Science and technology

The 19th and 20th centuries were marked by great scientific and technological developments. These developments encompassed many different fields like transportation, communication, manufacturing, education, trade, health care and others.

The life of people has become quite comfortable with these scientific innovations as various types of machines have begun to perform complex tasks for them.

There was a time when man used to walk long distances to reach other places for trade and other pursuits. The invention of wheel enabled him to make hand-driven and animal driven carts to transport various types of goods to different destinations.

With the invention of petrol and the engines that could be used it as fuel came different types of vehicles. Cars, trucks, buses, bikes and other road transport means started being made. This was perhaps the greatest scientific development. People could go to long distances and in large number.

They started going to other countries. Not only the trade flourished but also there was cultural development because of interaction of people of different heritages, beliefs, traditions-each influencing the other in some way. Man conquered the oceans with the making of ships, vessels, boats. Going to other continents became easier. Also with the help of large ships the countries could transport large quantities of products to other places for purposes of trade. The fishing trawlers enabled people to get sea-food in large quantities, adding to their food security.

The biggest achievement in the field of transportation came in the shape of aeroplanes. The Wright brothers made the first aeroplane and flew on it for a few seconds, but most importantly, they gave the idea of the air transport. The idea was subsequently developed by aeronautical engineers into the making of aeroplanes. Today, air travel is perhaps the most important means of travel for its speed and comfort.

A person can have breakfast in India, lunch in London and dinner in some American or African country-thanks to the speedy air-travel. With the development of trade and increase in population, there was a need to build a transport system that could carry a large number of people and heavy amounts of cargo to different places on a regular basis. The answer came in the form of railways which solved both these problems. Crores of people travel to various destinations in trains across the globe. India’s railway transport system is the biggest in Asia.

The latest technological development in this area is the metro railways. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has made a network of metro services in the capital providing sophisticated, comfortable and quick mode of mass public transport system. Similar services are being started in many other major cities in India.

The invention of computers has been another major development in the history of mankind. Broadly speaking, computers are the machines that convert data into information. But with regular upgradation of computer technology, these machines have started to perform the most complex functions.

They are the storehouses of information, disseminators of data, processors of fed information and display systems of the latest positions relating to the area being searched. Invariably all the fields concerned with service industry-including banking, insurance, booking, education, diagnostics, developing, designing, etc. are working with the help of computers-which not only provide accuracy and speed but also variety and attractiveness.

Whereas the new technologies in diagnosis of various diseases have enabled us to detect deformities at exact places in the body and at an early stage of such happening, the treatment has also become easy and sure though expensive. There was a time when lakhs of people died due to epidemics of plague, smallpox, cholera, etc. But, due to research and new treatment technologies involving prevention through immunisation, these diseases are not allowed to assume epidemic and devastating proportions.

Some of diseases like plague, polio, smallpox, etc. have been eradicated. There are medicines for most dangerous of diseases and conditions. Serious ailments like heart trouble, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, liver damage, etc. are kept under control with the use of medication regularly. Medical check-ups have been very convenient and accurate with the help of new machines.

In the field of communication technology, the innovation of mobile phones has revolutionised the society. People can make a call from anywhere to anywhere exchanging valuable information. This has facilitated trade, strengthened relationships and brought connectivity in the society.

The cellphones can also be used to send messages, listen to music, set alarms, store telephone numbers, addresses, etc. Mass media thrives on technology. The TV programmes which run twenty-four hours a day, three-hundred-sixty-five days a year, bring latest news from all over the world. With serials, films, live telecasts and game shows, the TV has become the biggest source of information and entertainment for us. Its value to students through educational programmes and to people in general for increasing their awareness level is highly significant.

There are certain disadvantages of scientific developments. Scientists have made weapons of mass destruction and other warheads which are used in wars. Humanity has already suffered vast damage and destruction in two Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki when America dropped atom bombs on them in the Second World War-in which thousands of people were killed, several thousands were wounded, property worth several crores of rupees was destroyed.

With the making of such dangerous weapons, today’s wars have become highly dangerous. If there is a third World War only God knows what will happen to the world. The terrorists are using dangerous weapons like mines, explosives, machine guns and rocket launchers to terrorise civil society.

Another fall out of scientific development is the pollution of air and water which has reached alarming levels. The factories, industries and vehicles are giving out tonnes of smoke and effluents which are vitiating the air and water which are our main sources of consumption.

Scientific and technological inventions are for the benefit of mankind. It is for us to use them to bring progress and happiness in society. What we require is judicial use of resources at our proposal, banish war and confrontation and adopt methods of sustainable development. We need to enforce strict discipline to stop unscrupulous and illegal use of technologies.

Stringent laws need to be made against cyber crimes. We also have to ensure that scientific development does not become environmentally destructive. Sustainable practices need to be adopted to protect habitats and natural ecosystems. At international level, the world body-the UNO and other leading nations should assume the responsibility of ensuring that science and technology are not misused.

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Science and technology has a profound impact on all of humanity’s activities.

Science and technology inventions and discoveries, including the theory of the origin of the universe, the theory of evolution, and the discovery of genes, have given humanity many hints relating to human existence from civilized and cultural points of view. Science and technology have had an immeasurable influence on the formation of our understanding of the world, our view of society, and our outlook on nature.

The wide variety of technologies and science discoveries produced by humanity has led to the building and development of the civilizations of each age, stimulated economic growth, raised people’s standards of living, encouraged cultural development, and had a tremendous impact on religion, thought, and many other human activities. The impact of science and technology on modern society is broad and wide-ranging, influencing such areas as politics, diplomacy, defense, the economy, medicine, transportation, agriculture, social capital improvement, and many more. The fruits of science and technology fill every corner of our lives.

The hundred years of the twentieth century have been called the “century of science and technology,” the “century of war,” and the “century of human prosperity,” among other expressions. Science and technology have thus far brought humanity immeasurable benefits. In the twenty-first century, dubbed the “century of knowledge” and the time of a “knowledge-based society,” it is hoped that the diverse potentials of science and technology, built upon the foundation of the hard-won science and technology of the twentieth century, will be used to solve the serious issues faced by humanity, such as global environmental problems. Moreover, it is also important to hold the firm belief that science and technology must be faithfully passed on to future generations as an irreplaceable asset of humanity, driven by the trust and support of the public.

In the present, squarely addressing the relationship between science and technology and society is an essential challenge to the sound development of science and technology, one which it is important to continue addressing in the future based on historical and civilized perspectives, while also maintaining a deep awareness of the needs of the times.

Corruption

Corruption is ubiquitous and unlimited. It has became all pervading, a world phenomenon. It has increased by leaps and bounds worldwide, in direct relation and proportion to our moral degradation, destruction of character, devaluation of human values and lust for power and money.

It is said that when character is lost everything is lost. There is no character and so we have lost all. The political leaders, the heads of governments and others at helm of the affairs of many nations are corrupt and corruption is contagious. It spreads rapidly and percolates to all the lower levels. It is there in Japan, Italy, Pakistan, Mexico, China, Iran, Iraq, America, and England, etc. There is no country immune from it. There might be a difference of degrees, but as far as its quality, gravity and pervasiveness are concerned, there is hardly any difference.

