History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Medals won by India in Tokyo Olympics 2020

Neeraj Chopra, Mirabai Chanu, Ravi Dahiya, PV Sindhu, Lovlina Borgohain, Bajrang Punia made India proud.

India completed 48th on the decoration count in Tokyo, its most elevated positioning in more than forty years (if one somehow managed to pass by the all out number of awards, India would have really completed 33rd. Be that as it may, positioning is done essentially dependent on gold awards won). The past best in this period was the 51st position finish at Beijing in 2008, when India won three awards, including Abhinav Bindra’s gold.

India has completed fundamentally higher in the time in which it used to win gold in hockey, yet that time isn’t actually tantamount both due to the many nations that have appeared from that point forward and the extension in the quantity of sports and henceforth decorations. In Moscow, for example, India completed at 23rd position however with simply a single decoration, the hockey gold. A rehash of that at Tokyo would have set India at joint 63rd, a proportion of how unique the two times are.

In London 2012, India had completed 57th notwithstanding winning a larger number of awards than in Beijing on the grounds that the decoration table positions nations by gold, silver and bronze in a specific order and India didn’t win a gold in London. In Rio in 2016, the award count collided with only two thus did the positioning to 67th. From that point, it’s currently gone up almost 20 spots.

SEVEN SAMURAI

1 gold, 2 silver, 4 bronze – India delivered it’s most extravagant ever award pull and the best exhibition ever at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, which finished on Sunday. Here are the people of steel and thunder who made India glad and gave the country something to cheer about in these dull occasions of a lethal pandemic.

GOLD

NEERAJ CHOPRA | Athlete

There were greater names with better records in Tokyo. In any case, while most surrendered to the pressing factor of the large stage, the 23-year-old kid from Haryana’s Panipat area savored and delighted at the time. Following his brilliant toss, millions became enthusiastic on hearing the public hymn at the Olympics interestingly since Beijing 2008. A fitting peak to the narrative of Neeraj Chopra, who risked upon the game while attempting to get in shape and who defeated a grip of wounds to give Indian games its most prominent second on the world’s greatest donning stage

SILVER

SAIKHOM MIRABAI CHANU |Weightlifter

Much was normal from Mirabai Chanu at Rio 2016. She slumped, neglecting to make a solitary quick lift. The strain to convey was smashing at Tokyo 2020. In any case, trained by Vijay Sharma, the obliging 26-year-old from Manipur easily handled the significant burdens to secure a silver happily in the 49kg class. Reclamation had never been seriously fulfilling and better for the one who got logs to accumulate winter fuel for her family as a youngster

RAVI KUMAR DAHIYA |Wrestler

He was positioned world no. 4. In any case, in the approach the Olympics, the spotlight was barely ever on the 23-year-old Olympic debutant from Sonipat. Incognizant, Kumar created a presentation of dazzling dauntlessness and perseverance while following 2-9 against adversary Nurislam Sanayev in the semis. Frantic to escape his iron grasp, the Kazakh bit him severely in his lower arm yet Dahiya wouldn’t give up till the tide was changed. Dahiya contended energetically yet lost in the last to turn into India’s second silver decoration winning grappler after Sushil Kumar. Not really settled competitor, he could well enhance his award tone in 2024

Bronze

Men’s group Hockey

None of them was conceived when India last won an Olympic decoration in hockey. Be that as it may, nothing, not so much as a possibly spirit draining 7-1 misfortune to Australia, could stop skipper Manpreet Singh’s young men from their tryst with the platform. The loss prodded them to convey one standout execution after another, subsequent in a bronze season finisher. The match against Germany was for the ages. You can continue to watch India’s 5-4 victory for the remainder of your lives. However, this group holds the guarantee of a lot more successes to come

PV sindu badminton

the beginning phases in Tokyo, she looked underneath her best. Be that as it may, similar to a finely-tuned accuracy instrument, Pusarla Venkata Sindhu hit the ideal notes as the competition crested.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.

Bahrain

Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.

Seychelles

Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.

UAE

The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused

Philippines

In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Why India can’t have an Official Language

Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?

Critics

After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.

Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.

Steps taken

India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.

Advantage of having an official language

A Chinese research concluded that

  1. When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
  2. China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
  3. Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
  4. Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.

Disadvantage of having an official language

According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said

India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.

But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.

As per as official language is concerned,

  1. English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
  2. Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
  3. This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.

Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.

Banned cartoons and their reasons

You may have came across the word “ban” Or “censored’ used in movies, but do you know these terms are also used for some cartoons in some countries which are liked by other countries. Let’s have a look at some popular cartoons which are banned in some countries and their reasons.

1. SpongeBob SquarePants

This is the longest running Nickelodeon show ever. It got banned because of violence and foul language which are used in this show. Countries like Russia, America and 120 others have banned this show from watching.

2. The Simpsons

This is America’s most popular cartoon show till now. This show had scenes where public figures like Donald Trump, were insulted. This show also promoted disorderly behavior which were totally misleading for kids. After sometime, the show is now available to watch, but there has been argument going on this show as countries like US have censored this cartoon show.

3. Mickey Mouse

This is world’s first cartoon show which had voice, and the first word that Mickey Mouse said was “Hot Dogs”. This cartoon show got banned in 1930s in the Romanian region because Romania government stated that big Mouse in this cartoon will scare the kids rather than making them laugh.

4. Doremon

This is a Japanese cartoon show which is ban in more than 50 countries because of the character Nobita. The Nobita character is a lazy character who always depends upon the character Doremon for helping gadgets. An argument concluded that the Nobita character was promoting laziness, procrastinating, etc, which resulted in banning.

Cartoon shows should be developed keeping kids as their main audience. It should have the simplicity and cleanness that attract audience and also focusing on the impact and effect that it’ll leave mainly on audience. That’s why shows that promotes foul language can always make a big effect on kids. This makes banning a healthy and better option.

