Wildfire and Its Effects on the Ecosystem

Geophysical phenomena refer to the processes that occur in the Earth’s lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. These processes play a critical role in shaping the planet’s features and support the diverse range of flora and fauna. However, human activities have significantly impacted the natural balance of these processes, leading to several changes in critical geographical features such as waterbodies and icecaps, and flora and fauna.

Wildfires are one of the most devastating geophysical phenomena that have a significant impact on the earth’s environment. Wildfires are uncontrolled fires that occur in wildland areas such as forests, grasslands, and shrublands. They are caused by a combination of factors such as heat, drought, wind, and lightning, and human activities such as arson and negligence. These fires can cause significant changes in geographical features, including waterbodies and icecaps, flora and fauna, and the overall ecosystem. In this essay, we will discuss the important geophysical phenomena of wildfires, their geographical features and location, changes in critical geographical features, and the effects of such changes.

Geographical Features and Location of Wildfires

Wildfires occur all over the world, but some regions are more prone to wildfires due to their geographical features. These regions are mostly dry and have abundant vegetation, making them susceptible to wildfires. Some of the regions that are prone to wildfires include the Mediterranean region, California, Australia, and South Africa. These regions are characterized by high temperatures, low humidity, and strong winds, which are perfect conditions for wildfires to spread rapidly. One of the most critical features affected by wildfires is the vegetation cover. Wildfires can lead to the complete destruction of forests and grasslands, which can take decades to recover fully. In addition to the direct loss of vegetation cover, wildfires can also lead to changes in the vegetation structure and composition. For example, after a wildfire, the type of plants that grow back may be different from the ones that were present before the fire. This change in the vegetation can have significant impacts on the wildlife that depends on these plants for food and shelter.

Water-Bodies and Ice-Caps

Wildfires can have significant impacts on waterbodies and icecaps. In areas where wildfires are prevalent, waterbodies such as rivers and lakes can become contaminated with ash and debris, which can lead to a decrease in water quality. The increase in sedimentation can cause damage to aquatic habitats and result in the death of aquatic organisms.

Wildfires can also cause changes in icecaps. As the temperature rises due to wildfires, the icecaps can melt, leading to rising sea levels. This can cause flooding in coastal areas, leading to the loss of human lives and property. The melting of icecaps can also have long-term effects on the climate, such as altering ocean currents and changing weather patterns.

Flora and Fauna

Wildfires can have devastating effects on flora and fauna. The destruction of forests and other vegetation can lead to the loss of habitats for wildlife, which can result in the extinction of certain species. The smoke and heat from wildfires can also cause respiratory problems for animals, leading to their death.

Changes in Ecosystem

Wildfires can cause significant changes in the ecosystem. The loss of vegetation can lead to soil erosion and the loss of nutrients, making it difficult for new vegetation to grow. This can lead to a decline in the overall productivity of the ecosystem. The loss of vegetation can also increase the risk of landslides and floods.

Effects of Changes in Geographical Features

Changes in geographical features can have significant impacts on human populations. The loss of waterbodies can lead to a decrease in water availability, which can affect human health and agriculture. The loss of icecaps can lead to rising sea levels, which can cause flooding and displacement of populations. The loss of flora and fauna can lead to a decrease in biodiversity, which can affect the overall health of the ecosystem.

Wildfires are a significant geophysical event that can have a big effect on the environment of the earth. Wildfires can alter the flora and fauna, the ecosystem as a whole, and physical features like waterbodies and icecaps. Such changes can have disastrous impacts on human populations, having an impact on their livelihoods, agriculture, and health. As a result, it’s critical to take action to both prevent wildfires and successfully control them when they do occur.


Women Development and Poverty Issues in India

India, the second-most populous nation in the world, has long struggled with poverty and developmental challenges, particularly among women. The nation continues to suffer with gender inequality, lack of access to healthcare and education, and a lack of job prospects despite recent strong economic progress.