Corruption in India is rampant and well established in all spheres of our life — public life, politics, administration, business, judicial system, education, research and security. There is hardly any exception. There are scandals and scams in plenty, right from the Bofors scandal to the recent Taj heritage corridor scandal. In foreign countries, when corruption charges are proved there is suitable punishment, but in India there is no system, no tradition to bring the corrupt to trial and then to make him pay for his crime. There is crime but no punishment. It is a salient feature of Indian corruption.

In a write-up, Mr. K. Subrahmanyan has wittily remarked, “Long before our economic globalisation began, India was globalised in respect of political corruption and politician- organised crime nexus. Therefore, smugglers, narcotics’ barons, vice syndicates and protection rackets have become patrons of political parties. The former provides large resources to politicians and the latter ensures no legal enforcement against organised crime.” For example, take the Securities scam. Harshad Mehta manipulated things in such a way as to enable himself to siphon crores of rupees fraudulently from banks, under the very noses of the managers, high officials and other members of the staff of the Reserve Bank of India. Was it because of alleged system failure or because there was collusion between him and the officials concerned? The connivance of one or two cabinet ministers has also been there.

Fingers were also raised at M. J. Fherwani, the then Chairman of the National Housing Bank, who died under mysterious circumstances soon after. Consequently, a Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) was constituted under the chairmanship of Mr. R.N. Mirdha to probe the scandal. The JPC finally submitted its report to the Parliament but nothing happened to the people found involved in the scam. When there was a hue and cry from the Opposition, a couple of ministers were asked to submit their resignations and that was all. As has already been pointed out, we have no system, no tradition, either to punish the guilty or to bring an investigation to its logical conclusion. Moreover, public memory is very short.

There is a parallel economy in operation in India and black money is ever on the increase because of political patronage and collusion. There is a widespread evasion of taxes, to the tune of crores of rupees every year, owing to corruption in politics, administration and enforcement agencies. In return, the political gurus get huge funds to fight elections and bribes for personal accumulations. This helps them to keep themselves in positions of power and influence. The funding from organised black marketers, drug traffickers, underworld dons, mafias and smugglers is actually on a much larger scale than is apparent. This has crippled our economy and turned our planning haywire.

Corruption has become a way of life. There is no effective check on this growing menace because there is lack 6f political will. In spite of anti-corruption departments and squads, it has permeated the rank and the file of the administration. No work can be got done unless the palms of the concerned officials are greased. Lubricant in the form of gratification is a must to make the administrative machinery move smoothly in your favour. First satisfy the officials and then get satisfying results in return.

Often, investigations by CBI and vigilance departments into corruption charges against the bureaucrats have proved futile. Such is the power of manipulation, money and nepotism. Kickbacks, gratifications, bribes, and commissions are the order of the day. Students pay capitation fees to get admission in professional courses, job-seekers purchase positions in the administration, contractors grease the palms of the engineers so as to enable themselves to use sand in place of cement in contractual constructions, businessmen use the appropriate ‘lubricant’ to keep their illegal operations moving smoothly. And then these people, in turn, want to regain their money manifold and quickly by resorting to fraudulent, easy and corrupt means. Thus, there is a vicious circle engulfing all and sundry.

Honest, sincere and god-fearing officials are looked down upon. They are considered simpletons, while the bribe-takers are the heroes. The corrupt officials are doing very well for themselves and their higher-ups patronize and protect them because of their fair share in the bribes. These people, in collaboration, co-operation and collusion with others, are enriching themselves. They have fat bank balances, houses in prime locations, and all the modern amenities. They are really rolling in wealth and comprise the most successful segment of the society. There are a few honest ones but they are not courageous enough to condemn and criticism their dishonest and bribe-happy colleagues. They are silent spectators to their corrupt counterparts, being favoured with important posts and assignments. The honest officers are a demoralized lot. Consequently, the fence-sitters are being pushed on to the bandwagon of the corrupt lot.

Corruption cannot be checked and minimised unless political leaders themselves are honest and have a strong will and desire to stem the rot. The leaders should encourage honest officials and help them to unite against corrupt and dishonest ones. Corruption should be dealt with an iron hand and further rules and regulations enacted to punish the corrupt government servants and administrators. Nepotism, favoritism, and red- tapism, etc., should be eliminated because they form the very foundations of corruption. Improvement in salaries, creation of more employment opportunities can also go a long way in tackling the menace successfully.

Honesty is conspicuous these days by its absence. According to a newspaper report, even the judiciary does not seem to be free from the evil. The former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, E.S. Venkatramaiya speaking in an interview said, “The judiciary in India has deteriorated in its standard because such judges are appointed as are willing to be influenced by lavish parties and whiskey bottles.” He added, In every high court, there are at least four to five judges who are practically out every evening, wining and dining either at a lawyer’s house or a foreign embassy.” Corruption is now so well-organized and entrenched in the system that it requires a will of steel and the courage of a lion to fight it.

Now, effective and strong strategies, backed by strong political will, should be devised to checkmate it. There should be deterrent Punishment for those indulging in corruption. Both giving and taking of bribes should be a cognizable offence. Much depends upon our political leaders, bureaucrats and the enlightened public consciousness. Unless these three units make sincere efforts and show their commitment to the democratic nation and society, nothing much will be achieved to check and eliminate corruption.

A quote says that” one cannot fight Corruption by fighting it” and this is entirely correct. Corruption means the act which stems from Lust or greed for money and going to any and every length needed to get illegal tasks done. Corruption is active in each and every part and country of the world. Corruption cannot be stopped or executed in any way. It can only be finished if it is inside a man’s heart to stop it. There are many methods of Corruption, and the most common one is bribery.

Bribery means the tactic that is used for using favours or gifts for personal gain. There are different types of favours included in this. The other is embezzlement which means withholding assets which can be further used for theft. Usually, there are one or more persons involved who are entrusted with these assets, and it can also be called a financial fraud. The third one is ‘the Graft’ which means illegal use of a politician’s power for personal gain. This one is the most commonly used by Drug lords or Narcotic Barons.

Extortion means to claim any assets, land or property illegally. Favouritism or Nepotism is also in full-fledged flow these days when only the favourite persons or direct relatives of those in power ascend into their potential. There are not many ways of stopping Corruption, but they do exist.

The government can give a better salary to their employees who are equivalent to the amount of work that they put in. Decreasing the workload and increasing workers can also be an excellent way to cease this influential and illegal practice. Strict Laws are needed for stopping this and the best way to compete; this is the way of putting guilty criminals to their End. The government can work to keep the inflation levels low in the country so they can work accordingly. Corruption cannot be fought against, and it can only be stopped.

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Effect of globalisation on indian socirty

The term ‘globalisation’ means integration of economies and societies through cross country flow of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and the people. The essence of globalisation in a broad sense is connectivity in all aspects of human life. Although economic forces are an integral part of globalisation, it would be wrong to suggest that they alone produced it. It has been driven forward above all by the development of information and communication technologies that have intensified the scope and speed of interaction between the people all over the world.

