BITCOIN VS GOLD: WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF INVESTMENTS?

By Moksha Grover

Today, most people have shifted their focus toward investments for the purpose of strengthening their financial position. While there are many ways to strengthen one’s financial position, investment is considered to be the most apposite way. The covid pandemic has taught us a lot about different aspects of life. However, most importantly it has highlighted our way of savings and investments. During tough phases like lockdown, almost everyone suffered financially and was forced to make compromises within their lifestyle. Only those who made wise money decisions at the right time were left uncompromised.

During the pandemic, it was observed that more and more people started investing in safe-haven assets. The most popular safe-haven investment during the covid pandemic has been gold. Gold investments, as we all know, are said to give good returns most of the time. It is also viewed as one of the safest options for investments. However, nowadays, investment in gold is being challenged by cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are now being regarded as the new hot cake in the world of investments and are said to give even more returns than gold. The most trending and successful cryptocurrency is Bitcoin.

WHAT IS BITCOIN?

Bitcoin is termed a digital currency which is free of any central control or the oversight of banks or governments. Instead, it depends upon peer-to-peer software and cryptography. It is also known as digital gold because its properties are very similar to that of gold. Like gold, bitcoin too has a fixed supply and derives its value through its limited supply and growing consumer demand. Some of the pros and cons of this cryptocurrency are: –

PROS

  • Since bitcoin is entirely digital, it can be easily sold a transferred to another person’s account.
  • Bitcoin has the potential to give higher returns on investments because of its growing market.
  • Bitcoin can be used as a currency everywhere. It can be used for payments at any store that accepts bitcoin.
  • Investing in bitcoin now could lead to big payoffs down the road. Because bitcoin is an emerging investment and has the potential to increase in value.

CONS 

  • There is a greater degree of risk involved in bitcoin as it is extremely volatile and susceptible to large fluctuations.
  • Bitcoin is subjected to scams or stealing as it is completely digital and so web-based wallets have the possibility to be hacked.
  • Bitcoin’s value is totally dependent upon the phenomena of demand and supply. If the demand for other cryptocurrencies increases more than the demand for bitcoin, its value can decrease.

WHAT IS INVESTMENT IN GOLD?

Gold is a valuable yellow metal and is used for various consumer goods such as jewellery, and it is not in abundance. Gold is a must for all the special occasions in India ranging from weddings to other special functions. In fact, one of the largest markets for gold is found in India. Gold has a big significance in the country’s cultural value and is considered to be a store of value, a symbol of wealth and status and a fundamental part of many rituals. Investment in gold gives fruitful results most of the time. Some of the pros and cons of Gold investments are: –

PROS

  • Investment in gold is always a stable option as its value increases over time; even if the economy gets into recession, its value will not decrease.
  • If you have your gold stored in a precious metals IRA, it will be stored in a specific, safe vault that is overseen by a custodian who will manage your account. These accounts are often insured up to a certain amount, much like a traditional bank account, so you can rest easy knowing your investment is safe[1].
  • Gold is considered to be an ideal baseline for trading purposes and is being used up as long as civilizations have been around. So it is durable in nature.

CONS

  • Gold can be used as a currency only during an economic crisis. It cannot be used as a currency to buy something in normal times.
  • When you invest in gold you need to keep that physical item stored carefully and safely.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BITCOIN AND GOLD

CHARACTERISTICSBITCOINGOLD
Legality, Transparency and safetyBitcoin has safety issues and is not that transparent and legalGold ranks above bitcoin in safety, legality and transparency.
VolatilityBitcoin is extremely volatile. It is more susceptible to market whims and newsGold is a safer asset and is less volatile
Baseline ValueBitcoin has less baseline value as it is based on a full banking system and many people don’t have access to online banking services.As gold is used in a variety of ways, therefore, it has more baseline value than bitcoin.
RarityRareRare
LiquidityLiquidLiquid

WHICH TYPE OF INVESTMENT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED? GOLD OR BITCOIN

According to billionaire Ray Dalio, bitcoin is just a digital version of gold but he prefers physical gold over bitcoin. “If you put a gun to my head, and you said, ‘I can only have one,’” says Dalio. “I would choose gold.” Here’s why he prefers investment in gold over bitcoin[2].

  • Gold has thousands of years of historical record as a store value and doesn’t face the same competition risks as bitcoin has
  • Unlike bitcoin, gold is very less volatile. Its volatility is just one-fifth of the volatility of bitcoin.
  • Cryptocurrencies can never replace metals like gold and silver as they are being used for centuries in every corner of the world and have a very strong economic standing as compared to bitcoin. So Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin can only help increase the value of these metals but cannot replace them.
  • Gold has offered a very high degree of longevity but such degree of longevity offered by bitcoin is highly questionable.

FINAL VERDICT

Both bitcoin and gold have their own advantages and disadvantages. For now, it is very hard to predict whether an investment in gold will result in better returns or investment in bitcoin. Bitcoin, today is said to be giving more returns than gold. It is alleged that Bitcoin’s market cap will surpass gold’s market cap by 2030. However, nothing is for sure now. Many people prefer gold investments, at the same time many people have shifted towards investments in bitcoin. Bitcoin has a fantastic upside and limited downside, while gold has a more traditional risk-reward balance[3]. Bitcoin is good for short-term investments and getting high returns on it and gold is good for long-term investments and gives relatively lower returns than bitcoin. It is completely the choice of the investor regarding the kind of investment he/ she wants to take up. An investor can invest in bitcoin or gold or in both. It is completely the choice of the investor. But it is advisable to invest in both bitcoin as well as gold as it will help you diversify your investments and increase your chances of high returns.


[1] ‘BITCOIN VS GOLD: WHICH IS BETTER?’, NATIONWIDE COIN & BULLION RESERVE < https://nationwidecoins.com/bitcoin-vs-gold-which-is-the-better-investment/> accessed 11th September 2021

[2] Jade Scipioni, ‘Bitcoin vs. gold: Here’s what billionaire Ray Dalio thinks, make it (4th August 2021) < https://www.cnbc.com/2021/08/04/bitcoin-vs-gold-heres-what-billionaire-ray-dalio-thinks.html> accessed 11th September 2021

[3] Ravi Singhal, ‘Gold vs Bitcoin: Which one is a better option for investment?’, The Economic Times (8th August 2021) <https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/markets/cryptocurrency/gold-vs-bitcoin-which-one-is-a-better-option-for-investment/articleshow/85148997.cms?from=mdr accessed 11th September 2021

5 Benefits of Learning to Code

Photo by Kevin Ku on Pexels.com

Computer programming or coding is a very important skill in tech that engineering students, app developers, website developers, game developers etc. use in order to create what they intend to. Over the past couple of years, coding has progressed from a geeky hobby to career-creating skill. It is easy to learn, doesn’t take much time in learning, fun to apply and eventually grow step-by-step. The fact that literally anybody can learn to code surprises everyone who stumble upon it. Moreover, employers have shown a willingness to pay a premium for the work of employees with coding and programming ability.

You might be wondering if coding is something you should consider. So how to start to learn coding? How long will it take? How much time is less time? What exactly should be our goal?- are all the questions one goes through before starting to learn coding in the present time. So here we have ‘5 benefits of learning to code’ which will go through all the aforesaid questions and answer quite more than what comes in the general thought.

  1. A new perspective to problem-solving:

Coding helps us in understanding logic at a deep level and improves my problem-solving proficiency. In its most basic terms, is really just assigning a computer a task to do based on the logical guidelines you’ve outlined. Once you have got a really good grip on the coding language, it provides you an arsenal of tools which helps you to reciprocate your idea into a working code. This psychology improves problem solving as you approach the problem in a way that matches to your intellect in a certain field; that field being coding.

Hilary Bird, senior developer at Get Century Link says, “I can break problems down into small, separate parts and figure out how each is affecting the other,” she explains. “This helps me decide what area of the problem to focus on first.”

2. Great earning potential:

One of the most important and the strongest merits of learning to code is that it offers impeccable earning potential to programmers. Demand remains strong for coding-related jobs and this means that it has got a high probability that it pays really well. In the US, median annual salary information for these coding and programming-related professions is as follows:

  • Web developers: $73,760
  • Network and computer systems administrators: $83,510
  • Computer programmers: $86,550
  • Database administrators: $93,750
  • Software developers: $107,510

To put it into perspective, the national average for all occupations in the US is around $39,810. As you can see, careers that involve some programming, coding or scripting skills tend to come with above-average salaries.

3. Career flexibility:

Learning to code can help open up new areas of opportunity in your career and ultimately make you a more flexible candidate in a rapidly-shifting digital economy. Even if your job doesn’t require you to have a deep understanding of coding or programming languages, it still helps because you’ll likely need to interact with another person who does. Learning to code, even as a hobby, can give you a common reference point and better understanding of those who tackle some of the more complex programming and coding roles out there. 

4. Complements creativity:

Another benefit of learning to code is that it can help you showcase your creativity online. For example, with coding knowledge, you can create online blogs or complex websites and customize them to make your own rather than using pre-existing templates. This can be a great way to help you stand out when designing your online portfolio or for creating a strong visual identity for your brand as an aspiring business owner.

5. Coding is a universal language:

Much like mathematics, code is a universal language; it is the same across the world and does not need to be translated, unless different coding languages are used. When transferring jobs or moving to another country, language barriers can sometimes get in the way. However, since coding languages are the same globally, it is a skill you can carry with you to any country. Learning how to code can make you a highly employable individual and give you the ability to thrive in any environment.

All things considered, coding or computer programming can be regarded as one of the most basic skill that one should learn. Nowadays, coding has been incorporated in schools as a compulsory subject like mathematics which is a good sign as it provides school-going children an early-start into the programming world and can improve the condition of numerous fields where it is applied there on.

Robotics The Future is Here

What comes to your mind when you come across the word ‘ROBOT’? If you think they are only the thing of space movies and science fiction novels, then think again. Robots are the best growing technological device in the world. Ranging from space exploration to entertainment , a robot’s performance is commendable.

The robot industry is growing very fast, providing us with various new technologies that can assist with household work,medical work,industrial work, space exploration and many other tasks. Robotic technology has brought a lot of changes around us and is continuing to impact the way we are living in this world. Robotics technology has transformed a lot since the past to the present scenario. It surrounds almost everyone in today’s world and affects both work and leisure activities.

Robotics was a sub-branch of mechanical, electrical and computer science engineering. But now with increasing demand for artificial intelligence, machine learning and automation. Robotics and automation has introduced itself as a branch of engineering.
Robotics deals with the design,construction, operation and application of robots and computer systems and their control and processing.

Robotic technology is becoming one of the fastest growing technologies in the world. Some of the leading robotics companies are ABB, Fanuc, KUKA, Yaskawa.Robots are versatile, they can perform many functions.They are multifunctional in today’s society.

Some of the projects that became famous all over the globe are the curiosity rover,sophia the human robo, DJI Mavic and Phantom,Robonaut-R2 and R5.The use of robotic technology has made a deep influence on the world in several ways. As technological advances continue, research design and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestic, commercial, military or space.

Incredibly human race have made robots that can replace humans from working in hazardous conditions like defusing bombs, mining and exploring shipwrecks.Robots are very beneficial to human race. They are efficient, take less time to complete a task,save a lot of money and provide accurate and precise work.There are various industry segments which are making use of robotics to improve their production capabilities.

The craze of robots has spread so much that so many movies and series are also based on its theme. Some popular movies include Star Wars, Robocop, Ra one, Transformers etc.
The increasing popularity of robotics has resulted in the formation of the Robotics Society of India (RSI). It is an academie society founded on 10th July, 2011, which aims at promoting Indian robotics and automation activities.

We all know every coin has two sides, robotics too has a flip side to it. The largest barrier in the development of robots has been the expensive hardware such as sensors, motors etc. Nowadays micro and nano technologies are also used that are exorbitant. Customizing and updating such complex technologies is also an added problem.

With each passing day new advancements in technologies are taking place, a new product launch could possibly be a problem for the people already in the game. Robots cut down labor charges, thus reducing an enormous amount of opportunities of employment for many workers. In several developed countries, scientists are making robotic military forces that can prove dangerous to others in future. As the power and potential of computers will keep expanding, revolution will be created in the field of robotics technology. Imagination is coupled with technology. It would not be wrong to say that in the near future there will be a time when robots will become smarter than the human race and robots might rule over the human race.

What is NFT – Non-Fungible Token

NFTs are currently taking the digital art and collectibles world by storm. Digital artists are seeing their lives change thanks to huge sales to a new crypto-audience. And celebrities are joining in as they spot a new opportunity to connect with fans. But digital art is only one way to use NFTs. Really they can be used to represent ownership of any unique asset, like a deed for an item in the digital or physical realm.

What’s an NFT?

NFTs are tokens that we can use to represent ownership of unique items. They let us tokenise things like art, collectibles, even real estate. They can only have one official owner at a time and they’re secured by the Ethereum blockchain – no one can modify the record of ownership or copy/paste a new NFT into existence.

NFT stands for non-fungible token. Non-fungible is an economic term that you could use to describe things like your furniture, a song file, or your computer. These things are not interchangeable for other items because they have unique properties.

Fungible items, on the other hand, can be exchanged because their value defines them rather than their unique properties.

The internet of assets

NFTs and Ethereum solve some of the problems that exist in the internet today. As everything becomes more digital, there’s a need to replicate the properties of physical items like scarcity, uniqueness, and proof of ownership. Not to mention that digital items often only work in the context of their product. For example you can’t re-sell an iTunes mp3 you’ve purchased, or you can’t exchange one company’s loyalty points for another platform’s credit even if there’s a market for it.

Here’s how an internet of NFTs compared to the internet most of us use today looks…

A comparison

An NFT internetThe internet today
NFTs are digitally unique, no two NFTs are the same.A copy of a file, like an .mp3 or .jpg, is the same as the original.
Every NFT must have an owner and this is of public record and easy for anyone to verify.Ownership records of digital items are stored on servers controlled by institutions – you must take their word for it.
NFTs are compatible with anything built using Ethereum. An NFT ticket for an event can be traded on every Ethereum marketplace, for an entirely different NFT. You could trade a piece of art for a ticket!Companies with digital items must build their own infrastructure. For example an app that issues digital tickets for events would have to build their own ticket exchange.
Content creators can sell their work anywhere and can access a global market.Creators rely on the infrastructure and distribution of the platforms they use. These are often subject to terms of use and geographical restrictions.
Creators can retain ownership rights over their own work, and claim resale royalties directly.Platforms, such as music streaming services, retain the majority of profits from sales.
Items can be used in surprising ways. For example, you can use digital artwork as collateral in a decentralised loan.

NFT examples

The NFT world is relatively new. In theory, the scope for NFTs is anything that is unique that needs provable ownership. Here are some examples of NFTs that exist today, to help you get the idea:

ethereum.org examples

We use NFTs to give back to our contributors and we’ve even got our own NFT domain name.

POAPs (Proof of attendance protocol)

If you contribute to ethereum.org, you can claim a POAP NFT. These are collectibles that prove you participated in an event. Some crypto meetups have used POAPs as a form of ticket to their events. More on contributing.

ethereum.org POAP

ethereum.eth

This website has an alternative domain name powered by NFTs, ethereum.eth. Our .org address is centrally managed by a domain name system (DNS) provider, whereas ethereum.eth is registered on Ethereum via the Ethereum Name Service (ENS). And its owned and managed by us. 

How do NFTs work?

NFTs are different from ERC-20 tokens, such as DAI or LINK, in that each individual token is completely unique and is not divisible. NFTs give the ability to assign or claim ownership of any unique piece of digital data, trackable by using Ethereum’s blockchain as a public ledger. An NFT is minted from digital objects as a representation of digital or non-digital assets. For example, an NFT could represent:

  • Digital Art:
    • GIFs
    • Collectibles
    • Music
    • Videos
  • Real World Items:
    • Deeds to a car
    • Tickets to a real world event
    • Tokenized invoices
    • Legal documents
    • Signatures
  • Lots and lots more options to get creative with!

An NFT can only have one owner at a time. Ownership is managed through the uniqueID and metadata that no other token can replicate. NFTs are minted through smart contracts that assign ownership and manage the transferability of the NFT’s. When someone creates or mints an NFT, they execute code stored in smart contracts that conform to different standards, such as ERC-721. This information is added to the blockchain where the NFT is being managed. The minting process, from a high level, has the following steps that it goes through:

  • Creating a new block
  • Validating information
  • Recording information into the blockchain

NFT’s have some special properties:

  • Each token minted has a unique identifier that is directly linked to one Ethereum address.
  • They’re not directly interchangeable with other tokens 1:1. For example 1 ETH is exactly the same as another ETH. This isn’t the case with NFTs.
  • Each token has an owner and this information is easily verifiable.
  • They live on Ethereum and can be bought and sold on any Ethereum-based NFT market.

In other words, if you own an NFT:

  • You can easily prove you own it.
    • Proving you own an NFT is very similar to proving you have ETH in your account.
    • For example, let’s say you purchase an NFT, and the ownership of the unique token is transferred to your wallet via your public address.
    • The token proves that your copy of the digital file is the original.
    • Your private key is proof-of-ownership of the original.
    • The content creator’s public key serves as a certificate of authenticity for that particular digital artefact.
      • The creators public key is essentially a permanent part of the token’s history. The creator’s public key can demonstrate that the token you hold was created by a particular individual, thus contributing to its market value (vs a counterfeit).
    • Another way to think about proving you own the NFT is by signing messages to prove you own the private key behind the address.
      • As mentioned above, your private key is proof-of-ownership of the original. This tells us that the private keys behind that address control the NFT.
      • A signed message can be used as proof that you own your private keys without revealing them to anybody and thus proving you own the NFT as well!
  • No one can manipulate it in any way.
  • You can sell it, and in some cases this will earn the original creator resale royalties.
  • Or, you can hold it forever, resting comfortably knowing your asset is secured by your wallet on Ethereum.

And if you create an NFT:

  • You can easily prove you’re the creator.
  • You determine the scarcity.
  • You can earn royalties every time it’s sold.
  • You can sell it on any NFT market or peer-to-peer. You’re not locked in to any platform and you don’t need anyone to intermediate.

Scarcity

The creator of an NFT gets to decide the scarcity of their asset.