Organ Donation: Myths and facts

Every years, many thousands receives the gift of life, a life saving transplant of Heart, Kidney, Liver, Lungs, Pancreas and Interesting. And thousands more people receive Corneas and other tissues that restore sight and health. Organ transplantation is one of the medicals advances of our time.

How does it work?

It all starts when someone’s organ begins to fail and that person will need a transplant to survive. The steps are as folllow:-

  1. A through evaluation is conducted at a transplant centre and the person is a good candidate for transplant, he or she will be put into the National Transplant Waiting List.
  2. Once a person is on the waiting list, the wait for organ begins.
  3. A national system matches people on the waiting list with donors. That factors matching donors to recipient includes
    • Blood type
    • Body size
    • How sick the patient is
    • Distance from donor
    • Tissue type
    • Time on list

What isn’t taken into account, organs are never matched based on

  • Race
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Celebrity
  • Social status

There is no telling how long the wait will take. Infact, some people don’t receive an organ in time, because the Waiting List is really long and there aren’t enough donors available. That’s why an average of 20 people on the Waiting List died each day. Imagine how many could we save if we all were donors.

Becoming a donors

Most of organs transplant comes a deceived donors. For example, a person comes to the hospital with a life threatening brain injury, such as from an accident, stroke, our lack of oxygen. The doctors work hard to save them patients life but sometimes nothing can be done. There’s a complete, irreversible loss of brain function. The patient is clinically and legally dead.

Thats when being a donor can turn a time of loss into a time of hope. Because machines have blood containing and oxygen flowing into the organs, they can be passed along. One person can give life to as many as eight people through organ donation, and enhance the lives of fifty people or more with eye and tissue donation. But now minutes matter, matches must be found and transplants must happen quickly.

Organ Procurement organization

The hospital contracts an Organ Procurement Organization (OPO), it manages the recovery process. The OPO checks the state of organ donor registry, if the person is already registered as a donor they inform the family, if not they’ll ask the family to authorise donation.

A medical examination is taken place. They check the medical and social history and the person is eligible to be an organ donor, the computer begins to search on the National Waiting List for well matched patients The best matched patients are contracted by the transplant team. This is the call that every person on the Waiting List was waiting for.

The Transplant

A surgical team recovers the organs, then Corneas and other tissues. The organs are sent to the transplant hospital where patients and transplant teams are waiting and the life saving transplant takes place. It will take health living and medication to keep the organ working well in its new home.

You too could make the decision today, sign up on your state registry as an organ, eye and tissues donor, any age is the right age, Young or old, any day is the right day to sign up as a donor. You can register through your drivers license or you can register online. Remember to tell your family so that they can support your wishes. More than 1r5 million people have already registered, and we all need to save kore lives. So let’s share the gift of life.

Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap
Bladderworts
Sundew
Pitcher plant

All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.

Reason of existence

It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-

  1. Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
  2. In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
  3. This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys

Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.

Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.

Sleepwalking

Did you ever Sleep walked? Here’s what I came to know that every 1 out of 3 kids aged between 4 to 8, sleep walk. And that’s a lot by the way.

Sleep walking formally known as Somnambulish is a strange phenomena where people get up and do things in their sleep, sometimes more than just walking and when they wake up they don’t have any recollection of what they were doing. Moreover, if they find way back to their bed they may not ever know that they were sleep walking.

Sleep walking is nothing about embarrassed about though or terrified for that matter, it’s relatively common. In a recent study Stanford found that 1 out of 3 people sleep walk at some point of their lives. It is specially common among children, between the age of 4 and 8. So what happened when we sleep walk.

Reasons

A leading theory about why we sleep walk is:-

  • In normal sleep cycle, your brains motor system continues to issue physical commands to the body.
  • Whereas those who sleep walks are suppressed by sleep chemical called GABA.
  • GABA access act as a break in your brain, it brings your mind and body down to rest by neutralizing Glutamate a chemical that causes excitement.
  • In sleep walkers there’s a glitch in the process that suppresses your boby from moving around namely that you don’t produce GABA.

So that’s why you are moving around when you’re still asleep. There are few causes of GABA deficient in the body:-

  1. Genetic sleepwalking :- when sleepwalking runs in the family
  2. Underdeveloped system:- when the boby simply hasn’t matured enough to produce the proper amount. That’s why it is more common amongst kids.
  3. Depression:- Those who suffer from depression are three times as likely to sleep walk.

Myths

You would have probably heard about the myth that you shouldn’t wake a sleepwalker because they’re going through a psychotic rage that could even kill you. But these are myths, if you see anyone sleepwalking, you are asked to wake them up gently, especially if they are in the kitchen or holding a knife.

Recently there was a story about a lady who drove 190 miles in her sleep without hurting or killing herself or anyone. She should be definitely called lucky.

Top 10 Interesting Psychological Facts in 2020


Humans are the most advanced creatures on the planet because they are born with ideas and thinking capabilities that are store in an organ called to mind. However, there are some interesting Psychological Facts which even the mind can boggle. The mind is the most critical and essential part of humans through which they are distinguished from all other living beings. The scientific study to know the behaviour and nature of the thinking capacity of the mind are called psychology.

Psychology tracks the activities human minds like how we think, what we think in a particular situation, how we learn, how we feel attract or negative about something, there are a lot of things that are going on in our minds. Through several surveys, researches, practical studying of human minds, many psychologists working in different parts of the world, listed out the enormous interesting psychological facts, describing unknown sides of human behaviour.

The American Association of Psychological Association considers that facts are invisible and inaudible but are the basis of human cooperation and thinking. So the psychological facts reveal many aspects and responses of the human mind.