India became independent as one of the poorest countries of the world. The British colonial rule had destroyed the self-sufficient agrarian economy. The then Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru preferred mixed economy for planned economic development of the country. As a result of this, public sectors were set up along with a number of private enterprises, but like the socialistic model of economy, the mixed economy of India has not produced profitable results. A number of public sectors became sick and the growth rates of production began to fall. While the poverty of the people continued to grow at an alarming rate, there was an acute balance of payment crisis and due to low domestic savings, there was no adequate capital for investment. There was also the shortage of resources to provide educational and health facilities to a large growing population. Moreover, there was high rate of inflation and the balance of payment deficit was around $10 bn. In such a situation, PV Narsimha Rao government was compelled to introduce the policy of liberalisation, privatisation and Dr Manmohan Singh, the then Finance Minister played an instrumental role in the adoption of new economic policy (1991).

In the midst of all these developments, globalisation was adopted by Indian Government during 1990-91 when Indian economy was in a very bad shape. It was, however, adopted not as a solution to deteriorating Indian economy but to enable itself to get further foreign exchange loans from World Bank as its foreign exchange reserves were reduced to mere 3 weeks outflow. To rectify its ailing financial health, government simultaneously decided to amend its economic policies and go for privatisation and liberalisation of its economy. These decisions had immediate positive effect However, globalisation has proven to be double edged weapon. It did help government temporarily meet its emergent need of foreign exchange but it has, as a byproduct, caused some permanent damage to Indian economic system and Indian social structure.

For thousands of years, different countries have been doing trade with one another. But the process has got a tremendous boost in about last two decades due to high handed policies of International Monetary Fund, World Bank and World Trade Organisation who have been working on the agenda of developed countries like USA. They practically forced under developed countries to adopt full throttle globalisation by opening up their local markets to world trade by reducing artificial barriers to such trade. Development of advanced means of communication and transport, internationalisation of financial market and unprecedented mobility of goods, capital, data and manpower have further given boost to the recent process of globalisation.

As the process of interconnecting the diverse world order, globalisation has touched almost all spheres of human life: social, economic, political, cultural, environmental etc. On the economic front, the trade with other countries has tremendously increased; inflow of men, money, material, labour, technology etc from foreign countries to India has also increased; it has given nations access to global markets, technology, financial resources, quality services and skilled human resources; increased the purchasing capacity of nations through the creation of sizable middle class; high quality and low cost products flooded Indian markets, thus increasing consumers choice. In the agricultural sector, new varieties of farm equipment, new agricultural practices, application of biotechnology like drought resistant, pest resistant crops etc are emerging due to globalisation. Apart from these positive aspects, there are some negative developments also which are attributed to globalisation process only. Due to the interdependence of Indian economy and world economy, it has become very difficult for the government of India to insulate its economy from the economy. Indian people now prefer global brands over Indian brands because they are cheap, more fashionable and easily available. Steep and fast reductions in custom duties have snatched large part of Indian market from Indian industry and passed it on to imports from established global players. For its survival in the face of global competition, Indian industry has transformed itself from labour intensive to capital intensive by adopting global technologies and automatic machinery, which has resulted in the high rate of unemployment in India.

Improved economic conditions, increased recognition of human rights, unprecedented mobility and interaction of people from different countries have dented local cultures of people the world over. India is not an exception in this case. Indian family system is shifting towards nuclear family system instead of the joint family system. These nuclear families are getting further divided due to strained relations of partner. Old and handicapped persons in the families are being forced to support themselves without any support from their children.

Globalisation has undermined the traditional role of women in homemaking, farming, handicrafts, handlooms etc., and resulted in a relatively better environment for women. Today, women are working in all spheres of Indian economy and are enjoying the fruits of “empowerment process” brought in by globalisation. At the same time, their security has become a major issue in this changing scenario and they are bearing the double burden of family as well as that of the job because the role of men in India have not changed much. People today, especially the young, developed an identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture, which includes an awareness of events, practices, styles and information that are a part of the global culture. There is the development of a bicultural identity or a hybrid identity, which means that part of one’s identity is rooted in the local culture while another part stems from an awareness of one’s relation to the global world.

We cannot say that the impact of globalisation has been totally positive or negative. It has been both. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalisation can be observed on the Indian culture. Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing Indian is to be approved unless recognised and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. This should be checked in order to preserve the rich cultural diversity of India and to ensure the fulfillment of the principle of self-sufficiency.

Technological and Cultural impact of globalization in India

With the process of globalization, there is an access to television grew from 20% of the urban population (1991) to 90% of the urban population (2009). Even in the rural areas satellite television has a grown up market. In the cities, Internet facility is everywhere and extension of internet facilities even to rural areas. There is an increase of global food chain /restaurants in the urban areas of India. Excessive Multiplex movie halls, big shopping malls and high rise residential are seen in every cities. Entertainment sector in India has a global market. After economic liberalization, Bollywood expanded its area and showed a major presence in the global scale. The industry began to explore new ways to become more global and modern. In India, modernity is observed with the West. Therefore, Western philosophy began to be incorporated into Bollywood films. As these new cultural messages began to reach the Indian population, Indian moviegoers were pushed to re-evaluate their traditional Indian cultural ideology. Bollywood movies are also distributed and accepted at international level. Big international companies (Walt Disney, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures) are investing on this sector. Famous International brands such as Armani, Gucci, Nike, and Omega are also making investment in the Indian market with the changing of fashion statement of Indians.

Impact of globalization on education in India

There is immense effects observed in educational sector due to globalization such as literacy rate become high and Foreign Universities are collaborating with different Indian Universities. The Indian educational system faces challenges of globalization through Information technology and it offers opportunities to evolve new paradigms shifts in developmental education. The distinction between formal, non-formal and informal education will vanish when move from industrial society to information society takes place. Globalization promotes new tools and techniques such as E-learning, Flexible learning, Distance Education Programs and Overseas training.

It is observed in current Indian society that through globalization, women have gained certain opportunities for job options and to recognize women’s rights as a part of the human rights. Their empowerment has given considerable opportunities and possibilities of improving employment conditions through global solidarity and co-ordination. It is found that the growth of computer and other technologies enabled women with better waged, flex timings, and capacity to negotiate their role and status in home and at corporate level.

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Digital Education in India.

With the world getting a virtual transformation during the ongoing pandemic, the open digital education has become the need of the hour to assist the students with bridging the gap between time and knowledge. As Covid-19 gripped the world with its microscopic spikes and brought the entire world to the standstill, several sectors of the economy and market took a hit and had to be shut till they could be operated without risking the lives of their foot soldiers on duty.

Lockdowns were imposed all over the world and with that came the need to keep the world running and the virtual world came to the rescue. In India, lockdown started from 21st March 2020 and is expected to last till 14th April 7, 2020, however, given the rapid spread of coronavirus in the community, the decision of uplifting the lockdown remains much anticipated.