For example, consider a ticket to a sporting event. Just as an organizer of an event can choose how many tickets to sell, the creator of an NFT can decide how many replicas exist. Sometimes these are exact replicas, such as 5000 General Admission tickets. Sometimes several are minted that are very similar, but each slightly different, such as a ticket with an assigned seat. In another case, the creator may want to create an NFT where only one is minted as a special rare collectible.

In these cases, each NFT would still have a unique identifier (like a bar code on a traditional “ticket”), with only one owner. The intended scarcity of the NFT matters, and is up to the creator. A creator may intend to make each NFT completely unique to create scarcity, or have reasons to produce several thousand replicas. Remember, this information is all public.

Royalties

Some NFTs will automatically pay out royalties to their creators when they’re sold. This is still a developing concept but it’s one of the most powerful. Original owners of EulerBeats Originals earn an 8% royalty every time the NFT is sold on. And some platforms, like Foundation and Zora, support royalties for their artists.

This is completely automatic so creators can just sit back and earn royalties as their work is sold from person to person. At the moment, figuring out royalties is very manual and lacks accuracy – a lot of creators don’t get paid what they deserve. If your NFT has a royalty programmed into it, you’ll never miss out.

What are NFTs used for?

Here’s more information of some of the better developed use-cases and visions for NFTs on Ethereum.

  • Digital content
  • Gaming items
  • Domain names
  • Physical items
  • Investments and collateral

Maximising earnings for creators

The biggest use of NFTs today is in the digital content realm. That’s because that industry today is broken. Content creators see their profits and earning potential swallowed by platforms.

An artist publishing work on a social network makes money for the platform who sell ads to the artists followers. They get exposure in return, but exposure doesn’t pay the bills.

NFTs power a new creator economy where creators don’t hand ownership of their content over to the platforms they use to publicise it. Ownership is baked into the content itself.

When they sell their content, funds go directly to them. If the new owner then sells the NFT, the original creator can even automatically receive royalties. This is guaranteed every time it’s sold because the creator’s address is part of the token’s metadata – metadata which can’t be modified.

Esports in India

Picture source : https://www.raillynews.com/2021/04/What-is-Esports%3F-How-to-Get-an-Esports-License%3F-How-to-Become-an-Esports-Player%3F/

Esports pertain to a sports competition through video games organized into the multiplayer setting. It has successfully taken over the Indian market because of the promotion and campaign on various online streaming platforms like YouTube. The esports industry is not new, but not many people are aware that it has been around for a decade already. It just so happen that it became popular in India just recently as more developers and investors showed interest in the Indian market. The most common esports genre in the Indian market today is the following: MOBA (Multiplayer Online Battle Arena)
RTS (Real-Time Strategy)
FPS (First Person Shooter)
Card games
Battle Royale
Fighting

Esports in India India ranked 16 on the Forbes list, making it a multi-billion dollar industry. A decade ago, India’s online gaming sector is lame, with only 25 game developers. Today, there are over 250 game developers in the country. Some of the big names in the industry had already invested in India’s gaming sector, such as Tencent, Nazara, Paytm, and Alibaba. The revenue generated in sports mostly came from companies like Oppo and Asus. India has hosted some of the most significant tournaments in esports, such as PUBG Mobile Series 2019 and the Electronic Sports League, participated by Dota 2 players from different parts of the world.

Counter-Strike – It was first released in early 2012, and since then, it becomes the most popular and widely played esports in the country. Back then, India was not a hub for esports. Today, India is recognized internationally for esports, and counterstrike has a lot to do with it.

Dota 2 – It is the first esport that dominated the Indian market; a multiplayer online battle game played by two teams with each team consisting of five players.

Esports sector during pandemic: Online gaming is one of the reasons why India’s economy is still surviving despite the global pandemic. The number of online gamers using their smartphone has grown by 60% if you compare the data during pre-covid and lockdown. The high youth population and the affordability and accessibility of smartphones are the primary reasons why India’s online gaming sector is thriving. It has also paved the way for an online casino portal for Indian players. Another factor that paved the way to the growth of the online gaming market is the penetration of high-speed 4G internet.

Stakeholders’ role in India’s esports growth E-commerce platforms has a lot to do with the growth of esports in India. They make sure that the gaming enthusiasts will have access to the hardware and accessory they need for the game. Some of the notable e-commerce include Asus and Flipkart. Online gamers prefer to use gaming devices and tools with top-notch performance. Companies that produce such gaming paraphernalia ensure the demands are met while keeping in mind affordability and accessibility. Companies like Amazon and Flipkart ensure that gaming products are available and affordable.

Connectivity is a major contributor to the gaming industry’s growth. Telecommunication providers have been working 24/7 to provide the best data plans, keeping in mind high-speed data access and affordability. Data availability is made possible through Reliance Jo’s effort to set up thousands of mobile towers across the country, ensuring high-speed connection.

Written with REFERENCE from https://esports.gg/

Video Editing as a Career in India

What is Video Editing?

The whole process of making art aesthetically appealing lies in the technique of editing visualsVideo editing covers the whole process of re-arrangement and modification of the video.

What is the job of a Video Editor ?

A video & film editor’s job is to take videotapes to produce a single refined piece of video. Today, video editors are considered to be the backbone of any post-production process. The key responsibility of a video editor is to edit any visual media form, like soundtracks, film, and videos for the cable and broadcast visual media industries. Gone are the days of Linear Editing (Tape to tape), today new technology is used to edit the media.

Non-linear editing or Digital Video Editing is the buzzword in today’s digital world. Digital video editing makes use of computer technology to facilitate the whole editing process onscreen. With the Indian cinema and entertainment industry crossing all geographical boundaries, a video editing career has surely emerged as a lucrative option to many Indian youngsters.

Film editing courses will help you understand the nuances of cutting and editing videos. This is done through hands-on, practical training.

Video Editing Eligibility Criteria

There is no formal educational qualification required to enter into this profession. All one needs is training in the computer systems and programs used in digital video/film editing and interest in editing visual media.

For doing specialized courses from reputed institutes like Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, candidates must possess the qualification prescribed by the respective institutes/ colleges. In general, Digital video editors often have a bachelor’s or a master’s degree in animation or media arts.

Video Editing Personal Skills

Being Imaginative and techno-savvy are essential for this profession. You simply cannot become a good video editor if you do not have a flair for the creative. You also need to have a sharp eye for detail, an analytical mind, and the ability to work in a team.

A video editing career requires being abreast with the latest technological developments happening in his/her profession as newer technologies are being introduced quite regularly.

Video Editing Job Prospects 

Besides media houses, large film studios, electronic news channel groups, one can also find wide-ranging opportunities in various production houses scattered all across the country.

The increased popularity of online video clips has also resulted in a large number of job opportunities for competent video editors.

Video Editing Salary 

Initially, one can earn a salary between Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 10,000 per month. With some years of experience and expertise gained in video editing, a video editor‘s career is on the smooth track with a high pay package and other benefits.

A creative and experienced video editor working for a large studio can earn a salary of anywhere between Rs. 25, 000 to Rs. 75,000 per month. One can also have the liberty to work as a freelance in a firm where he could be paid on an hourly basis.

WHAT’S NEW IN WINDOWS 11?

With Windows 11, Microsoft has brought in several changes that promise to change just how you interact with your Windows-based machines. From the inclusion of improved multi-window multitasking to features that improve PC gaming, there’s a lot to be excited about here.

However, arguably the biggest change that’s come to Windows 11 is the fact that it comes with a new, simplified Start menu. This new Start menu comes with an updated Start button that is now positioned at the center of the taskbar, instead of being placed in a corner. This is a design change that makes navigating the operating system so much easier than before. 

This new Start Menu is built using Microsoft’s Fluent Design language and as such features rounded corners and big icons. The search bar in the Start Menu is now displayed across the top, which depending on how you use your operating system could be an interesting addition. 

Apart from this, Windows 11 also offers what Microsoft calls the Desktops to feature that gives the user the ability to set up and manage multiple iterations of your desktop. It’s a simple and easy feature to use, which when gotten used greatly improves ease of use. This can be accessed by going to this new icon that all Windows users of the past will instantly notice on their home screens. This Task View button sits alongside the Start button and looks like contrasting windows over one another. Hover your pointer over it, and you’ll see a small preview of all the desktops you have open, as well as the option to set up a new one

Should we upgrade to Windows 11?

 Well, eventually yes. 

 The operating system offers a ton of new features and visual upgrades that make it a better, and fresher offering than Windows 10. From the gaming-first features to the redesigned Start menu and Widgets apps, enough is being offered to help you decide to make the move. However, as we found out when running benchmarks on Windows 11, the new operating system, for now, is not without its issues. 

There appear to be bugs in the code that are holding back the performance of Windows 11 — even if it’s by a measly 2-3 percent. While that may not be too big a deal for some, in our opinion, it is something that should make us wait for a few weeks at least before moving to Windows 11 as Microsoft should be able to iron out these minor issues with software updates soon enough.

The performance of Windows 11 might be a little slower than windows 10 but initially, in time, this problem will be solved soon. And windows 11 will provide a very pleasing experience to all its users.

Ps: Microsoft is providing a free upgrade to Windows 11 for most of the windows 10 users. 

The requirements for installing windows 11 are

  • A “compatible” 1 GHz or faster dual-core 64-bit processor from Intel, AMD, or Qualcomm.
  • 4GB of RAM.
  • 64GB of storage.
  • UEFI Secure Boot supported and enabled.
  • A Trusted Platform Module (TPM), version 2.0.
  • A DirectX 12-compatible GPU with a WDDM 2.0 driver.

What is the Difference Between Gaming Laptops And Normal Laptops?

Picture source : Pinterest

Ever wondered what specialties distinguish a gaming laptop from a normal laptop?

Well, there are a lot of factors that act their part to make a Gaming laptop significantly better than Normal laptops. Let’s discuss what they are.

Graphics Card or GPU:

What is gaming without vivid real-life graphics? The additional dedicated Graphics card or a Graphics Processing Unit in Gaming Laptop allows your high-definition games to run more smoothly and provide improved performance. Many manufacturing companies are adding GPU in the laptops for high functionality which can be helpful even in your official works.

The advanced Graphics video cards allow better realistic landscapes and actions. Graphics cards are available in 512 MB, 1 GB, and 2 GB. A higher capacity GPU will enable you to have an unprecedented gaming experience and also allow 3D gaming.

RAM

RAM is another important feature that makes gaming laptops have an edge over normal laptops. The capacity, as well as the speed of RAM, determines how fast and smooth would your machine run. Unlike normal laptops, most Gaming laptops have dedicated VRAM for video memory. Usually, normal laptops have 2 GB RAM, whereas Gaming laptops support 4 GB or more capacity RAM.

Processor

The Processor too plays an important role when comparing a gaming laptop and a normal laptop.

Gaming laptops are powered by high-velocity processors which enable functioning to be swift and need minimum buffering. You would appreciate the sudden freezing of your screen in the middle of a tournament. The normal laptops do not have these high-performing processors but have comparatively slow-running quad-core processors. So while opting for gaming laptops, nothing beneath the GHz range must be considered.

Screen Size and Display

While playing HD or 3D video games, screen size and display become important factors. Gaming laptops have a wider aspect ratio which can give you a more vivid gaming experience as it will fit the display more accurately.

Viewing angle too is important in laptops as it will give you wider coverage of the field of view. You will be able to see the display from almost every angle.

Battery Life

While discussing the difference between a normal laptop and a gaming laptop, battery life is a vital point to consider.

High definition video games will consume high powers and certainly, you would not want to drain your battery when you are at a crucial point in your game. It’s frustrating, right?

That is why you need a higher and more powerful battery in your laptop. Normal laptops generally have a battery life of 5 to 6 hours once fully charged. But gaming laptops with stellar batteries can provide you with a run time of 12 to 13 hours at one charge. With this improved battery life, you wouldn’t be fearing running out of battery ever again.

Connectivity

As most of the video games available are played online, you should always prefer a laptop with a Wifi connection. With that, you would be able to connect to the Internet at public hotspots and communicate with your fellow players online. It is an important feature even for business and other official purposes, but often normal laptops skip this feature. Replacing your normal laptop with the gaming one will allow you to work online uninterruptedly via a Wifi connection.

Bluetooth connectivity is a major characteristic to look for in a laptop. Gaming laptops usually support Bluetooth connectivity and allow easy sharing of your data. Also, Bluetooth helps in connecting with new-age Bluetooth-compatible speakers and headphones with your laptop to give you a better audio experience.

Keyboards:

Another point is the difference between gaming and normal laptop is their keyboard.

Normal laptops tend to have a keyboard for light uses. It has inferior durability to mechanical keyboards of Gaming PC. But the specially designed gaming laptops are equipped with mechanical-type keyboards which offer increased tolerance to your excitement-filled hits.

Illumination:

Nobody will deny that illumination can elevate the gaming experience to the ultimate level. Normal laptops usually don’t offer any LED illumination or backlighting feature. Whereas, gaming laptops often feature stunning customizable RGB LED lighting that would give your gameplay a more lifelike feel.

Input-Output Interface

USB and HDMI ports are useful on any laptop. Gaming laptops usually offer multiple jacks for connecting external devices than the normal ones.

Internal Cooling

Long hours of uninterrupted working often leads to overheating of laptops. Gaming laptops generally come equipped with extra internal cooling fans and improved wiring for better heat dissipation than normal laptops.

Conclusion:

We hope this concise article has provided all the required information you needed to know about the difference between a gaming laptop and a normal laptop.

Though gaming laptops are a tad bit more expensive than the normal ones, they are definitely worth the money. With improved speed, higher quality parts, and longer battery life, gaming laptops can be a great replacement for regular ones.

Although regular laptops usually have all the necessary features, it would never hurt to upgrade them for better performance.

How Spotify analyzed brain activity to improve its ad experience

Neuromarketing, a field that makes use of studies and research into the human mind, thoughts, feelings and experiences to design better products, increase sales as well as enhance the marketability of organizations has been gaining momentum. It involves developing an understanding of consumer needs by applying the techniques of neuroscience. While some techniques such as EEG, fMRI and the like are used to directly measure brain activity corresponding to specific functions, other tools include eye tracking and biometric data measurement.

Neuromarketing requires a good amount of investment. However, it is worth the expense since, in comparison to traditional forms of data collection, such as questionnaires and surveys, it directly collects information from the subconscious, a prime source of human decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of data is less likely using this method and it establishes a far better emotional connection with the audience. PepsiCo, Hyundai, Yahoo and eBay are some of the well-known organizations that have used neuromarketing. Spotify, the leading audio streaming platform has joined the list by recently collaborating with the neuro analytics company Neuro-Insight to conduct a brain wave study.

How was it conducted?

The study was based on the experience of 600 participants who listened to multiple genres of music, ranging from rap, pop, Latin, etc. Audio digital ads were allowed to play in between. Brain activity was measured by researchers using a brain tracking method known as Steady State Topography (SST). According to its developer, Richard Silberstein, founder of Neuro-Insight, It not only measures an individual’s speed of response to stimuli but also helps in understanding psychological processes by analyzing the speed of various brain sensitively.

What were the results?

  1. Emotional intensity can be increased by using digital audio since it keeps the long-term memory active and engaged in the process of searching for details and memories.
  2. The genre of music determines its impact on the brain. Rap music, which is driven by speech, tends to bring about more engagement. On the other hand, genres such as instrumental and rock produce more emotional attachment.  
  3. About 93 percent of the brain’s capacity to engage with the music or podcast impacts the engagement with ads. This was a particularly noteworthy aspect for Spotify, an ad-driven platform and can serve other similar platforms in the future.

Jon Gibs, who is the principal data scientist and global director at Spotify, reported that this study was conducted to ensure that Spotify serves content that aligns with the interests of the consumer. He believes that through Neuromarketing, brands can get good insights into a consumer’s thought process as they consume multiple types of media. Samrat Saran, who is the head of client solutions at Neuro-Insight, said that this study would enable them to determine Spotify’s efficiency as an ad-driven platform.

This study provided some valuable insights which can be very helpful to plenty of content creating and streaming platforms. Advertisers are always looking for customer-friendly platforms and through such studies, user experience can be optimized in such a way that more investors would be attracted to pitch in, which would, in turn, generate better revenues and services. Even though Neuromarketing is not yet widely used, it has the potential to transform the future of marketing.

First person shooter games

Source : https://store.steampowered.com/app/730/CounterStrike_Global_Offensive/

First-person shooters are a type of shooter game that relies on a first-person point of view with which the player experiences the action through the eyes of the character. They differ from third-person shooters in that, in a third-person shooter, the player can see the character they are controlling (usually from behind, or above). The primary design focus is combat, mainly involving firearms or other types of long-range weapons. A defining feature of the genre is “player-guided navigation through a three-dimensional space.” This is a defining characteristic that clearly distinguishes the genre from other types of shooting games that employ a first-person perspective, including light gun shooters, rail shooters, shooting gallery games, or older shooting electro-mechanical games. The First-person shooter games are thus categorized as being distinct from light gun shooters, a similar genre with a first-person perspective that uses dedicated light gun peripherals, in contrast to the use of conventional input devices. Light-gun shooters (like Virtua Cop) often feature “on-rails” (scripted) movement, whereas first-person shooters give the player complete freedom to roam the surroundings.

The first-person shooter may be considered a distinct genre itself, or a type of shooter game, in turn, a subgenre of the wider action game genre. Following the release of Doom in 1993, games in this style were commonly referred to as “Doom clones“; over time this term has largely been replaced by “first-person shooter”. Wolfenstein 3D, released in 1992, the year before Doom, has been often credited with introducing the genre, but critics have since identified similar, though less advanced, games developed as far back as 1973. There are occasional disagreements regarding the specific design elements which constitute a first-person shooter. For example, titles like Deus Ex or BioShock may be considered as first-person shooters, but may also fit into the role-playing games category, as they borrow extensively from that genre. Other examples, like Far Cry and Rage, could also be considered adventure games, because they focus more on exploration than simple action, they task players with multiple different objectives other than just killing enemies, and they often revolve around the construction of complex cinematic storylines with a well-defined cast of secondary characters to interact with. Furthermore, certain puzzle or platforming games get also called first-person shooters, despite lacking any direct combat or shooting element, instead of using a first-person perspective to help players immerse within the game and better navigate 3D environments (for example, in the case of Portal, the ‘gun’ the player character carries is used to create portals through walls rather than fire projectiles). Some commentators also extend the definition to include combat flight simulators and space battle games, whenever the cockpit of the aircraft is depicted from a first-person point of view.

