INDIA’S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

An overview of India’s Educational System

The Gurukul was India’s first educational system. It was a residential schooling system that began approximately 5000 BC, in which the shisya (student) and guru (teacher) lived in the guru’s ashram (residence) or in close vicinity. This allows for the development of an emotional attachment prior to the transmission of knowledge. The ancient Sanskrit language was used as a means of communication.

The foundation of learning was not just reading books and memorising facts, but a child’s well-rounded, holistic development. Their mental, cognitive, physical, and spiritual well-being were all considered. Religion, holy scriptures, medicine, philosophy, warfare, statecraft, astrology, and other topics were covered.

The focus was on instilling human values in students, such as self-reliance, appropriate behaviour, empathy, creativity, and strong moral and ethical principles. The goal was for knowledge to be applied in the future to develop solutions to real-world challenges.

The Gurukul students’ six educational goals are as follows:

The acquisition of highest knowledge: The Gurukul education system’s ultimate goal was to understand Brahma (God) and the universe beyond sensual pleasures in order to achieve immortality.

Character development: The student developed will-power, which is a necessity for excellent character, as a result of their study of the Vedas (old scriptures), allowing them to develop a more positive attitude and outlook on life.

Development in all areas: The optimum approach for entire living was thought to be learning to withdraw the senses inside and practising introversion. While completing various jobs at the Gurukul, pupils were able to become aware of the inner workings of the mind, as well as their responses and reactions.

Social virtues: The learner was motivated to only tell the truth and avoid deception and lying by training his body, mind, and heart. This was regarded as the pinnacle of human morality. They were also encouraged to believe in charitable giving, which made them more socially responsible.

Spiritual development: Ancient literature, especially Yagyas, recommend introversion as the best approach for spiritual development (rituals). As a result, the learner spent time in reflection and isolation from the outside world in order to gain self-knowledge and self-realisation by looking fully within himself.

Students presented food to a pedestrian or a guest once a year as part of their cultural education. This act was regarded as a sacrifice comparable to one’s social and religious obligations to others.

India’s Educational Statistics and Facts

Every child between the ages of three and eighteen is entitled to free and compulsory education under India’s Right to Education Act 2020.

According to India’s education statistics, over 26% of the population (1.39 billion) is between the ages of 0 and 14, which presents a significant opportunity for the primary education sector.

Furthermore, approximately 500 million people, or 18% of the population, are between the ages of 15 and 24, offering for prospects for expansion in India’s secondary and higher education institutions.

According to the Indian education data, the literacy rate for adults (15+ years) in India is 69.3%, with male literacy at 78.8% and female literacy at 59.3%.

Kerala has the highest literacy rate in India, with 96.2 percent as of 2018.

The University of Delhi is the most well-known Indian higher education institution, followed by the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.

In the 2019 English Proficiency Index, India was ranked 34 out of 100 countries, allowing for easy distribution of educational materials that satisfy Universal standards.

Goals for India’s educational future

India joined the United Nations’ E9 programme in April 2021, which aims to build a digital learning and skills initiative for marginalised children and youth, particularly girls.

The Indian government allotted a budget of US7.56 billion towards school education and literacy in the Union Budget 2021-22.

India’s higher education system is expected to feature more than 20 universities among the top 200 universities in the world by 2030. With an annual research and development (R&D) budget of US$140 billion, it is expected to be among the top five countries in the world in terms of research production.

What is the present Indian Educational System like?

It is obvious that modern Indian education differs from that of the “Gurukula.” The curriculum is generally taught in English or Hindi, and computer technology and skills have been integrated into learning systems. The focus is more on competitive examinations and grades than moral, ethical, and spiritual education.

In the 1830s, Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay introduced the modern school system to India for the first time. Metaphysics and philosophy were deemed unnecessary in favour of “modern” subjects like science and mathematics.

Until July 2020, India’s education system was based on the 10+2 system, which awarded a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) after finishing class 10th and a Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) after finishing class 12th.

This has been replaced by the 5+3+3+4 system as a result of the new National Education Policy (NEP). The phases have been divided to correspond to the stages of cognitive growth that a kid goes through naturally.

India’s obligatory education system is divided into four levels.

1. Establishing a foundation
According to the NEP, the five-year foundational stage of education consists of three years of preschool followed by two years of primary school. This stage will include the development of linguistic abilities as well as age-appropriate play or activity-based strategies.