One of the major schedule and lifestyle change occurred in the life of students all across the country as the schools and colleges were shut down immediately under the protocol of lockdown to safeguard the future generations. Nevertheless, with the termination of the lockdown still being the topic of debate it is not known for sure when the classes could be resumed and hence many universities have now opted for the digital education as a step forward to help the students stay focused on education.

What is Digital Education?

The term digital education refers to the innovative use of digital tools to deliver learning through teaching using effective modern day technological tools. Learning services could be in the form of face to face, blended or fully online courses. This provided the benefit of accessing the content at a convenient time and location to the learner thus resulting in a more personalized learning experience.

Besides that, this new tool is known to improve the interaction between the educator and learner, and the ability to provide the teachers with better feedback which further helps to enhance the quality of teaching.

Digital initiatives in Higher Education by Indian Government

To ensure the smooth learning process during the lockdown and for students to avail the full benefit of e-learning, Indian HRD ministry has launched various digital initiatives which will allow them to participate in online classes as they would do it physically in colleges, and also utilize the study material to its full potential.

We provide you below with the list of digital platforms curated by various branches of HRD ministry.

Audio-video e-content

This initiative by the human resource department ministry provides the e-Learning platform for all the courses from class 9 to post graduation. Courses are hosted in four quadrants:

  • Video learning
  • Reading serial material
  • Self assessment test
  • Online discussion portal

The learning is provided free of cost but to avail the certification an amount has to be made to the department.

SWAYAMPRABHA

As described by the ministry, The SWAYAMPRABHA is a group OF 32DTH channels devoted to telecasting of high quality education programmed on 24*7 basis using the GSAT-15 satellite. Every day, there will be new content for atleast (4) hours which would be repeated 5more times in a day, allowing the students to choose the time of their convenience. The channels are uplinked from BISAG, Gandhinagar.”

The content includes

  • Curriculum based course content for University students
  • Curriculum based course content for students from class 9 to 12
  • Curriculum based courses that can meet the need of life for Indian citizens
  • Competitive exams preparation sets

Access Journals and E-books

National Digital Library

This initiative has led to the excess of free educational material to all, ranging from primary to post graduate level. It is believed to be extremely beneficial to all kinds of learners, students, teachers, lecturers, professors, research scholars etc. The material is available in more than 70 languages and extremely free of cost.

e-PG Pathshala

This is the platform providing e-Learning facilities to the postgraduate courses and it works through the following three verticals

1. e-Adhyayan

This platform provides video content and 700 + eBooks for various post graduate level courses

2. UGC MOOCS

UGC is one of the national level coordinator of SWAYAM and works on producing Postgraduate e-learning courses on SWAYAM.

3. e-Pathya

This is the vertical particularly created for the offline access of the e-learning material for the postgraduate students.

SHODHGANGA

Shodhganga is the platform that allows the Ph.D. scholars in all the streams deposit and publish their theses for access to the upcoming professional in their respective fields. Till now 250000 theses have been published on the esteemed site.

E – SHODHSINDHU

As stated on their respective website, e- Shodhsindhu aims to provide access to more than 15000 journals and a number of bibliographic and factual databases in a wide range of disciplines at a lower cost to educational institutions.

Accelerated hands on learning

1. e-Yantra

e- yantra is the platform founded by the IIT Bombay to train the engineers to solve the practical problems with practical solutions utilizing their engineering skillset.

It has divided its aim by inculcating various branches to look after the respective issues. Some of the initiatives are

  • e- yantra robotics competition
  • e- yantra ideas competition
  • e- yantra lab setup initiative
  • e-yantra symposium
  • e-yantra resource development canter

FOSSEE  (Free and Open Source Software for Education)  

This platform promotes the use of FLOSS(FireEye Labs Obfuscated String Solver)tools in academia and research.

Spoken tutorial

The aim of spoken tutorial is to popularize software learning. It provides wide range of subject learning for the utilization by school level to the university students especially addressing the Math and Science as areas of interest. The contents are available in multiple languages thus making it further accessible to our multilingual population.

Track your progress

VIDWAN

VIDWAN consists of database of profiles of research scholars, scientists and faculty members of leading academic institutions. It provides important information about their background, contact details, skills, accomplishments etc. This information is maintained by information and library network center and is very essential for the selection of various task force meant for different evaluation purposes in the country.

Shodh Shuddhi

Under this scheme, plagiarism detecting software, URKUND a Web Based Plagiarism Detection Software system, is provided to the thousand plus registered institutions across the country.

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Why schools should not be reopened?

SHOULD SCHOOLS BE REOPENED?

Some says they shouldn’t others says they should. Some states have already reopened in India this includes Punjab, Uttrakhand, Haryana, Madhya pradesh, Himachal pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Gujarat, and most of these states schools have been reopened for selective classes mostly senior classes grade 9 and above. In Himachal pradesh for example, schools have reopened for classes 10 to 12. But in most Indian states schools are still closed and they have been closed for more than 500 days now.

The Wuhan virus was declared a pandemic 17 months ago in March 2020. In March 2020 over 250 million primary school and middle school children have not stepped into their classrooms. This is a situation in India and all of these numbers are true. By these numbers they do not necessarily translate into a safety certificate for schools. They do not mean reopening schools are now safe.

Those arguing of reopening site instances of bars and shopping malls, even marriage halls, they’re all open. They’ve all opened why not schools they say. Well for one, schools are for children and children are not been vaccinated most of them are below 18 years of age. In India children are not qualified for Wuhan virus vaccination. So sending them to school unvaccinated which mean their lives exposing them to the virus. Will parents be ok with that? Won’t it be better to wait it out and make sure that their kids will be safe at school and right now they won’t be.

The pandemic has not gone away. There are cases arising in many countries and in India third wave is on the horizon.

One may say this from a privileged position as some children have access to digital learning i.e., they can afford to attend classes from home but many others can’t. Many students and teacher in India can’t afford a smartphone, a laptop or a computer. Many schools lack basic infrastructure required for conducting online classes. For example computers, the following is showing the statistical data of computer facilities present in different states of India:-

The above data shows Assam and Madhya pradesh with 13%, Bihar and West Bengal with 14 %, Tripura with 15% and Uttarpradesh with 18% of schools with computer facilities.

How are schools Managing to conduct classes in the middle of the pandemic?

Oxfam India carried out a survey in 2020 interviewing nearly 1200 parents and 500 teachers. They were all from the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar, jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and U.P.

–> 80% parents said that children have not received any education during the pandemic.

–> 4 out 5 students had not received new textbooks for the academic year.

–> Teachers fears that 30% of students might not return to schools when reopens

Therefore, there is not doubt that school closure is taking a toll on education, it is also threatening to undo the gains made in the education sector in general. The facilities deficit in government-funded schools does not help.

According to the educational Ministry,

–> At least a 113 Million students attends government schools in India.

–> 65% from 20 states are enrolled in them.

–> Only 30% of these schools have functional computers.

