Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.

4.Muscles

There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.

Advantage

Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.

Varieties

Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.

History

The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.

Croatian

Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.

BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.

Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

Why does a student need to be industry ready & how they can be?

What do you mean by industry ready?

An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.

Importance

A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.

Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.

Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.

How can students be industry ready?

Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-

  1. Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
  2. Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
  3. Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
  4. Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
  5. Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
  6. Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
  7. Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
  8. Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.

So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.

Bahrain

Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.

Seychelles

Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.

UAE

The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused

Philippines

In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Mountain of light: Kohinoor

Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.

Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.

Journey

Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.

It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.

After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.

Cursed?

An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as

He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.

Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.

  • Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
  • Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
  • Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
  • Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
  • Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
  • British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor

This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.

Why India can’t have an Official Language

Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?

Critics

After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.

Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.

Steps taken

India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.

Advantage of having an official language

A Chinese research concluded that

  1. When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
  2. China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
  3. Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
  4. Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.

Disadvantage of having an official language

According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said

India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.

But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.

As per as official language is concerned,

  1. English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
  2. Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
  3. This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.

Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.

Banned cartoons and their reasons

You may have came across the word “ban” Or “censored’ used in movies, but do you know these terms are also used for some cartoons in some countries which are liked by other countries. Let’s have a look at some popular cartoons which are banned in some countries and their reasons.

1. SpongeBob SquarePants

This is the longest running Nickelodeon show ever. It got banned because of violence and foul language which are used in this show. Countries like Russia, America and 120 others have banned this show from watching.

2. The Simpsons

This is America’s most popular cartoon show till now. This show had scenes where public figures like Donald Trump, were insulted. This show also promoted disorderly behavior which were totally misleading for kids. After sometime, the show is now available to watch, but there has been argument going on this show as countries like US have censored this cartoon show.

3. Mickey Mouse

This is world’s first cartoon show which had voice, and the first word that Mickey Mouse said was “Hot Dogs”. This cartoon show got banned in 1930s in the Romanian region because Romania government stated that big Mouse in this cartoon will scare the kids rather than making them laugh.

4. Doremon

This is a Japanese cartoon show which is ban in more than 50 countries because of the character Nobita. The Nobita character is a lazy character who always depends upon the character Doremon for helping gadgets. An argument concluded that the Nobita character was promoting laziness, procrastinating, etc, which resulted in banning.

Cartoon shows should be developed keeping kids as their main audience. It should have the simplicity and cleanness that attract audience and also focusing on the impact and effect that it’ll leave mainly on audience. That’s why shows that promotes foul language can always make a big effect on kids. This makes banning a healthy and better option.

Organ Donation: Myths and facts

Every years, many thousands receives the gift of life, a life saving transplant of Heart, Kidney, Liver, Lungs, Pancreas and Interesting. And thousands more people receive Corneas and other tissues that restore sight and health. Organ transplantation is one of the medicals advances of our time.

How does it work?

It all starts when someone’s organ begins to fail and that person will need a transplant to survive. The steps are as folllow:-

  1. A through evaluation is conducted at a transplant centre and the person is a good candidate for transplant, he or she will be put into the National Transplant Waiting List.
  2. Once a person is on the waiting list, the wait for organ begins.
  3. A national system matches people on the waiting list with donors. That factors matching donors to recipient includes
    • Blood type
    • Body size
    • How sick the patient is
    • Distance from donor
    • Tissue type
    • Time on list

What isn’t taken into account, organs are never matched based on

  • Race
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Celebrity
  • Social status

There is no telling how long the wait will take. Infact, some people don’t receive an organ in time, because the Waiting List is really long and there aren’t enough donors available. That’s why an average of 20 people on the Waiting List died each day. Imagine how many could we save if we all were donors.

Becoming a donors

Most of organs transplant comes a deceived donors. For example, a person comes to the hospital with a life threatening brain injury, such as from an accident, stroke, our lack of oxygen. The doctors work hard to save them patients life but sometimes nothing can be done. There’s a complete, irreversible loss of brain function. The patient is clinically and legally dead.

Thats when being a donor can turn a time of loss into a time of hope. Because machines have blood containing and oxygen flowing into the organs, they can be passed along. One person can give life to as many as eight people through organ donation, and enhance the lives of fifty people or more with eye and tissue donation. But now minutes matter, matches must be found and transplants must happen quickly.

Organ Procurement organization

The hospital contracts an Organ Procurement Organization (OPO), it manages the recovery process. The OPO checks the state of organ donor registry, if the person is already registered as a donor they inform the family, if not they’ll ask the family to authorise donation.

A medical examination is taken place. They check the medical and social history and the person is eligible to be an organ donor, the computer begins to search on the National Waiting List for well matched patients The best matched patients are contracted by the transplant team. This is the call that every person on the Waiting List was waiting for.

The Transplant

A surgical team recovers the organs, then Corneas and other tissues. The organs are sent to the transplant hospital where patients and transplant teams are waiting and the life saving transplant takes place. It will take health living and medication to keep the organ working well in its new home.

You too could make the decision today, sign up on your state registry as an organ, eye and tissues donor, any age is the right age, Young or old, any day is the right day to sign up as a donor. You can register through your drivers license or you can register online. Remember to tell your family so that they can support your wishes. More than 1r5 million people have already registered, and we all need to save kore lives. So let’s share the gift of life.

Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap
Bladderworts
Sundew
Pitcher plant

All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.

Reason of existence

It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-

  1. Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
  2. In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
  3. This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys

Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.

Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.

Sleepwalking

Did you ever Sleep walked? Here’s what I came to know that every 1 out of 3 kids aged between 4 to 8, sleep walk. And that’s a lot by the way.

Sleep walking formally known as Somnambulish is a strange phenomena where people get up and do things in their sleep, sometimes more than just walking and when they wake up they don’t have any recollection of what they were doing. Moreover, if they find way back to their bed they may not ever know that they were sleep walking.

Sleep walking is nothing about embarrassed about though or terrified for that matter, it’s relatively common. In a recent study Stanford found that 1 out of 3 people sleep walk at some point of their lives. It is specially common among children, between the age of 4 and 8. So what happened when we sleep walk.

Reasons

A leading theory about why we sleep walk is:-

  • In normal sleep cycle, your brains motor system continues to issue physical commands to the body.
  • Whereas those who sleep walks are suppressed by sleep chemical called GABA.
  • GABA access act as a break in your brain, it brings your mind and body down to rest by neutralizing Glutamate a chemical that causes excitement.
  • In sleep walkers there’s a glitch in the process that suppresses your boby from moving around namely that you don’t produce GABA.

So that’s why you are moving around when you’re still asleep. There are few causes of GABA deficient in the body:-

  1. Genetic sleepwalking :- when sleepwalking runs in the family
  2. Underdeveloped system:- when the boby simply hasn’t matured enough to produce the proper amount. That’s why it is more common amongst kids.
  3. Depression:- Those who suffer from depression are three times as likely to sleep walk.

Myths

You would have probably heard about the myth that you shouldn’t wake a sleepwalker because they’re going through a psychotic rage that could even kill you. But these are myths, if you see anyone sleepwalking, you are asked to wake them up gently, especially if they are in the kitchen or holding a knife.

Recently there was a story about a lady who drove 190 miles in her sleep without hurting or killing herself or anyone. She should be definitely called lucky.

Are you a Smartphone Zombie?

Few days back i saw a question on a site asking “I want to put my phone aside and study, but i’m not able to do it? Is there any I can get rid of it?”

Well we can say that we all faced this phase where we get too much addicted to Mobile phone and couldn’t keep it aside and focus on other works. A research recently released the details of a study which told us where in the world was the biggest Smartphone penetration:-

  1. South Korea
  2. Australia
  3. Israel
  4. U.S
  5. Spain
  6. U.K

But this doesn’t mean that people in this countries are using mobile phones all the time. Based on a 2016 study led by Statistica, it does look like people in those countries might fall into the category of smartphone zombies. The study also said that

  • Brazilian spend the most hours on average connected to a smartphone as 4 hr 48 mins per day.
  • Chinese spend the most hours on average 3 hours 3 mins
  • Followed by U.S 2 hours 37 mins
  • Italy 2 hours 34 mins
  • Spain 2 hours 11 mins
  • South Korea 2 hours 10 mins

One thing range true for all countries in the study, and that was the fact time spent on a smartphone for the average person was up quite a lot from 2012 to 2016.

It’s not totally people’s fault that we are addicted to the smartphones. We have this exciting thing in our pocket that flashes, beeps and invites us to use it. NPR in 2018 talked about this manipulative object we carry around with us, that is just so irresistible. The story mentions Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, and what we know as Pavlov’s dog. The psychologist one day realised that when his dog heard a bell or a buzzer, he knew it was feeding time, thereby associate with a sound to eating, which led to the dog drooling and looking excited.

Modern psychologist tells us this is what is happening to us when we hear a beep or a ding inside our pocket; we become excitable, like Pavlov’s dog. Our reward is coming, and we get a hit of dopamine and we want more. We check our phone on average every 15 mins and that make the tech use psychological tricks to keep us checking in.

All the time spent checking in may affect our sleep, our relationship, our work, or even all the creative things we might do to have a flourishing existence. Psychologist tend to agree we should be checking in less, and tech producers need to start thinking about creating less powerful digital drugs. But that isn’t easy because as most people now need those beeps and likes, and need to feel that they are not missing out on something.

Experts even states that putting your phone down, you may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as craving, restlessness, irritability or difficulty in concentrating. So from now on you might turn off notifications, have a plan for the day and stick to it, take off the apps you really don’t need as that might lead to a kind of app surfing. In general, not many people are against these technologies, but we should be focusing on what we might call device quality time, educating ourselves and being productive and creative.

Do Vampires exist?

You probably have seen in movies and shows about these supernatural creatures such as Vampires, Werewolves, Witches, Wizards, etc. But did you ever thought from where did we got these idea? Do the supernatural creatures really exist. Let’s learn about vampires first.

Think about the features that a vampire have. What’s the first thing you thought? Shape teeths to suck blood may be? Glowing eyes? What if I tell you some people with these features exist.

There is a Vampire Disorder in which people suffering from this condition frequently have pointed teeth like carnivore animals. This disorders also has a difficult scientific name Hypohydrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia. Therefore, they look similar to the legendary blood feeding creatures from movies.

Symptoms

People with more prominent symptoms of this illness are

  1. Extremely thin and pale
  2. Eyes are outlined with dark circles
  3. Teeths are typically pointed
  4. Hair is absent
  5. Also they don’t like stakes not actually the beef kind

Problems

The biggest problem for such patients is not mistaken for considered as vampire but something else.

  1. They always have to check their temperature.
  2. Have to stay away from the sunlight
  3. Have to strictly avoid hot weather

They don’t have sweat glands and as you know these glands serve as a thermal regulating mechanism of our body. Imagine what could happen if it is broken. And above all this is the most typical syndrome of this disorder.

For example, Actor Michael Berryman, who suffered from this disease made a career playing horror movie characters.

So now you’ve probably figured out vampires exist or not.

5 Tips on How to be Successful in Life

This article inspires, motivates, encourages and draws you closer to your success by discussing 55 simple tips on how to be successful in life.You can apply these tips to help you navigate the stormy oceans of life towards the island of success.Success is reaching a predetermined goal and accomplishing something that is of value or important to you or others which you had set out to do in the past.Success is the desire, aspiration and drive to do something meaningful, important, significant, valuable or substantial that has an impact on your life and other people.You are the only person who intimately knows what you want to accomplish in life and what kind of achievement will have the greatest meaning, fulfillment and impact in your life.Success is not easy. You already knew that, but what does it take to be successful in life? What does success mean? How can you be successful? How will you know when you become successful?

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. Define Success on Your Own Terms
  2. Have a Big Dream
  3. Take Action
  4. Start Small/Make Regular Small Steps
  5. Aim to Make a Difference

Define Success on Your Own Terms

Different people have different definitions of success. What success means to one person could be totally different from another person.

The first step in your journey to success is to have your own clear definition of what success means to you.This is an exercise similar to determining your destination before you embark on your journey.Once you know your destination, there are many ways you can follow to get to your endpoint. Even when you get off track, it is easy to get back on the road.

The most challenging thing is when you do not have a clear destination. In this case you would be wandering around without a clear objective or purpose.You have to fight for your success.

It will not be handed to you.Prepare to go to the battlefield of success with a made up mind full of focus with images of winning the battle firmly imprinted on your mind.Your definition of success should be a source of motivation and energize you to get started and keep working on your success journey.

Have a Big Dream

How big are your dreams? What is the greatest thing that you want to achieve in your life?Challenge yourself to dream bigger. Decide that you want more fulfillment for yourself.Your dream is the destination of where you want to be in the future.When you are dreaming, do not worry about how you will achieve the dream, for now just focus on seeing the big dream in your mind as clearly as you can.

The goal of dreaming big is to create a better life for yourself and others. Imagine endless possibilities for your life, your career, your family and the world.

A big dream is a substantial wish or an aspiration for something, of which when we attain it; we believe it would fulfill or satisfy an inner longing or desire.

Visualize the outcomes that you want in your life. Zoom in on a few big ideas or one specific big idea that has the greatest meaning for you.By daring to dream big and going forward to reach for your dreams you in turn inspire others to dare to dream big and aim to attain the highest purpose of their life.

Take Action

The simple truth is that dreams, visions and goals are achieved and accomplished only through action.Taking the first step is usually the hardest part of the journey. Start at the level where you are then grow and increase your skill level and output over time.

Action increases your confidence and leads to more action. Taking action gives birth to momentum.Simply put, by taking action you get things done.Action strengthens you.

It grows you, makes you smarter, you learn more, you self-correct as you move along, you improve and become better.By taking action you get things done.However, it won’t be all smooth sailing, you will stumble and make missteps along the way but firmly picture the end result on your mind as you keep pushing forward and making focused progress towards your success.

Start Small/Make Regular Small Steps

Are you feeling overwhelmed about starting? Don’t worry many people do. They feel fearful, confused, paralyzed, overwhelmed, anxious and apprehensive when it comes time to start.

Do not be discouraged by how many times you have to start to gain your balance, once you gain your balance take a few easy steps and then a few more.You don’t have to do it all at once, this is a common misconception, you need to take one bite at a time.