The top FPS games in 2021 are 

  • Counterstrike Global offensive (CSgo)
  • Valorant
  • Call of Duty Warzone (COD)
  • Apex Legends
  • Overwatch
  • Destiny 2
  • PlayerUnknown’s Battlegrounds (PUBG)
  • Left 4 Dead 2
  • Battlefield V
  • Half-Life 2.
  • Rainbow Six Siege.
  • Escape from Tarkov
  • Metro Exodus
  • Titan Fall 2
  • Halo Infinite

A Comparative study of the IOS Vs Android OS of the Mobile Platform – Of the Latest Versions

Picture Source : https://medium.com/mobile-app-development-publication/android-vs-ios-the-battle-of-security-speed-and-storage-8681f25144f2

ANDROID AS AN OPERATING SYSTEM


The android operating system is a mobile operating system that was
developed by Google(GOOGLE)to be primarily used for touch screen
devices, cellphones, and tablets. Its design lets users manipulate the
mobile devices intuitively, with finger movements that mirror common
motions, such as pinching, swiping, and tapping. Google also employs
Android software in televisions, cars, and wristwatches–each of which
is fitted with a unique user interface.

IOS AS AN OPERATING SYSTEM

OS responds to the user’s touch–allowing you touch the screen to
open a program, pinch your fingers together to minimize or enlarge
image, or swipe your finger across the screen to change pages.
It comes with the Safari web browser for internet use and iPod
application for playing music and Apple’s Mail for managing your emails.
Apple products have a very strong brand following, they tend to be the
most expensive but are also well-engineered. They do have drawbacks
however, they do not support a type of software called Flash which lots
of internet sites use to show video and you are locked into the Apple
Brand because the operating system only works on Apple products.

Comparison

In this world, where technology is growing at a very rapid speed. Almost every person right now is having a smartphone in their hands. Talking more about smartphones, we know that there are two biggest competitors in the OS (Operating System) market, mainly Android and IOS. Androids are widely used on phones and tablets, and even on televisions allowing users to be free in their choice. The iOS system, on the contrary, is limited to Apple devices, having no customization. The range of iOS devices is more premium-class iPhones, which is not affordable for everybody. Androids are compatible with any gadget of the price spectrum which makes them more liked among common people. Firstly, both operating systems have a lot in common: the zoom movements, tapping, swiping, a lock screen, similar to the PC’s desktop. That is why switching from one to another makes no problems, except that the iOS system has the most used icons on the home screen, while Androids allow users to set widgets, email, weather, etc. Secondly, software gets outdated every second, so it needs to be renewed regularly. The best results in updating security patches, for instance, belong to the iOS system. Around 90% of Apple devices are powered by the latest software versions whereas only high-end Android devices have the latest software. Both mobile operating systems have decent records and safeguards when it comes to security, but Android, being more open, has more vectors for malware to enter your phone. In particular, apps are more prone to bring trouble in Android, especially if you install from an alternative app store. Whereas in IOS it is not possible to install any apps outside of the Appstore. In the end, we can conclude that IOS is Better than Android in security, software, and privacy aspects. And android is better than IOS in customization and price aspects.

Love to know about space, solar system, Earth? Check out the NASA app

NASA App for Smartphones, Tablets and Digital Media Players | NASA

The NASA application gives complete data, photographs, recordings and substantially more to fulfill your interest in space, nearby planet group, Earth and different themes.

Space has been captivating stargazers for quite a long time. And keeping in mind that the space organizations, like NASA, have made it simpler for intrigued individuals to get every one of the most recent updates and investigate space, the nearby planet group, Earth and universes past effortlessly, getting the furthest down the line data isn’t pretty much as basic as clicking a button. To work on this interaction, NASA has an application for cell phones, tablets and advanced media players.

What data does the NASA Application give?

The NASA Application comes stacked with provisions and it offers admittance to huge loads of fascinating substance. Intrigued individuals can watch the most recent NASA situation transpire continuously on NASA television, checkout the instructive substance in the highlighted area and investigate a reproduced perspective on our Nearby planet group, watch a live perspective on the earth from the Global Space Station, see the most recent NASA photographs, recordings and element stories, rate photographs and investigate the most elevated appraised ones as a whole, and pick their own #1 NASA pictures and make them simple to discover utilizing the top choices include.

They can likewise share all that they find with companions via web-based media, save pictures to their cell phone, pay attention to the most recent NASA digital recordings, get data pretty much NASA’s present missions as a whole, most recent dispatch and landing data and rundown of forthcoming ISS locating openings for their area, track the area of the Worldwide Space Station and other NASA Earth circling satellites continuously, see every one of the NASA Tweets from around the office in one spot, see the Earth as Craftsmanship picture assortment and intelligent guide, cast content to their Apple television, Chromecast and Fire television gadgets.

Individuals who are utilizing the application on their iPhones or iPads additionally get Expanded Reality (AR) 3D models of 31 NASA orbiters and missions, which unites 3D models from across the organization, and gives the most ridiculously complete all in one resource for NASA AR models; and Increased reality SkyView include that shows a perspective on the night sky so clients can recognize articles and discover/track Worldwide Space Station apparent passes.

Accessibility of the NASA Application

The NASA Application is accessible on a wide assortment of stages. Intrigued individuals can download it from the Google Play Store, the Apple Application Store, the Amazon Appstore for Fire television gadgets and on Roku

10 STRATEGIES AI START-UPS SHOULD FOLLOW TO BECOME BIG TECH COMPANIES

AI Start-ups

These systems can help in driving development at the simulated intelligence new businesses

We as a whole have found out about numerous huge tech organizations and furthermore take motivation from them commonly, correct? Be it Amazon, Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, or Google these tech organizations are consistently incredible inspirations for all the new companies. Yet, when coming to simulated intelligence new businesses, they are certainly the promoters as they are mechanically determined and their encounters and innovations can be taken to assist them with becoming greater. For all the man-made intelligence new companies searching for procedures to work on your business, here you go!

1 Put Right Destinations and Key Outcomes

All the huge tech organizations use destinations and key outcomes to lay out their objectives, gain arrangement and measure progress to key objectives. The first idea of OKRs originally came from Intel and spread across the Silicon Valley advanced locals. This is the manner by which Google likewise has encountered the development of the representatives from 40 to 60,000 almost today. Not just Google, numerous other notable organizations, for example, Spotify, Twitter, Airbnb, and LinkedIn are additionally utilizing the OKRs technique. So all the computer based intelligence new businesses can get this for progress.

2 Be Available to Change

The greater part of the top tech organizations can make changes to their conviction frameworks dependent on their disappointments, for example, Microsoft, Connected In, and Amazon does. These progressions are fit for speeding up the development taking the organization’s DNA advancing at a lot quicker speed. This is one of the astonishing techniques for computer based intelligence new companies to become quicker.

3 Customized Arrangements

Personalization is large tech organizations is seen regularly nowadays. The groups assemble encounters took into account the objectives and problem areas of every guest. All the man-made intelligence new businesses ought to notice the tech organizations and how they are executing personalization and comprehend basic changes to shaping procedures for simulated intelligence new companies becomes crucial.

4 Search for Variety

To imagine or develop variety fills in as a key. At the point when we take a gander at the huge tech organizations, they are different in nature basically in light of the fact that they know every one of the advantages that show up with an assorted group. Regardless of whether it be groundbreaking thoughts, innovativeness or experiences every one of these are added for improving the items and administrations. Along these lines, this is one of the systems for man-made intelligence new companies that can assist you with enhancing better items.

5 Plan Your Own Innovation

The main illustration is to put resources into the ability to assemble your own innovation, this is consistently valuable in numerous ways. In right now, every computer based intelligence fire up necessities to have its own product for guaranteeing believability, information concerns, and some more.

6 Put resources into Innovation

To all the computer based intelligence new companies, consistently treat innovation as an incredible venture yet not as a cost as it will offer back twice however much it takes. At the point when development gets held up by financial plan endorsements and CapEx versus OpEx discusses, it at times dials back the force and restricts the group’s fervor and the commitment that accompanies novel thoughts.

7 Making Express Cycles

A large portion of the advancements are conceived out of mayhem, however many top tech organizations have unequivocal cycles and practices that energize reliable countrywide development. This is the best top system for artificial intelligence new companies to embrace without avoiding making business measures for advancement.

8 Upsetting the Market

All the man-made intelligence new businesses ought to find out with regards to advanced interruption distinguishing where the current arrangements have developed and are going behind the clients’ requirements. At the point when we take the case of Netflix, look how it disturbed the market blockbuster was in, the sellers recognizing the chance to upset the market through another imaginative way.

9 Weight on Advertising and Correspondences

The huge tech organizations are up for spryness and development as they have solid promoting and PR groups. So this is one of the methodologies for computer based intelligence new businesses to grasp and to make more grounded PR and showcasing groups to acquire openness for their organizations.

10 Testing

Man-made intelligence new businesses should investigation and evaluate new things as large tech organizations explore different avenues regarding innovation to save the customary models. With a great deal of experimentation comes development driving achievement as well.

Why does the internet keep breaking?

Global communication network concept.

I question Imprint Zuckerberg peruses the remarks individuals leave on his Facebook posts.

In any case, on the off chance that he did, it would take him around 145 days, without rest, to swim through the downpour of remarks left for him after he was sorry for the emergency of administrations last week.

“Sorry for the interruption today” the Facebook originator and CEO posted, following just about six hours of Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram being disconnected.

Facebook faulted a standard support work for the interruption – its designers had given an order that unexpectedly disengaged Facebook server farms from the more extensive web.

Around 827,000 individuals reacted to Mr Zuckerberg’s conciliatory sentiment.

The messages went from the delighted: “It was horrible, I needed to converse with my family,” remarked one Italian client, to the befuddled: “I brought my telephone into the auto shop thinking it was broken,” composed somebody from Namibia.

What is likewise clear is that this is a long way from being an oddball circumstance: specialists recommend inescapable blackouts are turning out to be more incessant and more problematic.

“Something that we’ve found over the most recent quite a long while is an expanded dependence on few organizations and organizations to convey huge bits of Web content,” says Luke Deryckx, Boss Specialized Official at Down Indicator.

“At the point when one of those, or mutiple, has an issue, it influences them, however countless different administrations,” he says. Facebook, for example, is currently used to sign-in to a scope of various administrations and gadgets, like brilliant TVs.

“Thus, you know, we have these kind of web ‘snow days’ that happen now,” Mr Deryckx says. “Something goes down [and] we as a whole kind of check out one another like ‘well, what are we going to do?'”

Mr Deryckx and his group at Down Locator screen web administrations and sites for interruption. He says that far reaching blackouts influencing significant administrations are turning out to be more regular and more genuine.

“At the point when Facebook has an issue, it makes a major effect for the web yet additionally the economy, and, you know… society. Millions, or conceivably many millions, of individuals are simply kind of lounging around hanging tight for a little group in California to fix something. It’s an intriguing wonders that has filled over the most recent few years.”

Web researcher Teacher Bill Buchanan concurs with this characterisation: “The web isn’t the huge scope appropriated network that DARPA (the Guard Progressed Exploration Tasks Organization), the first draftsmen of the web, attempted to make, which could withstand an atomic strike on any piece of it.

“The conventions it utilizes are essentially the ones that were drafted when we associated with centralized server PCs from idiotic terminals. A solitary error in its center foundation can bring the entire thing colliding with the floor.”

Educator Buchanan says upgrades can be made to make the web stronger, yet that a large number of the basics of the net are staying put regardless.

“As a rule, the frameworks work and you can’t simply turn specific conventions of the web ‘off’ for a day, to attempt to redo them,” he says.

Rather than attempting to revamp the frameworks and construction of the web, Teacher Buchanan thinks we need to further develop the manner in which we use it to store and share information, or hazard more mass blackouts later on.

He contends that the web has become excessively concentrated, for example where an excess of information comes from a solitary source. That pattern should be turned around with frameworks that have various hubs, he clarifies, so nobody disappointment can prevent an assistance from working.

There is a silver lining here. Albeit critical web blackouts influence clients lives and organizations they can likewise, eventually, help to work on the strength of the web and the web administrations connected to it.

For instance, Forbes gauges that Facebook lost $66m (£48.5m), during the six-hour blackout, from the suspension, or departure, of sponsors on the site. That kind of misfortune is probably going to concentrate the personalities of senior leaders on forestalling it happening once more.

“They lost a colossal measure of cash in that day, in their stock cost as well as in their functional incomes,” as per Mr Deryckx.

“Furthermore, in the event that you see blackouts brought about by content conveyance networks like Fastly and Cloudflare, they additionally lost countless clients to the opposition. Thus, I think these administrators are doing all that they can to keep things on the web.”

Science & Technology

Developments and their Applications and effects in everyday life

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of explanations and predictions about nature and the universe. It is the study of nature and behavior of the physical and natural world through the scientific method. It is also defined as the observation, identification, description, experimental, investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. Whereas, Technology is the collection of techniques and processes used in the production of goods or services or the accomplishment of objectives such as scientific investigation. It includes methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. The world around us behaves according to scientific laws. Scientists have discovered many of these laws, and are making new discoveries all the time. We develop technology using our understanding of science and the forces, such as magnetism, gravity and electricity, which shape our lives. Whenever we turn on a light, log on to internet or speak with our friends or relatives on a mobile phone, it has all been made possible by science.
Technology for Mankind

The World Around us

Everything, from water or air to a whale or a mobile phone, is made of tiny particles called atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms, which are in turn made of smaller parts called subatomic particles. Two or more atoms join together to make a molecule. The things around us are solids, liquids or gases depending on the arrangement of the atoms and molecules inside them.

Structure of an atom

Forces and movement

Things move only when a force is applied to them. Forces are pushes or pulls in a particular direction. A flag blows when the wind pushes it. A door opens when you pull it. Animals move when their feet push against the ground, their wings push against the air or their fins push against the water around them. Forces always work in pairs. They push and pull in opposite directions. When pairs of forces are equal they are said to be balanced. Tug of war teams remains still when each pulls with the same strength. A team falls when one side is stronger and the forces are unbalanced. Forces are also balanced when things move at one speed in the same direction. Things slow down and stop because of an opposing force. One of these forces is friction. Friction happens when tiny bumps on two surfaces rub against each other. Rough surfaces, such as concrete, create more friction than smooth surfaces, such as glass. People use high-friction materials like rubber on shoe soles to stop people slipping when they walk.
A rocket takes off when the force from the engine pushing it up is greater than the force of gravity pulling it down.
Boy kicking a football
A bicycles’ brakes use high-friction rubber to slow the wheels down

Light and Dark

The earth’s biggest source of light is the sun. Heat and light energy created by the sun travels through space in straight lines called rays at almost 300,000 kilometres per second. The Earth spins right around once a day, changing which parts of globe get sunlight. This creates day & night. Other things that radiate, or give off, light include electric light bulbs, candles and television series. Shadows happen in places where an object stops light from getting through. Materials that light shines through fully are said to be transparent. Translucent materials let only a little light through. Opaque materials do not let any light through at all.  The shape of a shadow depends on the shape of the object blocking the light. If an object is moved closer to light source, its shadow gets bigger because it blocks more light rays. All surfaces reflect light but, if they are bumpy, the light rays are reflected in all directions.Mirrors are made from very smooth surfaces that reflect the rays back in the same pattern as they hit it, creating a clear image of object. Words reflected in a mirror appear back to front, as if they were facing away from us and we were looking through the page.
Mirrors reflecting images
We make our own light in cities when the Sun goes down at night.
Shadow

Colours

There are seven colours in a rainbow and they always come in the same order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Light from the sun may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colours. When tiny drops of water in the air split white sunlight into its different colours, we see a rainbow. Gases and dust in the atmosphere make the different colours in sunlight scatter so the sky changes colour. By day, the atmosphere scatters blue light towards earth so the sky looks blue. At sunset, when sunlight has more atmospheres to travel through before it reaches the surface of the earth, red light is scattered so the sky looks orangey red. People print colour images and words on paper using just four coloured inks: yellow, cyan (blue), magenta (red) and black. Paper is printed with tiny dots of different amounts of each ink. Our brain cannot distinguish that dots we see separately, but instead, blends them together to make different blocks of different colours

A glass prism splits bright sunlight into all the colours of a rainbow
Orange Skies

Sound

Sound is a disturbance of the air made when something, such as a string, vibrates, or moves back and forwards quickly. The vibration makes the air moves in waves. Our ears detect the moving air and our brains distinguish it as a sound. High sounds, such as notes from a flute, are made by short sound waves. Low sounds, such as a tuba’s notes, are made by long ones. Sound vibrations travel way from the thing that makes them. The vibrations spread out in all directions like the ripples in a pond after you throw in pebble. The wider the vibrations spread, the smaller they become and the quieter the sound. Big vibrations, on the other hand, makes lots of energy that pushes lots of air, creating loud sounds. Sounds are measured in units called decibels. The quietest sounds, such as a leaf falling, are around 0-10 decibels. The loudest sounds, such as a rocket launch, are just less than 200 decibels. Noises above 90 decibels are dangerous to listen to because the strong waves of air can damage the sensitive insides of your ears. Echoes are the repeated noise we hear when sound waves bounce off solid objects, such as a cliff or the inside of a tunnel. If the object is close by, the waves reflect so quickly we cannot hear the echo as a separate sound. Bats use echoes to get around in the dark. They make squeaks and listen to the echoes to work out how far away things are and how big they are.

Bats use echoes to find their prey in the dark
The skin on a drum vibrates when it is banged, producing a sound
We can only just hear leaves falling, but an aeroplane taking off makes a sound that is so loud it can damage our ears.

