BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.

Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

Child Marriage

Child marriage is a marriage or comparative association, formal or casual, between a kid and a grown-up or another kid under a particular age, normally age eighteen.[1] by far most of kid relationships are between a young lady and a man, and are established in sex imbalance.

Child marriage disregards the privileges of kids and has broad and long haul ramifications for kid ladies and kid grooms. For young ladies, notwithstanding psychological wellness issues and an absence of admittance to schooling and profession opportunities, this incorporates unfavorable well being impacts because of early pregnancy (counting teen pregnancy) and childbirth. There is little examination on young men in kid relationships, however consequences for young men incorporate being poorly ready for specific duties, for example, accommodating the family, early parenthood, and an absence of admittance to training and vocation opportunities. Child marriage is identified with kid pledge, and it incorporates common living together and court-supported early relationships after teen pregnancy.Causes of kid relationships incorporate neediness, lady of the hour value, settlement, social practices, strict and prevalent difficulties, local traditions, dread of the kid staying unmarried into adulthood, ignorance, and saw failure of ladies to work for money. Research demonstrates that far reaching sex instruction can assist with forestalling kid marriage.

Child marriage has enduring outcomes on young ladies, from their well being (mental and physical), training and social advancement perspectives. These results last past adolescence. One of the most well-known reasons for death for young ladies matured 15 to 19 in non-industrial nations was pregnancy and childbirth. In Niger, which is assessed as having the most noteworthy pace of youngster marriage on the planet, around 3 of every 4 young ladies wed before their eighteenth birthday celebration.

Nyctophobia- A Disease?

“ Did you finish watching that horror movie?”

Yes!

“ What did it cost?”

36 mini heart attacks and 2 sleepless nights. That’s it.

If you can relate to this, guess what, you are nyctophobic. In simple terms, nyctophobia means the fear of the dark.

But don’t panic, you are not alone. Nyctophobia is the third most common phobia of all phobias, so you are not the only one who sees immortal figures at night. But that does not mean that you shouldn’t take it seriously. Also, guess what? It can go away.

Nyctophobia should not be confused with phasmophobia though. Phasmophobia is the fear of ghosts but nyctophobia includes a lot of things. Fear from anything which has an evil or a dark side.

While this type of phobia cannot surely be referred as a mental disease, it is, however a mental condition. But you do need to go to a psychiatrist for it and again IT SHOULD NOT BE IGNORED.

SO let us talk about it for once.

Physical symptoms include:

  • trouble breathing
  • racing heart rate
  • chest tightness or pain
  • shaking, trembling, or tingling sensations
  • lightheadedness or dizziness
  • upset stomach
  • hot or cold flashes
  • sweating
  • crying out of stress

Emotional symptoms include:

  • overwhelming feelings of anxiety or panic
  • an intense need to escape the situation
  • detachment from self or feeling “unreal”
  • losing control or feeling crazy
  • feeling like you may die or lose consciousness
  • feeling powerless over your fear

Basically, a person with nyctophobia sees things that aren’t present there. Not only ghosts or monsters, but they can also imagine that somebody wants to kill them or something. Most people with this condition cannot even sleep alone with the lights switched off, because they are not able to convince their mind that THEY ARE sleeping alone in fact. If you know what I mean.

In my case, for example, whenever I used to sleep alone and I closed my eyes, my mind used to tell me that there was somebody standing inside the room staring at me and I used to end up opening my eyes each time. According to my mom, it was very normal of anybody on this planet to not be able to sleep alone for about 2-3 nights after watching a haunted movie or something and so I do not need a psychiatrist. But you know that you are nyctophobic when there is another haunted movie going on inside your head each day even without taking a glimpse of it on tv. So now, after a lot of persuasions, my mom is convinced to allow me to see a psychologist.

This war is difficult to win and I know it because you have got to fight a long battle with your own mind over here and oh boy your subconscious is more powerful and strong than you know. So, the following are some things you can do to get a strong spell on your own subconscious and overcome this fear of the dark:

1. MEDITATE – This one is very important. It is going to help you to peace out your mind. It will help you get in terms with your subconscious. You can meditate daily for 20- 30 minutes any time of the day.

2. Believe in god- Even if you aren’t a very religious person, just believing that there is a greater force out there that is holding something positive for you can help a lot. And yes, it is tried and tested.

3. Medicate- Yes, there are drugs like Antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications that can control the physical reactions you have to the dark, like racing heart and panic attacks. But this cure is pretty temporary and not really advisable because it may start to affect your health.

4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT] – The success rate of this therapy is over 90% and it is very much long-term. You will have to consult a therapist or psychiatrist for this.

5. Avoid watching movies or shows that scare you. This can decrease your level of anxiety at night.

6. Start with little steps. You can start by leaving a little light lamp ON at night and then go to sleeping in complete darkness.

7. CONSULT AAAAA THEERRRRAAAPIISSSSTTT ! Because if you simply don’t, this fear can start to have adverse effects on your health. It will affect the amount and quality of your sleep and cause sleep deprivation. THIS can interfere with our daily life chores. This fear can lead you to take sleeping pills, which as we all know are not trustable enough in regards to our health as well.

And finally,

There aren’t any well-defined causes of this type of fear. It can be genetic or hereditary, if any of your parents have it, there are high chances of them passing it on to you. It can also be caused through the memories of any bad incidents in the past like the death of a loved one, or an accident. Or it can be NATURAL, and it might go away with your growing age.

Lastly, you should definitely not ignore this phobia as it can persist for a lifetime if not taken care of. You should not, however, panic or feel embarrassed because of your fears and should tell your parents asap because these types of phobias are pretty common and can naturally be found in any person. So just cherish your life and realize that there is a bodacious side to the darkness that is waiting to be discovered and admired by you : )