Some of interesting Psychological Facts 

Many psychologists are involved in taking out all the aspects of human behaviour but tracking all over human nature is impossible but many types of research and studies have taken out several interesting facts of the human mind. Every year American based psychologists, as well as another psychiatrist of the world, is bringing many new psychological facts, some of the most interesting psychological facts of 2020 area as follows:

  • The person who always keeps on advising others is himself dealing with many troubles of life.
  • Communication has the power to either ruin our mood or makes us happy. Good communication helps to reduce stress.
  • The people who quickly recognised their mistakes and feel guilty, they quickly understand other person’s feelings.
  • Music is the best stress reliever and listening to happy songs in a high volume gives a feeling of joyousness.
  • Trying those things that scare the people most gives a feeling of happiness and relaxation.
  • If a person is happy enough then sleeping much in not essential to give rest to the body. Happiness has the power to relax the body.
  • Travelling is the best medicine of stress and reduces the risk of heart problems.
  • Sometimes people easily write those things which they can’t speak. They prefer chatting instead of speaking with others.
  • People who expose their success goals, there are fewer chances of fulfilling them as the person lose motivation.
  • The smarter the person is, the sloppier will be his handwriting and he becomes more selective.

These psychological facts reveal many aspects of human behaviour and mind that come into existence after various researches and deep analysis.

Psychological facts about Love

Psychology studies the behaviour of human minds, loving others is also one of the critical aspects of our minds. The mystery of love is still not known as it is very complicated and difficult to explain in words. But with close analysis, the feeling of love is incorporated by many psychologists into some interesting facts. Some of the important psychological facts about love are as follows-

  • Psychologists prove that humans take just 4 minutes to fall in love.
  • The person cannot remain angry on their love partners for more than 3 days and if he remains angry for more than this period than there is no love between them.
  • If the ‘I LOVE YOU’ is said in the left ear than it causes a huge emotional impact on the mind of the person.
  • Even if two lovers remain in contact as a friend than it means that either they are still in love or they were never in love with each other.
  • Love partners who spend at least happy ten minutes of the day together then they will likely to remain together for a long time.
  • These wonderful psychological facts about love reveal that love is a very complicated feeling in humans

Psychological facts about Hot Shower

Every small thing has a big impact on our mind. Even taking a shower affects our mind. The time we spend taking the shower and the type of water we use for bathing reveals many aspects of our mind and behaviour. There are some interesting psychological facts about hot shower-

  • If a person spends a long time taking the shower with hot water reveals that he lonely from inside.
  • Taking a hot shower for a long time gives the person the feeling of togetherness that he is searching for in real life.
  • It reveals that taking a long shower with warm water helps to avoid loneliness.
  • The warm shower increases the body temperature which gives a feeling of togetherness and impact positively on various body parts.
  • The lonely person usually takes a long hot shower.

Thus, these are some of the most believable psychological facts about hot shower that is revealed by many renowned psychologists of the world.

Psychological facts about Dreams

One of the important and mysterious thinking capacity of the mind is dreaming. Dreams reveal many aspects of the human mind thinking and some of the interesting psychological facts about dreams are as follows-

  • 90 per cent of the dreams that we see during sleeping got deleted from our mind. Within just 5 minutes of waking up, we forget the dream.
  • People think that as people who don’t see, they can’t even able to see dreams. But it is not true even blinds to have the capacity to see dreams.
  • It is revealed that even people with sight see uncoloured or black and white dreams.
  • Emotions and dreams have a direct relationship if we are anxious and negative thoughts overlapped our mind than we usually see bad dreams.
  • Even animals too can see dreams while sleeping.
  • Whatever we were thinking before we start sleeping, then there are high chances that those things we see in our dreams. 

These are some of the interesting psychological facts about dreams that come after close analysis and surveying of the various people.

Conclusion

The human mind is a very complicated and critical thing to understand. Many psychologists all around the world are focusing on and analysing the people of different age groups, nature, profession, preferences to take out the possible facts about humans. Although many psychological facts have already revealed many are still unknown as human behaviour and thinking keeps on changing with time and space.

Many psychologists are working to bring everything that how the human mind thinks, reacts, response, and gets alert when a change happens in his surroundings. The human is very complicated to understand but many psychologists reveal these cognitive actions into psychological facts that reveals many aspects of the human mind.

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By Megha sharma

Posted in Internship

Suicide effects

Suicide affects all people. Within the past year, about 41,000 individuals died by suicide, 1.3 million adults have attempted suicide, 2.7 million adults have had a plan to attempt suicide and 9.3 million adults have had suicidal thoughts. 

Unfortunately, our society often paints suicide the way they would a prison sentence—a permanent situation that brands an individual. However, suicidal ideation is not a brand or a label, it is a sign that an individual is suffering deeply and must seek treatment. And it is falsehoods like these that can prevent people from getting the help they need to get better.

Debunking the common myths associated with suicide can help society realize the importance of helping others seek treatment and show individuals the importance of addressing their mental health challenges. 

Myth: Suicide only affects individuals with a mental health condition.

Fact: Many individuals with mental illness are not affected by suicidal thoughts and not all people who attempt or die by suicide have mental illness. Relationship problems and other life stressors such as criminal/legal matters, persecution, eviction/loss of home, death of a loved one, a devastating or debilitating illness, trauma, sexual abuse, rejection, and recent or impending crises are also associated with suicidal thoughts and attempts.

Myth: Once an individual is suicidal, he or she will always remain suicidal.

Fact: Active suicidal ideation is often short-term and situation-specific. Studies have shown that approximately 54% of individuals who have died by suicide did not have a diagnosable mental health disorder. And for those with mental illness, the proper treatment can help to reduce symptoms. 

The act of suicide is often an attempt to control deep, painful emotions and thoughts an individual is experiencing. Once these thoughts dissipate, so will the suicidal ideation. While suicidal thoughts can return, they are not permanent. An individual with suicidal thoughts and attempts can live a long, successful life. 

Myth: Most suicides happen suddenly without warning.