Electricity

Electricity is a type of energy formed from tiny particles inside atoms called electrons. These electrons can move from one atom to another and this movement is electrical energy. Electricity powers many machines, from torches and mobile phones to television and computers. It moves, or flows, into machines through materials called conductors, which include metal wires. Mains electricity is produced in power stations by machines called generators. Fuel, such as coal, is burned in the power station to turn water into steam. The steam turns a turbine (a set of large circular blades), which rotates magnets inside the generator, producing electricity. The electricity flows through wires to sockets in our homes. Batteries are useful for supplying small amounts of power to portable or mobile machines without the need to plug into wall sockets. Batteries are stores of chemicals that create a flow of electrical energy. Some batteries run out when the chemicals are used up, but rechargeable batteries regain their stored electrical when plugged into a socket. Switches work by controlling the flow, or current, of electricity through machines.Electricity can only flow through a circuit, which is a continues loop of wire. A switch is rather a gate that can open or close to break or complete the circuit.

Digital Technology

It includes computer, digital cameras, MP3 players and mobiles. These records, store, send and process electronic signals as digital information. Digital means that the electrical signals are either ‘on’, ‘1’, or ‘off’, ‘0’. The 1s and 0s form a code that can represent any type of information. Microchips work using tiny electrical circuits. The circuits are built on paper-thin chips of silicon, a material that is very good at conducting electricity (allowing electricity to pass through it). A single microchip a contain thousands of circuits, allowing it to process lots of digital information. Microchips mean that computers and other digital devices can be small and light. 

An important step towards enhancing space technology

Space technology is a significant aspect of a society’s development. It has greatly benefitted us in various fields such as education, research, communication, management of natural disasters and overall, in improving the quality of human life. With economical progress, India has been striving towards executing such space missions which not only aid the national development but establish our position in the international space exploration movement that has been rapidly expanding.

Another such progress was made recently when the Indian Space Association or ISpa was launched. It aims to privatize the space sector by allowing private firms to collaborate with the government for achieving the objective of self-reliant space technology as well as providing India with a lead role as the global space hub. Policies to achieve the same would be framed in consultation with the stakeholders.

Who are the members?

Larson & Toubro, OneWeb, Mapmyindia, Bharti Airtel, Ananth Technology Ltd and the like constitute the founding members. Other key members are Centum Electronics, Maxar India, Godrej and many more. These members will work in line with the shared vision of the government and coordinate with the shareholders.

The association’s Director-General is Lt Gen Anil Bhatt (Retd) who also served as the Director-General of Military Operations previously. Mr. Rahul Vatts who is the Director and Chief Regulatory Officer of Bharti Airtel will serve as the association’s Vice Chairman. The association’s first appointed chairman is Mr. Jayant Patil, Director of Defence and Space technologies, L&T-NxT.

What is it based on?

According to the government, four pillars comprise the shared idea of promoting this space reform.

  • Innovation freedom in the private sector– The government wishes to encourage private sector participation in the development of strategies that would shape the future of India in the space sector. Drafting legislation, engaging in research to develop efficient and high-quality devices that cater to the needs of clients across the globe so that India can become a major manufacturer of space-related equipment are some of the aspects which would be handled in a much better manner if many firms work mutually.
  • Government’s enabling role– The government would play an important role in the creation of an environment that is optimal for coordination and cooperation between the members and shareholders. Experts from the government would not only share their ideas but also promote much-needed innovation while keeping national interests at the forefront.
  • Preparing youth for the future- With extensive research and innovation emerges a brilliant opportunity to develop academia which would make the youth enthusiastic to learn more about the industry and contribute towards its expansion. Young minds would get a chance to explore more career options in this field which would enhance India’s global performance.
  • Using the space sector as a developmental source- This reform would aid India’s progress in multiple aspects such as better resource management, interplanetary explosion, more successful space missions, better weather forecasting, country’s imaging and mapping.

Overall, the launch of the Indian Space Association is a very positive step to benefit various sections of society, ranging from entrepreneurs to youth. It has the potential to transform India into a global leader of the space sector backed by expert interventions from the government and various agencies. Pushing for policies and legislations to enhance India’s growth in terms of critical technology would bring in employment and better wages.

The participation of national and international agencies would bring in more innovation and cooperation. It has the strength to make India a preferred destination for future international investments and which can transform it into a commercial hub. It would also assist in easing the workload of ISRO which has been at the center of India’s space hub developments.

The role social media plays 

Picture source : https://www.reviewsxp.com/blog/best-social-media-sites/

Human beings are social creatures. We need the companionship of others to thrive in life, and the strength of our connections has a huge impact on our mental health and happiness. Being socially connected to others can ease stress, anxiety, and depression, boost self-worth, provide comfort and joy, prevent loneliness, and even add years to your life. On the flip side, lacking strong social connections can pose a serious risk to your mental and emotional health.

In today’s world, many of us rely on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube, and Instagram to find and connect with each other. While each has its benefits, it’s important to remember that social media can never be a replacement for real-world human connection. It requires in-person contact with others to trigger the hormones that alleviate stress and make you feel happier, healthier, and more positive. Ironically for a technology that’s designed to bring people closer together, spending too much time engaging with social media can actually make you feel more lonely and isolated—and exacerbate mental health problems such as anxiety and depression

The positive aspects of social media

While virtual interaction on social media doesn’t have the same psychological benefits as face-to-face contact, there are still many positive ways in which it can help you stay connected and support your wellbeing.

Social media enables you to:

  • Communicate and stay up to date with family and friends around the world.
  • Find new friends and communities; network with other people who share similar interests or ambitions.
  • Join or promote worthwhile causes; raise awareness on important issues.
  • Seek or offer emotional support during tough times.
  • Find a vital social connection if you live in a remote area, for example, or have limited independence, social anxiety, or are part of a marginalized group.
  • Find an outlet for your creativity and self-expression.
  • Discover (with care) sources of valuable information and learning.

The negative aspects of social media

Since it’s a relatively new technology, there’s little research to establish the long-term consequences, good or bad, of social media use. However, multiple studies have found a strong link between heavy social media and an increased risk for depression, anxiety, loneliness, self harm, and even sucidal thoughts

Social media may promote negative experiences such as:

  • Inadequacy about your life or appearance. Even if you know that images you’re viewing on social media are manipulated, they can still make you feel insecure about how you look or what’s going on in your own life. 
  • Fear of missing out (FOMO). While FOMO has been around far longer than social media, sites such as Facebook and Instagram seem to exacerbate feelings that others are having more fun or living better lives than you are.
  • Isolation. A study at the University of Pennsylvania found that high usage of Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram increases rather decreases feelings of loneliness. Conversely, the study found that reducing social media usage can actually make you feel less lonely and isolated and improve your overall wellbeing.
  • Depression and anxiety The more you prioritize social media interaction over in-person relationships, the more you’re at risk for developing or exacerbating mood disorders such as anxiety and depression.
  • Cyberbullying. About 10 percent of teens report being bullied on social media and many other users are subjected to offensive comments. Social media platforms such as Twitter can be hotspots for spreading hurtful rumors, lies, and abuse that can leave lasting emotional scars.
  • Self-absorption. Sharing endless selfies and all your innermost thoughts on social media can create unhealthy self-centeredness and distance you from real-life connections.

Social media outage: A glitch turned fatal

The dependency of societies on technology is undebatable. Social media has emerged as a saviour amidst the pandemic which made it very challenging to stay connected in terms of our personal and professional life. However, the recent social media outages have revealed a scary fact: we cannot afford them. They cause damages to as many sectors of society as technology benefits.

Effects on economy

Facebook, home to one of the largest social media networks across the globe, upon recently facing a major outage and disruption in its services like WhatsApp and Instagram, took entrepreneurs by shock as their sales dipped dramatically and they scrambled to cater to the increasingly impatient customers. From beauty and clothing to food delivery, many industries were simultaneously affected. The services were completely stalled for hours which created a lot of stress and panic.

Facebook itself suffered revenue losses of billions and the world economy had to pay the price. The small-scale advertisers, influencers, and content creators were forced into helplessness as their only methods of interacting with the audience and making ends meet suffered a blow. Such financial dependence on social media continues to prove itself a major cause of concern.

Effects on education

Social media has been a boon for the education sector, providing students and educators around the world with ample opportunities to enhance knowledge sharing, despite the uncertainties of a global pandemic. But the outages on educational platforms have proved to be costly. Zoom, for example, suffered major glitches which were very inconvenient and caused communication problems between students and educators, which, in turn, is detrimental for their academic growth.

Moreover, educators also feel the pressure to rush through the materials since these technical issues take much time to be fixed. Many other platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook and YouTube, which are also used by educators to keep the students updated, upon facing such issues, create a lot of panic and confusion.

Effects on mental health

Social media is constantly used by many as a way of entertainment and recreation. It allows us to relieve stress and cope with day-to-day life. But many people also use it as a form of escapism and eventually become addicted. Outages expose them to periods where they experience extreme withdrawal symptoms. When their mental health and happiness are dependent upon an external source such as social media in the form of validation received through likes and comments, feelings of anxiety, stress and emptiness creep in when those services are stalled for hours.

Not only are they unable to connect with others to reduce loneliness but they also get stuck with their negative thoughts which have a very poor effect on their overall well-being. Research shows that social media is one of the leading causes of depression as it is designed in such a way that people automatically fall into the trap of comparison and information overload.

Is there a way out?

While social media outages are abrupt and often uncontrollable, as individuals, we can educate others and take steps towards reducing our dependence on it in some ways-

  • Limiting screen time – Instead of scrolling endlessly for hours, social media can be used mindfully by delegating certain hours of the day to it while engaging in other activities and hobbies during the day. This would ensure that our well-being is not compromised and we can successfully achieve our goals.
  • Spending time with others – Be it a family member, friend or even a pet, we must make sure that we have some company so that we do not slip into loneliness or other destructive habits which can worsen social media addiction. Participating in volunteering work or joining local communities that align with our interests is also a great way to be more active physically and mentally.
  • Social media detox – Refraining from using technology and social media for a fixed amount of time is also a good method to overcome social media dependency. Taking help from family members and friends, identifying triggers which guide the over-consumption and making a planner to track its effects on daily mood are some helpful ways that can make this process easier.
  • Choosing alternatives – In the case of finance, we must make sure that social media is never the only source of making ends meet. We must always be prepared and have enough skills to tackle the challenges of a physical workspace in case our social media business comes to a halt. Multiple courses can be easily found, online or offline, which can aid us in the process.

Social media outages serve as a reminder that although it is a great source of education, entertainment and much more, it has an unpredictable aspect to it which can prove to be damaging if we do not gain control over our online consumption. Hence, we must learn to strike a balance between our online and offline worlds.

“Like all technology, social media is neutral but is best put to work in the service of building a better world.”

Simon Mainwaring

Piracy

Piracy refers to the unauthorized duplication of copyrighted content that is then sold at substantially lower prices in the ‘grey’ market. The ease of access to technology has meant that over the years, piracy has become more rampant. For example, CD writers are available off the shelf at very low prices, making music piracy a simple affair.
Many laws have been made to prevent privacy. Internationally, the laws for punishing piracy in developed countries are stringent and punitive in nature. In Asian countries and more in India too, it does not get the attention at the national level due to more engaging issues at hand. However, the industry, especially the IT and music industry, has been taking an active interest in stemming the rot. These organizations identify sources of music piracy and then conduct raids with the help of the police. However, convictions are few and the penalties are not harsh enough to act as a deterrent. Piracy is done in many ways like video piracy, cable piracy, and DVD/CD piracy. Video piracy takes place when a film is produced in the form of a video cassette without proper authorization from the right holder i.e. the producer. Often, film producers sell video rights to another party (generally after six weeks or more of release in theatres), which makes video cassettes for selling, or lending.

Types of Piracy

Counterfeiting

This type of piracy is the illegal duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted material with the intent of imitating the copyrighted product. In the case of packaged software, it is common to find counterfeit copies of the compact discs incorporating the software programs, as well as related packaging, manuals, license agreements, labels, registration cards, and security features.

Internet Piracy

This occurs when unauthorized software is downloaded from the Internet. The same purchasing rules apply to online software purchases as for those bought in compact disc format. Common Internet piracy techniques are:

  • Websites that make software available for free download or in exchange for others
  • Internet auction sites that offer counterfeit or out-of-channel software
  • Peer-to-peer networks that enable unauthorized transfer of copyrighted programs

End-User Piracy

This occurs when an individual reproduces copies of software without authorization. These include:

  • Using one licensed copy to install a program on multiple computers
  • Copying discs for installation or distribution
  • Taking advantage of upgrade offers without having a legal copy of the version to be upgraded
  • Acquiring academic or other restricted or non-retail software without a proper license
  • Swapping discs in or outside the workplace

Client-Server Overuse

This type of piracy occurs when too many users on a network are using a central copy of a program at the same time. If you have a local-area network and install programs on the server for several people to use, you have to be sure your license entitles you to do so. If you have more users than allowed by the license, that’s “overuse”.

Hard-Disk Loading

This occurs when a business sells new computers with illegal copies of software loaded onto the hard disks to make the purchase of the machines more attractive.

Amazon Business Announces Great Deals for MSMEs This Great Indian Festival

Amazon Business Announces Great Deals for MSMEs This Great Indian Festival

Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Business Wire India Mass limits and business uncommon arrangements on a wide scope of business determination on Amazon Business. Wide scope of business items in classifications like cell phones, apparatuses, televisions, shopper hardware, PCs, laptops, home kitchen and more from top brands. Reward 5 cashback on orders above INR 50K. Set aside to 40 additional on mass buys on lakhs of items. Uncommon Corporate Giving Store to oblige all the giving necessities of organizations and their office organizations.

Wide scope of business items in classifications like cell phones, machines, televisions, shopper hardware, workstations, laptops, home and kitchen, and more from top brands.

• Reward 5% cashback on orders above INR 50K.

• Set aside to 40% more on mass buys on lakhs of items.

• Uncommon ‘Corporate Giving Store’ to oblige all the giving necessities of organizations and their office organizations. Organizations can mass buy corporate presents effortlessly and comfort.

Amazon. in’s greatest extended festival the Incomparable Indian Celebration that began on Oct third, brings a large group of never-seen bargains and offers on novel items from lakhs of venders, Little and Medium Organizations (SMBs), and well known brands. Amazon Business clients can get astounding arrangements on the most extensive choice of items from top brands across classifications including cell phones, machines, televisions, customer gadgets, workstations, computers, home and kitchen, and that’s just the beginning.

Moreover, business clients approach new dispatches and can get uncommon proposals on business-significant choice for both giving and own utilization by signing in to their Amazon Business account. With more than 15 Cr GST empowered determination, organizations can set aside to 28% more. Organizations purchasing in build can benefit of up to 40% in amount limits. They can likewise profit of an uncommon 5% cashback on an acquisition of above INR 50,000.

Alongside the arrangements during the Incomparable Indian Celebration, Amazon Business has likewise acquainted a ‘Corporate Giving Store’ with take into account business giving necessities. Through this store, clients can mass buy corporate presents effortlessly and accommodation. Organizations will likewise have the choice to redo and customize corporate gifts as per their necessities.

Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.

4.Muscles

There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.

Advantage

Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Podcast

We are watching different kinds of videos on Youtube, Facebook, and Instagram. Someone can also share their videos on this platform. While we are using social media, we love to share our videos and photos, also share our articles. Though the podcast is one of the parts of social media where we can share our thoughts and information about any topic with people, it is in the form of audio. It has also subscribers and followers. If your podcast is good enough then the followers will increase accordingly.

What is Podcast?

It is a type of radio show, but it is running on the internet. It is also called an Internet Radio Show or Netcast. Instantly, you can listen to any podcast as your wish. In the podcast, we will found an audio series based on any topic.

Most of the podcasts will be telecast once a week. Nowadays many apps and websites are available for listening to podcasts like google podcasts, apple podcasts, Spotify, audible, stitcher are popular platforms. Even though podcasts are different types, any single person or a couple of people can run podcasts. You can comments on any topic, answering people’s questions, news podcast and many different types of the podcast on this platforms.

After recording the audio, you can upload it. You can entertain yourself by listening to podcasts while working or enhance your knowledge. The podcast is a free service. Any person can easily share their podcast on the internet. In today’s market, many people create different podcasts like technology, education, business, economy, news, sports, and many more.

Types Of Podcast

  • Podcast Novels

  • Scripted Podcasts

  • Enhanced Podcasts

  • Video Podcasts

  • Live Podcasts

Some Of famous Apple Podcast

  • 1619 (history)
  • Bear Brook (True Crime)
  • Belevied (News & Politics)
  • The BigOne (Science)
  • The Dream (Society)
  • Everything Is Alive (Comedy)

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.

Varieties

Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.

History

The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.

Croatian

Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.

WHY SHOULD WE WATCH BOOKTUBE?

BookTube is a book-specific subset of the YouTube community. BookTube is the unofficial name given to a collection of YouTube channels that discuss all things bookish. Each day, thousands of online creators, or BookTubers, share videos about books they love (and hate), literacy, fandom and being generally crazy for reading.

While watching videos about reading can seem counterproductive, BookTubers encourage people to stop watching YouTube and start reading as many books as possible in as many genres that exist. There are unique contents like reading a particular colored books for a month, reading 25 hours straight, Asian authors etc…

WHEN DID BOOKTUBING START?

Though it lacks an exact origin, the BookTube community began around 2010 and has thrived exponentially in recent years. Christine Riccio (PolandbananasBOOKS) is often known as a pioneer of BookTube and became one of the first BookTubers to gain a large following.

WHY SHOULD YOU WATCH BOOKTUBE?

The same reason why we watch YouTube. There are lots of unboxing videos that are so satisfying. It is entertaining, encouraging, inspiring, makes us productive. Booktubers encourages us to read more, explore more genres. We get more recommendations, I believe that’s an amazing reason to watch booktube.

LIST OF BOOKTUBERS TO FOLLOW

Helly started her channel in the year 2015, since then she makes incredible student life, productive, freelancing and bookish videos. One of the things that introduced me to the bookish world would be the Helly channel.

The Melodramatic Bookworm is a wonderful channel. Since 2018, Sonali, an Indian booktuber is doing a crazy good job by recommending books.

BookJunction – Sneha Banerjee’s videos are exciting to watch. She covers book recommendations, self-improvement, stationery items, arts and much more in her videos.