We have a course called English in Early Childhood: Learning Language Through Play for people working in early education that can help you understand the importance of play in language development and how to use play to teach language skills to children in a fun way. With our free online course, you can also learn how to Prevent and Manage Infections in Childcare and Pre-School.

2. Stage of preparation
This three-year stage will continue to emphasise verbal development while also emphasising numeracy abilities. Classroom interactions will also be activity-based, with a strong emphasis on the aspect of discovery.

3. The middle stage
The three-year focus moves to critical learning objectives, such as experiential learning in the sciences, mathematics, arts, social sciences, and humanities, for classes six through eight.

4. The second stage
Students in grades 9 and 10, as well as grades 11 and 12, have a range of subject combinations to pick from and study, depending on their talents and interests.

Critical thinking, an open mind, and flexibility in the cognitive process are all encouraged at this level. Our course Volunteering in the Classroom: Bringing STEM Industry into Schools will boost your students’ thinking abilities while also encouraging their interest in the subject of STEM, which has a large skills deficit and hence has a great employment potential.

Higher education In India

At the undergraduate stage, students can choose to study at this level from age 18 onwards. The majority of students attend a free public college or university, while others choose a private institution for their education. Indian college and university degrees in the field of agriculture, engineering, pharmaceutics and technology usually take four years to complete. Law, medicine and architecture can take up to five years.

Post-graduate study in India

Known as master’s courses or doctorate degrees, they can take from two up to three years to complete, respectively. Post-graduate education in India is largely provided by universities, followed by colleges and the majority of students are women. Post-graduate study allows students to specialise in a chosen field and conduct large amounts of research.

Adult education India

Adult education aims to improve literacy and move illiterate adults over the age of 21 along the path to knowledge. The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) in India is in charge of supporting and promoting adult literacy programmes.

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In India, distance education is available.

The School of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education at Delhi University was the first to implement distance learning in India in 1962. The goal was to allow people who had the desire and aptitude to learn more and improve their professional skills to do so.

Significant gains in online education in India have been made and continue to be made as technology advances. Due to rising consumer demand and the pandemic’s effects, Indian higher education institutions are focusing on developing online programmes. By 2026, India’s online education market is expected to be worth $11.6 billion.

In India, homeschooling and blended learning are popular.

While homeschooling is not common in India, nor is it usually acknowledged, distant learning is becoming the new standard as a result of the epidemic. As a result, many children will learn at home while also attending school, a practise known as blended learning.

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What is India’s New Education Policy?

The Union Cabinet authorised a new National Education Policy (NEP) in July 2020, which will be fully implemented by 2040. They also changed the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) to the Ministry of Education, which will serve as the sole regulator for all Indian schools and higher education institutions.

The NEP was initially drafted in 1964 by a 17-member Education Committee and ratified by Parliament in 1968. Its objective is to provide the framework and lead the development of education in India. It has been updated three times since then, the most recent being under Narendra Modi’s Prime Ministership.

The 2020 NEP’s five major changes in school and higher education

1. School will begin at age three: The Right to Education Act (RTE) will now cover free and compulsory schooling from age three up to 18 years, instead of six to 14 years. This brings early childhood education of ages three to five, for the first time, under the scope of formal schooling.

2. Students will be taught in their mother tongue: Although not compulsory, the NEP suggests students until class five should be taught in their mother tongue or regional language as a way to help children learn and grasp non-trivial concepts quicker. 

3. One umbrella body for the entire higher education system: Under the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI), public and private higher education institutions will be governed by the same set of norms for regulation, accreditation and academic standards

4. Higher education becomes multidisciplinary: By 2040, all universities and colleges are expected to be multidisciplinary, according to the policy. Students will be able to create their own subject combinations based on their skill set and areas of interest.

5. There will be a variety of exit alternatives for undergraduate degrees: Colleges and universities in India are now permitted to offer a certificate after one year of study in a discipline or a diploma after two years of study under the new regulation. After completing a three-year programme, a bachelor’s degree is conferred.

Conclusion

Because of the proactive nature of the NEP, India’s education system is in sync with the global reforms in education brought about by Covid-19. We have various teaching tools accessible to help you create a better influence on your students’ lives and your teaching abilities, as blended learning appears to be the future of education in India.

We hope you’ve gotten a better understanding of the facts that make up India’s education system, whether it’s merely to broaden your horizons or to take advantage of the rapidly expanding Indian education sector.