Act 1988, it was amended to 18 years. However, the right to vote doesn’t apply to non-citizens, persons with unsound minds, or criminals.
The constitution of India has several provisions to ensure that the judiciary remains unbiased and independent.The Supreme Court of India acts as the caretaker of the constitution and ensures that its provisions are followed.Also, the courts at the state and district levels are out of the influence of bureaucracy or political governments.High courts in states directly function under the Supreme Court.
The term ‘Secular’ in the constitution was added by the 42nd amendment in the Preamble.It was included to promote peace and harmony among different religious groups of India. Every citizen of India is free to follow the religion of his/her choice and it is obligatory for the government to ensure that his/her rights and privileges are protected.
Part II of the constitution from Article 5 to Article 11 deals with citizenship. According to it, all the citizens of India enjoy equal rights and privileges across the complete territory of India.In whatever state or Union Territory of India you may travel, you will enjoy similar rights and privileges as enjoyed in your home state.
Importance of Indian Constitution
The constitution is the supreme law that governs the country. The three pillars of democracy – the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary, functions as per the provisions provided in the constitution.
It guarantees the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens and ensures that India remains a secular state, which is important considering its religious and cultural diversity.
Without the constitution, the whole democratic setup would just crumble and rights and privileges could not be exercised.India is one of the world’s most successful democracies today because its people and the government religiously follow every word of the constitution.
At the core of the constitution is an idea to generate an equal and civilized society that is governed by principles and definite rules.
Like every game has its rule book, similarly, the constitution of India is also the rule book that dictates all the rules, regulations, powers, and privileges to effectively govern the country.
Poverty” is the worst form of violence”, said Mahatma Gandhi. Over the years, poverty has proved to be the biggest hurdle in the way of success of India’s development. Poverty is that condition in which a person fails to not only fulfil his basic physiological needs, but also fails to protect himself from diseases, get balanced nutrition, maintain good health etc.
In simple terms, a person in order to survive should have proper food, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Thus, poverty refers to a person failing to acquire these minimum levels of subsistence and in turn suffer from starvation, malnutrition, and diseases.
Poverty has been an inevitable problem since the time immemorial. From late 19th century through early 20th century, under British colonial rule, poverty in India intensified, peaking in 1920’s. Over this period, the colonial government, de-industrialised India by reducing garments and other finished products’ manufacturing by artisans in India.
They instead imported these from Britain. These colonial policies moved unemployed artisans into farming and transformed India as a region increasingly abundant in land, unskilled labour and low productivity, capital and knowledge. Moreover famines and diseases killed millions each time.
Recently, in 2013, the Indian Government stated 21.9% of its population is below official poverty limit. In other words, India with 17.5% of world’s total population, had 20.6% share of world’s poorest in 2013. A large proportion of poor people live in rural areas. Poverty is deepest among members of scheduled castes and tribes in the country’s rural areas.
On the map of India, the poorest areas are in parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal. In fact, the story of our prolonged poverty and tyranny attached has got so much fame that a , foreign director (Danny Boyle) produced a whole movie on the issue. This movie is Slumdog Millionaire which got worldwide acclamation through Oscar Awards.
Statistics reveals that economic prosperity has indeed been very impressive in India, but it is the distribution of wealth that has been uneven and has caused the grave problem of poverty. Other major causes of poverty are illiteracy along with uncontrolled population growth, unemployment and under-employment, dependence on agriculture, caste system and corruption. The causes of rural poverty are manifold including inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
The over-dependence on monsoon with non-availability of irrigational facilities often results in crop-failure and low agricultural productivity forcing farmers in the debt-traps. The children of poor families are forced to take up jobs at a tender age to fend for their large families, thus are not only deprived of their childhood but education too adding to the illiterate bulk of the country.
Central grants for programmes like Indira Awas Yojana and others, which was aimed at providing housing to the poor, have been utter failures due to lack of proper implementation. Massive transfer of ‘Black Money’ overseas and under-utilisation of foreign aid have also contributed to the deepening of poverty in India. Nelson Mandela once quoted:
“Like Slavery and Apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings”.