I’m a fan of LibroReview and her bookshelf is desirable. Anchal runs the channel by spreading positivity, self-improvement, book reviews, recommendations and she is great at non-fiction recommendations.

WiseWithGrace shares inspiring videos. The channel is about lifestyle, books, and productivity. Her enthusiastic recommendations will make us add the book to our tbr lists.

Emmie, IndianBooktuber, Fandomnewbie, BooksAreMySocialLife and a lot more fascinating channels are out there for us.

CAN BOOKTUBERS EARN MONEY?

Yes. Just like youtube channels, a bookish channel with a certain expected number of views will be monetized. Not all book tubers channels are monetized, it takes lots of time and effort. Supporting a channel by sharing, liking and engaging through comments can help them. It also encourages them to make more such videos.

Until your channel is eligible for monetization, you can’t make any money from ad revenue. The good news is, you can still make money from affiliate marketing. They get paid through ads.

The percentage of people who skip ads heavily impacts YouTubers’ revenue as YouTube does not count skipped ads as a view, advertisers don’t pay for skipped ads, and therefore creators do not get paid for viewers who skip ads. If a YouTuber has an audience made of people who always skip ads, they won’t earn as much.

you can make a living on Youtube, on condition that you pay more attention to develop your channel, to get more and more fans and more and more video views, so that you are more likely to earn more money from Youtube for your life. If you are planning to start a booktube channel, All the best.

Thank you!

Credits: Picture source Google. The pictures belong to respective channel heads.

BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.

Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

Why does a student need to be industry ready & how they can be?

What do you mean by industry ready?

An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.

Importance

A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.

Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.

Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.

How can students be industry ready?

Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-

  1. Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
  2. Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
  3. Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
  4. Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
  5. Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
  6. Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
  7. Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
  8. Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.

So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.

Bahrain

Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.

Seychelles

Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.

UAE

The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused

Philippines

In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION: PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATIONS

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in-vitro (laboratory) technique used to produce huge amounts of DNA.

•             PCR is a cell-free amplification method that produces billions of identical copies of any DNA of interest. PCR, which was invented by Karry Mullis in 1984, is today regarded as a fundamental technique for molecular methods. It is the most widely used approach for multiplication of target nucleic acids.

•              The method usually combines complementary nucleic acid hybridization and nucleic acid replication principles, which are applied repeatedly over many cycles to amplify a single and original copy of a nucleic acid target, which is often undetectable by standard hybridization methods, and multiply to 107 or more copies in a short amount of time. In result, it gives a large number of targets which may be identified using a variety of ways.

ADVANTAGES:

•             Despite being simple it is a very powerful technique.

 •            It enables for massive amplification of any particular sequence of DNA given that short sequences on each side of it are known.

•             Improves sensitivity and specificity while allowing for speedier diagnosis and recognition.

PRINCIPLE OF PCR:

Double-stranded DNA in question is denatured, resulting in two independent strands and  each strand is allowed to hybridise using a primer (renaturation). The enzyme DNA polymerase is used to synthesise DNA from the primer-template duplex. To create various forms of target DNA, the three processes of denaturation, renaturation, and synthesis are performed numerous times.

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PCR:

•             A target DNA which is around 100-35,000 bp in length.

•             Two primers (synthetic oligonucleotides of 17-25 nucleotides length ) that are complementary to regions flanking the target DNA.

•             Four deoxyriobonucleotides  are used(d ATP, d CTP, d GTP, d TTP)

•             MgCl2 (Magnesium Chloride)

•             Nuclease free water

•             Taq DNA polymerase buffer

•             A thermo-stable DNA polymerase is one that can tolerate temperatures up to 95 degrees Celsius.

The target DNA, two primers (in excess), a thermo-stable DNA polymerase (Taq DNA polymerase), and four deoxyribonucleotides are all included in the reaction mixture. It is a method that includes a series of cycles for DNA amplification.

KEY FACTORS OPTIMAL FOR PCR:

•             PRIMERS:

When it comes to determining PCR, these are crucial. Primers with no secondary structure and no complementarity amongst themselves (17-30 nucleotides) are excellent. In PCR, complementary primers can combine to produce a primer dimer, which can be amplified. The replication of target DNA is prevented as a result of this action.

•             DNA POLYMERASE:

Because it can resist high temperatures, Taq DNA polymerase is chosen. After the heat denaturation stage of the first cycle, DNA polymerase is introduced in the hot start procedure. This prevents the misaligned primers from extending, which is common at low temperatures.

Verification or proof reading of exonuclease (3′-5′) activity is absent in Taq polymerase, which might lead to mistakes in PCR products. Tma DNA polymerase from Thermotogamaritama and Pfu DNA polymerase from Pyrococcusfuriosus are examples of thermostable DNA polymerases with proof reading activity.

•             TARGET DNA:

In general, the smaller the target DNA sequence, the greater the PCR efficiency. A mplification of DNA fragments up to 10 kb has been documented in recent years. In PCR, the sequence of the target DNA is also crucial. As a result, CC-rich strand sections obstruct PCR.

•             PROMOTERS AND INHIBITORS:

 Addition of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) improve PCR by shielding DNA polymerase, humic acids which are commonly present in ancient samples of target DNA, hinder PCR.

EACH CYCLE HAS THREE STAGES:

1.            DENATURATION:

The DNA is denatured and the two strands split when the temperature is raised to around 95 degree celsius for about one minute.

2.            RENATURATION OR ANNEALING:

The primers base pair with the complementary regions flanking target DNA strands as the temperature of the mixture is gradually lowered to around 55 degree celsius.  Annealing seems to be the term for this procedure. Due to the high concentration of primer, annealing occurs between each DNA strand and the primer rather than between the two strands.

3.            EXTENSION OR SYNTHESIS:

The 3′-hydroxyl end of each primer is where DNA synthesis begins. By connecting the nucleotides that are complementary to DNA strands, the primers are expanded. The PCR synthesis process is quite similar to the leading strand DNA replication process.  The optimal temperature for Taq DNA polymerase is about 75 degree celsius. (For E.Coli DNA Polymerase is used). By increasing the temperature, the process can be halted (about 95 degree celsius).

Each cycle lasts around 3-5 minutes and in most cases, it is performed on computerised equipment. The corresponding sequence of the second primer lies beyond the new DNA strand linked to each primer. Long templates allude to these additional strands, which will be utilised in the second cycle.

The strands are denatured, annealed with primers, and exposed to DNA synthesis in the second cycle of PCR. Long and short templates are produced at the end of the second round.

The original DNA strands, as well as the short and long templates, are the starting materials for the third cycle of PCR. For each cycle, the procedures are used again and again. About a million-fold target DNA is produced by the conclusion of the 32nd cycle of PCR, according to estimates. As double-stranded molecules build, the small templates containing precisely the target DNA increase.

TYPES OF PCR:

1.            Real-time PCR

2.            Quantitative real time PCR (Q-RT PCR)

3.            Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)

4.            Multiplex PCR

5.            Nested PCR

6.            Long-range PCR

7.            Single-cell PCR

8.            Fast-cycling PCR

9.            Methylation-specific PCR (MSP)

10.          Hot start PCR

11.          High-fidelity PCR

12.          In situ PCR

13.          Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) PCR

14.          Asymmetric PCR

15.          Repetitive sequence-based PCR

16.          Overlap extension PCR

17.          Assemble PCR

18.          Intersequence-specific PCR(ISSR)

19.          Ligation-mediated PCR

20.          Methylation –specifin PCR

21.          Miniprimer PCR

22.          Solid phase PCR

23.          Touch down PCR, etc

APPLICATIONS OF PCR:

1.            PCR IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS:

PCR’s specificity and sensitivity make it ideal for diagnosing a variety of human illnesses. RFLP is not involved in the development of many genetic diseases (restriction fragment length poly-morphism). For all of these problems, PCR is a godsend since it delivers straight DNA information it is accomplished by amplifying DNA from the appropriate area and then analysing the PCR results directly.

o             PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF INHERITED DISEASES:

It is used to diagnose hereditary disorders in the womb utilising chorionic villus samples or amniocentesis cells various c onditions such as sickle cell anaemia, p-thalassemia, and phenylketonuria can thus be identified in these specimens using PCR.

o             DIAGNOSIS OF RETROVIRAL INFECTIONS:

                PCR from cDNA is a useful technique for detecting and maintaining retroviral infections, such as HIV.

o             DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL INFECTIONS:

o             PCR is used for the detection of bacterial infections such as tuberculosis which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

o             DIAGNOSIS OF CANCERS:

PCR can identify some virally-induced malignancies, such as cervical cancer caused by the human papillomavirus it can also identify malignancies caused by chromosomal translocations (chromosome 14 and 18 in follicular lymphoma) containing known genes.

o             PCR IN SEX DETERMINATION OF EMBROYS:

The sex of human and animal eggs fertilised in vitro may be identified using PCR using sex chromosome-specific primers and DNA probes. This method can also be used to identify sex-related abnormalities in fertilised eggs.

2.            PCR IN DNA SEQUENCING:

 The process is useful for sequencing since it is considerably easier and faster to amplify DNA. Single strands of DNA are required for this function. Asymmetric PCR involves preferred amplification of a single strand. Strand removal can also be accomplished by digesting one strand.

3.            PCR IN FORENSIC MEDICINE:

For amplification, a single molecule from any source (blood strains, hair, semen, etc.) of a person is sufficient. As a result, PCR is critical for crime detection.

4.            PCR IN COMPARISON WITH GENE CLONING:

In comparison to traditional gene cloning procedures, PCR offers a variety of benefits. Improved efficiency, small amounts of beginning material (DNA), cost-effectiveness, low technical expertise, and the time frame are only a few of them. In the long run, PCR may be able to replace most gene cloning applications.

5.            PCR IN GENE MANIPULATION AND EXPRESSION STUDIES:

The benefit of PCR is that the primers do not need to be complementary to the target DNA. As a result, it may alter and amplify the nucleotide sequence in a portion of the gene (target DNA). The coding sequence of a protein of interest can be changed using this approach. Gene manipulations are also crucial for studying the impact of factors on gene expression.

The study of mRNAs, which are the results of gene expression, requires the use of PCR. Reverse transcription-PCR is used to accomplish this.

6.            PCR IN COMPARITIVE STUDIES OF GENOMES:

PCR using random primers can be used to assess the differences in the genomes of two species. Electrophoresis is used for separation of products for their comparative identification and it is predicted that two genomes from closely related species will produce more comparable bands.

The study of evolutionary biology, more especially phylogenetic biology, relies heavily on PCR. It has transformed palaeontology and archaeological research since it can amplify even minute amounts of DNA from any source (hair, mummified tissues, bone, or any fossilised material).

8 APPS AND TOOLS THAT WILL MAKE YOUR LIFE SIMPLER

There’s an app for everything nowadays, from tracking steps to tracking calories.  A good app offers some level of added utility to your day-to-day life without intruding in on your real-world responsibilities. When looking to get the most use out of your smartphone, look for apps that can enhance your work, hobbies, and relaxation. Apps can help you to take charge of three of the most important aspects of your day-to-day life: your family, your health, and your time.

                   Technology is a godsend. From the idea of communicating a thought to another person within seconds to freezing a moment in time—technology has made life more memorable, productive, and helpful. One search can result in a multitude of pasta recipes and life advice. One swipe could you find you a potential partner. A few movements and you’ve reminded your sister to feed the dog.

                   As easy as technology is, my life experiences have driven me to always be in the pursuit of more and more life altering apps to step up my act in being spiritual, healthy, productive, and social. Below are just a few.

1.Inshorts:

Free

iOS and Android

The Inshorts app, developed by Ada News InShorts Pvt. Ltd, is designed to summarize every news piece in 60 words—yes, exact 60 words. The idea is to deliver the news at speed, complete with facts and what you really need to know. Laborious analysis is kept aside, so as to not slow you down while in the process of catching up with the happenings of the day. The app covers a wide range of genres. All stories are condensed manually by the in-house editorial team, and each news article also includes links to the larger story on the source website. This app was previously known as News In Shorts.

2.UrbanClap:

Free

iOS and Android

The UrbanClap app is perhaps the biggest indicator of a new trend of hiring professionals for executing various tasks and services. This includes repairs and maintenance tasks, including AC repairs, managing home care, plan events such as weddings and birthday parties as well as signing up for services such as tutors and for hobbies, among other things. Once a user puts in a specific request in the app, UrbanClap matches it with the registered professionals and assigns accordingly. UrbanClap says that they have more than 50,000 professionals registered to work on the platform and have more than 1 million users.

3.Swiggy:

Free

iOS and Android

The idea of opening an app on the smartphone, and depending on what catches your fancy that day, ordering food has caught on quite quickly. Indian app Swiggy is currently available in eight cities—Delhi, Gurgaon, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai. Users, depending on the city and the precise location, can order from restaurants in the vicinity. Swiggy currently does not have any minimum order criteria for delivery of the order.

4.Hike Messenger:

Free

iOS, Android, Windows Phone

Instant messenger apps are by far the most popular smartphone apps, simply because they have made communication with friends a lot faster and a lot less cluttered. The made-in-India Hike Messenger has 100 million users and the platform is used for exchanging as many as 40 billion messages every month. Over time, Hike Messenger has become more polished to use, and has added some rather cool features as well. The latest version of the app includes optimization for better connectivity when the 2G/3G/4G connection falters as well as a Hidden Mode for keeping chats private. Hike Messenger includes a Direct feature which lets you share files with friends, who are in close physical proximity at that time, without using the mobile data or Wi-Fi connection.

5.Fitso:

Free (in-app purchases)

iOS and Android

Once you are done with the food that you ordered using a food delivery app on your smartphone, it may be time to count the calories and pull out the fitness app on your phone. And the Fitso app for Apple iPhone and Android smartphones does just what is expected from it. Users can track their activities, set goals, manage workouts and also chat with a coach to get tips on how to improve your fitness routine.

6.Sleep cycle:

Free (in-app purchases)

iOS and Android

Sleep is one of the most often-overlooked aspects of a person’s health. The Sleep Cycle app helps users achieve optimal sleeping habits by waking them up at the best possible time each morning. Intelligent graphs and insights help the user to understand their sleeping habits and how to achieve a more restful sleep cycle.

7. Wattpad:

Free (in-app purchases)

iOS and Android

Make the most out of your free time. Wattpad is a popular app for reading enthusiasts as it provides a diverse library of materials that don’t require downloading huge PDFs or connecting to the internet. Liven up your commute or make better use of your downtime with a book, article, or short story.

8. Insight timer:

Free (in-app purchases)

iOS and Android

Mental health is every bit as important as physical health, and Insight Timer helps to improve your mental health through mindfulness and meditation. Give your mind a chance to relax from the stresses of a busy day at work.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

TYPES OF MALWARE

WHAT IS MALWARE?

  Malware is malicious software that is designed to affect computer operations or gaining access to the computer system without the user’s knowledge or permission. Computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, scareware are some of the malware. Malware is simple to identify. Most cybercriminals target the user’s end devices through the installation of malware.

VIRUSES:

  A malicious executable code attached to another executable file is known as a virus. Most of the viruses need the end user’s initiation and can activate at a specific time or date. Computer viruses are spread through removable media, downloads from the internet, and email attachments. The virus can be simple or destructive. They may delete or modify the user’s data. Opening a file may trigger a virus. The USB flash drives are infected by the virus and then spread to the system’s hard disk. A virus will also be activated by executing a specific program. Once the programs get infected by a virus, it will affect the other programs on the computer network. The Melissa virus was an example of a virus that has spread through email and affected thousands of end-users.

WORMS:

  Worms are malicious code that exploiting vulnerabilities in networks. Unlike a virus, they replicate independently. Viruses require a host program to run whereas worms can run by themselves. Worms are used to slow down the networks. Other than the initial infection, worms no longer need the user’s participation. Worms share similar patterns and once they affect the host they can spread fast through the network. Worms propagate themselves by carrying a payload. The code red worm in 2001 has affected nearly 658 servers.

TROJAN HORSES:

  A Trojan horse is a malware that carries out malicious operations. It is disguised under the desired operation such as playing an online game. Once the user runs the files with Trojan horse, the malicious code exploits the privileges of the user. The Trojan horse binds to the non-executable files. Some of such files are image files, audio files, or games.

LOGIC BOMBS:

   A logic bomb is a malicious program. It requires a trigger to work. It remains inactive until it is triggered by an external event. Once the bomb gets activated, it harms the user’s computer. A logic bomb can modify data records, or remove files or attack the operating system. The logic bomb overdrives the devices like cooling fans, CPU memory, hard drives until these devices get overheated or corrupts.

RANSOMWARE:

   Ransomware holds the files and devices until the target makes the payment. It works by encrypting the data with a key unknown to the user. To remove the restriction, the user may pay a ransom to the criminals. Some other versions of ransomware can take advantage of specific vulnerabilities to lock down the system. It may enter through the downloaded files or sometimes it may propagate as Trojan horses. Once the victims pay the ransom, the criminals will issue the key to unlock the code or the programs that decrypt the files. They receive the payment through the untraceable payment system.

BACKDOORS:

  A backdoor refers to the criminal introduces the malicious program or code by compromising the system. Netbus and Back office are some of the backdoors that allow remote access to unauthorized access. Even though the organization fixes the original vulnerability, the backdoor grants the cybercriminals future access to the system. Usually, criminals run a Trojan horse program to install the backdoor to the user’s system.

ROOTKITS:

  To introduce a backdoor in the system, the rootkits help to modify the operating system. The attackers use the backdoor to access the system. Most rootkits take advantage of software vulnerabilities to modify or delete the system files. Rootkits modify the system forensics and monitoring tools.

DEFENDING AGAINST MALWARE

  Some steps to follow that defends against all types of malware:

·        ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE: Most of the malware is caught by the antivirus suites. On the daily basis, cybercriminals develop and deploy new threats. Therefore the key to an effective antivirus solution is that keep the systems updated. A signature is like a fingerprint to identify malicious codes.

·        UP-TO-DATE SOFTWARE: Through the software vulnerabilities in software both in the OS and applications, malware can achieve its objectives. The application-level vulnerabilities also cause severe risks to the system. So always use the up-to-date software.