Fact: Warning signs—verbally or behaviorally—precede most suicides. Therefore, it’s important to learn and understand the warnings signs associated with suicide. Many individuals who are suicidal may only show warning signs to those closest to them. These loved ones may not recognize what’s going on, which is how it may seem like the suicide was sudden or without warning.

Myth: People who die by suicide are selfish and take the easy way out.

Fact: Typically, people do not die by suicide because they do not want to live—people die by suicide because they want to end their suffering. These individuals are suffering so deeply that they feel helpless and hopeless. Individuals who experience suicidal ideations do not do so by choice. They are not simply, “thinking of themselves,” but rather they are going through a very serious mental health symptom due to either mental illness or a difficult life situation.   

Myth: Talking about suicide will lead to and encourage suicide.

Fact: There is a widespread stigma associated with suicide and as a result, many people are afraid to speak about it. Talking about suicide not only reduces the stigma, but also allows individuals to seek help, rethink their opinions and share their story with others. We all need to talk more about suicide. 

Debunking these common myths about suicide can hopefully allow individuals to look at suicide from a different angle—one of understanding and compassion for an individual who is internally struggling. Maybe they are struggling with a mental illness or maybe they are under extreme pressure and do not have healthy coping skills or a strong support system. 

As a society, we should not be afraid to speak up about suicide, to speak up about mental illness or to seek out treatment for an individual who is in need. Eliminating the stigma starts by understanding why suicide occurs and advocating for mental health awareness within our communities. There are suicide hotlines, mental health support groups, online community resources and many mental health professionals who can help any individual who is struggling with unhealthy thoughts and emotions. 

Digital Detox

It all started a few months back, spending time on my phone was making me feel sick to my stomach. The strive to remain connected was making me feel annoyed, distracted and detached than ever.

Ever since data charges got cheaper and cheaper, using social media platforms one after the other became a part of our day. A routine to be exact.

It started off with taking over our lives when we felt bored at first, time does fly when you’re having fun. The transition to a time when we grew bored of it often. We’re certainly overdoing it.

However it never felt like an addiction to me, but on contemplation it became rather obvious that the struggle was inflicted by the content I consumed. The connectivity was paying a one hefty fee.

As faith would have it, one day it finally hit me. A solution to my problem lies in plain sight. Simple but genius. ‘Why do I have to do it, if it’s not healthy for me?’

A grave moment of epiphany.

The pandemic has fuelled people to spend long hours on their phones. The amount of content consumption should be a reason for concern.

We fancy all that our brothers from the West preach. We try to dress like them, eat like them and when they went onto to discovering social media platforms, we accepted it wholeheartedly.

Now as more and more such brothers preach the need for digital detoxes, this can’t be more true. They more or less do have an elder sibling effect on us.

The solution was ever apparent, for the taking to the ones that seek. We’re all stressed, tensed and severely pumped up than ever before. We all do find it hard to manage time too, and our attention span is just a little more than that of a goldfish.

Above all, the lack of sleep has also been found to have it’s toll on a few. The trends seemed to have circulated a few years back, around the time when the data charges were dragged to the ground.

The very essence of us passing time, being the very reason behind the matter of concern. They say, “the best days are the ones that doesn’t make you check your phone,” so why not do it? Make it a reality.

Social media has helped us out immensely, letting us to be connected to our loved ones around the world. Helping relationships to sustain itself over geographical and time barriers.

However we fell short to draw the boundaries. Boundaries are necessary. Knowing where to draw the line can absolutely do wonders.

The idea of a digital detox seemed a bit paradoxical to me at first. Cutting out the use of any device that is electric, seems far too barbaric, now. Our lives are so entangled that getting rid of it is not an option. However, Striking a balance seems apter by leaps and bounds.

I believe radical changes can cause more bane than boon. Whereas baby steps can take you places. Rather than completely throwing it out the window, imposing restrictions can be the first step.

Reducing the screen time to a smaller periods and then slowly stepping up a notch every now and then.

If it gets better and better, do more of it. After all life’s more about doing things that sets One’s soul on fire right.

Why should one bicker from doing more of what makes you feel better.

I believe in preaching what I believe in, A couple of months down the line, following the following has made me feel so much better lately. I’m connected but disconnected. Life got so much better.

Live and let live, right?

Economic turmoil : corona courtesy

The corona effect on the economy in a nutshell.

As the country went into lockdown mode by the end of march, there were hopes that the country would beat the virus in a matter of few weeks. Almost 6 months down the line, we’re yet awaiting the silver lining; with the ever limbing economy, crippled.

Indefinitely blurring, the promise of a better tomorrow. Like a picture by an amateur photographer.

It is difficult times we’re living through, our tales would be recited someday, on how the world lived through a pandemic in the first quarter of the twenty first century.

As always, US leading from the front, with the highest toll of covid casualties. A testament that no superpower is indeed that ‘super’ a power. Uncle Sam bowing to a virus with Communist roots.

India on the third spot on the chart, showing little hope on cutting down the numbers whilst reviving from a stringent lockdown.

Following the trend of lockdowns to curb the novel coronavirus by the end of march, slowed down the pandemic by a few months rather than preventing.

Prevention would have been ideal.

As the end of the day, millions hope that the the worst has passed, with reviving the economy being a priority and curbing the pandemic being the top priority.

The lack of health infrastructure ever apparent. ‘Events being the greatest teachers of fools,’ hoping the future game-plan would be proficient in this aspect.

The sudden surge of covid clusters in certain localities, pushes the authorities to impose further lockdowns, affecting such local economies evidently. Throwing the business owners into a frenzy.

I believe it goes without saying that the worse hit by the lockdown was the daily wage earners and the poorer households. About 50,00,000 people have lost their jobs till date.

The loss of jobs would constrain the purchasing power and consumption for good. Further derailing the economy.