One positive aspect of starting small is you discover what works and what doesn’t.Perhaps you had assumptions that looked good in theory but when you applied them they did not work out as you had thought.

This gives you an opportunity to evolve and discover new ways of achieving your objectives. Your plans and ideas could expand into ways and areas that you had not imagined before.

You could gain more insights about the goal you are pursuing and you will learn more about yourself. Your level of confidence will also increase as you persist by moving forward.When starting small you can focus on every detail that needs your attention.

You can also experiment and test new ideas.Starting small and taking small steps helps you to test the waters before diving in.

The key to growth and progress is to do a bit more each new day than you did the previous day and make small improvements as you move along.

Aim to Make a Difference

There are two main ways to make a difference in life, one way is to make a difference in yourself and the second is to make a difference in others’ lives.Success stems from living a life where you truly gave it your all and worked on attaining the greatest good for yourself and other people.Making a difference in your life begins by taking an inventory of your current life situation.

The inventory includes analyzing where you are emotionally, physically and mentally.Are you happy with where you are right now? Are you living your life to the fullest? Are you putting your skills, talents and abilities to the best possible use?It becomes significantly easier to help others and make a difference in their lives when we have taken care of our lives or are actively taking steps and action to be where we want to be in our lives.Add value in everything that you do. Think of how your dreams and ideas could help solve the problems of other people.

Your solution could be your business opportunity that could make a difference in both your life and others.

Benefits of Love Marriage

Through marriage you enter into a committed relationship with your ‘life partner’, meaning he or she promises to share a life-long bond with you. Hence depending on whether you have made the right or wrong choice, your marriage can make or mar your life. Marriages happen in two ways. In arranged marriages, the family searches for a suitable spouse for the bride or groom. In love marriages, the boy or girl chooses his or her own life partner by entering into a mutual love relationship. While people talk both for and against both these kinds of marriages, here we discuss the benefits of love marriages.

What is love marriage?

Love is not a recent concept in the history of human civilization. Humans are falling in love with their desired partner from unknown times. In fact, love marriage is the natural form of marriage wherein the spontaneous liking for the other person results in a marital union. Comparatively speaking, arranged marriage is a concept that should have developed later with the maturing of human civilizations.

Love marriage lets you choose your own partner

You do not fall in love with all the people you meet. Because someone has impressed you in some ways, you start liking them. This liking turns into love relationship that will eventually mature into marriage if everything goes well. Hence in love marriage you get to marry the person who you like.

Love marriage results in finding a compatible partner

Not all the people who go for arranged marriage are blessed with compatible partners

. We find many people lament that they have made a wrong choice. Hence love marriage is the royal road to choose the best partner who will walk with you for the rest of your life and exhibit a high degree of compatibility and understanding in your married life.

Love marriage paves way to social equality

Love marriage breaks the conventions underlying marriages. It brings together individuals from two different communities, castes or social groups. Hence love marriages give way to realizing social equality.

Love marriage gives rise to new class of people

When two individuals of unrelated communities come together in love marriage, they both give rise to a new class of people when they get their offspring. Experts in biology say this is the best way to procreate since the rare and unusual combinations promoted by love facilitate some excellent genetic codes. Majority of children born out of love marriages are found to be intellectually gifted, immunologically strong and emotionally matured.

Love promotes happy and successful marriages

In love, the common feeling that brings two hearts in the marital union is “I am for you and you are for me”. This mutual love results in a strong relationship. People marrying through love feel they have landed on happy and successful life. Love marriage is often not an easy journey. In many cases, the couple faces trials and tribulations on the way to its union. Hence they are motivated to demonstrate a strong commitment that will put them in a lifelong bond.

Who was the First Plastic Surgeon?

Plastic surgery – the name implies an artificial substance – but it is derived from the Greek word “Plastikos” which means to mold or to give form. An important specialty has been taking shape, one that reshapes the lives of patients. So who was the first plastic surgeon?

John Staige Davis was the first plastic surgeon. He played an important role not only at his council group in Hopkins but also in the United States in the plastic surgery. He limited his practice in the field of plastic surgery in those times. He was the only plastic surgeon who was there when World War I took place.

Dr. John Staige Davis

In 1991, Dr. Davis published the first English language textbook of plastic surgery and it is still used today. He sends copies to medical school founder, doctors and at that time no one acknowledged receiving it. And though plastic surgery at Hopkins would not gain the standard they deserved until the next century, Dr. Davis was helping to build the foundation for the entire discipline of plastic surgery in America.

He used to pioneer the transferring tissue techniques known as “Z- plasty” and the use of small deep grafts to heal chronic wounds. He was the founding member of The American Board of Surgery and The American Board of Plastic surgery. Dr. Davis’s work and reputation starts Hopkins on its way to becoming a crossroad and destination for the country’s best plastic surgeons.

In 1942, John Staige Davis was part-time faculty member and was running a plastic clinic even though he was in his 70s by then and beyond his retirement age, two years from then a forth year medical student at Hopkins had the chance observe the master surgeon doing a cleft lip repair.

His successor Dr. Edgerton graduates and proceeds to work by joining the army and was serving at Valley Forge General Hospital in Pennsylvania. He was one of the few surgeon treating thousands of men coming back from combat with disfiguring wounds and burns needing plastic surgery. This horrendous war injuries united skill surgeon in their desire to heal wounded soldiers. This dynamic gave raise to a new and important speciality in medicine.

Dr. Edgerton

With the scientific foundation and tissue regeneration, transplantation, and stem cell biology plastic surgery is uniquely poised to make the next major advance in medicine. By regenerating or replacing missing body parts, plastic surgery can transform patients life in ways that could not have been imagined only recently.

John Staige Davis didn’t lived to see plastic surgery receive the recognition and support if required and deserved in the world. But his path-breaking work and clear vision allowed a greater dream to be realized.

Attraction

Ever thought why do we get attract to someone? Well everyone has different answer to it. For some it can be the way one look, smiled, walk or may be their was an unusual aura around that one.

What is attraction?

Attraction, especially in a romantic way, is a complex process that take place in our brains, and has had it’s roots since it’s beginning of the humankind. It’s our minds way of telling us who has the potential to be our partner, our friend, or even our soulmate, and is based on a complex blend of our interest, values, experience, and desire. Physical and romantic attraction, which are often focused on, are only small facets of a much larger equation.

Psychologist look at the ingredients of attraction is in a form of pyramid, split into 4 different sections.

The base of the pyramid is made up of health and status:-

  • Status – 1. internal (confidence, self set, beliefs) 2. External (person’s job, possession and appearance.
  • Health – Physical attributes, smell, basic level of intelligence.

If the potential partners passes these initial requirements then we move to the center of the pyramid, which are the emotional factors:- includes

  • trust comfort someone wants,
  • their emotions intelligence, and
  • unique characteristics.

The final portion of the pyramid is “Logic”.This is the part that differentiate us from other animals, and is the part where our brains seriously

  • considers whether we are totally compatible for that person.
  • It ensure that the other person is aligned with us in term of what they want – things such as marriage, children, even the city they want to live.

According to this model, the more alignment there is, the more attraction there is, but it doesn’t always have to follow from bottom to top – like online dating.

What makes someone Attractive?

The answer to this questions make come to our mind is physical traits. Due to the influence of media, we tend to favor women who is younger, and more feminine features, in men on the other side, qualities such as broad shoulders, a deep voice, and strong jawline are highly upon.

Scientists suggest that, these also have an evolutionary origin because these traits are associated with a higher chance of producing health offspring and passing of good genes. Also, values, culture, and the environment, that we grow in also plays an important role.

Hence, attractiveness is complex, there’s a number of different perspective to consider, and at the end of the day, there’s very little we can choosing who we are attracted to. As each person looks for unique set of traits and, while physical traits are often focused there are far more factors that come into play. A person’s upbringing, behavior and even lifestyle have major influence. The most important thing to remember is to be happy and make the most of it.

Top 10 Open Libraries Online.

Looking for resources to read eBooks during this lock down period? Here are some great open libraries you can find online for free books to read.

Reading is definitely one of the greatest pleasures of life. Online libraries are currently attracting a lot of eyes, especially with most of the countries under lock down because of a massive outbreak of a deadly virus, which is affecting more and more people with each passing day. Ever wondered how these online libraries work? It is pretty simple and not so different from traditional libraries. These online libraries have a collection of books and reading materials from different publications in electronic formats, which can be accessed easily. Most of these open online libraries require you to sign up, look for the desired book or source or material and lets you download it or read it online.

To help you curb your boredom and get access to books from the comforts of your home, during this lock down period, we have a list of our top picks for online libraries that you can access with a simple click.

Project Gutenburg

A volunteer effort to preserve and archive important cultural works and digitize them for being available online, Project Gutenburg works for encouraging the preservation, creation and also, distribution of eBooks on an online platform. Majority of the sources that you will find here in the collection are complete texts from public domain books. Now offering more than 59,000 eBooks online for free, Project Gutenburg can be used and accessed from any of your devices.

Questia

Questia is a great source of research and paper writing projects which is available online. It has helped many students with citation from high standard scholarly articles and research paper to use for their own research. You can find a wide of range of papers on subjects related to humanities and social sciences and it provides you with the complete sources and resources you need to fulfill your coursework or project.

Read Print

Read Print is another online open library which provides thousands of eBooks archives for reading enthusiasts, students, teachers and everyone else. It enables the readers and users to choose from a collection of over 8000 books and also lets the readers make their own bookshelves with their personal ratings and reviews and also form reading groups with people having interests similar to theirs. It was also on the list of TIME Magazine’s 50 best websites in the year 2010.

Open Library

Open Library is an online project that intends to create a web page for every book that was ever published, giving the readers access to several public domains and many out of print books. Their main aim is to let people have access to all the published works of people available to anyone and everyone around the world. It is an initiative by Internet Archive, a non profit organization, which is also #7 on our list of top open libraries online.

Classic Reader

From Shakespeare to Austen and Dickens to Edgar Allen Poe, Classic Reader online library offers you with a wide range of thousands of classics of literature including poems, plays, dramas and short stories. You can not only find and read your favourite classics and short stories, but also you can add your own annotations to the books available online on classicreader.com.

The Literature Network

The Literature Network, as the name suggests, provides students as well as other reading enthusiasts with a range of 3500 literature books available online. To start finding the piece of literature you want, you can begin to search through the author index. They also have a large collection of short stories at your disposal, a quiz system featuring more than 300 quizzes and database of quotes and quotations which has about 9000 quote available. You can also join Literature forums and ask questions, which can be answered by anyone from the thousands of members who are part of this network.

Internet Archive

Internet Archive is a non profit organization, which is available for free of cost and provides the readers and users with an extensive range of much more beyond just books. You can find music, movies, sources, websites, software and much more. It provides people with access to a massive database of free information that is available online by catering to millions of people every day and is also considered to be one of the top 300 websites around the world.

The Online Books Page

The Online Books Page, as the name, is a website that gives the readers access to a variety of books that are available to be read freely, on the internet. It focuses on developing eBooks and online reading resources for the benefit of all people. Their long list of available resources and books is completely free and can be used for non commercial purposes. It has a collection of over 2 million sources and works, available to the readers in various media formats.

Classic Bookshelf

With a simple web page format and a reading app, Classic Bookshelf brings to you a collection of hundreds of classics and timeless wonders of literature across decades, available online with easy access. You can also take reference from its ratings and reviews to find the most popular books at regular intervals.

Chest of Books

The Chest of Books website has put in great effort in converting texts into eBooks and carefully proofreading and scanning them for the benefit and pleasure of the readers and the website users. It presents you with a variety of online books available from different fields or topics such as Art, Finance, Health, Business and many more.

We hope that this list of our top picks come handy to all reading enthusiasts and help their life in this lock down a little better. Do let us know if we missed out any online libraries from the list, or if you would like to review any of these that you may have used before!

Why schools should not be reopened?

SHOULD SCHOOLS BE REOPENED?

Some says they shouldn’t others says they should. Some states have already reopened in India this includes Punjab, Uttrakhand, Haryana, Madhya pradesh, Himachal pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Gujarat, and most of these states schools have been reopened for selective classes mostly senior classes grade 9 and above. In Himachal pradesh for example, schools have reopened for classes 10 to 12. But in most Indian states schools are still closed and they have been closed for more than 500 days now.

The Wuhan virus was declared a pandemic 17 months ago in March 2020. In March 2020 over 250 million primary school and middle school children have not stepped into their classrooms. This is a situation in India and all of these numbers are true. By these numbers they do not necessarily translate into a safety certificate for schools. They do not mean reopening schools are now safe.

Those arguing of reopening site instances of bars and shopping malls, even marriage halls, they’re all open. They’ve all opened why not schools they say. Well for one, schools are for children and children are not been vaccinated most of them are below 18 years of age. In India children are not qualified for Wuhan virus vaccination. So sending them to school unvaccinated which mean their lives exposing them to the virus. Will parents be ok with that? Won’t it be better to wait it out and make sure that their kids will be safe at school and right now they won’t be.

The pandemic has not gone away. There are cases arising in many countries and in India third wave is on the horizon.

One may say this from a privileged position as some children have access to digital learning i.e., they can afford to attend classes from home but many others can’t. Many students and teacher in India can’t afford a smartphone, a laptop or a computer. Many schools lack basic infrastructure required for conducting online classes. For example computers, the following is showing the statistical data of computer facilities present in different states of India:-

The above data shows Assam and Madhya pradesh with 13%, Bihar and West Bengal with 14 %, Tripura with 15% and Uttarpradesh with 18% of schools with computer facilities.

How are schools Managing to conduct classes in the middle of the pandemic?

Oxfam India carried out a survey in 2020 interviewing nearly 1200 parents and 500 teachers. They were all from the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar, jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and U.P.

–> 80% parents said that children have not received any education during the pandemic.

–> 4 out 5 students had not received new textbooks for the academic year.

–> Teachers fears that 30% of students might not return to schools when reopens

Therefore, there is not doubt that school closure is taking a toll on education, it is also threatening to undo the gains made in the education sector in general. The facilities deficit in government-funded schools does not help.