Women poverty in India

Women in India face multiple challenges that contribute to their poverty. One of the biggest challenges is the gender pay gap, which means women are paid less than men for the same job. This pay gap is prevalent across all sectors, including agriculture and informal labor, where women work predominantly. Women’s employment opportunities are also limited, as they are often restricted to low-paying, informal jobs that offer no benefits or job security. Furthermore, women are more likely to work in the informal sector, which is not regulated by labor laws, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.

In addition to economic challenges, women in India also face social challenges that contribute to their poverty. These challenges include limited access to education, healthcare, and social services. Women’s education is often de-prioritized in Indian society, and many girls drop out of school due to poverty, early marriage, or cultural expectations. Lack of education limits women’s opportunities for higher-paying jobs and perpetuates their poverty. Another factor contributing to women’s poverty in India is limited access to healthcare. Women in India face a range of health issues, including maternal mortality, malnutrition, and limited access to reproductive health services. These health issues have significant economic and social consequences, including reduced productivity and increased poverty. Addressing women’s health needs is essential for their overall well-being and for the economic development of the country.

Developmental issues faced by women in India

Developmental issues in India refer to the economic, social, and political changes necessary for the country’s growth and progress. Women in India face unique developmental issues that stem from their social and economic marginalization. One such issue is gender-based violence, including domestic violence, sexual assault, and harassment. These forms of violence limit women’s ability to participate in the workforce, access education and healthcare, and contribute to their poverty.

Another developmental issue faced by women in India is limited access to credit and financial resources. Women’s economic empowerment is essential for their development, and access to credit is critical for starting businesses and improving livelihoods. However, women in India face significant barriers to accessing credit due to cultural and institutional biases that favor men.

Finally, women in India face political marginalization, with limited representation in government and decision-making positions. Political representation is crucial for women’s development, as it enables them to advocate for policies that promote gender equality, address women’s issues, and improve their livelihoods.

Efforts to address women poverty and developmental issues in India

Several efforts have been made in recent years to address women poverty and developmental issues in India. The government has launched several initiatives, such as the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (Save Daughter, Educate Daughter) scheme, which aims to promote gender equality by addressing female foeticide and improving access to education for girls. The government has also launched the Mahila E-Haat platform, an online marketplace that provides women entrepreneurs with a platform to sell their products and services.

NGOs and civil society organizations have also played a significant role in addressing women poverty and developmental issues in India. For example, organizations such as Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) have been working to improve women’s economic empowerment by providing them with training and support to start their businesses. Other organizations, such as the Centre for Social Research, have been working to address gender-based violence by conducting research, advocacy, and providing support services to survivors.


In conclusion, social, economic, and political marginalisation continue to cause substantial poverty and developmental problems for women in India. Women’s possibilities for economic and social development are constrained by the difficulties associated with limited access to healthcare, finance, and education, as well as with gender-based violence.

Issues Faced by Women in India

India is the second-most populous country in the world, with a population of approximately 1.3 billion people. Women constitute nearly half of this population, and yet they face various challenges and issues in their everyday lives. Gender inequality is prevalent in India, and it affects women in various ways. One of the most significant issues that women face is gender-based violence. According to the National Crime Records Bureau, there were over 3 lakh cases of crimes against women in India in 2019. This includes rape, sexual assault, domestic violence, and harassment. Women who report such crimes often face stigma and discrimination, making it difficult for them to access justice.

Access to healthcare is another critical issue for women in India. Although the government has made significant efforts to improve healthcare services, many women still lack access to basic healthcare facilities, especially in rural areas. Women also face significant challenges in accessing reproductive and maternal healthcare services, which can result in poor health outcomes. Maternal mortality rates are high, with India accounting for almost one-quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. This is due to inadequate access to healthcare, poor nutrition, and lack of education on maternal health. They also face high rates of malnutrition and anemia, which have long-term health consequences for both them and their children.

Another issue that women in India face is limited access to education and employment opportunities. According to the World Bank, only 66% of women in India are literate, compared to 82% of men. Women also face significant barriers to employment, with only 24% of women in India participating in the labor force, compared to 82% of men. This is due to various factors, including societal expectations, lack of education and skills, and discrimination in the workplace.