Basic economics I learned in grade 11th taught me that, ‘Production’, ‘Consumption’ and ‘Investment’ constitutes the major economic activities in an economy.

With the former two limited, economy revival any time soon seems like a far fetched dream. Investment fell to the lowest in the last two decades during the past year. With the new highly criticised policy reforms promised by the Union with regards to Investments and education; makes one wonder whether covid is really at the heart of all our problems. Strange.

Don’t get me wrong, ‘Recovery does require reforms.’ Provided it addresses all the socioeconomic factors. Equality and freedom requested by popular demand.

The relief package of ₹20,00,000 crores promised by the Central Government fed the hopeless hope. But closer introspection made clear that such a generous financial aid can do nothing to crank up the economy. The relief sought after, delayed for the time being.

The current trends have shown us that the union does redress grievances; Mostly of industrialists and the people of a certain religion.

As the country is heading into the worst recession post independence, with the ones in power tolerating zero accountability and on the verge of striking down ‘the freedom of expression’. A ‘happily ever after’ seems like a far fetched dream than the reality

NEP 2020

An analysis of the National Educational Policy formulated by the Union Cabinet.

The pace at which the world is advancing is simply magnificent, promising a totally different way of human lifestyle within the next 30 odd years. Showing even promises of human life on a second planet, to cater to the present needs. 

This paves the need to adapt to such changes. To be a catalyst, rather than a fly on the windshield in the process.

The rapid advancements in most sectors aided by technology has only the human element slogging it in most developing and underdeveloped nations. But most developed nations showing promises of being able to provide to such changes, make them stand out as model nations.

It’s quite ironic, Us, humans, slowing down the process of advancements; the very reason behind such advancements and the very factor slowing it down.

Modern problems do require modern solutions. 

A brief analysis of the incompetency of ours, shows traces of troubleshooting in the education system. 

To quote the father of the nation would be the ideal solution to the current crisis. The Mahatma had signified the importance of education in the pre-independence era and post too; the relevance of it, in the present century shows evidence of where we’ve fell short in our rat race. His overviews require praise for looking out like a true father.

The importance of education in the thoughts of people and society is quite significant and needs no more emphasis. But still the turn over is indeed minimal.

It’s more of a necessity than a luxury, in the pursuit of overall development as an individual and the development of the nation. “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.”

The Union Cabinet by the end of the last month announced a New policy governing the education system in India. Promising overhaul changes both in the school and higher education system, to cater to the needs  of the twenty first century. 

A change much needed to be precise.

It’s still a policy and not a law, as the Union has the mammoth task of passing it, as after all India is a federal state and education being a subject on the concurrent list, requires forward of all the states and Union Territories.

Rather than beating around the bush more, I’ll get to the point of emphasises on the highly ambitious New Education Policy, which was formulated only after a whopping gap of 34 years.

The National policy on education was last formulated in 1986 and modified in 1992. It took the nation more than a few decades to propose a change in one of the most important sectors.

The National Education Policy proposes radical changes to the educational system of India. The norms of the policy even makes it sound ‘too good to be true’, with the promise of implementing all the proposed, heavily criticised policy by 2040.

However, most proposed comprehensive changes like completely redefining the age-old school curriculum structure of 10+2 into a structure of 5+3+3+4 has been received well.

The new school structure puts emphasis on formative education via early childhood education with an overview to implement absolute literacy and numeracy education(ability to understand basic terms and do basic calculations) by the end of the second grade.

The reports of low literacy and numeracy rates among students of elementary schools had pushed the policy formulators towards universal implementation by 2025.

The need of ensuring proper nutrition and health of students have also been targeted, with the implementation of mandatory breakfasts and midday meals in schools.

With a strive to impart quality education, the pupil-teacher ratio has been set at 30:1 and a lesser ratio for socially backward areas with a view to eradicate the socio-economic differences.

As a step in the right direction, provisions for vocational education and internships from grade 6th with a restructuring of the curriculum to inculcate critical thinking and inquiry based, discovery based learning has also been put forward.

The need for education via mother tongue till grade five has received much friction from all sides. The often negligence of regional languages and mother tongue had made the Union consider it. 

Experts from the educational field has however resented such a decision hinting that in a Country like ours with high mobility, there’s a greater need for universal mediums in the education provided in schools. Making the students who’d have to travel for reasons outside their control adversely affected by the same.

The economically constrained sections of the society has also made their voice heard, stating the inadequacy of funds from their sides, would put their children at a disadvantage compared to the children of well off families, who could afford multiple tuitions to learn English.  (Sighting the universal application)

A crown jewel in the policy, is the widened scope of universal education from transforming the 6-14 years to 3-18 years of students, while incorporating further lifelong learning habits.

The policy of a multi-disciplinary approach in higher education is also mentioned, but a foolproof framework is what it lacks, as of now.

The policy also incorporates aspirational moves towards doing away with the need for coaching class trends for higher education and to reduce the hysteria towards private english medium schools by bridging the adversities faced by the public schools.

With regards to higher education, the union focuses on allowing prestigious foreign universities to set up shop in the country and to also to aid the setting up of glamorous Indian higher education institutions in other countries. But the policy fails to make promises to further expand the number of premium institutions like IIT’s on Indian soils.

Even though the experts have welcomed most policy reforms with both hands, they’ve also presented their fair share of doubts regarding the implementation of the nuances of the policy, sighting the lack of political will towards public education and fiscal burden upon the government.

The suggestion of educational expenditure to be bumped upto 6% of GDP has been doing the rounds and has been neglected by consecutive governments. The economic slowdown caused by the pandemic also raises further doubts of the finances, also considering the surge in health and defence sector expenditures in the following years.

The policy on paper encourages the need for critical thinking, holistic learning and increase of campus activities. However, the attacks on free and critical thinkers on campuses in the recent past, raises obvious red flags.