The Education Ministry data also says that in the run-up to the pandemic less than 12% of India’s government have internet facilities. Also only three states of India have internet facilities in majority of their school which are Kerala, Delhi, Gujarat.

It is not wrong to believe that schools should reopen that every child should be able to access learning. After all education is every child’s right and the pandemic should not be allowed to snatch away that right, so yes they should go back to school but there is a problem our children would not be safe not yet. We may convince ourselves that worth the risk but our trust with that pandemic shows us that nothing is worth risking the Wuhan virus.

The last one year has been a grand experiment, we have tried alternate day work from home, we have tried alternate seatings at restaurants, movie halls, alternate flight of escalated. We have tried all kinds of things but, we should leave children out of these grand experiment.

Role of civil services in a democracy.

In a democracy, the civil services play an extremely important role in the administration, policy formulation and implementation, and in taking the country forward towards progress and development.

Democracy is an egalitarian principle in which the governed elect the people who govern over them. There are three pillars of modern democracy:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive
  3. Judiciary

The civil services form a part of the executive. While the ministers, who are part of the executive, are temporary and are reelected or replaced by the people by their will (through elections), the civil servants are the permanent part of the executive. 

  • The civil servants are accountable to the political executive, the ministers. The civil services are thus, a subdivision under the government. 
  • The officers in the civil services form the permanent staff of the various governmental departments. 
  • They are basically expert administrators. 
  • They are sometimes referred to as the bureaucracy or also the public service. 

Importance of the Civil Services :

  1. The civil service is present all over India and it thus has a strong binding character.
  2. It plays a vital role in effective policy-making and regulation.
  3. It offers non-partisan advice to the political leadership of the country, even in the midst of political instability.
  4. The service gives effective coordination between the various institutions of governance, and also between different departments, bodies, etc.
  5. It offers service delivery and leadership at different levels of administration.

Functions of Civil Services

  • Basis of Government: There can be no government without administrative machinery. 
  • Implementing Laws & Policies: Civil services are responsible for implementing laws and executing policies framed by the government.
  • Policy Formulation: The civil service is chiefly responsible for policy formulation as well. The civil service officers advise ministers in this regard and also provides them with facts and ideas.
  • Stabilising Force: Amidst political instability, the civil service offers stability and permanence. While governments and ministers can come and go, the civil services is a permanent fixture giving the administrative set up a sense of stability and continuity.
  • Instruments of Social Change & Economic Development: Successful policy implementation will lead to positive changes in the lives of ordinary people. It is only when the promised goods and services reach the intended beneficiaries, a government can call any scheme successful. The task of actualising schemes and policies fall with the officers of the civil services.
  • Welfare Services: The services offer a variety of welfare schemes such as providing social security, the welfare of weaker and vulnerable sections of society, old-age pensions, poverty alleviation, etc.
  • Developmental Functions: The services perform a variety of developmental functions like promoting modern techniques in agriculture, promoting the industry, trade, banking functions, bridging the digital divide, etc.
  • Administrative Adjudication: The civil services also perform quasi-judicial services by settling disputes between the State and the citizens, in the form of tribunals, etc.

Accountability of a Civil Servant :

The civil servants are responsible to the ministers of the departments in which they serve. The ministers are accountable to the people through the Parliament or State Legislatures, and the civil servants are accountable to the ministers. They should ideally serve the elected government of the day, as government policies are the functions of the civil services. However, an impartial civil servant is also accountable to the Constitution of India on which he has taken an oath of allegiance.

Problems Affecting Civil Services Today :

  • Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building.
  • An ineffective incentive system that does not reward the meritorious and upright civil servants.
  • Rigid and outmoded rules and procedures that do not allow civil servants to exercise individual judgement and perform efficiently.
  • Lack of accountability and transparency procedure, with no adequate protection for whistle-blowers.
  • Political interference causing arbitrary transfers, and insecurity in tenures.
  • An erosion in ethics and values, which has caused rampant corruption and nepotism.
  • Patrimonialism (a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader).
  • Resistance to change from the civil servants themselves.

Key Facts about Democracy in India :

  • Democracy in India federal republic.
  • Democracy in India is headed by the President as the head of the state and Prime Minister as the head of the government.
  • There is a parliamentary form of government at the central level.
  • There is a universal adult franchise.

Globalisation And Its Imapact On India

by Megha sharma

The term ‘globalisation’ means integration of economies and societies through cross country flow of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and the people. The essence of globalisation in a broad sense is connectivity in all aspects of human life. Although economic forces are an integral part of globalisation, it would be wrong to suggest that they alone produced it. It has been driven forward above all by the development of information and communication technologies that have intensified the scope and speed of interaction between the people all over the world.

The British colonial rule had destroyed the self-sufficient agrarian economy. The then Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru preferred mixed economy for planned economic development of the country. As a result of this, public sectors were set up along with a number of private enterprises, but like the socialistic model of economy, the mixed economy of India has not produced profitable results. A number of public sectors became sick and the growth rates of production began to fall. While the poverty of the people continued to grow at an alarming rate, there was an acute balance of payment crisis and due to low domestic savings, there was no adequate capital for investment. 

impact of globalization

TYPES OF GLOBALIZATION

  • Economic globalization: is the development of trade systems within transnational actors such as corporations or NGOs;
  • Financial globalization: can be linked with the rise of a global financial system with international financial exchanges and monetary exchanges. Stock markets, for instance, are a great example of the financially connected global world since when one stock market has a decline, it affects other markets negatively as well as the economy as a whole.
  • Cultural globalization: refers to the interpenetration of cultures which, as a consequence, means nations adopt principles, beliefs, and costumes of other nations, losing their unique culture to a unique, globalized supra-culture;
  • Political globalization: the development and growing influence of international organizations such as the UN or WHO means governmental action takes place at an international level. There are other bodies operating a global level such as NGOs like Doctors without borders or oxfam.
  • Social Globalization: People move all the time too, mixing and integrating different societies;
  • Technological globalization: the phenomenon by which millions of people are interconnected thanks to the power of the digital world via platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Skype or Youtube.
  • Geographic globalization: is the new organization and hierarchy of different regions of the world that is constantly changing. Moreover, with transportation and flying made so easy and affordable, apart from a few countries with demanding visas, it is possible to travel the world without barely any restrictions;
  • Ecological globalization: accounts for the idea of considering planet Earth as a single global entity – a common good all societies should protect since the weather affects everyone and we are all protected by the same atmosphere. To this regard, it is often said that the poorest countries that have been polluting the least will suffer the most from climate change.
Types of Globalization.

Globalisation has undermined the traditional role of women in homemaking, farming, handicrafts, handlooms etc., and resulted in a relatively better environment for women. Today, women are working in all spheres of Indian economy and are enjoying the fruits of “empowerment process” brought in by globalisation. At the same time, their security has become a major issue in this changing scenario and they are bearing the double burden of family as well as that of the job because the role of men in India have not changed much. People today, especially the young, developed an identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture, which includes an awareness of events, practices, styles and information that are a part of the global culture. There is the development of a bicultural identity or a hybrid identity, which means that part of one’s identity is rooted in the local culture while another part stems from an awareness of one’s relation to the global world.