Interestingly, the incidence of rural poverty has declined somewhat in the past years as a result of rural to urban migration. In order to combat the grave problem of poverty, first and foremost, there should be a strict check on population increase. Creation of employment opportunities, spread of education, elimination of black money, decentralisation of planning, helping women and youth to become self-reliant are some other ways to combat this problem. Empowering the weaker and backward section of society is also expected to contribute to the alleviation of poverty. It is not due to lack of resources or technical assistance that we are failing in achieving our goals but more so due to lack of execution of these plans and programmes.
Who comes in the category of the poorest class in India?
Tribal people, Dalits and labour class including farmworkers in villages and casual workers in cities are still very poor and make the poorest class in India.
Where do the majority of poor live in India?
60% of the poor still reside in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. The reason for these states to be in the category of the poorest state is because 85% of tribal people live there. Also, most of these regions are either flood-prone or suffer from calamities. These conditions hamper agriculture to a great extent, on which the household income of these groups depends.
According to the Global Hunger Index Report 2018 by the International Food Research Institute, India ranks 103 in the Global Hunger Index (GHI). Though there is no shortage of food production in India, our nation still has 35.8% of children under five in the underweight category. India is working hard to become a superpower in 2020, but such statistics are worrisome, as our nation still lags behind in improving GHI. At the same time, India seems to have achieved commendable success towards poverty eradication, because it is no longer the country with the largest number of poor people.
In 2018, for the first time in decades, Nigeria pipped India to the top slot in terms of the total number of people living in extreme poverty. As per World Poverty Clock, India’s figure of 70.6 million was surpassed by Nigeria’s 87 million people living in extreme poverty.
Moreover, according to a Sustainable Development Goals Report of the United Nations Development Program released in 2018, India has made significant progress: “Between 2005-06 and 2015-16, the incidence of multidimensional poverty in India was almost halved, climbing down to 27.5 percent from 54.7 percent as per the 2018 global Multidimensional Poverty Index report. Within ten years, the number of poor people in India fell by more than 271 million (from 635 million to 364 million). This MPI index measures progress across 3 key dimensions of health, education and living standards, and uses 10 indicators – nutrition, child mortality, years of schooling, school attendance, sanitation, cooking fuel, drinking water, electricity, housing and assets. People who lag behind in at least a third of the MPI’s components are defined as multidimensionally poor.
Causes of Poverty in India
The high population growth rate is one of the major reasons of poverty in India. This further leads to a high level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities and lack of access to financial resources. Also, high population growth affects the per capita income and makes per capita income even lower. It is expected that the population in India will reach 1.5 billion by 2026 and then India will be the largest nation in the world. But India’s economy is not growing at the same pace. This means a shortage of jobs. For this much population, near about 20 million new jobs would be required. The number of poor will keep on increasing if such a big number of jobs won’t be created.
The ever-increasing prices of even basic commodities is another reason for poverty. A person below the poverty line finds it difficult to survive. The caste system and unequal distribution of income and resources is another reason for poverty in India.
Apart from all these, unskilled workers are paid very low in spite of the hard work they put in daily. The problem lies with the unorganized sector as owners do not bother with the way their workers live and the amount they earn. Their area of concern is just cost-cutting and more profit. Because of the number of workers looking for a job is higher than the jobs available, unskilled workers have no other option but to work for less money. The government should really find a way to impose minimum wage standards for these workers. At the same time, the government should ensure that this is implemented well.
Poverty must be eradicated from India as every person has the right to live a healthy life.
How You Can Improve or Solve Poverty in India?
Poverty can be solved by improving food security by providing three meals a day and making them healthy and providing houses for those people at low cost and giving them proper education and facilities so that they can earn well and take care of their family and leave peaceful life. Awareness on population so that once the population is under control, the economy of the country will improve and move towards developed and decrease in the poverty line. Poverty is becoming a complex problem for the peoples and for the government, how to overcome out from this, in India the poverty is high comparing other countries because the growth rate of per capita income per person is very low. With lack of job opportunities many people move as a rickshaw puller, construction workers, domestic servants etc, with irregular small incomes hence they live in slum areas. Also, lack of land resources has been one of the major causes of poverty in India, even the small farmers of our country leads to poverty because they cultivate but do not get proper money in terms of profit and leads to poverty.