According to the educational Ministry,

–> At least a 113 Million students attends government schools in India.

–> 65% from 20 states are enrolled in them.

–> Only 30% of these schools have functional computers.

The Education Ministry data also says that in the run-up to the pandemic less than 12% of India’s government have internet facilities. Also only three states of India have internet facilities in majority of their school which are Kerala, Delhi, Gujarat.

It is not wrong to believe that schools should reopen that every child should be able to access learning. After all education is every child’s right and the pandemic should not be allowed to snatch away that right, so yes they should go back to school but there is a problem our children would not be safe not yet. We may convince ourselves that worth the risk but our trust with that pandemic shows us that nothing is worth risking the Wuhan virus.

The last one year has been a grand experiment, we have tried alternate day work from home, we have tried alternate seatings at restaurants, movie halls, alternate flight of escalated. We have tried all kinds of things but, we should leave children out of these grand experiment.

“Internships : A Door To Opportunity”

Internships- really being a door to opportunity for so many of us, being the only source for the growing students to learn something new & to explore different work fields in this leisure. Internships are the proven way to gain some knowledge, interest & maintaining a healthy connection with the work fields. This lockdown has taught us the meaning of internship, and to work as an intern in a firm. Since online studies are going on, doing an internship in this leisure is a perfect & productive way to utilise your free time! Internships not only enhance our skills, but also makes us confident, independent and self reliable. Since, adults has nothing to do in this lockdown, internships are way better to do something productive and to invest our time in learning something new. Internship is basically a platform where students puts up their education into practice, and develop relevant personality development and skills as well. For the college going students, internships plays a very important role in their lives. Being indulged in internships not only helps you to know more about the work fields, but also unleashes different side of your personality that you didn’t even know that it existed.

IMPORTANCE OF INTERNSHIPS

Internships plays a very prominent role in a students life, it provides a real life experience of working for the firms & companies for the fresher students! Freshers, who are new to this world, internships provides a platform for them to learn something new apart from their studies, and to enhance relevant interest in different fields. It is an ideal approach to gain understanding of your chosen Industry and field. Providing a platform to maintain a healthy yet professional connection with the work staff, and to learn & explore that how a firm works. It gives you a significant practical experience of working with the firm and also an opportunity to showcase your knowledge of degree program in real- life situations. Internships, based on hard work & stipend gives an opportunity to the students to showcase their hard work and skills on the respective fields and earn a minimal amount based on their skills and performance. It provides students the value of earning money on the basis of their hard work, and to work as an intern for a company.

ADVANTAGES OF INTERNSHIPS

  1. Get Industry Experience

The first and foremost factor of doing an internship is that it provides a platform for the students to explore the working of an industry or a company, and gives relevant workshops to learn that how exactly a company works. Fresher students learns how to work in a company by working as an intern so that they can gain experience of various fields they have chosen to work in. It further helps them to work in different fields , and hence built a significant connection with the workspace and the staff. It provides a practical way of learning and working for a company, and to gain an experience of how a company works and gives an opportunity to the students to put up the knowledge they’ve gained till now in real life situations.

2. Boost the value of your CV

There no task harder for a fresher to build a CV when they have literally no experience. No experience mentioned in the CV is a big turn off for most of the companies, why would a company hire you when you don’t have any work experience? The importance of doing an internship not only gives you opportunity to showcase your knowledge in real life situations, but also enhances your personality development and skills that are vested in your personality. You can easily know about the importance of internships when you will list down the accomplishments on a piece of paper, and that piece of paper literally decides your future. Thus, after completing an internship, you must sit down to contemplate over all the things you got to learn and how they can help you professionally as well as personally. As an intern, you will have to chance to take up new tasks and get an edge over your competitors, thus ensuring that your CV gets more than a casual glance from your potential employer.

3. Facilitates Self Growth

Internships not only help you in developing professionalism but also enhance self-growth. You certainly develop various characteristics like integrity, commitment, and self-motivation. Pursuing an internship, you will get to work on a wide range of tasks that will boost your managerial skills, and working in a team, you can polish your interpersonal and communication skills while learning about the importance of teamwork. Furthermore, you additionally get a chance to investigate the different choices that you have without the obligation of a full-time job. You can do different internships in different enterprises and profiles before you make sense of the best field for yourself. 

4. Learn new Abilities and Aptitude

While an undergraduate program gives you the perfect foundation for your professional journey,  internships add to it by giving you a chance to learn new aptitudes. These new abilities include a mix of both complicated and easy aptitudes. With a temporary position, you get the chance to learn new things, be it a software application or any other skill you wanted to explore. Many companies provide interns with the scope to explore working in different departments and find the best one they like working in. Correspondingly, you get the opportunity to improve your abilities by learning interpersonal and communication skills and how to behave in a workspace. 

In short, Internships plays a very prominent role in a students life it polishes our interpersonal and communication skills at its best! and helps us to explore more about the working sector in a very interesting manner. Apart from this, student also got a performance based stipend, solely based on their hard work and the performance they’ve showed while working as an intern. 

-SUKHMANI PANESAR

ELECTRICAL Vs ELECTRONICS

Often confused between electrical ,electronics study and their devices? then this post is for you.

These two studies are actually different and seems to overlap each other. Both devices works with electricity .

ELECTRICAL :

Electric energy is produced by the flow of electrons. Electrical device converts electrical energy to another form of energy as heat, light etc. It is concerned with the large-scale production and distribution of electrical power.

Examples :

1)electrical energy->  ->light energy

2)electrical energy->-> mechanical energy

Circuit mostly consist of connecting wires,switches,fuse,transformer…

ELECTRONICS:

Electronic devices has the capability of controlling the flow of electrons to do certain task, like water heater with auto cut off features etc. As they controls the flow of electricity to process information and to control systems.

COMPARISON:

Here are few differences described,

ELECTRICAL DEVICESELECTRONICS DEVICES
here current conducted threw metals like copper,aluminium.they use semiconductor material to conduct.
They use Alternating current. eg : generatoruse direct current
works on high voltage,consume more powerworks on low voltage,less power consumption
do not manipulate dataelectronic devices are used to manipulate data
large require more spacesmall compact,require less space .so used in Integrated chips.
Examples : fan,transformer,generator,motor.Examples: transistors, microcontrollers

Circuits -Basic components:

  • RESISTORS
  • CAPACITORS
  • DIODES
  • TRANSISTOR
  • INDUCTORS
  • SWITCH
  • TRANSFORMER etc….

In digital world ,we all want things to happen automatically,wish to control everything from our place within seconds. These wishes’ fulfilled by combining electrical device with electronic circuits, due to electronic circuit’s small size,control,processing capability . So it is used in most of the electrical devices,home applicants. electronics circuits used for display,remote control,auto open,close,level checker such many features in lot of home applicants,industry,etc..

Consider these cases:

  • An electric chair
  • An electronic chair

The first is a chair which predominantly features electricity. The second is a chair which has some feature made of a complex circuit (for example, the seats in cars which are automatically-adjusting).

  • An electric toaster
  • An electronic toaster

The first is a run of the mill toaster. The second is a toaster that lets you program in an image to burn into the toast, and which sends you an email when the toast is done

Electrical and electronic engineering careers and opportunities:

  • Cybersecurity consultant
  • Design engineer
  • Electrical engineer
  • Electronics field engineer
  • Energy engineering consultant
  • Nuclear controls engineer
  • Software engineer
  • System engineer
  • Technology analyst 

core subjects for electrical & electronics engineering:

  • Communication Electronics
  • Digital System Engineering
  • Electrical Circuits and Networks
  • Electronic Devices and Circuits

Electronics is a sub field of electrical engineering, so it’s safe to say something is electric when we don’t know if electronics is actually used in the design. When we say a device is electronic, this is because we know or we assume the circuit contains electronic components.

The distinction electric / electronic is not based on the purpose or the function of the circuit, e.g. dealing with power vs dealing with signal, as stated in other answers.

From all we can come to an end in one line that

ALL ELECTRONICS DEVICES ARE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BUT NOT VICE VERSA!!!

Prominence of education

Education is the act of discovering things around us. And so the prominence of the education in a person life. To discover the real meaning of life. We need to educate not ourselves but our environment also. Education helps us to easily recognize and deal with any difficulty and makes balance throughout the whole life in every aspect. Education is the first and foremost right of every human being. And therefore we have the right to education in our constitution. Without education we are incomplete and our lives are useless. Education helps us to set a goal and go ahead by working on that throughout life. It improves our knowledge, skill, confidence level, and personality. It empowers us intellectually to interact with others in our life. Education brings maturity and teaches us to live in a society with changing environment. For adaptability, education is a must. It is the way to social development, economic growth, and technological development. For being a proper social person we need to educate ourselves.

Education plays a great role in everyone’s life by building personality, improving knowledge and skill, and providing a feeling of well-being for a person. Education has been divided into three categories in our country as Primary education, Secondary education, and Higher Secondary education. It develops our analytical skills, character, and overall personality. Education plays a pivotal role in nourishing his present and future by ensuring aim of the life. 

Every child must to go school at his/her appropriate age as everyone has equal rights to education from birth. The growth and development of any country depend on the quality of the education system set for young ones in schools and colleges. However, the education system in every area of the country is not the same so the proper growth and development of the people and society vary according to the weak and strong education system of the particular region. The future of our country is the youth and the more our youth will learn more advanced our nation will become.

Enlightenment as a mass betrayal

The radio, newspaper, and TV. All are mediums of communication. They all were invented to enlighten human beings. Every creation has its purpose So they have. It’s true that for daily information we depend on this medium but does this products assisting us. Or it’s just deception. The reality is they are a tool in hands of cooperation to earn profit. And increase their business. Providing information is just a business. we get only that much information that cooperates giants want. As half of the media is dominated by politicians and giant cooperates. That influences their credibility. Hard to believe but this is a bitter truth. this invention acts like a tool in those hand who have money. consumerism is created intentionally through media in the form of advertisement. Advertisement creates a desire in human beings. This desire resulted in more consumption thus adding profit to the big giants. That shows how people are betrayed. Today content is created in such a way that doesn’t make a person intellectual. But merely a passive consumer.
In this gamble and deception, along with corporate giants, politicians are also involved. They use the mediums to propagate their message. Thus people consider the propagated message as truth. Start believing it and thus there ideology and perspective got to change. These tactics can be a hindrance to the democracy and sovereignty of the country. The enlightenment that media promise somehow vanishes because of the huge enrollment of money. People themself need to enlighten. By becoming the active audience by actively analyzing, understanding every message. We can be saved from this mass deception through the mass medium. Just we need to be vigilant in our approach whenever we encounter a media product. we need to understand the hidden motive behind that content. We need to know who is the creator of the content. And what purpose the content fulfills for the creator. Thus content by media or medium of communication needs to be observed. To better understand them. To save ourselves from enlightenment as mass deception.

Axiom announces crew for the first private space mission

It was everyone’s dream to go to space once. The dream started when we aspired to become astronauts but this dream changed as we grew up. Earlier it was only possible for astronauts to go to space. But Elon Musk had other plans. Currently, the world’s richest man, Elon Musk is preparing to send 3 people in space. Yes, you read it right. 3 people who are not astronauts will soon go on a journey to outer space and live the dream we all had.

Axiom Space announced on January 26 that it has selected a crew for the first-ever private mission to the International Space station. It is a crew of four people. One is a NASA veteran and three private paying customers. 

The proposed mission is set to launch a SpaceX Crew Dragon. But this mission will not happen before January 2022. The crew will stay at the International Space Station for a time period of eight days. The objective of this mission is to conduct extensive research and undertake “philanthropic projects”. 

The crew members are:

  • Michael Lopez-Alegria, a former NASA astronaut. He will be the flight’s commander 
  • Larry Connor will be the flight’s pilot.
  • Mark Pathy will serve as a mission specialist.
  • Eytan Stibbe will also serve as a mission specialist. 

Michael Lopez has logged a total of 260 days in outer space in his previous missions and is also the vice president at Axiom. Lopez-Alegria will be the first former NASA astronaut to return to orbit and visit the ISS. He will also be 63 when he launches. 

At the age of 71 years, Connor will become the second oldest person to fly to space. He is the head of the Connor Group, a luxury apartment investment firm with over $3 billion in assets. 

Pathy, 50, will be the 11th Canadian to fly to space after nine Canadian Space Agency astronauts and the co-founder of Cirque du Soleil, who became Canada’s first so-called “space tourist” in 2009.

Patthy is the CEO and Chairman of Marvik, a privately owned investment and financing company. 

Stibbe, who was born in Haifa, will be the second Israeli to launch into space, following his friend Ilan Ramon, who tragically died on the space shuttle Columbia in 2003. Stibbe founded the Vital Capital Fund, which is focused on business and financing ventures primarily in Africa. He is also one of the founders and is a board member of the Center for African Studies at Ben-Gurion University. 

Although Axiom did not disclose the price the three commercial astronauts paid to be on the Ax-1 mission. But according to internal sources, an estimate of cost-per-person is priced around $55 million. 

The mission now needs the approval from NASA. Axiom also proposed the potential of flying two per year. Axiom and NASA are currently working through a Basic Ordering Agreement that will enable private astronaut missions to the ISS. 

The Axiom space station modules will initially be attached to the Harmony node of the ISS. After the ISS is retired, the modules will be separated. It will then become the first free-flying commercial space station in low Earth orbit. 

Social Media Detox

Social media is a part of our daily routine. We spend hours looking at our phones, chatting and exploring things. We scroll endlessly until we go off to sleep at night. Our lives have somewhat started revolving around Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat. We are curious to know what is happening around the world, the latest trends and keep yourself updated about the latest memes. On average a person spends 1 hour 40 minutes per day browsing through social media. 

Although the world has come closer because of social media it has also increased restlessness in human beings. We start feeling anxious if we don’t check our social media handles every half hour at most. 

Talking about the content of social media. There is a variety of content available to people. From funny to informative, social media has everything. But the lifestyle portrayed on social media can make people feel insecure about themselves. And this results in anxiety and depression. Because we desire to achieve that lifestyle instantly. We beat ourselves up and feel hopeless if we are not able to do that.