Sighting the surge in the number of educated unemployeds and the mishap regarding the imparting of appropriate skillsets to match the employment opportunities, overhaul have been suggested regarding the formulation of 4 year undergrads shows great promise and putting an end to MPhil programs. The union also aims to restrict the functions of the UGC.

Even though the overall policy has the potential to transform the nation into a status of a powerhouse of knowledge, subsequent formulation of clear and foolproof plans which wouldn’t aggrieve any promises of tomorrow would be the ideal path to tread upon.

How To Survive 2020

COVID-19 has infected millions of people. The economy is in the worst shape it has been in over a decade. Forest fires, job losses, murder hornet, locusts, 2020 has been difficult, strange and a traumatic year. And as the cherry on top, many of us have to stay at our homes or practice social distancing. If you’ve been witnessing or suffering through any of these events, you may be looking for answers on how to get through them.

With 2020 being such an abnormal year, there is a good chance it is taking a toll on your physical, financial and mental health. Here, what could be practiced to stay informed and survive 2020-

  1. Address Your Health- During 2020, you’re probably not going going outside often and spending time with your family and friend is more rare than ever. It is natural for these conditions to take a toll on your mental health. To help with all this, find ways to cope with how you are feeling. It is always important to talk to people you love through voice or video calls or texts, do your best to workout at home, and take your time out of the day to do things you love. And also, stay away from social media if all the negative news becomes too much for you.
  2. Organize Your Finances- If you have lost, or at risk of losing your job, it is good idea to minimize your spending. You can do this by breaking up your spending into essential and non-essential purchases. This will help you figure out your survival number, which is the lowest amount of money you need to survive. Look at other types of spending you can cut out, like your gym membership as your gym may not be open during the pandemic.
  3. Learning a New Skill- There is a good chance that you have a lot of time in your hands now and what better way to use it than utilizing it in learning something new? You can take an online coding course or even learn to knit. Learning something new and staying productive is hugely helpful to your mental health. You can also create a side hustle from it, allowing you to earn money, and if can not earn money from it, you can learn a new skill that saves you money like growing your own food or being able to fix appliances.
  4. Pay Attention- Even though what’s going o in the world can be extremely negative, it is important to stay informed. Use multiple, reliable news sources to educate yourself about what is going on. It can help relive some anxiety when you are more informed. That being said, don’t get overwhelmed by the news. Looking at COVID-19 stats or civil unrest all day can become exhausting, limit yourself to checking news just once in a day, and leave it to that.
  5. Reach Out- Remember that this year has been hard on all of us, and everyone is struggling in some way or another. Don’t be afraid to reach out if you are having a hard time, and remember to check-in on your loved ones to see how they are coping with this crazy year. We are all in this together, stand up for what is right. Support local businesses and donate to charity or your favorite causes if you can. Once, this is all over we’ll finally come back to normal. And hopefully, the new normal will be a better world than ever.

Does EIA need revaluation?

This year, in March, a new draft of the EIA has been proposed by the Union Government. It constitutes some complicated and argumentative changes in the rules.


What was the need to bring out this notification in the midst of the pandemic?
How are people going to take part in public consultation during this lockdown?
How will they protest if they want changes in it?
Is the government trying to lay the blame on this pandemic for their decisions?


What is EIA?
On 27th January 1994, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF), Government of India, under the Environmental Protection Act 1986, proclaimed an EIA notification making Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for expansion or modernization of any activity or for setting up new projects listed in Schedule 1 of the notification.
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has proposed a draft Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) notification to replace the current one, which dates back to 2006. The EIA process is extremely important because it is the only process which is supposed to prioritize Environment safety over Economic benefits. A prior, free and informed consent of people is welcomed in it; people can ask questions about the need of the process. In this process, the project can be rejected on precautionary grounds. The values that are fundamental to the EIA process are sustainability, equity, environmental justice, accountability, transparency; it is these values that make the EIA meaningful.

But the new draft of 2020 is considered to change some of these basic values of EIA and some of the provisions are:
 Projects can receive clearance post-facto; a project operating in violation of the EPA can now apply for clearance.
 The draft says that no information on such projects shall be placed in the public domain. This list also includes all inland waterways projects.
 Violations on any project can only be reported by any government representative or the project proponent, not citizens.
Now, the EIC members typically are bureaucrats, project proponents from previous projects who do not have any environmental credential.
 Priorly the EIA report does not go directly to the decision-maker, that report is to be shared with the public. A person who may be directly affected by the report or anyone interested in knowing about its impact can participate in the public hearing. But now the Public Consultation may be cancelled owing to the local situation, i.e; if the people are protesting against a project that itself can be used to cancel Public hearing. Isn’t it a violation of our rights?
 Once the EC is granted it will be included for the lifetime in the project without any review. EC cannot be revoked even in case it violates EIA.
 The time allotted for public hearings has been reduced to speed up clearance process, this makes it difficult for people living in rural and tribal areas who are most often directly influenced by these projects. Today we have 30days notice period which is itself insufficient, now it’s been said to be reduced to 20days. The only motive behind this is that people will not be able to participate.
 Earlier buildings of 20,000sq.m or above required an environment clearance after detailed scrutiny by the state-level expert committee. Now, in this draft, it has been proposed to make it 150,000 sq.m, more than 7times if you count.