We cannot say that the impact of globalisation has been totally positive or negative. It has been both. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalisation can be observed on the Indian culture. Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing Indian is to be approved unless recognised and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. This should be checked in order to preserve the rich cultural diversity of India and to ensure the fulfillment of the principle of self-sufficiency.

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By Megha Sharma

Posted in Internship

Indian Education System

Indian Education System

Rukmini Banerjee, the incharge of Pratham which is an organization striving to improve the quality of education in India. Pratham publishes an annual survey for the same known as ‘Annual Status of Education Report’ popularly known as ASER. For their 2018 report ASER surveyed a total of 546,527 children across 596 districts in rural India. For this survey the ASER staff gives children reading and basic calculations as test. And if you aren’t familiar with rural India, the results may seem shocking. About 50.3 per cent children studying in 5th standard were unable to read a paragraph from 2nd standard textbook. Only 4.4 per cent of students aged between 7 to 16 years are recorded not going to school which implies that children are merely going to school and not actually learning.

The problems of the Indian education system maybe classified as

  1. Design of the system
  2. Governance

Design of the system (Low learning)

Economists Karthik Murlidharan and Abhijeet Singh conducted tests with children from government schools in Delhi and came up with results reciprocating those of ASER. For example their survey showed that only two students in 6th standard had the learning level of an average 6th standard student. Other students of the 6th standard had learning levels that of an average 5th, 4th and even that of 1st standard student. According to researchers majority of the students are lagging behind the curriculum.

Any education system shall work to fulfil two major purposes i.e., Skill development and Filtering students for higher studies. Whereas the Indian education system works more like a factory system which has set really high standards to produce students which would further perform well at various Indian competitive examinations. Our education system does not focus much on the skill development of the students. It is basically a ‘one size fits all’ kind of a system where students are supposed to pass out of school or college even when they haven’t learnt properly. This pressure leads to cheating, bribing and other such malpractices observed during the major examinations. This system isn’t limited to schools. The same situation prevails in many universities as well. This is the major reason why many surveys say majority of Indian graduates are unemployable.

Governance

A government school teacher Sangita Kashyap came to lime light in the year 2014 as she set a record of being absent for 23 years from her job. But she isn’t an exception. Survey conducted by Karthik Murlidharan shows that 23.6 per cent of teachers were absent during unannounced visits, and it is estimated to salary cost of about 1.5 billion dollars per year to the Indian government. Due to this absenteeism Delhi government installed CCTV cameras in all classrooms of government schools. But teachers aren’t the only one’s responsible, system actually makes the situation worse.

A analysis conducted by Azim Premji foundation showed that about 18 per cent of teachers were absent from classes but only 2.5 per cent were actually skipping their duty. About 9 per cent were on paid leave whereas 7 per cent were busy with official duties. According to the Right To Education (RTE) Act 220 days of study is mandatory at school but on the contrary, in 2015-16, just 42 days were spent on teaching during the academic year. This means teachers spent about 81 per cent of their time on administrative duties. Many teachers recently lost their lives to election duties in Uttar Pradesh due to the large scale negligence of Covid protocols.

Solutions

There are two major problems i.e., low learning despite going to school and further lessening of the learning potential due to administrative duties performed by teachers.

Several learning programmes in the country are working innovatively to solve the first issue. The Indian government too recognizes the issue to some extent, as a result it recently withdrawed its ‘no fail policy’ till class 8.

For the second issue, efforts should be made to reduce the admin duty time of teachers. This may be done using technology and hiring staff specifically for administrative tasks like poll duty.

Solving all such issues, one at a time, lead us to a education system that the Indian youth deserves.

Has Corona Crisis hit the student lives badly?

Covid 19 crisis has ruined most of the people lives in the world. Coming to India has already affected most of the people’s lives which include the careers of students. A student who is pursuing under-graduation and post-graduation thinks to build his career from the college itself. Most of college life helps the student to grow in many ways. It can be personality-wise or physical and mental development and communicating and socializing and part of learning and doing research and developing any skills

Most of the students are facing problems in the following ways:

Listening Online classes

Most part of the education system includes students from rural areas. The students who live in rural areas are not listening to the classes on their mobile or laptop due to network issues. The online way of teaching is not so adaptive making the student just log in for the attendance or leave the class. Students are not able to listen to online classes

Lack of Practical Knowledge

Engineering and medical students are having a problem with practical applications. Field visits and labs are part of engineering and medical courses. The lack of practical applications making the students difficult to relate to the concepts learned in the class. Especially final year students are facing the issue in doing the projects

Events and Workshops

The college curriculum includes events and workshops. The events and tournaments conducted in sports and arts help the students to showcase their talent and also helps them to overcome various fears and improve confidence. The Workshops conducted in colleges help the students to explore various modern technologies and know about them. These all events conducted in college helps the students to grow professionally and personally

Difficulty in learning skills and preparing for competitive exams

The coaching centers for competitive exams and other skills are closed due to corona. Students used to learn skills or prepare for any competitive exams for securing jobs in government and private sectors by attending these coaching centers. The students are facing difficulties in learning online. Lack of personal attention, difficulty in asking doubts to the instructor, subject discussion with other students are some of the issues or difficulties faces.

Delay or cancellation of Abroad studies

Students who wish to go abroad and study there are facing issues of travel. Some countries like China, Britain have imposed travel bans on Indians due to increasing covid cases. Some students who got visas are facing issues with certificates. Students have to submit certificates to get admission to foreign Universities. The delay in the certificate issue is due to the late conduct of the final semester/ final year examinations. Due to this issues, Some students cancel or postpone their plan of studying abroad

College life and Graduation ceremony

Due to the corona crisis, most of the graduation ceremonies are either conducted online or canceled. And most of the college life and memories made during this college life are affected. The enjoyment and enthusiasm are adversely affected. There is also difficulty in communicating with friends online except a 2 or 3 friends whom we talk frequently

Internships and Jobs

Students are unable to get placed or internships. The internships available online are much lesser than the internships available offline. The companies which offer placements are worst hit by the crisis financially. As a result, the placements offered seem to fall

INEQUITY UNMASKED

The Indian education system is based on elitism, with educational accessibility serving as a major dividing line between various socioeconomic groups of a culture. The hierarchical organization of society based on caste or ‘varna’ – the caste system (‘varna vyavastha’) ascribed a rank to the person that marked virtually every aspect of Hindu social life – was one way in which this inequality manifested itself in ancient society. The caste status of a person dictated their privileges (or lack thereof). Many social, religious, and economic advantages were conferred on the upper-caste ‘brahmins,’ including education, while the lower castes were denied entry. The government of the post-colonial Indian state attempted to resolve and abolish such disparities by enacting the Right to Education Act, which required all children under the age of 14 to attend school, as well as the Reservation Policy. In today’s coronavirus-shaped world, inequality is once again exposed: access to the internet and mobile devices, rather than one’s social status, has become the deciding factor.