Therefore, it is very important to take a break from social media once in a while. It is very essential to break the online walls we have created for ourselves and connect with reality.

How to do a proper Social Media Detox?

  1. Deactivate your Instagram, Facebook and Twitter accounts. It will help you from not checking your social media accounts again and again. 
  2. Uninstall your social media apps. If the apps are not on your phone you will not feel the urge to use them.
  3. Replace social media with some other activity. The time you spend on social media, use it to do something else. Like rediscovering a long lost hobby or honing your skills. 
  4. Talk to your family and friends. The people you have been avoiding for a long time, it’s time to meet them and enjoy the moment like you did before social media took over you. 
  5. Practice meditation and mindfulness. Meditation gives you a moment to reflect on yourself and clears your mind up. Mindfulness will increase your attention span and you will not get distracted easily.

Benefits of social media detox:

There are many reasons how social media detox benefits our day to day life. Some of the benefits of social media detox are:

  • It breaks the comparison cycle. We usually compare ourselves to what we see online. A social media detox will help us break that comparison cycle and focus on ourselves completely.
  • It is not essential to post everything from your life on social media. It is because social media is a dangerous place and many cybercrimes happen through the stuff we post online. It is essential to maintain your privacy, and thus, you should refrain from posting for some time. 
  • We have become so anxious that we feel like we are running a race all the time. And this race is between who has a better life as portrayed on social media. This has made us very competitive. A social media detox will help overcome this feeling of continuous competitiveness. 
  • It will also improve our mood. We will have more time for ourselves and we can focus on other thighs that make us happy in real life. 

According to scientists, a social media detox should last up to 3 months at least. But the dopamine levels can take longer to return to the normal level if someone is excessively addicted to social media.

We have forgotten what it’s like to sit with our family and friends and live in the moment. We are so engrossed in our online lives that we forget how important human essence is. Maybe it’s time we switch off our phones and make real-life connections instead of online connections alone.

TORTOISE

ABOUT TORTOISE:

Tortoise is a reptile with a hard shell that moves very slowly. A tortoise can pull its head and legs into its shell to protect them. Tortoises live on land. They cannot swim in water while turtles can swim and even float in water. Tortoises can vary in size from just an inch or two to more than 6 feet. Tortoise is placid and very slow-moving, with an average walking speed of 0.2-0.5 km/h. Tortoises generally have one of the longest lifespans of any animal, and some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Most are quite small, but island tortoises have several times evolved to a large size.

TYPES OF TORTOISE:

There are different types of tortoise. Some of them are,

INDIAN STAR TORTOISE: Indian Star Tortoises belong to the Kingdom Animalia. The Indian star tortoise is a threatened species of tortoise found in dry areas and scrubs forest in India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. This species is quite popular in the exotic pet trade, which is the main reason it is endangered. The Indian star tortoise can grow to 10 inches long.

  • LEOPARD TORTOISE:

The leopard tortoise is large and attractively marked. Leopard tortoises can also climb and can float and swim slowly as their large, domed shell has a sizeable lung space that allows buoyancy. Their eyes are well developed and they have good eyesight.

  • RED FOOTED TORTOISE:

The red-footed tortoise is a species of tortoise from northern South America. Red-footed tortoises have many common names: red-leg, red-legged, or red-foot tortoise (often without the hyphen) and the savanna tortoise. Their skin is mostly black with shells being typically black, gray, or brown. These long-lived tortoises have bright red, yellow, or orange patches on their legs, tail, and head.

  • GREEK TORTOISE:

The Greek tortoise’s geographic range includes North Africa, Southern Europe, and Southwest Asia. The Greek tortoise, also known commonly as the spur-thighed tortoise, is a species of tortoise in the family Testudinidae. The Greek tortoise is one of the five species of tortoise from the Mediterranean. It can be a range of colors, including black, dark yellow, gold, and brown.

  • MARGINATED TORTOISE:

The marginated tortoise is one of the beautiful species of tortoise. The marginated tortoise is herbivorous and hibernates for the winter. Its shell is oblong and has a notable thickness around the middle of the body. The posterior end of the shell has a saw-like formation, flanged outward like a bell.

  • ELONGATED TORTOISE:

The elongated tortoise is a species of tortoise found in Southeast Asia and parts of the Indian Subcontinent, particularly Nepal. Females tend to be wider than males and more rounded. Males also have a tail that is much larger than that of the female. Coloration and pattern vary, and specimens can be found from a pale yellowish-tan overall to almost solid black.

  • ASIAN FOREST TORTOISE:

The Asian forest tortoise, also known commonly as the Asian brown tortoise, is a species of tortoise in the family Testudinidae. Adults are dark brown or blackish. The Asian forest tortoise is the largest in mainland Asia.

  • ALDABRA GIANT TORTOISE:

Aldabra giant tortoise is one of the largest tortoises in the world. The carapace is a brown or tan color with a high, domed shape. They are most active in the mornings when they spend time browsing for food. They have long necks, which helps with food gathering. The hind legs are cylindrical and columnar like those of an elephant; thick, often bony scales cover them. The toes are short and two-jointed. The head is relatively small, pointed, and covered by scales.

PEN

ABOUT PENS:

A pen is a tool to write. A pen is a common writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper, for writing or drawing. It has a mechanism by which ink is made to flow through the tip of the writing instrument in the way it is scribbled onto the surface. With the help of a pen, we can also write important information to read them later. The pen has been the need for humans for a long time. A pen is called the ‘Sword of a writer’. It is a tool used by the brain, hands, and the imagination to copy and physically transform lifeless ink into expressions of our minds and hearts. Pens have become one of the most important parts of our life.

TYPES OF PENS:

There are different types of pens. Some of them are,

  • QUILL PEN:

A quill pen is a writing tool made from a moulted flight feather (preferably a primary wing-feather) of a large bird. The point of the feather is treated so it can be used for writing and a hollow shaft of the feather holds the ink which, from there, flows to the tip by capillary action. For almost 1,500 years, people used quill pens to write letters.

  • DIP PEN:

A dip pen is a pen that has to be dipped in ink. Generally, dip pens have no ink reservoir, so the user must recharge the ink from an ink bowl or bottle to continue drawing or writing. There is a wide range of exchangeable nibs for dip pens, so different types of lines and effects can be created. The nibs and handles are far cheaper than most fountain pens and allow color changes much more easily.

  • REED PEN:

Reed pen is made from a single piece of reed that is pointed into a square and split at the point. Reed pens were used for writing on papyrus and were the most common writing implement in antiquity. Reed pens are stiffer than quills and they lose a sharp point pretty quickly.

  • FOUNTAIN PEN:

A fountain pen is a writing instrument that uses a metal nib to apply a water-based ink to paper. The ink from a fountain pen glides effortlessly over the surface of the page, meaning glorious strokes and less pressure on the paper. Some pens employ removable reservoirs in the form of pre-filled ink cartridges.

  • BALLPOINT PEN:

For ballpoint pens, ink on the surface of the ball at the tip of the ball is transferred to the paper and written. The ink is fed by gravity from the tank (in the pipe). The ballpoint pen is also called as Biro pens.

  • GEL PEN:

“Gel pen” is a type of ballpoint pen that uses pigmented water-based gel instead of ink. They are used for writing or illustration and they leave a much stronger mark on the surface than pens that use ink. The general design of a gel pen is similar to that of a regular ink-based pen, with a barrel containing the writing mechanism and a cap, and a reservoir filled within

PENGUINS

ABOUT PENGUINS:

Penguins are one of the wonderful species of birds. Penguins are the sea-birds that live only in the cold areas and in countries of the Southern Hemisphere. Penguins may huddle together for several reasons. Penguins evolved to fly underwater. Their powerful flippers and streamlined bodies make them very accomplished swimmers. However, they lay their eggs on the land and raise their babies there as well. Penguins lay their eggs on land or ice to give birth to their offspring. There are 15 to 20 species of penguins that are known to the world. There are around 12 million penguins across the globe and their huge population is found in Antarctica. They spend roughly half of their lives on land and the other half in the sea. While other birds have wings for flying, penguins have adapted flippers to help them swim in the water.

TYPES OF PENGUINS:

There are different types of penguins. Some of them are,

EMPEROR PENGUIN:

 The emperor penguin is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. The species gather together into approximately 50 colonies that settle on ice shelves and landfast ice along the coastline of Antarctica. Wild Emperor penguins are only found in Antarctica. Like all penguin species, emperor penguins have streamlined bodies to minimize drag while swimming and wings that are more like stiff, flat flippers.

  • KING PENGUIN:

King Penguins are the 2nd largest species of penguin. They have bare patches around their eyes to allow heat to escape to keep them cool. They have black backs and white bellies for camouflage purposes. King penguins have colorful feathers around their necks and heads, this makes them the brightest of all the species of penguin, there is an estimated world population of 2 million breeding pairs with some estimates up to 3.2 million.

  • CHINSTRAP PENGUIN:

Instantly recognizable by the black band that gives them their name, chinstrap penguins are the most abundant penguin in the Antarctic, where they gather in massive breeding colonies. Other common names include a ringed penguin, bearded penguin, and stone cracker penguin, due to their loud, harsh call.

  • HUMBOLDT PENGUIN:

The Humboldt Penguin is a South American penguin, that breeds in coastal Peru and Chile. They have a black head with a white border that runs from behind the eye, around the black ear-coverts and chin, and joins at the throat. Humboldt penguins are medium-sized penguins.

  • FIORDLAND PENGUIN:

This species is a medium-sized, yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin. They have a very thick reddish beak and deep red eye irises. It’s easy to differentiate them from other crested species, just by looking at their plumage pattern at their head; a stripe of yellow feathers start from the base of the beak, and it continues to the head, revealing the loose feathers that look like long and bushy yellow eyebrows.

  • SOUTHERN ROCKHOPPER PENGUIN:

These gregarious marine birds are among the world’s smallest penguins, standing about 20 inches tall. It occurs in subantarctic waters of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as around the southern coasts of South America. This is the smallest yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin in the genus Eudyptes.

INDIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

TYPES OF INDIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS:

There are different types of musical instruments in India. Some of them are,

  • Sitar:

The word sitar is derived from the Persian word sehtar, meaning “three-stringed.” The sitar is a plucked stringed instrument, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Hindustani classical music. It has a long, broad, fretted neck and a gourd-shaped body. The sitar’s signature sound is produced by the string vibrating on a flat bridge with a gently curved surface.

  • Saraswati veena:

Veena represents the system of Indian music. Saraswati veena is one of the major types of veena today. The veena is played by sitting cross-legged with the instrument held tilted slightly away from the player. The word veena in India was a term originally used to generally denote “stringed instrument”, and included many variations that would be either plucked, bowed, or struck for sound.

  • Ghatam:

It is a clay pot with a narrow mouth. From the mouth, it slants outwards to form a ridge. Made mainly of clay backed with brass or copper filings with a small number of iron filings, the pitch of the ghatam varies according to its size.

  • Flute:

The flute is one of the most popular instruments in the band. The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. The sound is created when the air is passed through the cavity and the holes in the flute. Over the history of the flute, the shape and size of the embouchure have been experimented with and changed from round to oval, oblong to square, big and small. The main 3 types of the flute are the standard, piccolo, and harmony flutes.

  • Tabla:

Tabla is a pair of small hand drums, one of which is slightly larger than the other, used in Indian classical music. The tabla is the most commonly played drum set in North Indian music. The tabla consists of two drums, the baya or the left drum, and the Dayan or the right drum, but the collective name for both the drums is tabla.

  • Mridangam:

The mridangam is a double-sided drum whose body is usually made using a hollowed piece of jackfruit wood about an inch thick. The two mouths or apertures of the drum are covered with a goatskin and laced to each other with leather straps around the circumference of the drum.

  • Nadaswaram:

The nadaswaram, nadhaswaram, nagaswaram, nagasvaram is a double-reed wind instrument from South India. It is used as a traditional classical instrument in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala. The nadaswaram has seven finger-holes, and five additional holes drilled at the bottom which can be stopped with wax to modify the tone.

  • Tanpura:

The tanpura is a long-necked plucked string instrument. The electronic tanpura was invented in the late 19th century. It has a resonator and 4 strings, but no frets, as the notes are always played whole.

  • Jaltarangam:

It consists of a set of ceramic or metal bowls filled with water. The bowls are played by striking the edge with beaters, one in each hand. The instrument works on the principle of the motion of sound created or modified with the aid of water. When the edge of the bowl filled with water is stuck with wooden sticks it produces vibrations, that travel through the water and are transferred to the surrounding air to produce sweet melodic sounds.

MOON

ABOUT MOON:

The Moon is the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System, and it is the second-brightest object in the sky after the Sun. The Moon has a radius of 1.737 kilometers / 1.079 miles and a diameter of 3.474 km / 2.158 mi. It is only 384.400 km / 238.855 mi away from Earth. The Moon orbits the Earth once every 27 days. The Moon is unique in that it is the only spherical satellite orbiting a terrestrial planet.

MOON IS MADE UP OF:

The Moon is made of rock and metal—just like the Earth and the other rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars). Like the Earth, the Moon has layers. The innermost layer is the lunar core. It only accounts for about 20% of the diameter of the Moon. Outside the core is the largest region of the Moon, called the mantle. The lunar mantle extends up to a distance of only 50 km below the surface of the Moon. The outermost layer of the Moon is called the crust, which extends down to a depth of 50 km.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOONS PHASES :

There are 8 different types of moon phases. Some of them are,

  • New moon:

New moon occurs when the moon is on the same side of Earth as the sun. New moons generally can’t be seen. They cross the sky with the sun during the day, and the moon’s shadow side is pointed toward Earth. A new moon is visible only during a solar eclipse.

  • Waxing crescent:

The waxing crescent phase is the moon’s first step toward fullness. In this phase, the moon is completely invisible (while it’s new) until a tiny sliver is illuminated. The moon is considered a crescent only when less than one half of it is visible.

  • First-quarter:

First Quarter Moon is the second primary Moon phase when the Moon has reached the first quarter of its orbit around Earth, hence the name.