The 2020 EIA draft seems to be leaning in favour of the industries and does not take care of the environment. This is important amidst the climate crisis and the pandemic. In the last 6 years, MoEFCC has given environment clearance to 2,256 of the 2,592 received proposals. At least 49 industrial projects have been approved since the lockdown began. Some of the projects which are in question are:
• Dibang Valley Hydropower Project, Arunachal Pradesh
A 3,097 MW project is being developed by Etalin Hydro Electric Power Company Limited which comprehends the felling of 2.7 lakhs trees in the subtropical rain forests.
• Coal Mining Project in Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve, Assam
The government is discussing a proposal to divert 98.59 hectares of the reserve forest in Assam for a coal-mining project. This Reserve is home to a vibrant habitat including Asian elephants, Royal Bengal tigers, Leopard, and crab-eating mongoose.
• Oil Drilling in Baghjan, Assam
In 2016, Oil India Limited decided to extend its drilling and bypassed the public hearings clause. On May 27, 2020, an oil well in eastern Assam’s Tinsukia district experienced a blowout which led to a fire.
• Talabira coal mines, Odisha
The forest area has been cleared in Odisha for an opencast coal mining project. Parts of the forest have been protected over decades by the local community are now gone forever.
• Gas leakage in LG Polymers, Vishakhapatnam
In May, there was a gas leak in this company and this project didn’t have all the clearances as the company admitted this subsequently.
• A dyke at a Reliance power plant in Madhya Pradesh broke, spilling ashes over hundreds of acres of cropland, polluting the river and killing many people.

Recently the state government of Goa was caught for being engaged in fraudulence. It submitted a false report to obtain clearance for an airport near the ecologically sensitive Mopa plateau which will not only affect the vegetations or animals but also plunder the livelihood of hundreds of farmers. Even after this, no one was blamed for it. On the other hand, the EAC of MoEFCC revisited the project and issued a clearance.

India deployed Integrated Battle Group to deal with China, know what is the speciality of these soldiers.

Tension has been building between India and China since the violent clash in the Galwan Valley in Ladakh. In this violent clash, 20 soldiers of the Indian Army were killed. Meanwhile, India has deployed Mountain Corp’s Integrated Battle Group (IBG) along the Line of Control. IBG soldiers are adept at fighting in high mountainous areas.

These soldiers are especially adept at combating in the mountainous areas. These commandos are the 17th Mountain Carp Seals, specially designed to deal with China. According to sources, at least three Battle Group (IBG) of Mountain Carp are deployed on the front from India. Apart from this, there are a large number of ITBP personnel who have been trained in combat in the mountainous areas.

What is IBG or Integrated Battle Group?

Within 12 hours of the Army’s Integrated Battle Group (IBG) order, it sneaks into the enemy’s shack and strikes down. This is included in its special efficiency. This squad is prepared for every moment to deal with any situation like defence, attack or combat. It is not just a squad of specially trained commandos, but a complete unit equipped with all the sophisticated weapons of infantry, tanks, artillery, air defence, communication and warfare. It has every possible ability to thwart every adversary’ move. That is why it is called Integrated Battle Group.

To invade immediately as and when required is their greatest feature. That is, these soldiers do not require any extra time for preparation or strategy, it is only late to get orders. Its combatants are specially trained to take into account- enemy threats, geographical challenges and targets such as 3T- Threat, Terrain and Task in every area adjacent to the border. As soon as the order is received, they are ready to enter the enemy’s territory at any moment. These fighters are capable of more active and rapid action than the current striking corps.
According to sources, the soldiers of this Battle Group can also be airdropped at any place if needed. The commandos have also been trained for this and these commandos have also practised several times on the Chinese border. Sources say that the preparations of the Indian Army have received frequent backups of the Indian Air Force.

The Air Force is fully prepared to airdrop the commandos along with surveillance on the LAC. Let us know that China’s fighter aircraft and helicopters are hovering on the Line of Actual Control (LAC). These activities in China persist in the 10 km area of ​​LAC. In such a situation, India has also now prepared to respond to the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in its own dialect.
According to military sources, the army has deployed the ‘Akash’ advance air defence missile system in East Ladakh to keep track of China’s fighter aircraft and helicopters on the LAC. With this, the Indian Army can easily keep an eye on the antics of China. In such a situation, if a Chinese aircraft crosses the LAC, then it will be exterminated immediately by the air defence missile system.

Sources say that on the Line of Actual Control, China has recruited large-scale climbers and martial arts fighters in its army. The Dragon has sent five such divisions to LAC.

However, according to reports in the Chinese media, these are for deployment in Tibet. But according to sources, these have been sent to LAC and deployed before June 15. After this, India has deployed Mountain Corp’s IBG (Integrated Battle Group) on the Line of Control. Not to forget that on the night of June 15, there was a bloody clash in the Galwan valley between the armies of both the countries.

IMAGE: ©BCCL

The background of Pandemics

As humans have spread across the world, so have many infectious diseases. Even in this modern era, outbreaks are nearly constant, although not every outbreak has reached the level of a pandemic as the Corona virus did.

Disease and illnesses have been for ages. It was after the growth of agrarian communities that the spread of these diseases increased dramatically.

Widespread trade helped in creating new opportunities for human and animal interactions that increased the spread of  such epidemics like Malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, smallpox,  influenza, and others. More civilized the humans have become with trade routes, larger cities, and increased contact with different populations of people, animals, and ecosystems,  the more likely pandemics occurred.

Despite the persistence of disease and pandemics throughout history, there was a gradual reduction in the death rate. Healthcare improvements and understanding the factors that incubate pandemics have been powerful tools in reducing their impact.

During the 14th century, the practice of quarantine began in an effort to protect coastal cities from epidemics- plague. The port authorities asked ships arriving from infected ports to sit at anchor for 40 days straight before landing in Venice. The origin of the word quarantine from the Italian word  “Quaranta Giorni” which means 40 days.

While the interactions created through trade and urban life play a major role, it is also the virulent nature of particular diseases that lead to the trajectory of a pandemic.

With rise in global interactions and connections as a driving force behind pandemics  from small hunting and gathering tribes to the metropolis, humanity’s reliance on one another has also lead opportunities for disease to spread.

Urbanization in the developing world is bringing more and more rural residents into denser neighborhoods, while population increases are deteriorating environment. Passenger air traffic has nearly doubled in the past decade. These macro trends have a profound impact on the spread of infectious diseases.