Sustainable development is the need of the present time not only for the survival of mankind but also for its future protection. Unlike the other great revolutions in human history the Green Revolution and the Industrial Revolution the ‘sustainable revolution’ will have to take place rapidly, consciously and on many different levels and in many different spheres, simultaneously.
On the technical level, for example, it will involve the sustainable technologies based upon the use of non-renewable, fossil fuels for technologies that take advantage of renewable energies like the sun, wind and biomass, the adoption of conservation and recycling practices on a wider scale, and the transfer of f cleaner and more energy efficient technologies to countries in the developing world.
On the political and economic levels, it will involve, among other things, the overhauling of development and trade practices which tend to destroy the environment, and the improvement of indigenous peoples, a fairer distribution of wealth and resources within and between nations, the charging of true cost for products which exploit or pollute the environment, and the encouragement of sustainable practices through fiscal and legal controls and incentives.
On the social plane, it will involve a renewed thrust towards universal primary education and health care, with particular emphasis on the education and social liberation of women. On the environmental level, we are talking about massive afforestation projects, renewed research into and assistance for organic farming practices and biopest control, and the vigorous protection of biodiversity. On the informational level, the need is for data that will allow the development of accurate social and environmental accountancy systems.
The aim of ecologically sustainable development is to maximise human well-being or quality of life without jeopardising the life support system. The measures for sustainable development may be different in developed and developing countries according to their level of technological and economic development.
But developing countries, like India, can focus attention on the following measures:
1. ensure clean and hygienic living and working conditions for the people
2. sponsor research on environmental issues pertaining to the region.
4. find economical methods for salvaging hazardous industrial wastes.
5.find out substitutes for proven hazardous materials based on local resources and needs instead of blindly depending on advanced nations to find solutions.
The prime need for sustainable development is the conservation of natural resources. For conservation, the development policy should follow the following norms:
(i) Make all attempts not to impair the natural regenerative capacity of renewable resources and simultaneously avoid excessive pollution hampering the biospherical capacity of waste assimilation and life support system.
(ii) All technological changes and planning strategy processes, as far as physically possible, must attempt switch from non-renewable to renewable resource uses.
(iii) Formulate a phase-out policy for the use of non-renewable resources in general.
Thus, for a worldwide sustainable growth, there is need for efficient and effective management of available resources. In this field, the production of “environment-friendly products” (EFP) is a positive step. With the industrialisation and technological development, markets are flooded with products of daily consumption. They could however be a source of danger to health and damage to our environment.
There is thus need to distinguish the more environmentally harmful consumer products from those which are less harmful, or have a more benign impact on the environment right from the stage of manufacture through packaging, distribution, use, disposal and reusability or recycling.
Throughout the world, emphasis is now being put on the production of EFP. In India, plans are afoot to market EFPs with combined efforts of Bureau of Indian Standards, Ministry of Environment and Forests and Central Pollution Control Board. Since 1990, a scheme of labelling ECOMARK has also been started. In its first phase, the items included in this are soaps, plastics, papers, cosmetics, colours, lubricating oil, pesticides, drugs and various edible items.
The objectives of the scheme are:
(i) to provide an incentive for manufactures and to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products,
(ii) to reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products,
(iii) to assist consumers to become responsible in their daily lives by providing them information to take account of environmental factors in their purchase decisions,
(iv) to encourage citizens to purchase products which have less harmful environmental impact, and
(v) to improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources.
Not only in consumer goods production but in the field of energy production also, environment-friendly techniques of power generation can be used. For example, in power production from coal, PFBC (Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combined Cycle) technique is useful in which coal is burnt efficiently and cleanly in combined cycle plants.