The repercussions for the general population were immediate and serious when the Indian government declared a full lockdown on the 24th of March 2020 in the hopes of controlling a COVID-19 outbreak. The lockdown, in addition to triggering its own set of issues, revealed the education system’s existing flaws and deteriorating structure. This population did not include families living in poverty who could barely afford regular meals, let alone technological devices, emphasizing the ever-widening divide between the wealthy and the poor.

Online learning has had a positive effect on the education sector; it has sparked a desire for Open and Distance Learning (ODL), as the curriculum promotes self-learning and customization of the syllabus to the students’ needs. However, since the latter is only reaped by a small percentage of the population, the negative consequences greatly outweigh the positive.

Another effect of the curfew on Indian education has been a dramatic rise in the number of students dropping out. For most poor families, the economic fallout from the lockdown resulted in unemployment and a decline in earning power. Children were forced to drop out of school as a result, forcing them into the job market.

The Mid-Day Meal (MDM) programme, which aimed to provide food for students in government schools, was also lost as a result of the lockdown and subsequent school closure.

Ramesh Nishank, the Union Minister of Human Resource Development, announced an increased allocation of funds of Rs. 1700 crores to ensure the provision of MDMs to students even during the lockdown. During the lockout, however, it was discovered that 40% of the qualifying children did not receive MDMs. On the 1st of February 2021, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman introduced the Union Budget 2021, which outlined the allocation of funds to various sectors. The budgetary allocation for the government’s flagship education programme, Samagra Shiksha Abhyaan, has been reduced from Rs. 38,751 crores to Rs. 31,050 crores for the coming fiscal year. If the government fails to place a high priority on public education, the detrimental consequences will last for generations and decades. Unemployment would eventually rise, affecting almost every part of society and the economy.

Thanks to the lockdown, schooling took on a new structure overnight, requiring students and teachers to navigate a novel system of adjusting to an online education forum. Humans are social animals that rely on face-to-face communication for successful communication, and the educational field is no exception. In the absence of this face-to-face learning, ground-level proficiency is broken, especially for students studying fundamental concepts and skills that they will need during their lives at the elementary level. Furthermore, students’ practical effectiveness in the field of STEM, where conceptual comprehension and practical applications are at the center of learning, has decreased.

The curfew has forever changed the face of Indian education. The advantages of the blended learning system are only available to those in the upper echelons of society, making the rest unprotected. The issue of quality education accessibility has always existed in the Indian system; it is only now that it has been exacerbated in the face of the pandemic and revealed for all to see.

Education Systems Around the World

Indian Education System is all about mugging up and children are taught to find a good job with a good salary and do that job forever (till retirement).

World’s best education systems vs Indian education system

There are many good education systems around the world namely, Finland, Denmark, Japan, South Korea. These education systems have their own advantages, disadvantages and specialties. They have understood that students are not machines and they have provided a number of methods to help the students to reach their true potential.

From my point of view, Indian education only focuses on academics and theory. There is no opportunity for any vocational training, sports or hobby development. Due to this, there are many ‘limited’ career options according to the mindset of society – Engineer, Doctor, Lawyer, and any government job. Only some privileged students have an opportunity to follow their dreams.

Indian education focuses more on theory rather than practical. Indian education system doesn’t allow creativity. Whereas in foreign countries; they focus more on practical based learning. And they allow creativity in education. Foreign education curriculum contains everything from arts to sports along with studies. The US has arts, sports, music and theatre in syllabus while Australia focuses more on sports.

Some counties with best education systems
  • Finland – Each resident of Finland does not go to school until the age of 7. There is no standardizing test in Finland. They don’t get homework by the teachers. Children in Finland spend no more than four hours in school a day, this time also includes a lunch break. Teachers in Finland have to get a master degree. Every Finnish student is taught at least two foreign languages. 
  • Japan – Subjects such as mathematics, science, music, and physical education are taught, but morals is a separate subject complete with textbook and allocated time. This subject focuses on how students would react to a given situation. There are never wrong or right answers, they talk about the black, white, and grey areas in life.
  • South Korea  –  Kindergarten is optional in South Korea. However, at age 6 their child must move on to 6 years compulsory elementary education. The main difference between middle and high school in South Korea is the ability of students to choose specializations such as scientific activity, foreign language, art, history etc.
  • Denmark – Education in Denmark is compulsory for children below the age of 15 or 16, even though it is not compulsory to attend public school. Almost all educational institutes in Denmark are free. Not only are students charged no tuition fees, but all Danish citizens are offered monthly financial aid, known as “SU”.
  • Norway – Primary and lower secondary education covers children aged 6 to 15. Upper secondary education normally provides three years of general education or four years of vocational training. Tertiary vocational programmes are also there. Higher education is based on general admission, normally completed secondary education. The main structure is a 3+2+3 model.
  • United Kingdom – Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged 5 to 18. Students can leave school at 16 but must then do one of the following until they are 18:
  1. stay in full-time education, for example at a college.
  2. start an apprenticeship or traineeship.
  3. spend 20 hours or more a week working or volunteering, while in part-time education or training.

How Did Education Help Women in India?

In India, women were not always allowed to read and write. But this changed when the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was launched. Now, women are learning, working and collaborating in all fields and making our nation proud.

What is Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was launched by the former prime minister of India, Shree Atal Bihari Vajpayee which aimed at compulsory education of every child  between the ages of 6 – 14 years.This programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children through provision of community owned quality education in a mission mode. It started in 2002 and SSA has been operational since 2000-2001. However, its roots go back to 1993-1994, when the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched, with an aim of achieving the objective of universal primary education. In 2018, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan along with Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan was launched to form Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan. This Abhiyan has also assisted all children, especially a girl child to realise her true potential.

Education’s role in a women’s life

The development rate of any country depends highly on the education of all its citizens. The education of both men and women is equally important as they are the two sides of a coin. We can never develop, if we think that women do not deserve a right to education. Due to education, reforms started in many girls and women’s lives. These reforms are described below.

Women started getting equal respect by everyone. Traditionally, the women’s work in a household was only limited to washing, cooking and taking care of the family. After education, women could participate in the financial discussion of the family, they could now give advice to all the family members. Because of this men of the family have started to consider them as their equals.

The stereotypes and prejudices related to women are slowly disappearing from our society. The tradition of sati has stopped completely because now women know that their life still has a meaning without their husbands. Dowry has also stopped in India. Women are no longer considered a weight on fathers shoulders. 

Women also became aware of the laws, rights and their duty towards the nation. They also raise their voice against many issues and fight for their rights. They learn about various schemes introduced by the government. They also participate in elections and generally win by a large percentage of votes. 

They no longer stay at home. Due to a good education, many companies and offices are willingly giving them jobs. They are becoming financially independent. Women do not depend on husbands to provide them. This also has helped to increase the overall income of a poor family. The country’s defence forces have also opened up for women and they have become the pride of the family by joining the defence forces. 