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Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

DBMS-AN OVERVIEW

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

   The collection of inter-related data and several programs that are used to handle the data is known as Database Management System (DBMS). The main aim of DBMS is to store and efficiently retrieve the data from the database. To manage the data in the database, define the structure for storage of information and provide a proper mechanism for manipulation of information. The database system must also ensure the safety of the information that is stored.

DATABASE SYSTEM APPLICATIONS

    Several applications use a database system. Some of the applications are listed below:

  • Accounting: To maintain the data of employees, salaries, and payroll taxes in the company, students in schools, patients in hospitals, database systems are used.
  • Manufacturing: In factories, database systems are used to manage the supply chain and tracking the production of items.
  • In shopping marts: For maintaining customer, product, and purchase information of items, databases are used.
  • Banking: The database systems are useful in maintaining the customer’s account information, loan details and for maintaining the transactions of credit card history.
  • Universities: DBMS is quite useful in maintaining the student details, course details, and accounting in universities.
  • Reservation systems: To maintain the reservation and schedule information, database systems are used in airways and railways reservation systems
  • Telecommunication: For maintaining the records of the call made and generating the bills, DBMS is useful.

PURPOSE OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  Earlier database systems are created to manage the commercial data. Data are stored in files. For adding new data or updating the data or deleting the data, various programs are written. Separate applications have to be written for the addition of new data. As time evolves, more files and more applications are required by the system. This typical file processing system is supported by an Operating system. In this system, the data is permanently stored in files. It requires different application programs for extracting or adding new information. Before the introduction of the Database Management System (DBMS), the file processing system was in use.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  • It represents the aspects of real-world applications.
  • For managing the information systematically.
  • Multiple views for representing the data.
  • Operations such as insertion, deletion, and updating can be done efficiently.
  • A logical relationship between records and data is maintained.

ADVANTAGES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  • The data redundancy is removed i.e, there is no duplication of data in DBMS.
  • DBMS allows you to retrieve the desired data in an efficient way.
  • Data isolation can be done in separate tables for convenient usage.
  • A simple query language can be used to access the data.
  • In DBMS, the data integrity is maintained.
  • If some operation is performed on the particular data in one table, then the changes will be reflected on the entire database. So, the atomicity of data is maintained in DBMS.
  • Concurrent access to multiple users is possible in database systems.
  • In DBMS, we can also make the user access only the desired part of the data by restricting the access.

DISADVANTAGES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS                              

  • The complexity of database design is high. And it is also time-consuming.
  • If some failure has occurred in either software or hardware, a large amount of investment is needed to repair it.
  • The entire database may get affected if one part of the database gets affected.
  • For converting the file from a conventional file system to a database system, a large investment is needed to buy the required tools and adopting different techniques.
  • More training is needed for the people who design and maintain the database system.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Mountain of light: Kohinoor

Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.

Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.

Journey

Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.

It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.

After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.

Cursed?

An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as

He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.

Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.

  • Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
  • Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
  • Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
  • Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
  • Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
  • British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor

This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.

DESIGN THINKING

DESIGN THINKING

 A human-centered approach to innovation in which you will transform the products and services based on the customer needs and by thinking creative ideas is known as design thinking. One of the most interesting approaches in developing a product is design thinking. Design thinking is an agile method. In this, we continuously identify the problem and find an appropriate solution that is both innovative and fulfills the customer’s needs. When design thinking is applied while developing a new product, the essence of the product will be valued more. The designers have to think out of the box to produce a good product. Design thinking transforms the focus from a business-centric approach to a customer-centric approach. The design should achieve the purpose and business goals and not just the beauty. Designers have several tools to assist them in conducting research, ideate solutions, and explore use cases to find the best solution to the problem.

IMPORTANCE OF DESIGN THINKING IN BUSINESS

  • All businesses will have never-ending goals. They want to produce new products that attract customers and helps to increase sales. When design thinking is applied, It can save vast amounts of money because it directs the attention to the particular solution the customer expects. The Return on Investment (ROI) of design thinking realizes the immediate cost savings.
  • Most of the software fails due to the following reasons: Not understanding the customer requirements, Lack of communication between customers and developers, and stakeholder policies. Fixing errors at the end of the development of the product will be 1000 times expensive than the cost before development. Design thinking provides a simple way to improve on by looking at what exactly the problems are and provides insights and data that are critical to building appropriate solutions.  
  • The first and foremost step to understand how design thinking is working is by knowing the current challenges faced in the business. Complex problems are broken down into tangible ones that can be analyzed and solved is the biggest advantage in design thinking. Creating cultural change across all projects and initiatives is what it takes.
  • Design is a creative team. The team of artists who create branding elements like logos, emoji, icons, and print advertisements. Design thinking is identified as a competitive advantage in businesses. In business, it helps to identify, understand and address the problems that affect customer relationships. Another big challenge to the organizations is measuring the return on investment (ROI) of design thinking.
  • By applying design thinking to business operations, we can able to see the change in overall performance compared to the previous workflow.
  • Businesses have come to recognize the importance of design thinking. The essence of design thinking in business is demonstrated by some famous organizations like Apple, Microsoft, Disney, Zoho, Infosys, TCS, Cisco, TATA Motors, Hyundai, Maruti, M&M, and IBM.
  • Whether you’re a CEO, a marketer, or a designer, or an engineer, there are some reasons why you should invest in design thinking. By investing in design thinking, it decreases the cost of customer support, a little up-front UX research can save hundreds of engineering hours, and improving your User experience (UX) saves a lot of money.

DESIGN THINKING COURSES

It is originated in Sanford University. Currently, design thinking is one of the sought courses and has its applications in many fields like healthcare, education, agriculture, financial services, environmental sustainability, etc. Nowadays many big software companies have made design thinking to be a mandatory skill for each of the employees. Many leading universities around the world including d.school, Stanford, Harvard, and MIT offer a course on design thinking. A separate master’s degree course on Product Design is offered in IITs and IISc in India. We can get admission for post-graduate studies in the field of technological design by writing CEED (Common Entrance Examination for Design).

Banned cartoons and their reasons

You may have came across the word “ban” Or “censored’ used in movies, but do you know these terms are also used for some cartoons in some countries which are liked by other countries. Let’s have a look at some popular cartoons which are banned in some countries and their reasons.

1. SpongeBob SquarePants

This is the longest running Nickelodeon show ever. It got banned because of violence and foul language which are used in this show. Countries like Russia, America and 120 others have banned this show from watching.

2. The Simpsons

This is America’s most popular cartoon show till now. This show had scenes where public figures like Donald Trump, were insulted. This show also promoted disorderly behavior which were totally misleading for kids. After sometime, the show is now available to watch, but there has been argument going on this show as countries like US have censored this cartoon show.

3. Mickey Mouse

This is world’s first cartoon show which had voice, and the first word that Mickey Mouse said was “Hot Dogs”. This cartoon show got banned in 1930s in the Romanian region because Romania government stated that big Mouse in this cartoon will scare the kids rather than making them laugh.

4. Doremon

This is a Japanese cartoon show which is ban in more than 50 countries because of the character Nobita. The Nobita character is a lazy character who always depends upon the character Doremon for helping gadgets. An argument concluded that the Nobita character was promoting laziness, procrastinating, etc, which resulted in banning.

Cartoon shows should be developed keeping kids as their main audience. It should have the simplicity and cleanness that attract audience and also focusing on the impact and effect that it’ll leave mainly on audience. That’s why shows that promotes foul language can always make a big effect on kids. This makes banning a healthy and better option.

Robots – Basic research

Robotics is a combination of the two academic disciplines which are computer science and engineering. Robotics field includes design, construction and operation of robots. Robots are designed for particular purposes and they are programmed with necessary requirements to do the given work. The ultimate motive of robotics is to create machines that can perform humanly activities and assist humans. Despite of these two academic disciplines, robotics combines many fields of engineering like computer engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, information engineering, software engineering mathematics etc.

They are mainly used in manufacturing industries to do repetitive activities. They are also used in dangerous environments nowadays such as bomb detection, bomb deactivation etc.

Applications

Initially robots were designed to do a particular work which was hard for humans to do. But as of now there are many industries that make use of robots for various types of work where one kind of robot is particularly designed do that particular work and not anything else. So this can be classified into many sectors. They are,

  • Military robots – These robots are used for many military applications. Some applications are detection of explosive materials, Sniper detection, surveillance etc.
  • Industrial robots – These robots are used in industries with manufacturing works where the machine would do repetitive human tasks. They also reduce the use of labors in the factory. Robots are increasingly used in this field.
  • Agricultural robots – These robots are deployed for the purpose of agriculture. In this field also, robots replace humans by doing their tasks like seeding, harvesting, soil analysis. Initially, agricultural robots were invented with the motive for deploying it in the harvesting stage.
  • Medical robots – It is a risky field to deploy robots to perform medical tasks.
    •  The da Vinci Surgical Robot – There has been many deaths in the US due to surgical errors. In order to avoid it, surgical robots are used. The da Vinci surgical robot is a multiarmed robot used during surgeries. The arms of the robot is nothing but various tiny, accurate precision instruments that can be used during surgeries in order to decrease surgical error deaths. Surgeons make use of this multiarmed robot, move the hands and perform surgery. It also has great range of motion.
    • The Xenex Germ-Zapping Robot – This is another robot that is used in hospitals. Hospital acquired infections has became a thing now, and it requires a proper solution to avoid it. This robot is used to clean and disinfect the hospital rooms by using pulsed, full spectrum UV rays. The Xenex germ-zapping robot is as important and useful as the da Vinci surgical robot. These are just two examples but there are many other robots that are used in the medical field.
  • Domestic robots – As the name suggests domestic robots are robots designed for domestic purposes to perform simple household activities. Some examples are ironing robots, robotic vacuum cleaner, robotic lawn mower. These are not those kind of robots used for sensitive and dangerous situations but simple robots that just replaces humans with household works.

Advantages

  • Robots are meant to replace humans but it not just replace humans but does the work better and faster than humans.
  • They are predictable as they don’t have emotions. They are programmed to behave in a certain way so we know what we can expect while humans on the other hand are complex creatures.
  • They don’t take rest. As long as the power source for the robot is available, the robot can’t refuse to do a certain work.

Disadvantages

  • The advantages may turn as a disadvantage at times, robots work without taking rest as long as it has it’s power source. But what if there is not power, that is when we become helpless, without it the robot is just a machine that does nothing.
  • They are programmed in a certain way and that is a disadvantage too. Because the robot can’t behave beyond what is programmed, it sticks to it’s job which may lead to failures when the situation becomes way different than what is programmed.
  • They are expensive. There is a lot of work done behind a robot and it is way more expensive than we think. If it was cheap we would be having robots all over the world.

Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap
Bladderworts
Sundew
Pitcher plant

All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.

Reason of existence

It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-

  1. Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
  2. In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
  3. This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys

Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.

Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.

Sleepwalking

Did you ever Sleep walked? Here’s what I came to know that every 1 out of 3 kids aged between 4 to 8, sleep walk. And that’s a lot by the way.

Sleep walking formally known as Somnambulish is a strange phenomena where people get up and do things in their sleep, sometimes more than just walking and when they wake up they don’t have any recollection of what they were doing. Moreover, if they find way back to their bed they may not ever know that they were sleep walking.

Sleep walking is nothing about embarrassed about though or terrified for that matter, it’s relatively common. In a recent study Stanford found that 1 out of 3 people sleep walk at some point of their lives. It is specially common among children, between the age of 4 and 8. So what happened when we sleep walk.

Reasons

A leading theory about why we sleep walk is:-

  • In normal sleep cycle, your brains motor system continues to issue physical commands to the body.
  • Whereas those who sleep walks are suppressed by sleep chemical called GABA.
  • GABA access act as a break in your brain, it brings your mind and body down to rest by neutralizing Glutamate a chemical that causes excitement.
  • In sleep walkers there’s a glitch in the process that suppresses your boby from moving around namely that you don’t produce GABA.

So that’s why you are moving around when you’re still asleep. There are few causes of GABA deficient in the body:-

  1. Genetic sleepwalking :- when sleepwalking runs in the family
  2. Underdeveloped system:- when the boby simply hasn’t matured enough to produce the proper amount. That’s why it is more common amongst kids.
  3. Depression:- Those who suffer from depression are three times as likely to sleep walk.

Myths

You would have probably heard about the myth that you shouldn’t wake a sleepwalker because they’re going through a psychotic rage that could even kill you. But these are myths, if you see anyone sleepwalking, you are asked to wake them up gently, especially if they are in the kitchen or holding a knife.

Recently there was a story about a lady who drove 190 miles in her sleep without hurting or killing herself or anyone. She should be definitely called lucky.

Things you need to know about blockchain

Blockchain is a system of documenting data that will be difficult to hack or change. It is tough to deceive the system. Each block in the chain contains several transactions and every time a new transaction occurs on the blockchain a record of the transaction is added to the participant’s ledger. In simple words, blockchain is not invulnerable the hacker would need more than half of the control in the allocated file.

WHO OWNS BLOCKCHAIN?

According to Wikipedia, blockchain is a cryptocurrency blockchain explorer service. Bitcoin is supported by the same. It was found in 2011 by Benjamin Reeves, Nicolas Cary, and Peter Smith.

blockchain.com

Blockchain was found as Blockchain.info which could be used to trace bitcoin transactions. The function of the site is to allow bitcoin users to see the public cryptocurrency transactions. By 2014, blockchain was popular and the users grew.

In 2018, blockchain started to sell services to institutional cryptocurrencies. Whereas in 2020, the company is said to have more than 30 million users. The next year it grew to a family of 60 plus million wallet users.

BLOCKCHAIN’S SERVICE

Blockchain as said records information. It provides an outlet to hold and oversee crypto investments. The platform also submits financial service standards.

The company offers a hosted cryptocurrency wallet that is to store digital for online access. It allows users to buy and sell cryptocurrencies.

A special feature is, the company has a non-custodial wallet. The company has no access to the wallet’s data, the user is the sole owner of the information. This draws attention as it maintains privacy. The user has a private key to get hold of the data which is known solely by the user.

There is an explorer which allows the public to see the transactions. If one has the hash code with the address of the wallet, they can see received, sent and the fee information. The tool is used to analyse the activity.

IS BLOCKCHAIN RELIABLE?

Yes, it is considered to be reliable and trustworthy as, if one goes offline the others in the network get access to the ledger.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

Blockchain grows to 300GB. The programming language is said to be C. There is no need for a middle man in the process that is one of the specialities. It has faster transactions.

SKILLS NEEDED TO BE A BLOCKCHAIN DEVELOPER

  • Cryptocurrency.
  • Data structure.
  • Web development.
  • Blockchain Architecture.
  • Java
  • C++
  • Python

FACTS ABOUT BLOCKCHAIN

  • Blockchains can be either public or private.
  • Bitcoin transactions are measured in bytes.
  • 0.5% of the world population uses blockchain. That said it comes around 18,850,000.
  • Ethereum, Ripple, Quorum and R3 Corda are other blockchain platforms.
  • IBM is the largest blockchain company.
  • As for the development, it is still in the place internet was a few years ago.
  • Blockchain isn’t always Anonymous.

The disadvantage is once the record is made it cannot be altered. As there are no third parties the risk is minimal. To understand blockchain there are few videos on youtube, do Check it out!

Thank you!

ARE KINDLES BETTER THAN PAPERBACKS?

Hi! Hope you all are doing good. I’m a kindle parent for more than a month. So I thought why not share about kindle. I simply love the device so much and I can’t stay away from it as much as I even named my device.

Kindle is a small, light e-reader and has been developed by Amazon. We can store books, charge it and carry it with us as it is lightweight. There is a kindle app that can also be used.

Advantages of Kindle

  • Convenient e-reader.
  • Thousands of e-books.
  • Cheaper and affordable books.
  • Dictionary in one click.
  • It has a paper-like screen which gives us a paperback feel.
  • E-ink is being used in this device.
  • It is not bad for the eyes.
  • With kindle unlimited, you get lots of free books.
  • It does not emit light.
  • Long battery life.
  • Glare-free.

Disadvantages of kindle

  • It is not a physical book.
  • Lack of book smell.
  • Lack of colourful illustration.
  • Hard to share with friends.
  • Eye strain if used continuously and at night.
  • The battery can die out. You have to carry the charger for journeys.

You can join kindle unlimited to get access to free books. In India, you have to pay 1 Month = Rs.199, 6 months = Rs. 999 and 12 Months = Rs. 1,799.

KINDLE (10TH GEN)

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Device: Kindle 10th Generation.
  • Manufacturer: Amazon.
  • Weight: 168g.
  • Model No.: J9G29R.
  • Country of Origin: India.

I have this device and trust me I love it! If one can’t afford paperbacks, ebooks are an incredible option. The device is super cute and light. You won’t get distracted as you can’t assess social media on the device. This device does not support audiobooks.

BUY NOW.

KINDLE PAPERWHITE (10th GENERATION)

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Device: kindle paperwhite 10th Generation.
  • Manufacturer: Amazon.
  • Weight: 182g.
  • Country of Origin: China.

Paper White has 8GB and 32GB storage. The price varies as per the storage. Important thing is, it is waterproof hence, you can read it in a bathtub, beach, and pool area. It doesn’t support audiobooks.

BUY NOW.

KINDLE OASIS 10TH GENERATION

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Device: Kindle oasis 10th generation.
  • Manufacturer: Amazon.
  • Weight: 186g

Kindle Oasis has a page-turner button. The screen is flat edge to edge. It has an elegant look. The screen rotation feature is helpful. The cost may vary as per the storage.

BUY NOW.

In kindle, we have the features to change fonts and font size. There are few basic features like layout changes and themes.

There are pretty covers for the device on Amazon. The experience is not like a paperback yet it gives us a pleasant experience. Images are black and white but that doesn’t make my experience any less than beautiful.

When we are out in direct sunlight, a glare-free screen enables us to read. As much as I love paperback, reading in kindle doesn’t make you less of a reader. I feel that money should not be a barrier to reading. When you can afford ebooks, do make use of it. It might not be the same but I think paperback and kindle can co-exist.

Happy reading!

Are you a Smartphone Zombie?

Few days back i saw a question on a site asking “I want to put my phone aside and study, but i’m not able to do it? Is there any I can get rid of it?”

