The Rise of Colonialism

The spread of European countries as well as Russia and the Ottoman Empire into various parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and the Americas, were characteristics of colonization in the 18th century. By military force, trade, and diplomacy, these empires frequently strove to enlarge their holdings and spread their influence around the world. Violence, exploitation, and the imposing of European culture and ideals on native populations were frequently part of the colonization process. The British colonization of India, which started in earnest in the middle of the 1800s, was one notable event of the century. A trading post for the British East India Company was established in Calcutta in 1690, but it wasn’t until the middle of the 18th century that they started to exert their dominance over most of the subcontinent. By the beginning of the 19th century, the British had gained control of the majority of India through a strategy that combined military conquest with alliances with regional tsars.

Colonization of North America

Another significant event of the 18th century was the colonization of North America by European powers. The British, French, and Spanish all established colonies in the region, and there were numerous conflicts between these powers as they competed for control of the continent. The British ultimately emerged as the dominant power, and their colonies eventually became the United States of America.

Rise of New Colonial Powers

The 19th century saw the growth of new colonial powers like the United States and Japan as well as the continuation of the expansion of European colonial empires. An important development at this time was the “scramble for Africa,” in which European powers split up the continent among themselves. Almost the whole continent of Africa was under European rule by the early 20th century when the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 codified the split of the continent. Southeast Asian nations including Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines were colonized by Europeans during the nineteenth century. The British colonized Australia and New Zealand in the Pacific, and the United States seized Hawaii.

The colonized regions saw significant economic, political, and social effects of colonialism. Colonial powers typically used the resources they plundered from the colonies for their own industrial expansion. Africa was the source of raw materials like rubber, ivory, diamonds, and gold, while India provided textiles, tea, and spices. The economies of the colonized areas suffered long-term effects from this resource exploitation. Moreover, colonial powers frequently imposed their own political systems on the colonies through the installation of puppet administrations or direct colonial domination. In Africa, European powers drew arbitrary borders that disregarded pre-existing ethnic and linguistic divisions, while the British established a centralized bureaucracy and legal system that is still in use today in India.

Socially, colonialism had a profound impact on the colonized populations, often leading to the imposition of European cultural norms and values. This was particularly true in Africa, where missionaries often played a role in spreading Christianity and European culture. The introduction of European languages also had a lasting impact, as many former colonies continue to use the language of their former colonizers as an official language.

Decline of Colonial Rule

The 20th century saw the decline of colonial empires as nationalist movements in colonized countries sought independence. World War II was a major turning point, as it weakened the colonial powers and provided opportunities for nationalist movements to gain strength. India gained independence from Britain in 1947, and other countries soon followed. The process of decolonization was often fraught with conflict and violence, as colonial powers sought to maintain their control and nationalist movements struggled to assert their independence. In some cases, such as Algeria and Vietnam, the struggle for independence involved prolonged wars and significant loss of life.

Today, the legacy of colonization can still be seen in many parts of the world. The borders of many countries were drawn by colonial powers, often without regard for local populations or historical realities. The exploitation of natural resources and labor during the colonial period has also had long-lasting effects on many countries’ economies and social structures.

In conclusion, colonization since the 18th century was a complex and often violent process that had a profound impact on the world. The legacy of colonization is still felt today, and understanding this history is essential for understanding the challenges and opportunities facing the world in the 21st century.


Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?


During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.