As Covid-19 reminds us, that infectious diseases haven’t vanished. There are more new infectious diseases now than ever: HIV, Sars, and Covid-19 have increased by nearly fourfold over the past century. Since 1980, the number of outbreaks per year has been tripled

There are several reasons for this – Over the past 50 years, the population has increased to double. So more human beings get infected and in turn to infect others, especially in densely populated cities. We also have more livestock now than we did over the last 10,000 years of domestication up to 1960 combined, and viruses can pass from those animals to us. The ability to get to nearly any spot in the world in 20 hours or less, and pack a virus along with us, allows new diseases to emerge and to grow. For all the advances we’ve made against infectious disease, our very growth has made us more vulnerable, not less, to microbes that evolve 40 million times faster than human beings do.

‘PROXY WAR’ Yemen crisis: What is happening in Yemen?

A vicious civil war storming in Yemen has claimed more than 16,000 lives and left 13million people on the threshold of famine.

Credit: Getty Image

The conflict has been given a name to “proxy war” among competing powers in the Middle East as a Saudi-led coalition battles rebels backed by Iran.

How many people have been killed in the crisis?
The UN had confirmed the deaths of at least 7,500 civilians with most caused by Saudi-led coalition airstrikes.

However, monitoring groups believe the death toll is far higher. In October last year, the US-based Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) said it had registered more than 100,000 deaths, including 12,0000 civilians killed in direct attacks.

More than 23,000 fatalities were reported in 2019.

According to the Yemen Data Project, more than 17,500 civilians have been killed and injured since 2015 -with a quarter of all civilians killed in air raids said to be women and children.

Some 100,000 people are now thought to be dead because of the conflict, from direct involvement and knock-on effects such as mass starvation and inadequate sanitation.

This week, Yemen has recorded 208 coronavirus-related deaths pandemic.

The country’s national committee against the virus confirmed the total number of infections stands at 844, while the number of recoveries is around 80.

International health officials have said Yemen’s population could be extremely vulnerable to an outbreak.

It would be hard to scan the outbreak in the country as Yemen’s health infrastructure has been destroyed by years of civil war.

Aside from the threat of COVID-19, Yemen is also suffering an outbreak of the mosquito-transmitted Chikungunya virus.

There are also more than 100,000 known cholera cases across the nation.
Famine in Yemen
Yemen, the Gulf’s poorest nation, has been torn apart by the conflict.
Supplies of basic goods and humanitarian aid have been halted by forces battling control of the strategic port in Hodeidah.
Violence has forced farmers to abandon their crops, and hospitals have been overwhelmed by sick, wounded and malnourished children.
Hadramout province has seen some of the worst pockets of malnutrition and disease in the war-torn country.

Many displaced people, returnees, refugees and asylum seekers are now reliant on regular humanitarian aid to survive, according to the UN.

Credit: TOI

Charity UNICEF says approximately 80% of Yemen’s population, or 24 million people, rely on aid, and 10 million are facing famine.
According to the charity Save the Children, 12.3 million children – 0r 93% -need humanitarian assistance and protection.
The charity says 1 in 5 of children have lost their homes, while 70% don’t have access to clean water and sanitation
A further 7.4 million children are in need of child protection assistance, while 2 million children are out of school.
The United Nations (UN) has put out an appeal for donations amidst growing fears regarding the situation in Yemen.

It comes as COVID-19 spreads rapidly throughout the country’s population, which has already been devastated by years of war.

A number of charities are running campaigns to raise money for the people affected by the war.
The civil war is considered one of the largest humanitarian crisis’ in the world right now, with millions affected.
International organisations such as The Red Cross, Save the Children, UNICEF and Oxfam are collecting donations to help Yemeni citizens and families.

How to grow your business through Instagram

Instagram is a great marketing tool for any business to flourish. It has over 800 million monthly active users. Despite it being a massive platform, it is fairly easy to grow your business on it. It allows you to connect with your fans, customers, partners, and prospects. For your account, to be worth your efforts and time, the most important thing is to be active on it. 

Let’s take a look at how Instagram can help in building a brand and grow your following without spending a single penny on advertising.

  • Post images that attract the audience – A picture is worth a thousand words so make sure it counts. To get active audience engagement, offer both – great design and value. Use sites like Canva and Stencil to design the best infographics or posts. No need to hire graphic designers, these tools make your posts look extremely professional at free of cost.
  • “Call to action” a must thing – There are a lot of companies that just post on Instagram without the customers knowing what to do, where to go. One can always make use of the bio section for a strong “Call-to-action” that directs people to the sales page or the company’s website. This way it is much easier for better functioning of the business.
  • The right use of Hashtags (#) – Hashtags are extremely powerful for increasing engagement, categorizing posts, attracting followers to a certain niche and also to strengthen the brand image. Every time you make a post, make sure to write a caption with it including the hashtags ( don’t use more than 5 ). This will make your post look well put up and appealing to the audience.
  • Regularity in posting content – You don’t have to spam the audience but make sure to at least post one or two times a day. This will help in keeping the audience updated and be interested in your brand. None the less, the more the posting is done more the chances of a rapid increase in followers.
  • Engagement is the key – Engagement with the audience can be fruitful for your company. Start liking, commenting on their posts, it can often lead them to visit your brand’s Instagram handle. There are chances that they can also reciprocate by liking and following it. Purchasing followers can never be in one’s interest, so avoid it.
  • Look up to Analytics – Instagram provides an option to check the insights of the profile. One can see which post got the most engagement, which day is when people are most active, when is the best time to post. With the help of this information, plan your future posts accordingly to get the most mileage out of them.

All in all, this visual feed can reflect your brand’s uniqueness and differentiate your business from others. So with the right marketing strategy make the best use of it possible. Take advantage of all that Instagram has to offer and you are good to go.