  • Waxing gibbous:

The waxing (growing) gibbous Moon rises afternoon, transits the meridian after sunset, and sets after midnight.

  • Full moon:

The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully. This occurs when Earth is located between the Sun and the Moon. A full moon occurs about once a month when the earth, sun, and moon are in a line and the earth is between the other two. The sun fully illuminates the side of the moon we can see from the earth. The full moon is the midpoint of the lunar cycle, which is the 29-day period from one new moon to the next.

  • Waning gibbous :

The Waning Gibbous Moon rises after sunset but before midnight and doesn’t set until after sunrise.

  • Third-quarter:

The Third Quarter Moon is when the opposite half of the Moon is illuminated compared to the First Quarter. Which half you see lit up depends on where you are on Earth. Only 50% of the Moon is illuminated during its third-quarter phase.

  • Waning crescent:

The waning crescent is the last phase of the moon. During this phase, the illuminated part of the moon gets smaller and smaller, until the cycle meets its end, starting again with the new moon.

DESERT ANIMALS

ABOUT DESERT ANIMALS:

Animals living in deserts have special qualities, or adaptations, that allow them to live in harsh temperatures and use less water. Desert animals mostly feed on plants, insects, carcasses, and other animals. Smaller animals tend to thrive in the desert as compared to those that are larger in size. This is because food and water in the desert are scarce while the climatic conditions are quite extreme. Some of the most iconic desert animals have obvious physical characteristics that have enabled them to adapt to their environment.

DESERT ANIMALS:

There are different desert animals. Some of them are,

  • CAMELS:

 Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods without any external source of water. Camel may survive weeks without drinking water. . Actually, it maxes out at about 15 days. They need this ability in their desert environments. A camel’s thick coat is one of the many adaptations that aid it in desert-like conditions.

  • FENNEC FOX:

The fennec fox is a small crepuscular fox native to the Sahara Desert and the Sinai Peninsula. Its most distinctive feature is its unusually large ears, which serve to dissipate heat. Its coat, ears, and kidney functions have adapted to the desert environment with high temperatures and little water.

  • RATTLESNAKE:

Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes. Rattlesnakes are found in almost every part of the continental United States, but they’re especially common in the Southwest. Mexico, Central America, and South America are also homes to rattlesnakes. Rattlesnakes receive their name from the rattle located at the end of their tails, which makes a loud rattling noise when vibrated that deters predators or serves as a warning to passers-by.

  • COYOTE:

Coyotes tend to be nocturnal but may also be active in the early morning and at sunset. Coyote populations are also abundant southwards through Mexico and into Central America. Other historical names for the species include the prairie wolf and the brush wolf. Coyotes living at high elevations tend to have more black and gray shades than their desert-dwelling counterparts, which are more fulvous or whitish-gray.

  • GROUND SQUIRRELS:

The ground squirrels generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees. They are highly variable in size. The squirrel then curls its paws flat against its chest and sends a screeching call to warn other family members about the presence of predators.

  • BIGHORN SHEEP:

Bighorn males, called rams, are famous for their large, curled horns. Bighorns from the rocky mountains are relatively large. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep occupy the cooler mountainous regions of Canada and the United States. In contrast, the desert bighorn sheep subspecies are indigenous to the hot desert ecosystems of the Southwestern United States and Mexico.

  • ARMADILLOS:

Armadillos have leathery armor shell and long sharp claws for digging. Armadillos have short legs but can move quite quickly. All species are native to the Americas, where they inhabit a variety of different environments. Armadillos live in temperate and warm habitats, including rain forests, grasslands, and semi-deserts. Because of their low metabolic rate and lack of fat stores, cold is their enemy, and spates of intemperate weather can wipe out whole populations.

  • MONGOOSE:

A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. Mongooses have long faces and bodies, small, rounded ears, short legs, and long, tapering tails. Mongoose, any of nearly three dozen species of small bold predatory carnivores found mainly in Africa but also southern Asia and southern Europe.

Thyroid Awareness Month

January is the Thyroid Awareness Month of the year. But do we know what thyroid is and how it affects our body?

According to research by the American Thyroid Association, 1 in 10 people suffer from a thyroid disorder. As many as 20 million Americans suffer from a thyroid disorder. More than half of the cases are undiagnosed.

What causes a thyroid is still unknown but if left undiagnosed, can cause various problems. Like an increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and infertility.

The thyroid plays a major role in our body. It regulates metabolism, body temperature and other physical functions. The thyroid produces hormones to keep our body functioning at a certain rate. 

What is the thyroid?

It is a small butterfly-shaped gland found in the lower neck. The gland produces the hormones T3 and T4. It is located above the collarbone and in front of the windpipe. The role of these hormones is to help regulate metabolism, manage body temperature and control heart rate. 

If these hormones are overproduced or underproduced, they can cause serious health issues. 

The two most common diseases related to the thyroid are:

Hyperthyroidism 

Hypothyroidism 

What is hyperthyroidism?

When the T4 (thyroxine) hormone is overproduced in the body, it causes hyperthyroidism. It is also known as an overactive thyroid. This disease causes an increase in metabolism which leads to weight loss and an irregular heartbeat. It affects about 1% of the population. It is five times more common in women than in men. It usually affects people under the age of 50 years and results in enlargement of the thyroid gland. 

It also causes insomnia, increased appetite, excessive perspiration and diarrhea. 

Even though it is associated with more energy, it can sometimes lead to a body break down and make one feel more tired. 

Other symptoms of hyperthyroidism are:

Anxiety

Oversensitive to heat

Increased sweating

Palpitations

Dry, thin skin

Hair loss

Trembling 

What is hypothyroidism?

It is more common than hyperthyroidism. It happens when the body cannot produce enough of the thyroid hormone. It results in a slow down of the body functions. It is also known as under-active thyroid. It affects heart rate, body temperature, and metabolism. 

It mostly affects people over the age of 60 years and increases with age. In older people, it can cause memory impairment, weight loss and loss of appetite. These happen because of old age as well, therefore, hypothyroidism is relatively difficult to diagnose in older people and remains under-diagnosed. 

The possible causes of hypothyroidism are autoimmune disease, certain medicines or surgical removal of a part of the thyroid gland.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

Fatigue

Sensitive to cold/heat

Weight gain and inability to lose weight


Depression

Anxiety

Constipation

Numbness in limbs 

Other diseases that can happen because of improper functioning of the thyroid gland are Hashimoto’s disease and thyroid cancer. 

Thyroid cancer is of four types:

Papillary thyroid cancer is the most commonly differentiated thyroid cancer. It may spread to the lymph nodes of the neck even though it grows slowly.

Follicular thyroid cancer is the second most common thyroid cancer. It grows near areas where there is a high iodine deficiency in the body. It is easiest to cure. 

Medullary thyroid cancer is rare and mostly hereditary. It has higher chances of spreading to the lymph nodes of the neck than other types.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer and is the rarest of all. It grows rapidly and spreads easily, therefore it is the most dangerous one. 

How to diagnose thyroid disorders?

They can either be self-diagnosed at home first and later consulting the doctor is the best way to be sure.

For self-diagnoses, one can perform the following:

Stand in front of the mirror or take a hand mirror above the collarbones where the area below you Adam’s Apple is visible. 

  1. Tilt your head back and take a sip of water.
  2. Swallow the water and watch your neck for signs of bulging.
  3. Repeat a few times to make sure you don’t see obvious signs of bulging.
  4. If you see a huge bulge, nodule or an enlarged gland, contact a physician.

The only way to confirm you have a thyroid disease and which one is it, it by going through a blood test. 

Treatment:

The treatment usually includes medication to regulate hormone production. Doctors usually treat it with medications, iodine or hormones. In some cases, one may also need to undergo therapy or surgery. 

Thyroid awareness month is recognised to increase awareness about the disorders related to thyroid and their possible symptoms. The symptoms of a thyroid disorder are common in other disorders as well. Therefore it can become difficult to diagnose it and remain ignored. Thyroid disorders are not curable or preventable but are treatable. Consulting your doctor and getting regular health checkups can improve the quality of living to a great extent.

Donald Trump Leave White House for the Last Time

President Trump’s reign comes to an end after a rollercoaster of a journey. On Wednesday, he left Washington DC three hours ahead of the inauguration ceremony of the next US President, Joe Biden. He stated that it has been an “incredible four years” and promised his supporters and everyone else that he will be “back in some form”.

A small group of people waved goodbye to Trump and the First Lady Melania Trump as they walked out and boarded the Marine One helicopter at 8:15 am. The Trump family flew a short journey to the airbase from where they boarded a flight to Florida on Air Force One as Frank Sinatra’s “My Way” played on loudspeakers on the tarmac on a sunny but chilly day

“I just want to say goodbye but hopefully it’s not a long-term goodbye,” said Trump as he addressed a small group of people. 

Trump plans to stay at his Mar-a-Lago in Florida when the US will inaugurate its new President, Joe Biden. 

After the 21 gun salute and a serenade of “Hail to the Chief”, Trump said to his supporters “this has been a great journey”. He further added, “We’ve accomplished so much together. I will always fight for you.”

He also said, “it is my greatest honour and privilege to have been the president.”

Before departing the White House, Trump issued scores of pardons to people convicted of crimes or facing charges, including some prominent allies. 

Influential former Trump aide Steve Bannon — charged with defrauding people over funds raised to build the Mexico border wall, a flagship Trump policy was among 73 people on a list released by the White House.

The 74-year-old Trump has hinted at running for president again in 2024 but faces a trial in the Senate over his role in the January 6 storming of the US Capitol by his supporters and a potential ban on holding office in the future. 

After breaking his long silence, he also addressed the US citizens via pre-recorded video for the first time and urged the American to “pray” for the success of the incoming administration. 

Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris will take the oath of office at the very spot where pro-Trump rioters clashed with police two weeks ago before storming Congress in a deadly insurrection.

Although the inauguration ceremony will go as it has for the last two centuries, this will be a little different from the rest because of the events that took place a few days ago at the US Capitol. 

Official Washington has taken on the dystopian look of an armed camp, protected by some 25,000 National Guard troops tasked with preventing any repeat of this month’s attack.

Because the pandemic is still raging in the US, the general public is forbidden from attending the inauguration ceremony. The National Mall seems unprecedentedly empty because of the said reason on Inauguration Day for the first time. Some 200,000 flags have been planted to represent the absent crowd.

DOLPHINS

ABOUT DOLPHINS:

Dolphin is aquatic mammals. There are 36 dolphin species, found in every ocean. Dolphins live in complex social groups and have evolved to have highly-developed brains. Dolphins are extraordinarily intelligent animals who also display culture, something which was long-believed to be unique to humans. Dolphins are altruistic animals. Dolphins play an important role in keeping their environment in balance. Without dolphins, the animals they prey on would increase in number, and their predators wouldn’t have as much to eat. Dolphins have a reputation for being friendly, but they are wild animals who should be treated with caution and respect. Dolphins are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid.

TYPES OF DOLPHINS:

There are different types of dolphins. Some of them are,

  • Common bottlenose dolphin:

The common bottlenose dolphin or Atlantic bottlenose dolphin is the most well-known species of the family Delphinidae. Common bottlenose dolphins are grey. Common bottlenose dolphins and other dolphins are thought to be some of the smartest animals.

  • Striped dolphin:

Striped dolphins are among the most abundant and widespread dolphins in the world. Striped dolphins are relatively small, streamlined, and colorful. Striped dolphins are known for their distinct and striking coloration pattern, which includes bold, thin stripes that extend from the eye to the flipper and another set of stripes down the side of the body to the anal region. Striped dolphins are extremely active and fast. Striped dolphins are widely distributed throughout the world’s temperate and tropical oceans.

  • Dusky dolphin:

The dusky dolphin is a dolphin found in coastal waters in the Southern Hemisphere. The dusky dolphin has a long, light-grey patch on its foreside leading to a short, dark-grey beak. The throat and belly are white, and the beak and lower jaw are dark greys. Two blazes of white color run back on the body from the dorsal fin to the tail.

  • White-beaked dolphin:

White-beaked dolphins are found throughout the cold waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. They are active swimmers. The white-beaked has a short beak. The upper body and flanks are dark grey with light grey patches, including a ‘saddle’ behind the dorsal fin, while the underside is light grey to almost white.

  • Spinner dolphin:

The spinner dolphin is a small dolphin found in off-shore tropical waters around the world. Spinner dolphins earned their name because of their ability to spin multiple times in one jump. Scientists believe they spin for several reasons, including communication, removing parasites, and simply for the fun of it.

  • Irrawaddy dolphin:

The Irrawaddy dolphin’s color is grey to dark slate blue, paler underneath, without a distinctive pattern. It has a large melon and a blunt, rounded head, and the beak is indistinct. Irrawaddy dolphin Communication is carried out with clicks, creaks, and buzzes at a dominant frequency of about 60 kilohertz, which is thought to be used for echolocation.

  • Long-beaked common dolphin:

The long-beaked common dolphin is a species of common dolphin. Long-beaked common dolphins generally prefer shallow, tropical, subtropical, and warmer temperate waters within 15 nautical miles of the coast and on the continental shelf. The long-beaked common dolphin is generally larger with a longer beak than the short-beaked common dolphin and has a longer rostrum. They are also highly vocal.

  • Rough-toothed dolphin:

The Rough-toothed Dolphin is a fairly large dolphin that can be found in deep warm, tropical, and subtropical water from the western Pacific to the Mediterranean. Their flanks are light grey and the back and dorsal fin a much darker grey. Rough-toothed dolphins have sharp, serrated teeth.

STARS

ABOUT STARS:

A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma. Stars are held together by gravity. They are huge in size and have very high temperatures. They give out heat and light because they are very hot. Sun is also a star.

WHY DO STARS TWINKLE? :

The stars twinkle in the night sky. When starlight enters the atmosphere, it is affected by winds in the atmosphere and by areas with different densities, and temperatures that cause light from the star appear to twinkle when seen from the ground.

TYPES OF STARS:

There are different types of stars. Some of them are,

  • RED GIANT STARS:

 A red giant star is a star that has low surface temperature and a diameter that is large relative to the sun. A red giant will expand outward many times its original size. Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) is a well-known example of a Red Giant Star.