To cope with increased demand of the basic requirement of life and the limited supply of the natural resources, along with consideration of environmental degradation and ecological balance, we need to emphasise on optimal management of land, water, minerals and other natural resources. There is also need to utilize the native wisdom of those people, who live close to nature and earth, for eco-restoration along with development.
In order to apply the principle of sustainable management in reality, a highly complex way of looking at the problem is required, involving various disciplines. Sustainability is first and foremost a mental question. Without a grasp of the need or the will to change awareness, we will not succeed in realising the principle of sustainability in agriculture.
It is upon the decision-makers in politics to create the right framework and the pre-conditions for a sustainable development in agriculture. Global involvement, on the other hand, must not be left out of account. Sustainability reflects our understanding of necessity and responsibility on the question for whom, for what and how production can be guided into the future in a way that is efficient, environmentally sound and sparing on resources.
Global change is an ecological phenomenon, whereas globalisation is concerned with economic change. A recent analysis of sustainable agriculture in the context of trade liberalisation and globalisation raises equally significant concern for a more informed decision-making process at local, regional and international levels.
The emerging issues related to the impact of globalisation on sustainable agriculture are as follows:
1. There are explicit problems with the conventional theoretical economic conditions for agricultural sustainability, especially when applied at the global level.
2. The processes of trade liberalisation and globalisation will not be uniform given the ecological and institutional diversity of the nations of the world.
3. There will be disparities in globalised impacts between rich and poor countries for agriculture, industries, sustainability and environment as well as income and poverty.
4. There is need for serious analysis of problems and policy initiatives, since the risk of disruption to agricultural systems and environmental deterioration, social disruption and dislocation in the poorer countries of the world is clearly very high.
5. The type of production technology research, facilitated by private research, will not address the significant public good and externality issues facing developing countries.
The pursuit of sustainability demands choices about the distribution of costs and benefits in space and time. There is also need to take advantage of the ‘traditional ecological knowledge’ (TEK), which encompasses all issues related to ecology and natural resource management, both at local and regional levels. Along with political dimensions of environment-society relations, the TEK can be used for both eco-restoration and sustainable development.
The problem of population is the main cause of ecological environment damage. As the population grows up and economic develops, the increasing demand of resources is becoming more and more severe. Because of deforestation, unreasonably overgrazing dykes to reclaim land from a lake, marsh reclamation, excessive usage of land and water resources, which leads to the destruction of biological environment or even disappearance, the normal survival of the species is affected a lot. There is a large number of species which have not yet been detected by human beings. They have quietly become extinct, thus leading to destruction of biodiversity.
Land is the material basis of human survival. In the demand of the food sources of the survival of human beings, crops cultivated land accounts for 88%, 10% of grasslands and pastoral areas and 2% counted for marine. With the development and utilization of ocean, energy applied by sea food for human beings will increase. At present, the cultivated land of the world is about 1.37 x 109 hm2, which shows per capital is about 0.26 hm2. But due to the increase of the non-agricultural land land desertification, soil erosion, soil pollution and so on, it prompts the contradiction between population increase and reduce land resources becoming more and more sharp. What’s more, the pressure of increase in population on land is becoming bigger and bigger. According to the United Nations food and agriculture organization, nowadays, about 500 million people around the world are in a state of super land bearing capacity.
So the fresh water is going to run out. To discover and to make use of new sources are necessary within two aspects. One is to find fresh water resource which hasn ‘t been found or used. The other way is to thoroughly look for fresh water from where other than the fresh water resource it self. This is mainly asked to turn which is not fresh water purification into fresh water. Since sea water accounts a lot of the total water resources of the earth. The key means to turn them into the water we can drink is to purify and desalinate. Although it is not because that there is no water desalination plant in the world, why we still worry about water resources drying up? That is mainly due to the desalination technology which is not very mature and completed. Not to mention, the cost is very high as well. Ordinary people can not afford such high price. That explains why this technique is not popularized worldwide, but most concentrated in the developed countries. That is to say, if we want to fade in seawater batches, the most important is to rely on science technology to improve the efficiency of desalination, reduce the desalination cost and let ordinary people be able to use the desalinate water under a proper price.