Well we can say that we all faced this phase where we get too much addicted to Mobile phone and couldn’t keep it aside and focus on other works. A research recently released the details of a study which told us where in the world was the biggest Smartphone penetration:-

  1. South Korea
  2. Australia
  3. Israel
  4. U.S
  5. Spain
  6. U.K

But this doesn’t mean that people in this countries are using mobile phones all the time. Based on a 2016 study led by Statistica, it does look like people in those countries might fall into the category of smartphone zombies. The study also said that

  • Brazilian spend the most hours on average connected to a smartphone as 4 hr 48 mins per day.
  • Chinese spend the most hours on average 3 hours 3 mins
  • Followed by U.S 2 hours 37 mins
  • Italy 2 hours 34 mins
  • Spain 2 hours 11 mins
  • South Korea 2 hours 10 mins

One thing range true for all countries in the study, and that was the fact time spent on a smartphone for the average person was up quite a lot from 2012 to 2016.

It’s not totally people’s fault that we are addicted to the smartphones. We have this exciting thing in our pocket that flashes, beeps and invites us to use it. NPR in 2018 talked about this manipulative object we carry around with us, that is just so irresistible. The story mentions Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, and what we know as Pavlov’s dog. The psychologist one day realised that when his dog heard a bell or a buzzer, he knew it was feeding time, thereby associate with a sound to eating, which led to the dog drooling and looking excited.

Modern psychologist tells us this is what is happening to us when we hear a beep or a ding inside our pocket; we become excitable, like Pavlov’s dog. Our reward is coming, and we get a hit of dopamine and we want more. We check our phone on average every 15 mins and that make the tech use psychological tricks to keep us checking in.

All the time spent checking in may affect our sleep, our relationship, our work, or even all the creative things we might do to have a flourishing existence. Psychologist tend to agree we should be checking in less, and tech producers need to start thinking about creating less powerful digital drugs. But that isn’t easy because as most people now need those beeps and likes, and need to feel that they are not missing out on something.

Experts even states that putting your phone down, you may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as craving, restlessness, irritability or difficulty in concentrating. So from now on you might turn off notifications, have a plan for the day and stick to it, take off the apps you really don’t need as that might lead to a kind of app surfing. In general, not many people are against these technologies, but we should be focusing on what we might call device quality time, educating ourselves and being productive and creative.

Gaming – pros and cons

All of us at some point of our life have played some game, at least candy crush. So why not we know what the pros and cons are. We see Indian parents being against gaming and thinking it as a sin or something but is it really that bad? I have seen streamers play for 25 hours for their 25th birthday, is it that good for health?

Pros of gaming

  • Gaming is not actually that bad. There is good as well as a bad side for everything in this world just like gaming. Gaming improves our logical thinking and reflexes. As a gamer myself I can say that I have seen improving in the particular game by learning all tactics and stuff. So it is not a waste of time.

  • Social skills – Gamers can easily develop their social skills. If it is a multiplayer game, you need to communicate with your teammates. You will be communicating with people from various places and over time you will find yourself making a bunch of gamer friends online.

  • I am not sure about physical health but it does improve your mental health. My go-to mood changes is always gaming. It is like you sunk into the virtual world, so obviously you forget your life problems and have a good game. You will be inside the virtual world thinking how to kill this guy, how to win this match etc. and that would be your major problem at that time.

  • Increases brain function. You give your brain exercise by thinking deeply about how to win this match or something. Video games gives us a reason to implement reasoning and logical ability.

Cons of gaming

  • Health issues – I am not a doctor to find out what exactly it does to our eyes or health but I do know it is not good for our eyes to sit and play for more than 3 hours. For me 3 hours is the maximum, if I play beyond that I tend to get headaches. Obviously screen time should be reduced as everything now is done online. So it is better if we start playing outdoor games.

  • Too much of anything is good for nothing. Addiction is bad no matter what is it. That too addiction towards gaming is going to affect you mentally and physically as well. You can play games daily for a limited time but you can’t play the whole day.

  • The amount of negativity in the gaming community is more than negativity in any other place. I encounter with toxic players everyday. It is just easy for them to be toxic and hurt you as they are hiding behind a fake identity “game name”.

  • Not concentrating on other works. Going into the virtual world and never coming back to the real world is another problem. Again we need to know our limits of when to stop gaming. Anything in limit is not harmful according to me.

Conclusion

The only reason why parents are against gaming is that we tend to play for hours and hours and spoil our health which our parents obviously don’t like. So let them know that few hours of gaming is good and not going to affect anyone and have fun!

MACHINE LEARNING

MACHINE LEARNING

       Machine learning is the branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In AI, the machines are designed to simulate human behavior. Whereas in machine learning, the machines are allowed to learn from the past data without programming explicitly. Any technology user in today’s world has benefitted from machine learning. It is a continuously growing field and hence provides several opportunities to the research industries. In machine learning, tasks are classified into broad categories. Two of the most adopted machine learning categories are supervised learning and unsupervised learning. In supervised learning, the machines train the algorithms based on the sample input and output labeled by the humans. It uses patterns to predict values on additional unlabeled data. In unsupervised learning, the machine trains the algorithm with no labeled data. It will find the structure within its input data. As a field, machine learning deals with data, so having a piece of knowledge in statistics will be useful in better understanding concepts.

WHY MACHINE LEARNING?

  • It develops systems that can automatically adapt and customize themselves according to the individuals.
  • It can be a key for unlocking the value of corporate and customer data which in turn helps the company to stay ahead of the competition.
  • For growing data and the different available data, the computational process is cheaper and faster and provides affordable storage.
  • By using algorithms to build models, organizations can make better decisions without human intervention.
  • Relationships and correlations can be hidden in a large amount of data. Machine learning will help find these relationships.
  • As technology keeps changing, it is difficult to continuously redesign the system by hand.
  • In some cases like medical diagnostics, the amount of data available about certain tasks might be too large for explicitly encoding by humans.

VARIOUS FIELDS THAT USES MACHINE LEARNING:

GOVERNMENT: By using machine learning systems, the prediction of potential future scenarios and adapting rapid changes becomes easy for government officials. Machine learning helps to improve cybersecurity and cyber intelligence. It also helps by reducing the failure rates of the project.

HEALTHCARE: The use of sensors to predict the pulse rate, heartbeats, sugar levels, sleeping patterns helps the doctors to assess their patient’s health in real-time. It provides real-time data from past surgeries and past medical records which will improve the accuracy of the surgical robot tools. Some of the benefits are avoidance of human errors and will be helpful during complex surgeries.

MARKETING AND SALES: The marketing sector has been revolutionized since the arrival of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. It has increased customer satisfaction by 10%. E-commerce and social media sites use machine learning to analyze the things that you are interested in and help in suggesting similar products to you based on your past habits. It has greatly helped in increasing the sales of e-shopping sites.

TRANSPORTATION: Through deep learning, machine learning, has explored the complex interactions of highways, traffic roads, accident-prone areas, crashes, environmental changes, and so on. It helped in traffic control management by providing results from the past day. So, the company can able to get their raw materials without any delay and supply their finished goods to the market inefficient time. 

FINANCE: The insights produced by machine learnings helps the investors to give a clear picture of risk and the right time for investment and helps to identify the high-risk clients and signs of fraudulent areas. It helps in analyzing the stock market movement to give financial recommendations. Machine learning also helps to be aware of the risks in the finance department.

MANUFACTURING: Machine learning has helped to improve productivity in the industrial field. It helps in the expansion of product and service lines due to mass production in a short time. Improved quality control with insights helps to improve the product’s quality. Ability to meet the customer’s new needs. Prediction helps to find risks and reduces the cost of production.

   Thus in today’s world, machine learning is implemented in several fields to complete the work faster and cheaper. The machine should be able to do all the works that man can do and machine learning will help to achieve this goal.

The Role of Social Media in Raising Health Awareness

More and more people are dependent on social media for healthcare news and resources in this new era. Today, the idea of following doctors on Facebook is typical. Social media and healthcare go hand-in-hand. When Social media matters across all the industries, then why should healthcare be avoided right? 

Since more people are engaged on social media, the medical field has now understood the importance of social media in healthcare and has started incorporating such practices. Healthcare organizations have seriously started examining the role of social media in the patient-physician relationship. Leaders in public health have begun realizing that a comprehensive healthcare brand can be built with the help of social media marketing. 

Social Media Engagement in Healthcare | Digital Marketing for Hospitals

Raises Awareness

Social media has always been a key to increase public awareness about emerging, new, and annual health issues. It facilitates raising awareness in a way that is as simple as reminding followers about the basic sense of health practices. 

When the world around is changing fast, social media is the key that ensures that the public is aware of the latest medical guidelines, issues, and advisories. One of the ways of sharing information is to share them directly through your social posts. Another way is to use social media to direct followers to credible sources of the latest news. 

Combat Misleading Information

Social media, due to its very nature, helps spread information quickly to distinct groups of people. That’s great when the information shared is helpful, clear, and fact-based. But unfortunately, there is also a lot of misinformation on social platforms. At times, this misinformation comes in the form of false statements and they are easily ridiculed. 

You can cite published research from a credible health resource like the CDC or WHO. But sometimes, the creators of misinformation may use a reputable institution to give credibility to their statements. Then, the institution needs to clarify that they are not the source.

Social media offers institutions a platform to generate statements to stop the masses from believing false facts. So, make your healthcare brand a platform where you share useful information with your followers and stay away from spreading misinformation. More detailed research can help you identify the true facts. 

The more the research, the better!

Answer Common Questions

Health organizations and authorities working in the healthcare sector are valuable for all kinds of health concerns. Social media tools offer a creative way for healthcare professionals to address common issues. 

For example, the government of India has developed a Facebook Messenger Chatbot. It allows answering questions, directing citizens to the right source, and countering misinformation. 

Everything is shrouded in the media’s shadow. If we claim that the media is counting the feathers of the flying sparrow, we are not exaggerating. The role of media has created a stir and sensation in the world , rich or poor, fair or dark, wise or unwise, are enjoying lucretian pleasures and are in the air. Media could play a leading role in creating awareness on the various health issue and this role can’t be disputed. Hillary Clinton Secretary of State of the US has recently commented on AIDS and while speaking that the disease is incurable, she said efforts are to be made. Many efforts are made on health-related issues and role of media have to be included also. There are many health-related problems confronting our country and these include both communicable and chronic diseases. Health department at the center and state play a leading role in the eradication of diseases, including international agencies and governments of other countries. Media has been promoting health-related causes in a big way in helping government departments spreading awareness on various issues relating health and family welfare programs. The MOHFW has various schemes and these are promoted in many private and government-owned media outlets.

Who was the First Plastic Surgeon?

Plastic surgery – the name implies an artificial substance – but it is derived from the Greek word “Plastikos” which means to mold or to give form. An important specialty has been taking shape, one that reshapes the lives of patients. So who was the first plastic surgeon?

John Staige Davis was the first plastic surgeon. He played an important role not only at his council group in Hopkins but also in the United States in the plastic surgery. He limited his practice in the field of plastic surgery in those times. He was the only plastic surgeon who was there when World War I took place.

Dr. John Staige Davis

In 1991, Dr. Davis published the first English language textbook of plastic surgery and it is still used today. He sends copies to medical school founder, doctors and at that time no one acknowledged receiving it. And though plastic surgery at Hopkins would not gain the standard they deserved until the next century, Dr. Davis was helping to build the foundation for the entire discipline of plastic surgery in America.

He used to pioneer the transferring tissue techniques known as “Z- plasty” and the use of small deep grafts to heal chronic wounds. He was the founding member of The American Board of Surgery and The American Board of Plastic surgery. Dr. Davis’s work and reputation starts Hopkins on its way to becoming a crossroad and destination for the country’s best plastic surgeons.

In 1942, John Staige Davis was part-time faculty member and was running a plastic clinic even though he was in his 70s by then and beyond his retirement age, two years from then a forth year medical student at Hopkins had the chance observe the master surgeon doing a cleft lip repair.

His successor Dr. Edgerton graduates and proceeds to work by joining the army and was serving at Valley Forge General Hospital in Pennsylvania. He was one of the few surgeon treating thousands of men coming back from combat with disfiguring wounds and burns needing plastic surgery. This horrendous war injuries united skill surgeon in their desire to heal wounded soldiers. This dynamic gave raise to a new and important speciality in medicine.

Dr. Edgerton

With the scientific foundation and tissue regeneration, transplantation, and stem cell biology plastic surgery is uniquely poised to make the next major advance in medicine. By regenerating or replacing missing body parts, plastic surgery can transform patients life in ways that could not have been imagined only recently.

John Staige Davis didn’t lived to see plastic surgery receive the recognition and support if required and deserved in the world. But his path-breaking work and clear vision allowed a greater dream to be realized.

Android vs. iOS: Which OS is the best?

If you’re buying a new smartphone today, chances are extremely good it will run one of two operating systems: Google’s Android or Apple’s iOS. These two platforms account for virtually all new smartphones shipped in the last couple of years That’s some serious dominance by the two biggest players, and the good news is that both smartphone operating systems are excellent. They have quite a bit in common with each other, but there are some important differences you’ll want to consider when you’re trying to decide between these twin giants. We’re going to pit Android against iOS in several categories here and pick a winner for each one.

Affordability

Apple has always been at the high-end of the market in terms of pricing, but the iPhone X took things to a whole new level with a starting price of $1,000. Apple’s iPhones haven’t gotten much cheaper since, and the iPhone 12 Pro Max starts at $1,100. They do come a little more affordable, but not by much. The iPhone 12 starts at $800, and the iPhone SE (2020) — the cheapest iPhone Apple sells — starts at $400. Apple continues to expand its offerings, but $400 is as cheap as it gets unless you delve into the secondhand market.

For sheer scale and variety, nothing competes with Android. You can spend a lot if you want to — for example, Samsung’s cutting-edge folding Galaxy Z Fold 2 5G costs $2,000, but there’s also a huge selection of good, low-cost handsets as low as $100, from a wide variety of different manufacturers. The platform has also been deliberately optimized to run on low-end hardware with the introduction of the variant OS Android Go. Finally, Android’s lead in free apps also makes it the natural choice for the budget-conscious.

Apple’s iOS is an exceptional OS, but the high entry point has always been one of its biggest issues. Apple’s iPhone SE and iPhone 12 make that entry point lower, but it’s still not a match for Android’s massive range of affordable devices. Whether you’re looking to spend $100 or $2,000, there’s an Android phone for you. iOS can’t say the same.

Winner: Android

Apps

Let’s start with a look at the numbers. This is roughly how many apps you’ll find in the Google Play Store and the Apple App Store:

  • Android apps: 2.7 million
  • iOS apps: 1.82 million

However, numbers aren’t the best metric because most of us only use a handful of apps, and the most popular ones are available on both platforms. Traditionally, iOS has been a more lucrative platform for developers, so there has been a tendency for new apps to appear there first, but that’s changing as Android’s market share continues to grow. In the U.S., iOS still leads the way, but developers elsewhere are increasingly targeting Android first.

Luckily, both operating systems have been taking more precautions when it comes to malicious apps and spyware, making apps safer to download than ever.

The Play Store still has a higher percentage of free apps than the App Store. But the best mobile games still land on iOS first — and they don’t always come to Android, even if Android has plenty of great games. Ultimately, quality beats quantity, and so this is a narrow win for iOS.

Winner: iOS

App Store

It’s difficult to organize millions of apps and games, and neither Google’s Play Store or Apple’s App Store does it perfectly. Overall, we think Apple’s App Store provides a better browsing experience on your phone and does a better job with curated recommendations. The Play Store is easier to search and you can queue and install apps from the web browser on your PC or laptop.

We like the fact that you can buy apps using your fingerprint via Touch ID on iPhones, but you can set up the same thing for the Play Store on Android phones with fingerprint sensors. The Play Store wins points for having a no-quibble refund policy within two hours of purchase. There are some questionable apps in both stores, but Apple is generally stricter about blocking certain types of apps. That can be a good thing for overall quality, but it’s a bad thing if you’re into something like game emulators for classic consoles. The iOS App Store edges the win for usability and curated content.

Winner: iOS

Maps

As the newer navigation system, Apple Maps did not have a great start, but it has improved significantly. Key features are similar: You can download maps for offline use, get accurate estimates based on current traffic conditions, and find turn-by-turn directions for driving or walking. Apple has even closed further in on Google Maps by adding cycling directions and more improvements in iOS 14. You’ll also find public transit and ride-booking integration. They all work well and should get you where you’re going.

It used to be that Google Maps would win this category hands-down — and while it’s still generally our map app of choice, Apple has made some huge strides toward parity in the last few years, and Apple Maps is now at the point where it’s a serious competitor. We would still personally download Google Maps, even on an iOS device, but if you chose to go with Apple’s map app over Google’s, then you wouldn’t be getting an inferior product. Right now, Google Maps still has a small advantage due to its larger database of reviews and businesses, but its lead has narrowed a lot, and we expect to see this category fall into being a tie eventually.

Winner: Android

Battery life and charging

As one of the biggest complaints from smartphone owners, battery life is a huge factor. It’s difficult to compare the two platforms because there’s no common hardware. iOS is optimized to squeeze the most out of the battery per mAh rating, but you can buy an Android device with a much bigger battery that will easily outlast the iPhone.

Both Android and iOS allow you to see your battery usage at a glance, broken down by app, but only Android shows an estimate of how much battery life you have left. They both offer power-saving modes that can extend your battery life by limiting performance, connectivity, and other power-sapping features, but precisely how it works is generally more customizable on Android.

For a long time, Android had an advantage in the charging department, because many Android phones offered fast-charging capabilities and wireless charging. However, Apple’s iPhone 11, iPhone X, and even the iPhone SE (2020) adopted wireless charging and fast charging, so they’re not that far behind. It’s worth noting that you have to buy the fast-charging adapter separately for some iPhone models, whereas it’s usually provided in the box with an Android phone. Apple supplied a fast charger with the iPhone 11 Pro, but that was one of the last iPhones to come with any charger. From the iPhone 12 onwards, you’ll have to buy a charger separately, as iPhones now only come with a Lightning-to-USB-C cable.

However, Android fans shouldn’t sneer at iPhone lovers too much, as Samsung is following where Apple has led. The new Galaxy S21 range comes with no charger in the box, and, as with the headphone jack, we’ll probably start to see this change echo across to other manufacturers.