  • WHITE DWARF STARS:

A white dwarf is what stars like the Sun become after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel. A white dwarf is very dense. White dwarf stars, so-called because of the white color of the first few that were discovered, are characterized by a low luminosity, a mass on the order of that of the Sun, and a radius comparable to that of Earth.

  • SUPERGIANT STARS:

Supergiant is among the most massive and most luminous stars. A star classed as a supergiant may have a diameter several hundred times that of the Sun and a luminosity nearly 1,000,000 times as great. The temperature range of supergiant stars spans from about 3,400 K to over 20,000 K.

  • NEUTRON STARS :

Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stellar objects, excluding black holes and hypothetical white holes, quark stars, and strange stars. The properties of neutron stars are utterly out of this world — a single teaspoon of neutron-star material would weigh a billion tons. Neutron stars have a radius on the order of 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) and a mass of about 1.4 solar masses.

  • YELLOW DWARF STARS:

A G-type main-sequence star often called a yellow dwarf, or G dwarf star is a main-sequence star of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.84 to 1.15 solar masses and a surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K., Tables VII, VIII. Yellow dwarf stars live for about 10 billion years, and at 4.5 billion years old, our middle-age sun is about halfway through its lifetime. Once its hydrogen supply is depleted, the sun will start consuming its heavier elements. 7.5% of stars are yellow dwarfs and they are brighter than 90% of all other stars.

  • BLUE GIANT STARS:

A blue giant is a hot star with a luminosity class of III (giant) or II (bright giant). Rigel is a blue giant star close to zero magnitudes in Earth’s sky, making it a bright star, and is best visible in the winter northern sky. It also has somewhere between 265 and 315 solar masses, making it the most massive star yet discovered.

  • BROWN DWARF STARS:

A brown dwarf is a type of substellar object that has a mass between the most massive gas giant planets and the least massive stars, approximately 13 to 80 times that of Jupiter ( M J).

  • BLACK DWARF STARS:

When a white dwarf exhausts its own supply of carbon, oxygen, and free-flowing electrons, it will slowly burn out, transforming into a black dwarf. A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light. Black dwarfs take quadrillions of years to form.

CORONAVIRUS ON ICE CREAM CARTONS

After declaring itself Covid-free last year, China is witnessing another wave of corona cases.

And according to the latest reports, the novel coronavirus was found on an ice cream carton coming in from eastern China. 

The Daqiaodao Food Co, Ltd in Tianjin, adjacent to Beijing, was sealed and its employees were being tested for the coronavirus. But there was no indication that anyone among the employees had contracted the virus. 

The batch contained more than 29,000 cartons and most of it was not yet sold. Only 390 cartons were said to be sold to Tianjin. They are now being tracked and authorities elsewhere were notified of sales to their areas. The government said that they have recalled the cartons from the same batch. 

The ingredients included New Zealand milk powder and whey powder from Ukraine, the government said. 

On Saturday, the Health Commission of China blamed the travellers and imported goods saying they brought the virus from abroad. 

Whereas on Sunday, China reported 109 new confirmed cases of Covid-19, two-thirds of them in a northern province that is close to national capital Beijing, though no deaths have been reported. 

Currently, its death toll stands at 4953 and total cases at 88,227.

China was the first country to report a case of coronavirus in Central Wuhan in late 2019. The pandemic is said to have originated from that very place. 

Earlier this month, a team of WHO scientists travelled to China to discover the origins of the novel coronavirus.

According to reports, the Chinese government has banned the entry of two scientists. The Chinese government is of the view that the disease came from abroad and has highlighted what it says are discoveries of the coronavirus on imported fish and other food. But this theory has been rejected by various economies around the world.  

The WHO team says that the motive behind the investigation is not to blame some but to find the scientific answers. It is about studying an important interface between the human kingdom and the animal kingdom.

The investigation will apparently take months to complete even in the best circumstances. The team must also navigate attempts by China to politicize the inquiry.

The novel coronavirus has killed nearly two million people since the first outbreak first emerged in Wuhan. 

Thousands of mutations in the virus have taken place as it has passed from person to person around the world, but new variants recently detected in Britain and South Africa are seemingly more contagious.

Britain has imposed a lockdown for the third time since the first outbreak in the country. Other countries have also reported cases of the new variant and have imposed a strict check on the people entering the country. Adequate measures are being taken all around the world to control the mutant variant.

CHESS

ABOUT CHESS:

Chess was invented in India around the 8th century. Chess is a board game. It is played by two players. It is played in a square board, made of 64 smaller squares, with eight squares on each side. Each player starts with sixteen pieces: eight pawns, two knights, two bishops, two rooks, one queen, and one king. The colors of the pieces are black and white. Chess is one of the world’s most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide. It is such a great game because unlike any other games it only uses logic. The goal of the game is for each to try and checkmate the king of the opponent. Playing chess may improve learning, thinking, analytical power, and decision-making ability. Chess may also Chess helped me in getting my thoughts and ideas focused. Chess elevates your creativity. Chess leads to better planning skills.

ABOUT CHESS PIECES:

The six different types of pieces are king, rook, bishop, queen, knight, and pawn.

  • KING:

The king is the most important piece in the game of chess. It can never be captured and if it is in danger then it must be made safe immediately. If it is not possible to make the King safe then the game is lost. The King may move one square in any direction. In the diagram, the King can move to one of the highlighted squares.

  • QUEEN:

The queen is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. Each player starts the game with one queen, placed in the middle of the first rank next to the king. The queen is the only piece on the board during a chess game that represents a woman, and she is the most powerful piece of the game.

  • ROOK:

The rook is a piece in the game of chess resembling a castle. The rook symbolized a chariot. A rook can move horizontally or vertically. The rooks begin the game in the corners of the chessboard. The rook is the second most powerful piece (behind the queen). The rook can capture an enemy piece by moving to the occupied square.

  • BISHOP:

The bishop is a piece in the game of chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops. One starts between the king’s knight and the king, the other between the queen’s knight and the queen. The bishop chess piece moves in any direction diagonally. Bishops capture opposing pieces by landing on the square occupied by an enemy piece.

  • KNIGHT:

The knight is a piece in the game of chess. It is represented by a horse’s head and neck. Each player starts with two knights, which are located between the rooks and bishops in the standard starting position. A knight can move only in an L pattern. It is meant to jump over other pieces. The Knight piece can move forward, backward, left, or right two squares and must then move one square in either perpendicular direction.

  • PAWN:

The pawn is the most numerous piece in the game of chess. They move forward but capture diagonally. Pawns can only move forward one square at a time, except for their very first move where they can move forward two squares.

EAGLE

ABOUT EAGLE:

Eagle is one of the wonderful birds. Eagles are large, powerful Birds. They are Diurnal Birds which means that they are most active during the daytime. Most Species of Eagles have subdued feather colors, mainly browns, rust, black, white, and some blues and greys. An Eagle’s Wings are Long and Broad, making them effective for Soaring. Eagles catch prey with their razor-sharp talons. Eagles have heavy heads and large hooked beaks to enable them to rip flesh from their prey. It flies high above the ground looking for prey with its keen eyes. Eagles’ eyes are extremely powerful. They mate for life and use the same nest each year. There are several species of eagles, which differ in size, looks, and habits. The beak is typically heavier than that of most other birds of prey. There are over 60 different species of eagle. Eagles build their nests on high cliffs or in tall trees. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, some of which are closely related.

TYPES OF EAGLES:

There are different types of eagles. Some of them are,

  • BALD EAGLE:

A bald eagle is a large eagle with a white head that lives in North America. It is the national bird of the United States of America. The bald eagle has a snowy-feathered head and whitetail.

  • GOLDEN EAGLE:

Golden eagle a large Eurasian and North American eagle with yellow-tipped head feathers in the mature adult. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Golden eagles are sometimes considered the best fliers among eagles.

  • HARPY EAGLE:

Harpy eagle a very large crested eagle of tropical rainforests. Harpies have a crown of irregular feathers atop their heads, giving them a disheveled appearance. Their legs are covered in white feathers with black stripes to the feet, which are yellow with large black talons.

  • WHITE-TAILED EAGLE:

The white-tailed eagle is a very large species of a sea eagle. The white-tailed eagle is a very large bird and one of the largest living birds of prey. The white-tailed eagle is also called the sea eagle, erne, and white-tailed sea-eagle.

  • WEDGE TAILED EAGLE:

The wedge-tailed eagle is the largest bird of prey in Australia and is also found in southern New Guinea. It has long, fairly broad wings, fully feathered legs, and an unmistakable wedge-shaped tail. Young Wedge-tailed Eagles are mid-brown in color with reddish-brown heads and wings.

  • STEPPE EAGLE:

The steppe eagle is in many ways a peculiar species of eagle. The steppe eagle is a large, bulky, and robust-looking eagle. It is mainly dark brown with a longish but very thick neck and a relatively small head that nonetheless features a strong bill and long gape-line. It appears long-winged and has a longish and rather rounded tail and markedly well-feathered legs.

  • SHORT-TOED SNAKE EAGLE:

The short-toed snake eagle, also known as the short-toed eagle, is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. The short-toed snake eagle is found in open cultivated plains, arid stony deciduous scrub areas, and foothills and semi-desert areas. These are relatively large snake eagles.

BEES

ABOUT BEES:

Bees are small and wonderful insects. Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants. They collect honey from flowers and store it in their hive. Bees have four wings. Its body has three parts head, abdomen, and abdomen. The color of its body is yellow and black. They are one of the hardworking insects. Bees live in a hive in a swarm. It lives in its community. Bees are very useful to human beings. They give honey and beeswax. One healthy Honey Bee would approximately lay 2,000 eggs in one day. Bees are mainly found in habitats such as tropical rain forests and woodlands, grasslands, and Gardens where there are more flowers and green matters available. Honey bees are small flying insects whose lifespan varies between 170 to 180 days. Honey bees usually live in groups and their queen has a lifespan of more than two years. One bee may fly up to more than 90 thousand miles to collect one pound of honey. In a colony there are three types of bees namely worker bees, drone bees, and queen bees. . Worker bees are the most familiar-looking member of the honeybee hive. Worker bees are all female, and they do almost everything for the hive. The worker bee is given different tasks to do during different stages of her life. Worker bees are responsible for everything from feeding the larvae (the baby bees), to tending to the queen, to cleaning the hive, to collecting food, to guarding the colony, to building honeycomb. Drones are male bees and their sole purpose is to mate with the queen. Unlike the female worker bee, drones do not have stingers and gather neither nectar nor pollen. You can identify drones in the hive by their big round bodies and large eyes. There is one queen bee per hive – she is the mom of all the other bees. She is the only fertile member of the colony and lays about 1,500 eggs a day during spring and summer. The queen will not leave the hive again unless the colony swarms (looking for a new home). Queen bees are distinguished from the other members of the hive by their long abdomens and small wings.

IMPORTANCE OF BEES:

Bees are important to humanity and the world we live in because they provide the most efficient way to pollinate plants. They are especially important because they pollinate our agriculture for free. It’s their work as crop pollinators. This agricultural benefit of honey bees is estimated to be between 10 and 20 times the total value of honey and beeswax.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT BEES:

  • A bee produces a teaspoon of honey (about 5 grams) in her lifetime.
  • There are over 20,000 different species of bees. To produce a kilogram of honey, bees fly the equivalent of three times around the world in air miles.
  • Each bee has 170 odorant receptors, which means they have one serious sense of smell. They use this to communicate within the hive and to recognize different types of flowers when looking for food.
  • If the queen bee dies in a honeybee hive the workers can create a new queen bee. They do this by selecting a young larva and by feeding it special food called ‘royal jelly’ the larva develops into a fertile queen.
  • The Honey Bee is the only insect that makes food which human can eat.

NATURAL DISASTERS


ABOUT DISASTERS:

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth. Some of the natural disasters are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, storms, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth. Many Natural disasters damage the environment and the people living in it. Natural disasters are caused due to different reasons like soil erosion, seismic activity, tectonic movements, air pressure, and ocean currents, etc.

TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS ARE:

Some of the different kinds of natural disasters are,

  • Earthquake:

Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs.

  • Floods:

The major cause of the flood is heavy rainfall. It can be also caused by the melting of snow and ice. It is also caused by Broken Dams.

  • Tsunami:

Tsunami is waves caused by a sudden movement of the ocean surface due to earthquakes, landslides on the seafloor, land slumping into the ocean, large volcanic eruptions, or meteorite impact in the ocean. When tsunami waves become extremely large in height, they savagely attack coastlines, causing devastating property damage and loss of life.

  • Tornadoes:

Tornadoes are caused by the thunderstorms being extremely large, unstable, and with wind shear in the lower region of the atmosphere. Tornadoes often damage power lines, gas lines, or electrical systems, there is a risk of fire, electrocution, or an explosion. Tornadoes can last from several seconds to more than an hour.

  • Volcanic eruption:

Volcanoes erupt when molten rock called magma rises to the surface. Magma is formed when the earth’s mantle melts. Melting may happen where tectonic plates are pulling apart or where one plate is pushed down under another. Health concerns after a volcanic eruption include infectious disease, respiratory illness, burns, injuries from falls, and vehicle accidents related to the slippery, hazy conditions caused by ash. When warnings are been pay attention to, the chances of adverse health effects from a volcanic eruption are very low.

  • Landslide:

Landslides can be initiated in slopes already on the verge of movement by rainfall, snowmelt, changes in water level, stream erosion, earthquakes, volcanic activity, disturbance by human activities, or any combination of these factors. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. A landslide can also block rivers and increase the risk of floods.

  • Hurricanes:

Hurricanes form over the warm ocean water of the tropics. When warm moist air over the water rises, it is replaced by cooler air. The cooler air will then warm and start to rise. This cycle causes huge storm clouds to form. The major effects of hurricanes are tornadoes, heavy rainfall, high winds, riptide, and death.

  • Thunderstorms:

Thunderstorms arise when layers of warm, moist air rise in a large, swift updraft to cooler regions of the atmosphere. Thunderstorms can bring heavy rains, strong winds, hail, lightning, and tornadoes. Severe thunderstorms can cause extensive damage to homes and property. Lightning is a major threat during a thunderstorm.