Organisms of this ecosystem may generally be divided into three categories:
1. Producers, 2. Consumers, 3. Decomposers.
Producers mostly belong, to the category of plants that make their food by the inorganic substances by themselves in the presence of light.Consumers particularly include animals including human being, that depend for their food on other organism including plants, and the decomposers come in the category of bacteria and fungus etc. that decompose the organic substances present in dead plants and animals.
The system is useful to man. A perfect ecological balance cannot be expected in the wake of growing industrialisation as owing to this, pollution of environment becomes inevitable.The environment has “carrying capacity”, or the amount of pollution or damage an environment can sustain without further degradation.
By the misuse, abuse and uncontrolled use of resources both natural and otherwise have upset the equilibrium between human activity and nature.
1. Physical Environment. 2. Human Environment.
Physical Environment consists of all constituents of natural origin like physiography-, climate, vegetation, soil, water bodies, wild animals and minerals.
Human Environment consists of all elements having a human touch in their origin. Such elements include all manifestations of human activities.
Of course natural resources cannot be confined to the physical manifestation of nature, it also includes the entire environmental scenario-the carrying capacity of nature, the extent up to which the nature can accommodate.
Can we predict the ecological effects of pollution and climate change?
Governments and citizens around the world are increasingly aware of the consequences of atmospheric pollution and climate change. In large-scale experiments, plants and animals are exposed to carefully controlled atmospheres and different ecological conditions. Scientists use this information to understand how they respond to pollution levels, and make predictions about future climate change.
Can we fish the ocean without depleting its riches?
It is possible, but does depend on where we are in the world. In the Antarctic, the marine ecosystem is currently managed as a whole under an international agreement to conserve living resources. This makes it easier to understand marine communities and their interactions, as well as help monitor threatened species more closely.
Can we conserve a habitat and its biodiversity?
Yes. Ecology provides the essential basis for nature conservation. Maintaining a mosaic of habitats ensures the survival of a rich variety of species. For instance, heathland is a valued landscape that is fast disappearing throughout much of Western Europe, but studies have helped identify how to preserve its ecological characteristic.
Disaster is a very common phenomenon to the human society. It has been experienced by them since time immemorial. Though its form may be varied, it has been a challenge for society across castes, creeds, communities and countries. The latest development which has been discovered in the World Disaster Reports recently is that the disasters have increased in frequency and intensity.
People are becoming more and more vulnerable to disasters of all types, including earthquake, flood, cyclones, landslides, droughts, accidents, plane crash, forests fire, etc. With the technological advancements and progress, the force of disasters is also changing. When they occur they surpass all preparedness and eagerness of society and pose bigger challenge to them. This is quite true in case of both developed and developing countries. The floods in UK, France, and heat wave in Europe, particularly in France in 2003, claimed more than 35000 lives. In the year 2006, America had to face bigger disaster in the form of tornadoes and other cyclones. They caused great loss of lives and property. All these are sufficient to prove that technological mechanisms are inadequate.
There is a direct correlation between higher human development and higher preparedness. The countries which have lesser human development are more vulnerable to risks of disasters and damage. Of all the disasters, floods are the most common followed by wind storms, droughts and earthquakes. But the drought is the deadliest disaster which accounts for 48 per cent of all deaths from natural disasters. The highest numbers of people die from disasters in Asia. India, China and Bangladesh are the worst affected countries by flood. Besides the natural disasters, transport accidents and technological disasters are also faced by the developing countries.
India, due to its geographical locations and geological formations, is a highly disaster prone country. Its long coastline, snowclad high peaks, high mountain ranges, the perennial rivers in the north all combine to add to this problem. India, which has only two per cent the total geographical area, has to support 16 per cent of total world population. Naturally, there is a tremendous pressure on the natural resources, which directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of disasters, namely floods, droughts, landslides, earthquakes, etc.