This category is far from clear-cut, but comparing similarly priced Android phones with iPhones, you can find a phone with a larger battery if that’s important to you, and they tend to have fast chargers included in the box (for the moment), so Android gets the win.

Winner: Android

Cloud services

Apple is still lagging when it comes to cloud storage and automatic backups. Google offers 15GB for free and has cross-platform support. You only get 5GB with iCloud, and it only works with Windows, Mac, and iOS.

If you need a lot of additional space, Google One charges $2 per month for 100GB ($20 for the year), while Apple charges $1 per month for 50GB or $3 per month for 200GB. Apple’s price for 2TB jumps up to $10 per month. Google will also give you 2TB for that price, but you can get a discount if you pay for the year, which costs $100 ($8.33 per month).

Android’s cloud storage is easier to use and more effective than iCloud. You can also use Google Drive on an iPhone, whereas iCloud is iOS only.

Winner: Android

Voice assistants

You can do many of the same things with Apple’s Siri as you can with Google Assistant, but Siri is more like a straightforward helper for setting calendar appointments, searching the web, or making calls. Google Assistant has an extra layer. It can preemptively offer useful suggestions, and it has a more conversational side that offers up entertaining games and contextual information based on what you’re doing. It’s smarter and more versatile than Siri.

The addition of Siri Shortcuts in iOS 12, which allows you to set up voice commands to trigger groups of automated tasks, is a big step in the right direction and Siri is also beginning to make more suggestions based on your iPhone usage. For now, however, Google Assistant can do more and seems to be improving at a much faster rate, offering things like call screening and the ability to make reservations for you.

Winner: Android

Rooting, bootloaders, and jailbreaking

We’ve looked at how to root your Android phone or tablet before. It’s not for everyone, but if you want root access and complete control over your device, then rooting is the way to get it. Rooting gives you access to more apps, the latest OS updates without waiting, new software skins to get the aesthetic you want, the chance to get rid of bloatware from carriers and manufacturers, potential tweaks to boost your device’s speed and battery life, and more.

Many Android OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) also offer a way to unlock the bootloader, which determines how the OS loads up on your device. Apple is completely opposed to this kind of thing. Jailbreaking is an option for iOS, which lets you download and install apps from outside the App Store and bypass some other limitations.

Winner: Android

Conclusion

Numerically speaking, Android wins 10 categories and iOS wins seven, but iOS wins in some of the more important categories — we don’t think rooting or alternative app stores are as important for most people as accessibility or security, for example. However, it’s very difficult to compare the two. Because Apple controls both the hardware and the software of their devices, you’ll find iOS offers a more uniform experience across devices.

India’s First Indigenous COVID-19 Vaccine – COVAXIN

A vaccine based on whole inactivated coronavirus has an efficacy rate of 77.8% against symptomatic COVID-19 infections, phase 3 trial data suggest.

Covaxin, also known as BBV152, was authorised for emergency 

COVAXIN, Indias indigenous COVID-19 vaccine by Bharat Biotech is developed in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Virology (NIV).

The indigenous, inactivated vaccine is developed and manufactured in Bharat Biotech’s BSL-3 (Bio-Safety Level 3) high containment facility.

The vaccine is developed using Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell derived platform technology. Inactivated vaccines do not replicate and are therefore unlikely to revert and cause pathological effects. They contain dead virus, incapable of infecting people but still able to instruct the immune system to mount a defensive reaction against an infection

Covaxin COVID-19 Vaccine To Be Available In First Quarter Of Next Year,  Says Bharat Biotech

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Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin has demonstrated 77.8 per cent effectiveness against symptomatic Covid and 65.2 per cent protection against the new Delta variant.

The company on Saturday said it concluded the final analysis of Covaxin efficacy from Phase 3 trials.

The efficacy analysis demonstrates Covaxin to be 93.4 per cent effective against severe symptomatic Covid cases while safety analysis shows adverse events reported were similar to placebo, with 12 per cent of subjects experiencing commonly known side-effects and less than 0.5 per cent feeling serious adverse events.

The efficacy data demonstrates 63.6 per cent protection against asymptomatic Covid, a release from the city-based vaccine maker said.

Phase 3 clinical trials of the vaccine was an event-driven analysis of 130 symptomatic Covid cases, reported at least two weeks after the second dose, conducted at 25 sites across India.

The whole virion inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV2, was developed in partnership with Indian Council of Medical Research and National Institute of Virology in Pune.

Krishna Ella, Chairman and Managing Director of Bharat Biotech, said, “The successful safety and efficacy readouts of Covaxin as a result of conducting the largest ever Covid vaccine’s trials in India establishes the ability of India and developing world countries to focus towards innovation and novel product development. We are proud to state that Innovation from India will now be available to protect global populations.”    

POSITIVE RESULTS

The Phase 3 trial involved 25,800 participants in India aged 18 to 98. Of these, 2,433 were over 60 years old, and 4,500 had pre-existing medical conditions (co-morbidities) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or obesity.

The study found that Covaxin had an efficacy of 93.4% against severe COVID-19 disease, and an overall vaccine efficacy of 77.8% against symptomatic infections confirmed by PCR tests. Against asymptomatic COVID-19, the efficacy was 63.6%. The vaccine also conferred 65.2% protection against symptomatic infection with the Delta variant, at least two weeks after the second dose.

As a rough comparison, recent figures from Public Health Scotland suggested that at least two weeks after the second dose, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 79% effective against the Delta variant, while the Oxford-AstraZeneca was 60% effective. However, different trial methodologies make it impossible to directly compare the relative efficacies of the various vaccines.

The main side effects from Covaxin were pain at the injection site, followed by headache, fatigue and fever. No severe or life-threatening adverse events were reported.

Music can change you

These days we hear music all the time, it wakes us up, motivates our workouts, keeps us company on our commutes. It doesn’t matter what kind of music it is, it itself has the ability to affect our moods and our bodies in all sorts of ways. It can give us chills even can make us cry.

Effects on Brain

Music activates every area of the brain that scientists have mapped so far. In fact, there is no area of the brain that music doesn’t touching some ways.

25 years ago there was an idea which said that language is in left side of the brain and music is in right side of the brain but now with better quality tools, higher resolution, neuroimaging and better experimental methods, it is discovered that thats not at all right so how does it effects our brain?

When music enters and then gets shuttled off to different parts of the brain:-

  1. It stops at specialise processing units in auditory cortex, they track loudness, pitch, rhythm, etc.
  2. The visual cortex activates when you’re reading notes as a musician or watching music.
  3. Motor cortex activates when you move or dance or tap your feet, snap fingers, clapping your hands.
  4. The Cerebellum activates and immediate the emotional responses.
  5. The memory system in the Hippocampus will activate and will help you to recognise any familiar music or lines that you listen

Hence, music is going on in both halves of the brain, left and right, the front, back, the inside, and the outside.

How playing Instruments helps?

We can start learning to play instrument at any age. Picking up an instrument can provide some huge benefits for Intelligence, Physical well-being, Brain.

Playing an instrument requires:-

  • Auditory motor
  • Sensory
  • Visual system to work together

This inner system cooperation has some incredible outcomes that can affect many areas of life.

Different intensities of training produce different outcomes, even the most minimal practice can make a difference. Starting to play an instrument just one hour a week for few months can cause growth and increased activity in the parts of the brain responsible for memory, hearing, and motor. Researchers have found that this kind of activities can even increase IQ by 7 point or more.

Its also known that people who play musical instrument are better at other practical things too such as:-

  • Practical emotions
  • Learning new things/tasks
  • Creative problem solving

Musicians brain have better communication between left and right hemisphere which allows for more cooperation and out of the box thinking. Playing an instrument can also has benefits for brain and body.

  • boosting immune system function
  • Increase in resilience to hearing lose
  • Helps stroke patients regain motor skills

It’s been found that just listening to music can prompt the repair and regeneration of damage nerves in the brain.

Music is so much more than notes on a page, it can change the way we think, speak and feel. Music making and listen is really complex it’s not demystified till now it’s more mysterious than ever.

BLOGGING vs VLOGGING – Major Differences!

One of the hottest debates in the digital world is blogging vs vlogging, both blogging and vlogging can help businesses and individuals grow their brand and make money online. The good thing about the digital space is that anyone can start blogging or vlogging. The startup costs, so to speak, are minimal. However, you have to have a strategy in place to succeed, as there’s tons of competition.

As there is a rapid rise in online video content, vlogging is also becoming a good option to generate income. But is it better than blogging? Let’s learn in this detailed blogging vs vlogging comparison.

What is a Blog?

Originally called a weblog, Blogs can be standalone websites or part of another website. Blogs can feature other media, too, like pictures, videos, audio clips, in addition to text. Just how you read op-eds in the newspaper, blogs are spaces for people to express their opinion or share their knowledge. Blogs are often created and managed by individuals but are also popular on business websites. People who write blog posts are called bloggers. Blogs typically contain dynamic links to other online content and may also include interactive or community engagement components such as a comments section. Blogs started out primarily as text documents, but today’s far more sophisticated blogs often feature dynamic visuals and videos.

What is a Vlog?

A vlog, or video log, is the video equivalent of a blog. Like blogs, most vlogs target a niche audience that shares common interests and needs. While vlogs can and should be supported by text or metadata, the star of a vlog is the person or people talking on the video, everything that’s written in a blog presented in video format with vocals and visuals.

Interestingly, the term vlog came about the same time YouTube became popular, which is the early 2000s. It’s not surprising as YouTube basically gave rise to vlogging. Just like blogs, vlogs can be related to a business or an individual.

As for the video content, it can be anything. From scientific data to personal stories to tutorials, vlog encompasses anything and everything you could think of finding on the internet.

Key Differences between Blog and Vlog

The key differences between blogging and vlogging are the degree to which the content creator uses video as well as where the content is hosted. If you love talking to people and feel comfortable on camera—and don’t necessarily want to build a website—vlogging may be best for you. If you’re a person who excels at the written word and wants to create your own website, blogging may be right for you.

Many people are choosing to blog and vlog as they find that using both text-based and video-based content helps them reach the widest audience possible.

Popularity

The most important thing in blogging vs vlogging comparison is which niche is more popular? Where is the traffic?

Video content is now certainly more popular than textual format. Video is slated to comprise a whopping 82% of the entire internet traffic. This is why video has become an extremely important marketing medium for all digital platforms.

In terms of popularity, vlogs may have a bigger potential audience just because of the nature of the media. For instance, YouTube has two billion users who watch one billion hours of videos every day.

With all those stats, video content has more outreach than a blog. That said, in certain scenarios, a blog may perform better than a vlog. Again, it depends on the niche and the audience as to what media they prefer.

Also, blogs now also feature videos regularly for this very reason. The richer the media, the more audience you can cater to. Many bloggers also make vlogs and use them in their blog posts. Others use videos from other creators to optimize their blogs and give it a visual feel.

Monetization

Dollars stack close-up Stock Photo by ©svl861 21072415

Monetization isn’t that different for a blog or a vlog, but the level of monetization may vary. Most blogs and vlogs make money through advertisements. However, vlogs rely more on advertisements than blogs and perhaps make good money from it. You can also make money blogging by using affiliate links. You work with affiliate marketing programs, such as Amazon Associates Program, and earn commission every time someone purchases something with your affiliate link.

Vlogs can also employ affiliate links in their text descriptions, but it remains more popular for blogs.

Another method of monetization is sponsorship, which is more common for vlogs. You basically get a sponsor who pays you to mention their brand or product in the video to promote it.

A lot of vloggers make money through sponsorships, but that doesn’t kick in until you have a lot of subscribers or followers.

Audience

The evolution of Internet traffic - Maurizio NaldiMaurizio Naldi

The audience for both pretty much depends on the niche you’re pursuing. However, some demographics might be more inclined toward reading. Similarly, some people respond to visual data better.

For instance, if your audience is young, perhaps people under 20, vlogging may be a much more viable solution than blogging. Younger demographics usually prefer watching videos over reading articles.

Conclusion

There are pros and cons to both as we’ve covered in the differences. If there’s one thing that’s common for both blogs and vlogs is that both require a lot of hard work and give you some tough competition. However, you can easily stand out with original content that gives people what they are looking for.

ELECTRICAL Vs ELECTRONICS

Often confused between electrical ,electronics study and their devices? then this post is for you.

These two studies are actually different and seems to overlap each other. Both devices works with electricity .

ELECTRICAL :

Electric energy is produced by the flow of electrons. Electrical device converts electrical energy to another form of energy as heat, light etc. It is concerned with the large-scale production and distribution of electrical power.

Examples :

1)electrical energy->  ->light energy

2)electrical energy->-> mechanical energy

Circuit mostly consist of connecting wires,switches,fuse,transformer…

ELECTRONICS:

Electronic devices has the capability of controlling the flow of electrons to do certain task, like water heater with auto cut off features etc. As they controls the flow of electricity to process information and to control systems.

COMPARISON:

Here are few differences described,

ELECTRICAL DEVICESELECTRONICS DEVICES
here current conducted threw metals like copper,aluminium.they use semiconductor material to conduct.
They use Alternating current. eg : generatoruse direct current
works on high voltage,consume more powerworks on low voltage,less power consumption
do not manipulate dataelectronic devices are used to manipulate data
large require more spacesmall compact,require less space .so used in Integrated chips.
Examples : fan,transformer,generator,motor.Examples: transistors, microcontrollers

Circuits -Basic components:

  • RESISTORS
  • CAPACITORS
  • DIODES
  • TRANSISTOR
  • INDUCTORS
  • SWITCH
  • TRANSFORMER etc….

In digital world ,we all want things to happen automatically,wish to control everything from our place within seconds. These wishes’ fulfilled by combining electrical device with electronic circuits, due to electronic circuit’s small size,control,processing capability . So it is used in most of the electrical devices,home applicants. electronics circuits used for display,remote control,auto open,close,level checker such many features in lot of home applicants,industry,etc..

Consider these cases:

  • An electric chair
  • An electronic chair

The first is a chair which predominantly features electricity. The second is a chair which has some feature made of a complex circuit (for example, the seats in cars which are automatically-adjusting).

  • An electric toaster
  • An electronic toaster

The first is a run of the mill toaster. The second is a toaster that lets you program in an image to burn into the toast, and which sends you an email when the toast is done

Electrical and electronic engineering careers and opportunities:

  • Cybersecurity consultant
  • Design engineer
  • Electrical engineer
  • Electronics field engineer
  • Energy engineering consultant
  • Nuclear controls engineer
  • Software engineer
  • System engineer
  • Technology analyst 

core subjects for electrical & electronics engineering:

  • Communication Electronics
  • Digital System Engineering
  • Electrical Circuits and Networks
  • Electronic Devices and Circuits

Electronics is a sub field of electrical engineering, so it’s safe to say something is electric when we don’t know if electronics is actually used in the design. When we say a device is electronic, this is because we know or we assume the circuit contains electronic components.

The distinction electric / electronic is not based on the purpose or the function of the circuit, e.g. dealing with power vs dealing with signal, as stated in other answers.

From all we can come to an end in one line that

ALL ELECTRONICS DEVICES ARE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BUT NOT VICE VERSA!!!

AUTOMATION-A BOON OR BANE

AUTOMATION

       Automation is defined as the technique that makes a product or process by automatically using technology. It reduces the human input in the process. Automation has brought wide changes in the world. Starting from morning to evening, our works are automated in one way or another. For example, purified water by purifiers, food cooked in Microwave oven, washing clothes in the washing machine, automated vacuum cleaner, robots for work field, etc. We can say that most things are automated in the work field. Automation has been used in several fields including manufacturing, transport, defense, operations, and Information Technology. Automation plays a major role in IT optimization and digital transformation. Consequently, the automated systems have become more sophisticated. In the 21st century, we are mostly dependent on automation. Although it has several advantages, eventually it possesses some disadvantages. So, let’s discuss whether automation is a bane or boon?

AUTOMATION- BOON

        From the simplest to complex things, Automation has integrated with every part of our lives. With the help of automation, every work has been easily completed and it saves a lot of time.

Automation in the home: Using the combination of hardware and software components, home appliances are made. Starting from the purifier, washing machine, refrigerator, microwave oven, vacuum cleaner, etc…. most of the home appliances are automated which saves more time and energy.

Network Automation: By using software, the configuration, management, and operations of computer networks are automated. Network automation has become significant to manage the complexities of modern dynamic networks. It helps to reduce human errors in network management and operations.

Automation in the office: More organizations are using automation in the workplace to improve productivity and lower costs. The office automation system consists of both hardware and software solutions to transfer the data between systems without human interventions. Office automation brings broad changes of benefits to include improved accuracy, cost and time reduction,  storing and managing the data in an efficient manner, facility management, and several administrative works.

Security automation: The use of technologies to integrate security processes, applications, and infrastructure with reduced human assistance is known as security automation. Fast threat detection can reduce the impact of data loss.

Help to Disables: With the advancement in technology, automation helped disabled people to overcome their disabilities and by providing proper care independence, they can work like normal people.

AUTOMATION – BANE

Increases unemployment rates: Low-skill workers can be replaced. But nowadays, even the highly skilled workers are replaced by automated machines. Recent advancements in robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) reduced human works in the working environment.

Health issues: Most of the children in this 21st century are addicted to the video game. They prefer online and computer games rather than outdoor games. It makes people lazy and weak. This may be the cause for many health issues like eye problems, back pain, etc.

Machines are sensitive: Automation to some extent can be good but when more control is given to them, it may lead to some disasters Machines can never act like humans and they will be programmed without knowing the sensitivity of the issue.

Hackers:  Technology can be hacked by hackers. Sometimes, it may lead to wide disaster to a country by other countries. Our private details can be stolen by some hackers and they may demand several things to compromise them.

Loss of human interaction: Dealing with computers and machines can reduce the interactions between people.

        Overall, Automation is very essential for the growth and development of a country. Automation ensures the utilization of resources in various fields include healthcare, sports, energy, and technology. Without automation, we will spend more time finishing the task and thus delivery will be done very late. The economic imbalance will be increased. In short term, automation will cause unemployment and may bring some disadvantages. But in the long term effect, Automation will be needed for the better development of the nation.