TAJ MAHAL

ABOUT TAJ MAHAL:

Taj Mahal is one of the seven wonders in the world. Taj Mahal is one of the historic and most beautiful places in the world. The Taj Mahal is one of the most magnificent Indian historical monuments with complex visualization. The Taj Mahal is the materialized vision of love and marks a perfect indelible remark on it’s Mughal Architecture. The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum built by the 17th century Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. This structure on the bank of the river Jamuna is constructed on a platform 6.5 meters high. The Mahal was built in the loving memory of the Emperor’s beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It also attracts thousands of tourists with no preference for religion or lifestyle. The words Taj Mahal means ‘ crown of the palace’ and is a symbol of eternal love. Taj Mahal is one of the main reasons why India is famous. Taj Mahal was declared as a Heritage Site by UNSECO in 1983.

ARCHITECTURE OF TAJ MAHAL:

The Taj Mahal is a perfect symmetrical planned building, with an emphasis on bilateral symmetry along a central axis on which the main features are placed. The Taj Mahal emits a sense of peace and harmony which is mainly caused by the structure’s near-perfect symmetry, the main dome and surrounding minarets, and the division of the gardens by four canals that meet at a raised central lotus pond. The building material used is brick-in-lime mortar veneered with red sandstone and marble and inlay work of precious/semi-precious stones. It is made of pure white marble with its special luster and fine texture. The marble was obtained from Makrana in Rajasthan. Inside the Taj Mahal, the cenotaphs honoring Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan are enclosed in an eight-sided chamber ornamented with pietra dura (an inlay with semi-precious stones) and a marble lattice screen. The interior octagonal chambers are connected by diagonal passages. Floors and walkways use contrasting tiles or blocks in tessellation patterns. The inlay stones are of yellow marble, jasper, and jade polished and leveled to the surface of the walls. The calligraphy on the Taj Mahal is beautiful. The beauty of the black inscriptions over the white marble is an attractive feature of the edifice. The walls and pillars of the monuments are also adorned with calligraphy written in Thuluth script. Most of the inscribed verses are from the holy book of Islam- the Quran. Taj Mahal reflects different colors depending on the light. In the morning, it looks a little pinkish, in the afternoon with strong sunlight it appears shimmering white, milky white in the evening, and golden at night. The main structure is surrounded by gardens, fountains, and pools. Another interesting aspect of the architecture of the Taj Mahal is the iconography of the plants engraved in the walls and floors of the mausoleum.

WHEN WAS TAJ MAHAL BUILT? :

The construction of the Taj Mahal took over twenty years. It was built in 1632, and in 1648, the mausoleum was finished. Another 5 years were spent on the building of the enclosure, the ancillary buildings such as gardens, so the whole complex was completed in 1653.

EARTH

ABOUT EARTH:

Our Earth is the most beautiful planet in our solar system. Earth is the planet we live on. The earth is a habitat for millions of species of plants and animals. Earth is an integral part of the solar system. Earth is the third planet from the sun. Earth is the fifth-largest of the planets in the solar system. The alternative names for the earth are Gaia, Gaea, Terra, Tellus, the world, the globe. Earth is a planet of the Sun which is also called Blue Planet because of the availability of water and it looks blue when observed from space. It’s the only planet known to have an atmosphere containing free oxygen, oceans of water on its surface, and, of course, life. Water covers 70 percent of Earth’s surface. Earth has an atmosphere containing 21% oxygen which helps in the survival of living beings. The gases like nitrogen, CO2, and oxygen in the earth’s atmosphere help plants to grow. Our planet Earth is a rotating sphere that orbits the Sun. Earth is made of rocks and came into existence billions of years ago. Along with the movement, Earth also rotates on its axis from east to west and completes a rotation in 24 hours which we call a solar day. The Earth is located approximately 150 million kilometers from the Sun and this distance is known as Astronomical Unit. It takes about 8.3 minutes for sunlight to reach the Earth. The Earth’s Atmosphere Extends to a Distance of 10,000 km. Earth’s atmosphere nourishes life and protects it from harmful UV rays and meteorites. Earth Day is observed every year on 22nd April to protect the environment. Along with human earth is home to millions of species and plants. The presence of water on the surface of the earth and air in the atmosphere makes life possible here. As the only livable planet of the sun, we should respect and protect our earth from our wrong practices.

STRUCTURE OF EARTH:

​​The earth is made up of three different layers. They are,

· THE CRUST:

This is the outside layer of the earth and is made of solid rock, mostly basalt, and granite. There are two types of a crust; oceanic and continental. Oceanic crust is denser and thinner and mainly composed of basalt. Continental crust is less dense, thicker, and mainly composed of granite.

· THE MANTLE:

The mantle is the layer located directly under the sima. It is the largest layer of the Earth, 1800 miles thick. The mantle is composed of very hot, dense rock. This layer of rock even flows like asphalt under a heavyweight.

· THE CORE:

Earth’s core is the very hot, very dense center of our planet. The ball-shaped core lies beneath the cool, brittle crust and the mostly-solid mantle. The core is found about 2,900 kilometers (1,802 miles) below Earth’s surface and has a radius of about 3,485 kilometers (2,165 miles). The core is made of two layers: the outer core, which borders the mantle, and the inner core. The outer core, about 2,200 kilometers (1,367 miles) thick, is mostly composed of liquid iron and nickel. The inner core is a hot, dense ball of (mostly) iron. It has a radius of about 1,220 kilometers (758 miles). The temperature in the inner core is about 5,200° Celsius (9,392° Fahrenheit). The pressure is nearly 3.6 million atmospheres (atm).

WIND ENERGY

ABOUT WIND ENERGY:

Wind energy is one of the renewable sources of energy. Wind energy is an important non-conventional source of energy. It does not contaminate, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy is one of the methods used to provide electricity. . Wind Energy and Wind Power Wind is an abundant resource on our planet. In wind energy, the wind is used to produce electricity using the kinetic energy created by air in the motion. This is then transformed into electrical energy using wind turbines or wind energy conversion systems. Air flows can be used to run turbines. Wind Power is also used for Pumping Water and Electricity. China is the world’s largest producer of wind energy, with over a third of the world’s capacity. It is currently booming and it has become one of the fastest-growing markets in the world today. Wind power is an alternative source to burning fossils, and it is plentiful, it is renewable, it is clean, it produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation. Wind power is the most efficient technology to produce energy in a safe and environmentally sustainable manner. It currently accounts for more than 3% of the global electricity consumption and is expected to reach 18% in 2050 according to data from the International Energy Agency.

PARTS OF WIND TURBINE:

In wind energy, the electricity is mainly gained with the help of the wind turbine. The different parts of the wind turbine are,

  • Blades:

Most wind turbines designed for the production of electricity have consisted of a two or three-bladed propeller rotating around a horizontal axis. A wind turbine turns wind energy into electricity using the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades, which work like an airplane wing or helicopter rotor blade. When wind flows across the blade, the air pressure on one side of the blade decreases.

  • Rotor:

The rotor is one of the parts of the wind turbine. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity.

  • Pitch:

Pitch control is the technology used to operate and control the angle of the blades in a wind turbine.

  • Brake:

Mechanical wind turbine brakes have two main uses. They are applied as a backup method of holding the turbine in place for maintenance or repairs, in the case of a failure of the primary rotor lock system. Or in the case of emergencies, such as extreme gusts of the wind or too much speed.

  • Low-speed shaft:

In most large-scale turbines, the low-speed shaft is connected to a gearbox.

  • Gearbox:

A gearbox is typically used in a wind turbine to increase rotational speed from a low-speed rotor to a higher speed electrical generator.

  • Generator:

Wind turbines generate electricity by using wind power to drive an electrical generator.

  • Controller:

The wind farm controller’s function is “power management”. It can initiate and shut down the turbine operation as well as co-ordinate the operation of numerous wind turbines in response to environmental and operating conditions. The wind turbine supervisory controller manages the individual turbine operation.

  • Anemometer:

The anemometer measures wind speed. The wind turbine is only supposed to operate when the wind speed is within a certain range. The anemometer determines when the wind is within the defined range.

  • Wind Vane:

The wind vane, used for indicating wind direction, is one of the oldest meteorological instruments.

  • Nacelle:

The nacelle is the part of the turbine that houses the components that transform the wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy to turn a generator that produces electricity.

  • High-speed shaft:

The high-speed shaft drives the generator which produces AC electrical current. Power cables transport electricity to the ground level.

  • Yaw drive:

The yaw drive is an important component of the horizontal axis wind turbines’ yaw system which is used to ensure the wind turbine is producing the maximal amount of electric energy at all times, the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the wind as the wind direction changes.

  • Yaw motor:

When wind direction changes, a turbine’s controls instruct its yaw motors to reposition the nacelle.

  • Tower:

The tower of the wind turbine carries the nacelle and the rotor.

ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY:

  • An unlimited, free, and renewable resource is the wind.
  • Wind energy does not emit toxic substances or contaminants.
  • It is low-cost energy with a fairly stable price
  • Wind power will require nations to need less and less fuel sources to be imported as our energy will be fully sustained.
  • Wind power has some of the lowest environmental impacts of any source of electricity generation.
  • Wind energy is one of the most environmentally friendly energy sources.
  • Wind energy could generate a significant proportion of your electricity needs.
  • Wind turbines can also be installed at different heights to achieve stable energy production.

BUTTERFLY

ABOUT BUTTERFLY:

The butterfly is one of the most beautiful and wonderful creatures. Both butterflies and moths belong to the Lepidoptera family. Butterflies are flying insects with large scaly wings. We can observe different colors and patterns in the wings. Butterflies have six legs and three main body parts: head, thorax (chest or midsection), and abdomen (tail end). They also have two antennae and an exoskeleton. The butterfly’s body is covered by tiny sensory hairs. The adult butterfly has four wings that are covered with tiny scales that give them their colorful and diverse designs. These are cold-blooded creatures. The group of butterflies is called flutter. Butterflies have an amazing ability to see, smell. Some butterflies can fly as fast as 40 miles per hour. There are a thousand kinds of butterflies. They may vary from small to big. The lifespan of a butterfly varies with factors like size, species, and habitat.

LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY:

There are four stages involved in the life cycle of a butterfly. They are,

  • FIRST STAGE-EGG:

 Butterfly starts their life as an egg. Their egg shape maybe circle, oval or cylindrical depending on the butterfly that laid the egg. Butterflies lay their eggs on a leaf of a plant.

  • SECOND STAGE-THE LARVA(CATERPILLAR):

When the egg hatches caterpillar comes out of it. In this stage they all do is eat. The caterpillar eats the leaf from where they were born.

  • THIRD STAGE-PUPA(CHRYSALIS):

The third stage of the butterfly is the pupa. As soon as a caterpillar is done growing and they have reached their full length/weight, they form themselves into a pupa, also known as a chrysalis. From the outside of the pupa, it looks as if the caterpillar may just be resting, but the inside is where all of the action is. Inside the pupa, the caterpillar is rapidly changing. Within the chrysalis, the old body parts of the caterpillar are undergoing a remarkable transformation, called ‘metamorphosis,’ to become the beautiful parts that make up the butterfly that will emerge. Tissue, limbs, and organs of a caterpillar have all been changed by the time the pupa is finished and is now ready for the final stage of a butterfly’s life cycle.

  • FOURTH STAGE-ADULT BUTTERFLY:

In the final stage, when the caterpillar has done all of its forming and changing inside the pupa, It will have emerged as an adult butterfly. When the butterfly first emerges from the chrysalis, both of the wings are going to be soft and folded against its body. This is because the butterfly had to fit all its new parts inside of the pupa in this stage. As soon as the butterfly has rested after coming out of the chrysalis, it will pump blood into the wings in order to get them working and flapping – then they get to fly. Usually, within a three or four-hour period, the butterfly will become master in flying and will search for a mate in order to reproduce. When in the fourth and final stage of their lives, adult butterflies are constantly on the lookout to reproduce and when a female lays their eggs on some leaves, the butterfly life cycle will start all over.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT BUTTERFLY:

· Some butterfly species migrate from the cold.

· Most butterflies have taste receptors on their feet.

· They’ll even drink the tears of reptiles to get some much-needed sodium.

· Butterflies will not fly if the temperature is below 50 degrees Fahrenheit.

· A butterfly drink its food, with a straw-like tube called a proboscis.

· They can see a range of ultraviolet colors, invisible to human eyes.

POLLUTION

ABOUT POLLUTION:

Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash. They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water, and land. These pollutants can be natural or can be man-made like, human wastes, ashes, trashes, or wastes runoff from the factories. This is mainly caused by human activities that harm the environment in ways more than one. Pollution is an issue that has been affecting our earth. Pollution is the stuff that pollutes the environment.  It also affects the ordinary living of the living things on this planet by disturbing the natural life cycle. There are several ways in which our environment can get polluted. Some of them being the use of chemicals, excessive noise, garbage disposal, etc. Pollution causes imbalances in the environment. This imbalance threatened the very survival of all forms of life. We should control pollution for our safe survival. Certain species have been exterminated, and humanity is under a great threat of environmental pollution.

TYPES OF POLLUTION:

There are different kinds of pollutions. Some of the major types of pollution are,

  • AIR POLLUTION:

Air pollution refers to any physical, chemical, or biological change in the air. It is the contamination of air by harmful gases, dust, and smoke that affects plants, animals, and humans drastically. The population’s heavy production of waste is the main reason that air pollution is increasing rapidly. The rapidly increasing human activities like the burning of fossil fuel, deforestation is the major cause of air pollution. There are some other air pollutants like industrial waste, agricultural waste, power plants, thermal nuclear plants, etc.

  • WATER POLLUTION:

Water pollution occurs when harmful substances, often chemicals or microorganisms that contaminate a stream, river, lake, ocean, aquifer, or other body of water, degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment. Water pollution is now a major environmental threat to the existence of humans.