Like human population, India has to support large cattle population, which also heavily depends on biomass and graze into forest area. The forest cover with more than 0.4 densities is 12 per cent of the land area, though forest, at present, is 23 per cent. Due to overgrazing the quality of soil is also degrading resulting in soil erosion, silting of rivers, and removal of fertile soil and heavy silting of cultivable land. We see heavy rainfall during the monsoon, sometimes 100 cm rain in 36 hours or getting the whole monsoon rain two to three days like the ones in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Kolkata. From the region wise analysis, it is clear that northern region of India is faced with problems of avalanches, landslides, floods, drought and earthquakes because this region fall under the seismic zones III to V.
The Eastern region is confronted with the heavy floods in the perennial rivers of Brahmaputra, Ganga, etc. Drought, heat wave, hailstorm, cyclone, heavy wind and earthquake are also common in this region. The Northeastern region faces the natural disaster in the form of flood, landslides, wind outrage, earthquake as most of this part of the country comes under the seismic zones IV and V.
The Western region is widely known for severe drought, wind erosion of land and soil, flood and cyclone. This area is also prone to earthquakes. The Southern region, particularly the coastal region is vulnerable to cyclones, sea erosion, tsunami, landslides. The islands of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep are confronted with the problems of sea erosion and tsunami. Indian coastal areas faced some of the severest cyclones both in Eastern coast and Western coast. One of the natural disasters, namely the volcanoes is in the barren island in Andaman group of islands which periodically become active.
In recent times, it was active in 2005. Among all the disasters, tsunami is the latest phenomena, which was never seen or heard earlier. Due to having no adequate warning system, it devastated a large portion of coastal region of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh besides Andaman & Nicobar Islands and claimed a large number of innocent lives and destroyed property worth crores of rupees.
India has faced a number of disasters, ranging from flood, earthquakes, cyclones, tsunami, drought, landslides. A few recent disasters faced by India include Uttar Kasha earthquake in UP in 1991, Later earthquake in Maharashtra in 1993, Chama earthquake in Gujarat, super cyclone in Orissa in 1999, Buhl earthquake in Gujarat in 2001, Tsunami in 2004 and Mumbai-Gujarat flood in 2005. Besides, India has a bad experience of technology-related tragedy in the form of gas tragedy in Bhopal in 1984. India also faced the problem of Plague in Gujarat.
The direct or indirect impacts of disasters, either natural or technological, are always damage, destruction and death. They cause loss of life of both men and animals and properties as well. At the occurrence of disaster, everything goes haywire in view of the destruction of lifeline support systems, namely communication, power supply, water supply, drainage, etc. In this situation the health care and hospitals are also put under severe stress. Commercial and economic activities are badly affected. Life almost comes to a standstill.
The impact is almost same, in case of man-made disasters like riots. The worst affected group is the poor sections of society, who are daily wage-earner. They are the most vulnerable and they suffer the loss of their livelihood. The psychological traumas caused by the disasters are sometimes so severe that they span the whole of life of the victim. Besides other rehabilitation works, psychological rehabilitation is of great importance.In some natural disasters like cyclones, tsunami and earthquake, it is the building structure which becomes the cause of destruction and death. It is due to this fact that in building construction, building codes are not followed property. In developing countries only 30 per cent of built infrastructures are constructed as per the building codes, while semi-permanent and other buildings do not follow the plan. Besides, the low quality of building material, liberal flouting and lack of master plan are some of the major constraints in this regard.
Rehabilitation is an integral part of disaster management. When disasters occur administrative measures are terribly inadequate and perhaps this is the most difficult period for a victim. The role of administration does not end with end of disasters. In fact its effort and commitment get more complex. It requires proper coordination among various agencies. In this context it is very important to note that disasters are non-routine events that require non-routine response. Government cannot rely on normal procedures to implement appropriate responses- the rescue teams require learning special skills, technologies and attitudes in dealing with disasters.
Disaster Management has assumed great importance in recent times. To handle the situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avert the situation, but can mitigate its impacts.
In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.
The term has been used frequently in the 20th and 21st centuries, but the concept has existed in the West for far longer. “Modernization”, “Westernization”, and especially “industrialization” are other terms often used while discussing economic development. Historically, economic development policies focused on industrialization and infrastructure, but since the 1960s, it has increasingly focused on poverty reduction.