The woman who started it all – Savitribai Phule

Savitribai Phule was an Indian social reformer, educationalist, and poet from Maharashtra. She established the first women school in India and became the first woman teacher of our country. She is regarded as the mother of Indian feminism.

By India Post, Government of India – [1], GODL-India, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=74738306

She worked to abolish the discrimination and unfair treatment of people based on caste and gender. She is regarded as an important figure of the social reform movement in Maharashtra.  Savitribai’s birthdate, 3 January, is celebrated as Balika Din in the whole of Maharashtra, especially in Girl’s Schools. She is an inspiration for all the women of India.

Research As A Career Option

All of us have been taught since childhood about the importance of a 9am to 5pm corporate job.No one really speaks about research as a lucrative career.Research as a career is really very important.At one place we are delving deep into the realms of unknown findings and that too of our passion.On the other hand we could go on to add something new for our society.One also comes to know a whole lot of new things of their domain too.In addition,There are immense jobs for research fellows out there!

This Blog would unable the readers to understand what is research along with it’s Pros and Cons as a career choice.Lets get started!

Research is a process of self learning and exploring. It depends on to what extent one is involved or interested in any sort of research. Research can be done at various levels and can even be pursued as a career option. It has a very tremendous scope provided the research is an unique one and can definitely benefit the society.
Research is a science in itself. It is a process which makes you learn a new thing at every stage. As your research progresses, it shapes you and your mentality in a very positive way. There are many difficulties that one faces. But ultimately with constant efforts and the optimistic approach it definitely ends with good results.
As Every coin has two sides,a career option also has its pros and cons.Now lets critically analyse the field-

PROS

1.You have Freedom/Independence:One of the most cited reasons for choosing a research career is freedom and independence.Usually,Researchers at universities and institutes have more opportunities to design their own research, to choose their own hours, and to focus their work.This a convenient way of working.

2. You can focus on your interests:Because these research positions offer more freedom and independence, chances are your research concentrate on your areas of interest.Particularly if you are able to secure third-party funding (that is, funding awarded directly to the researcher as opposed to a university or department), you can organize your own working schedule and priorities, and choose the topics of research which are of most pressing interest to you.

3.Tenure offers stability And good compensation:Although it starts slow,Research Career is quite lucrative and stable.Senior academicians can make wages comparable to their counterparts in industry, and there are plenty of opportunities for advancement into administration and other areas.

4.You get to build a network of international relations:Researchers might work as a team within their department, or across several disciplines. Academic positions also offer a lot of opportunities for international cooperation – whether it’s through conferences, researcher-in-residence programs, or guest positions, you’ll find many reasons to travel and meet with others in your field as well as other fields

5.Contribution to the society:The contribution of researchers is the base of every industry and thus research as a field contributes immensely to the society.

CONS

1.Comparatively less pay in the beginning:As a senior tenured professor at a well-respected institution ,the research scholar will have both good job security and monetary compensation, but reaching that level can take a long time.Initially the pay might be definitely less than corporate people.

2.Pressure and competition:There’s a saying in the Research world: “publish or perish.” Although research fellows have a lot of freedom within their research fields, there is a lot of pressure both to produce publishable results and to bring in the grant money. Research might seem like a haven for intellectuals, but the reality is that researchers spend a lot of time working towards and publishing their results. This can also lead to a lot of competition between research fellows which isn’t always healthy or welcoming.Such a tedious life would require a lot of patience and balance.

3.Plagiarism:If the research articles is found to be plagiarized,it can completely destroy the academician’s reputations.In Addition,there can be legal and monetary repercussions too.

The above mentioned points under pros and cons are added to provide clear picture of the research field so that they equip themselves prior to entering this magical field.Every career has it’s own flaws and perks.Research is no different from that.Research as a career should be encouraged since childhood.Research is the base for each and every branch of study that exists and it’s career prospects should be promoted.

Do give a like,if y’all found it to be informative.

Thankyou!

Stay Knowledgeable!

Indian Education System

Photo by Pragyan Bezbaruah on Pexels.com

India produces more engineers than the total population of Switzerland, even after that Switzerland is number one when it comes to research and innovation. Since our independence, India has not produced a Nobel laureate in science, whereas the USA has produced a hundred plus. According to the National Employability Report of 2019, 80% of the engineers in India are unemployable. And if we want to look for the root cause of this problem then we have to go back to the time Britishers were ruling us and The East India Company was facing 2 major challenges- 1. Communication with Indians. 2. They needed more workers; then Thomas Babington Macaulay gave us the “English Education Act of 1835”. It fulfilled both their purposes- of finding people who would sit behind desks and work for them without asking questions, and the other was communication in English. English is not a widely spoken language, even then it has become an attribute that defines your education. Russia, China, France, and many other countries are not as obsessed with English as we are. In India, a person is said to have “Poor Communication Skills” if his/her English is not good.
Even a 2-3 years old iOS is considered outdated but a system which is as important as our education system is almost 185 years old, with just minor changes here and there. Our education system is a rat race, churning out robots who are proficient only in mugging up. A simple example of the incompetence of the system is that even after scoring 95 out of 100 in a Sanskrit exam a person is unable to speak the language. Instead of having a precise basic history syllabus, the students are made to learn a wide syllabus which is mostly just mugging up date(that could easily be looked up on the Internet now). Every class has English as a compulsory subject, but even after being taught English for 12 years most of the people are not able to speak the language properly, even a 5-year-old kid learns his/her mother tongue without cramming books. The techniques used in kindergarten to teach kids is better than the “fill out the sheets” technique to score marks taught in colleges. Everyone is taught the same subjects, the same syllabus regardless of the person’s capabilities, caliber, or creativity. Even Dronacharya taught his pupils according to their capabilities and specialties he did not force everyone to learn the same thing.
We do not have many options, to begin with. We have Science stream on top, then comes Commerce and then comes the least dignified stream Humanities or Arts. Every parent wants their child to be either a doctor or an engineer. Your training begins early, you are taught from an early age that marks matter the most if you don’t get good marks you won’t get a good job and you’ll end up being a failure. Just think about the person whom you admire and who’s success story inspires you, be it anyone I am sure that they succeeded because they didn’t get trapped into this education system. If you ask the CEO of any company to appear for an interview in all the departments of his firm, there is no chance that he would succeed in all of them and there is a high chance that he won’t be qualified educationally enough to even appear for half of the posts.
We spend 25% of our lives getting educated to work for someone who is most probably less educationally qualified than them. If the education system of India is so good then why do the kids of elites, politicians, actors, etc. go abroad to complete their education? Graduates and post-graduates are preparing for 5-6 years just to get a government job, just because a government job provides security. We look for a job with security because we don’t have confidence in our skills that we are capable of landing a job where we will stay purely based on our skills and creativity.

With the rapid growth in technology, I believe that we will reach a point, within not more than 5 years, where technology will make what we teach in schools irrelevant. Jobs in Digital Marketing, SEO, Cloud Computing, etc. didn’t even exist a few years back. We need to be open towards change, towards learning new things, towards being creative.