  • LAND POLLUTION:

Land pollution is the cause of many different factors that ultimately pollute the land. These factors include solid waste, deforestation, chemical, and agricultural activities. Land pollution is a result of dumping garbage, waste, and other toxins making the land contaminated or polluted. Some soil or land pollutants are chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers, mining activity, use of plastic, deforestation, growing urbanization, and industrial waste.

WAYS TO CONTROL POLLUTION:

Some of the ways to control pollution are,

  • Avoid excessive idling of your automobile.
  • Avoid burning leaves, trash, and other materials.
  • Conserve energy – at home, at work, everywhere.
  • Encourage industries to avoid pollutant formation at the very source by use of cleaner fuels, the adoption of less polluting materials, and technology in manufacture.
  • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
  • Do not throw waste in water bodies, remain waste of industries should not pour their waste in water bodies.
  • Plant trees.
  • Use fewer chemicals in home gardens and general agriculture.
  • Maintain our vehicles.
  • Conserve electricity.

RAINBOW

ABOUT RAINBOW:

     Rainbow is a natural phenomenon that happens after Rain. It is one of the most beautiful phenomenon created on earth. A rainbow is a multicolored arc in the sky which appears when sunlight hits water droplets. The magical and wonderful phenomenon of a colorful arc in the sky is known as the rainbow. The seven colors that exist in a rainbow are violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. Rainbows are usually seen on the opposite end of where the sun is located. The Rainbow is a lovable scenery that is colorful and pleasant to eyes. In many Civilizations, rainbows are considered to bring good to society and is a symbol of peace and harmony. Rainbows means peace and harmony in many ancient cultures.  There are two main components by which a rainbow is formed i.e. light and drops of water. The state of Hawaii in America is the only place on earth, where rainbows occur most. When the sun is lower, then the rainbow formed in the sky will be higher. The semicircle formed by rainbow makes a 42-degree angle which starts from the direction opposite to the sun. In simple words, A rainbow is an arc of color in the sky that can be seen when the sun shines through falling rain. The Greeks used to imagine that it was a sign from the gods to foretell war or heavy rain. The Norsemen considered the rainbow as a bridge over which the gods passed from earth to their home in the sky. Others have tried to explain the phenomenon physically.

HOW RAINBOWS ARE FORMED:

     A rainbow is caused by sunlight and atmospheric conditions. Light enters a water droplet, slowing down and bending as it goes from air to denser water. The light reflects off the inside of the droplet, separating into its component wavelengths–or color. When light exits the droplet, it makes a rainbow.  A rainbow is caused by three phenomenon of light – reflection, refraction and dispersion.

TYPES OF RAINBOWS:

Some of the different types of rainbows are,

  • SUPERNUMERARY RAINBOWS:

     Supernumerary rainbows are faint bow lines that appear just inside the main rainbow.

  • MULTIPLE RAINBOW:

      Multiple rainbows are another type of rainbow which is also a rare occurrence. Multiple rainbows are sometimes referred to as double rainbows. As the name suggests, multiple rainbows are instances when more than one rainbow occur simultaneously in the same place and are made up of a primary rainbow and other secondary rainbows. 

  • MONOCHROME RAINBOW:

       A red rainbow, also called a monochrome rainbow, usually appears at sunrise or sunset.

  • HIGHER-ORDER RAINBOW:

      Higherorder rainbows appear to viewers facing both toward and away from the sun.

  • LUNAR RAINBOW:

      A moonbow is also commonly referred to as a lunar rainbow. A moonbow is a rare natural atmospheric phenomena that occurs when the Moon’s light is reflected and refracted off water droplets in the air. Moonbows are much fainter than rainbows made by the sun and often appear to be white.

INTERESTING FACTS OF RAINBOWS:

            Some of the interesting facts about rainbows are,

  • A very rare quadruple rainbow was seen over long Island, NY. In April 2015.In the past 250years, only triple and quadruple rainbows have ever been documented.
  • When you’re flying in an airplane and looking down below, you can actually see a rainbow as a complete circle! If the weather circumstances are just right.
  • A person standing next to you is standing in a slightly different spot and sees the rainbow different because they see different raindrops.
  •  A double rainbow occurs when the light is reflected twice in the raindrop, and thus, you can see two distinct reflections that are coming from two different angles.

TREES

ABOUT TREES:

A tree is a tall plant with a trunk and branches made of wood. Trees can live for many years. Trees have a thick wooden central part from which branches grow. A single tree has many roots. The roots can carry nutrients and water from the ground through the trunk and branches to the leaves of the tree. The roots of trees bind the soil and help it from being washed away by water or wind.

BENEFITS OF TREES:

Trees are vital resources for the survival of all living beings. Trees are an important part of the ecosystem. Trees give off oxygen that we need to breathe. They give us oxygen, store carbon, stabilize the soil, and give life to the world’s wildlife. Trees provide fruits, wood, leaves, flowers, rubber, paper, and many other things to human beings. They also provide us with the materials for tools and shelter. Trees clean the air. Trees prevent soil erosion. Trees also provide food, protection, and homes for many birds and mammals. It also provides timber for construction. They also conserve water. They help in fighting back the climate changes by absorbing greenhouse gases which are the main cause of climate change. It helps to maintain balance and also acts as a valuable source of many resources – such as timber, medicine, shelter, raw materials, and more. Trees provide shade, which is needed during the summer months. Trees and their branches are used as a source of fuel. Trees are used to make furniture and other commercial products. We get many medicines from plants like Cinchona, aconite, coriander, digitalis, horehound, tulsi, neem, and garlic. They help in maintaining the right temperature on Earth. During rainy days, soil erosion is prevented with the help of trees. This process purifies the air and keeps the atmosphere clean. Trees also absorb other harmful gases to keep our environment clean. Trees help in balancing the water level in the atmosphere.

INTERESTING FACTS OF TREES:

Some of the interesting facts about trees are,

  • A large oak tree can consume about 100 gallons of water per day, and a giant sequoia can drink up to 500 gallons daily.
  • The rings in a cut tree don’t just reveal its age. They can also show signs of environmental changes, like a volcanic eruption or severe drought.
  • The tallest tree in the country is a Coast Redwood growing in northern California’s Redwood National Park. It is 369 feet tall and over 2000 years old.
  • The world’s shortest tree species is the Dwarf Willow. It is rare to find one more than 2 1/2 inches tall. They are also dioecious, producing both males, yellow-colored and female, red-colored catkins. They have been found growing on the frozen tundra in the Arctic.
  • Wind-blown cottonwood seeds can stay airborne for days before they land. In fact, they can fly longer than any other kind of tree seeds.
  • There is a tree called Rainbow Eucalyptus, with bark having blue, orange, and maroon colors. When the colors combine in sunlight, they give it a particular ‘Rainbow’ effect. This multi-colored tree grows in New Britain, New Guinea, Ceram, Sulawesi, and Mindanao.

RAIN

ABOUT RAIN:

Rain is liquid precipitation which is water falling from the sky. Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is part of the water cycle. A light rain of small drops is known as a drizzle. Spring is the rainiest season of the year as measured by the number of days with precipitation. Rainfall is measured by the depth of water that falls on a level surface without soaking in. Rainfall is measured with a rain gauge.

HOW RAIN IS FORMED? :

Clouds are made of water droplets. Within a cloud, water droplets condense onto one another, causing the droplets to grow. When these water droplets get too heavy to stay suspended in the cloud, they fall to Earth as rain.

IMPORTANCE OF RAIN:

Rain is a wonderful gift of Nature to all mankind. Rain is a major source of water to the inhabitants of the earth, and it also plays a major role in ensuring the water cycle is complete. Rain may be the most essential weather phenomenon for life to exist on Earth. The growth of plants also may depend on rain. Without rain, no crops would grow. If rainfall is less, there is water scarcity which sometimes causes a drought-like situation. It can improve the level of groundwater. Rainfall is also very important for the survival of plants and animals. It brings freshwater to the earth’s surface. With temperature, rainfall is perhaps the most important factor in defining climate. Rainfall is also the major source of energy that drives the circulation of the atmosphere. The rain waters the Earth and refills streams, rivers, lakes, and oceans, and provides the moisture trees and plants use to make their food. This water also gives wild animals the water they need to drink. Thus, Rain is very important.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT RAIN:

Some of the interesting facts about rain are,

* Some regions of the world get rain nearly every day or every other day. Galway, Ireland gets this weather about 220 – 230 days or more each year. Similarly, parts of Hawaii and other tropical areas receive brief spurts of rain on an almost daily basis.

* The place that receives the most annual rainfall on average is a village in India called Mawsynram, Meghalaya, India. They receive about 467 inches each year, most of which falls during monsoon season.

*Drops are not shaped like teardrops as they fall, as is commonly depicted – they are actually dome-shaped.

* When raindrops fall on clay or dusty soils, they trap small air bubbles on the surface which raise upward and burst out of the droplet. This then produces pockets of scent into the air where they are then carried by the wind. This is what causes the familiar smell of rain, which is called ‘Petrichor’.

*Up in the clouds, rain most often starts off as snow. Clouds are made of freezing-cold water droplets and tiny crystals of ice. In most rains, this cold water adheres to ice, forming nascent drops that then fall out of the clouds. As they descend towards the relative warmth of the earth’s surface, they melt and become rain.

* Not all raindrops are made of water: Rain also consists of sulfuric acid or methane, which can also be found on other planets in the solar system.

MUSIC

ABOUT MUSIC :

Music is vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion. It is a form of art. Music is a part of all of our lives, from when we’re growing up to when we’re old. Music is the sound that is pleasing to the human ear. Music is loved by most of the people. Music also makes us excited. Music is a thing that we all enjoy in the course of our lives. Music makes us joy and listening to a favorite song may help to uplift your mood. Music has the ability to convey all sorts of emotions to people. Music can match and manipulate our moods and emotions. Music is not only created by humans but also from the nature such as birds chirping, the whistle in the wind, the sound of rain, etc…. Music can be performed with a wide variety of vocal techniques and instruments. There are different elements of music such as structure, form, articulation, expression, dynamics, color or timber, voice allocation, style, texture, harmony, melody, rhythm, tempo, pulse, or beat and pitch. A person who sings a song is known as a singer. Anyone who composes conducts, or performs music may be referred to as a musician. The other words for the musician are composer, performer, soloist, symphonist, virtuoso, player, entertainer, etc…. There are different kinds of instruments such as percussion, string, brass, woodwind, and piano/keyboard.

TYPES OF MUSIC GENRES:

There are different types of music genres there. Some of them are,

  • POP MUSIC
  • ROCK
  • HIP HOP MUSIC
  • CLASSIC MUSIC
  • FOLK MUSIC
  • BLUES
  • RHYTHM AND BLUES
  • PUNK ROCK
  • COUNTRY MUSIC
  • INDIE ROCK

IMPORTANCE OF MUSIC:

Music has the great qualities of healing a person emotionally and mentally. Music is one of the most calming and soothing things. Music can also make a person calm and relaxed. It has the power to cure diseases such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, etc. Music can also make excitement. There is one language that we all can understand is the language of music. Music is also an important part of our life because it is a way of expressing our feelings as well as emotions. Music may also reduce stress, depression, etc….Music may also help us to enhance the ability to do a work. Music also entertains us. Music improves our minds. Music is also helps us to develop the memorizing capability.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT MUSIC:

  • The Japanese word ‘Karaoke’ comes from a phrase meaning ‘Empty Orchestra’
  • Music is one of the few activities in our life that utilizes the entire brain
  • The world’s longest concert by multiple artists took place from March 17 to April 5, 2017
  • Listening to music while working out measurably improves the physical performance
  • When you listen to music, your body releases dopamine, the same hormone released in the brain when you do exciting or pleasurable activities.
  • The most expensive instrument is a Stradivarius violin called Lady Blunt, which was made in 1741 and sold in 2011 for $15.9 million

STORYBOOKS

WHAT IS STORYBOOK? :

A storybook is a book of stories usually for children. A storybook relationship, situation, or life is one that is perfect and ends happily, just as many fairy stories do. There is also Children’s Picture Storybook which is a work written for children that use both text and illustrations to present a simple plot. Someone who tells or writes stories is known as storytellers.

IMPORTANCE OF STORYBOOKS:

Stories are a great way to introduce new words and the ideas into a child’s language. Storybooks encourages the children to read books further. Reading skills are important for success in their future lives. Reading stories can be helpful for relaxation, before bedtime for example. They allow children to forget the stresses and strains of the day and indulge in fantasy for a while. Reading also helps children improve their confidence levels. The storybook also increases our general knowledge. It also improves our mental ability and reading ability. Storybooks teach us various lessons and morals.

SOME OF THE INTERESTING STORYBOOKS ARE:

There are many storybooks there. Some of the interesting storybooks are,

  • Winnie the Pooh:

Winnie-the-Pooh is a best-selling classic children’s book. It is the first volume of stories about Winnie-the-Pooh, written by A. A. Milne and illustrated by E. H. The Winnie the Pooh Storybook was created to show little ones what it means to be a true friend.

  • The rainbow fish:

.           The Rainbow Fish is a children’s picture book drawn and written by author and illustrator, Marcus Pfister, and translated into English by J. Alison James. The book is best known for its message about selfishness and sharing and the distinctive shiny foil scales of the Rainbow Fish. In this story, Rainbow Fish learns that he must share and learn to be friendly so that other fish will want to be his friend

  • The Gruffalo:

The Gruffalo was written by Julia Donaldson. It is illustrated by Axel Scheffler. The moral of the story is, really, no matter how small or how big you are, you can get yourself out of any situation.

  • The Ugly Duckling:

Ugly Duckling is a fairytale written by the Danish author and poet Hans Christian Anderson. “The Ugly Duckling” is a fairy tale with the moral lesson for people to accept themselves for who they truly are. This popular tale has been adapted to many films, musicals, and dramas.

  • The tortoise and the hare:

The author of the story “The tortoise and the hare” is Aseop. This story tells us that you can be more successful by doing things slowly and steadily than by acting quickly and carelessly. Slow and steady wins the race is the moral of the story.

  • The Jungle book:

The Jungle Book is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling. This book is great for kids who love animals and adventure. The most important life lesson in Jungle Book is to not be a coward. We need to face our fears, gain confidence, and triumph over them.