Whereas economic development is a policy intervention aiming to improve the well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and increases in GDP; economist Amartya Sen describes economic growth as but “one aspect of the process of economic development”. Economists primarily focus on the growth aspect and the economy at large, whereas researchers of community economic development concern themselves with socioeconomic development as well.
Many institutions of higher education offer economic development as an area of study and research such as McGill University, London School of Economics, International Institute of Social Studies, Balsillie School of International Affairs, and the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs.
economic development goals
The development of a country has been associated with different concepts but generally encompasses economic growth through higher productivity, political systems that represent as accurately as possible the preferences of its citizens,the extension of rights to all social groups and the opportunities to get them and the proper functionality of institutions and organizations that are able to attend more technically and logistically complex tasks (i.e. raise taxes and deliver public services) These processes describe the State’s capabilities to manage its economy, polity, society and public administration. Generally, economic development policies attempt to solve issues in these topics.
With this in mind, economic development is typically associated with improvements in a variety of areas or indicators (such as literacy rates, life expectancy, and poverty rates), that may be causes of economic development rather than consequences of specific economic development programs. For example, health and education improvements have been closely related to economic growth, but the causality with economic development may not be obvious. In any case, it is important to not expect that particular economic development programs be able to fix many problems at once as that would be establishing unsurmountable goals for them that are highly unlikely they can achieve. Any development policy should set limited goals and a gradual approach to avoid falling victim to something Prittchet, Woolcock and Andrews call ‘premature load bearing’.
Many times the economic development goals of specific countries cannot be reached because they lack the State’s capabilities to do so. For example, if a nation has little capacity to carry out basic functions like security and policing or core service delivery it is unlikely that a program that wants to foster a free-trade zone (special economic zones) or distribute vaccinations to vulnerable populations can accomplish their goals. This has been something overlooked by multiple international organizations, aid programs and even participating governments who attempt to carry out ‘best practices’ from other places in a carbon-copy manner with little success. This isomorphic mimicry –adopting organizational forms that have been successful elsewhere but that only hide institutional dysfunction without solving it on the home country –can contribute to getting countries stuck in ‘capability traps’ where the country does not advance in its development goals.
Social development is about improving the well-being of every individual in society so they can reach their full potential. The success of society is linked to the well-being of each and every citizen.Social development means investing in people. It requires the removal of barriers so that all citizens can journey toward their dreams with confidence and dignity. It is about refusing to accept that people who live in poverty will always be poor. It is about helping people so they can move forward on their path to self-sufficiency.
Every New Brunswicker must have the opportunity to grow, develop their own skills and contribute to their families and communities in a meaningful way. If they are healthy, well educated and trained to enter the workforce and are able to make a decent wage they are better equipped to meet their basic needs and be successful. Their families will also do well and the whole of society will benefit.
Learning must start early in life. By investing in early learning initiatives, we can ensure a greater degree of success amongst our citizens. Making sure that children get a good start in their education goes a long way to increasing their success later in life.
An affordable, high quality child care system is also needed for society to succeed. When people know that their children are being well taken care of, they can be more productive in their jobs. When employers have good employees their business is more likely to succeed. When businesses succeed, the economic situation of a community is improved. An investment today in good child care programs can provide many long term economic benefits for society.
In addition, a safe affordable place to live is very important in helping people achieve self-sufficiency. It is the focus of family life; where families can live safely, nurture their children, build community relationships and care for aging parents. Without a decent place to live, it is difficult to function as a productive member of society .Other investments in people that contribute to the economic prosperity of society include youth programs and services, post-secondary education, job creation, promotion of healthy, active living and safe and secure communities.
To reduce poverty we need to take a social development approach and invest in our people. By investing in people we can reduce poverty. We need to go beyond looking at government to find ways to develop our most valuable resources, our people. We need to share responsibility with community organizations, businesses, universities and municipalities in the task of improving the well-being of all New Brunswickers and preventing and reducing poverty.
In the atmosphere, gases such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and methane act like the glass roof of a greenhouse by trapping heat and warming the planet. These gases are called greenhouse gases. The natural levels of these gases are being supplemented by emissions resulting from human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, farming activities and land-use changes. As a result, the Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere are warming, and this rise in temperature is accompanied by many other changes.Rising levels of greenhouse gases are already changing the climate.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I (WGI) Fourth Assessment Report, from 1850 to 2005, the average global temperature increased by about 0.76ºC and global mean sea level rose by 12 to 22 cm during the last century. These changes are affecting the entire world, from low-lying islands in the tropics to the vast polar regions.Climate change predictions are not encouraging; according to the IPCC WGI Fourth Assessment Report, a further increase in temperatures of 1.4°C to 5.8°C by 2100 is projected. Predicted impacts associated with such temperature increase include: a further rise in global mean sea level, changes in precipitation patterns, and more people at risk from dangerous “vector-borne diseases” such as malaria.
Vulnerability of biodiversity to the impacts of climate change
The present global biota has been affected by fluctuating Pleistocene (last 1.8 million years) concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature, precipitation, and has coped through evolutionary changes, and the adoption of natural adaptive strategies. Such climate changes, however, occurred over an extended period of time in a landscape that was not as fragmented as it is today and with little or no additional pressure from human activities. Habitat fragmentation has confined many species to relatively small areas within their previous ranges, resulting in reduced genetic variability. Warming beyond the ceiling of temperatures reached during the Pleistocene will stress ecosystems and their biodiversity far beyond the levels imposed by the global climatic change that occurred in the recent evolutionary past.Current rates and magnitude of species extinction far exceed normal background rates. Human activities have already resulted in the loss of biodiversity and thus may have affected goods and services crucial for human well-being. The rate and magnitude of climate change induced by increased greenhouse gases emissions has and will continue to affect biodiversity either directly or in combination with other drivers of change.
Links between biodiversity and climate change
There is ample evidence that climate change affects biodiversity. According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, climate change is likely to become one of the most significant drivers of biodiversity loss by the end of the century. Climate change is already forcing biodiversity to adapt either through shifting habitat, changing life cycles, or the development of new physical traits.Conserving natural terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems and restoring degraded ecosystems (including their genetic and species diversity) is essential for the overall goals of both the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change because ecosystems play a key role in the global carbon cycle and in adapting to climate change, while also providing a wide range of ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.Biodiversity can support efforts to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Conserved or restored habitats can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus helping to address climate change by storing carbon (for example, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Moreover, conserving in-tact ecosystems, such as mangroves, for example, can help reduce the disastrous impacts of climate change such as flooding and storm surges.
Ecosystem-based adaptation, which integrates the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall adaptation strategy, can be cost-effective and generate social, economic and cultural co-benefits and contribute to the conservation of biodiversity.Conservation and management strategies that maintain and restore biodiversity can be expected to reduce some of the negative impacts from climate change; however, there are rates and magnitude of climate change for which natural adaptation will become increasingly difficult. Options to increase the adaptive capacity of species and ecosystems in the face of accelerating climate change include:
- Reducing non-climatic stresses, such as pollution, over-exploitation, habitat loss and fragmentation and invasive alien species.
- Wider adoption of conservation and sustainable use practices including through the strengthening of protected area networks.
- Facilitating adaptive management through strengthening monitoring and evaluation systems.
Ecosystem-based adaptation uses biodiversity and ecosystem services in an overall adaptation strategy. It includes the sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. Examples of ecosystem-based adaptation activities include:
- Coastal defence through the maintenance and/or restoration of mangroves and other coastal wetlands to reduce coastal flooding and coastal erosion.
- Sustainable management of upland wetlands and floodplains for maintenance of water flow and quality.
- Conservation and restoration of forests to stabilize land slopes and regulate water flows.
- Establishment of diverse agroforestry systems to cope with increased risk from changed climatic conditions.
- Conservation of agrobiodiversity to provide specific gene pools for crop and livestock adaptation to climate change