Political representation is another area where women in India are underrepresented. While women make up nearly half of the population, they hold only 14.4% of seats in the Indian parliament. This limits their ability to influence policy decisions and advocate for their rights. Although women have the right to vote and stand for election, they are underrepresented in political decision-making positions. Women’s political participation is essential to ensure that their interests and concerns are adequately represented.

Despite these challenges, there have been efforts to address these issues and improve the lives of women in India. The Indian government has implemented various policies and programmes aimed at empowering women and promoting gender equality. For example, the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (Save the Girl Child, Educate the Girl Child) programme aims to address gender-based violence and improve access to education for girls. The Mahila E-Haat programme aims to promote women’s entrepreneurship and enable them to access markets and sell their products online.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society groups have also played a significant role in promoting women’s rights in India. For example, the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) has been working for the empowerment of women in the informal sector for over 40 years. SEWA provides women with education and training, access to credit and markets, and support for their rights as workers.

Finally, economic empowerment is crucial for women’s well-being in India. Women in India often face barriers to employment, including discrimination and lack of access to education and training. Women who do work are often employed in low-paying jobs with poor working conditions. Promoting women’s economic empowerment can help to reduce poverty and improve the overall economic development of the country.

In conclusion, women in India experience a variety of difficulties and problems, such as gender-based violence, restricted access to chances for education and work, and underrepresentation in politics. Yet, there have been initiatives in India to deal with these problems and advance gender equality. In order to empower women and advance their rights, the government and non-governmental organizations have created a number of policies and programmes. To ensure that women in India can live healthy, successful lives, more work still has to be done, and ongoing initiatives are required.

Women in Indian Society

The role of women and women’s organizations in India has been evolving over time, from the early days of the women’s suffrage movement to the present day. Women have played a crucial role in shaping Indian society, and their contributions have been instrumental in bringing about social and political change. Historically, women in India have been relegated to the domestic sphere, with limited access to education, employment, and political power. However, in recent decades, women’s organizations and activists have been working to challenge gender-based discrimination and promote women’s rights. The role of women in India has undergone significant changes in recent years, with the growth of women’s organizations and the emergence of women leaders in various fields. Women have played a crucial role in shaping the country’s history, culture, and society. They have been at the forefront of various social and political movements, fighting for their rights and challenging patriarchal norms.

Women’s organizations in India have played a pivotal role in promoting gender equality and advocating for women’s rights. These organizations have been instrumental in raising awareness about issues affecting women and girls, providing support and services to victims of gender-based violence, and advocating for policy and legislative changes to improve women’s lives.

One of the most significant women’s organizations in India is the National Federation of Indian Women (NFIW). Founded in 1954, NFIW has been at the forefront of various social and political movements, fighting for women’s rights and gender equality. The organization has been actively involved in the struggle for women’s right to education, employment, and political representation. It has also been instrumental in raising awareness about violence against women and promoting women’s health and reproductive rights.

Another important women’s organization in India is the All-India Women’s Conference (AIWC). Established in 1927, AIWC has been a pioneer in the women’s movement in India. The organization has been active in promoting women’s education, health, and economic empowerment. It has also been involved in the struggle for women’s political representation and advocating for legislative changes to protect women’s rights.

In addition to these national-level organizations, there are several grassroots-level women’s organizations in India that have been working tirelessly to improve the lives of women in their communities. These organizations have been instrumental in providing support and services to women and girls who are victims of gender-based violence, promoting women’s education and economic empowerment, and advocating for policy changes to improve women’s lives.

Women leaders in India have also played a crucial role in shaping the country’s political landscape. Several women have held top positions in government, including Indira Gandhi, who served as the country’s Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 to 1984. In recent years, several women have been elected to key positions in government, including Sushma Swaraj, who served as the country’s Minister of External Affairs from 2014 to 2019, and Nirmala Sitharaman, who became the first woman to serve as the country’s Minister of Finance in 2019.

Women have also made significant contributions to the country’s cultural and artistic landscape. Indian cinema has produced several women actors, directors, and producers who have made a name for themselves both in India and abroad. Women writers, artists, and musicians have also made significant contributions to the country’s cultural heritage.

However, despite these positive developments, women in India continue to face significant challenges. Gender-based violence, including domestic violence, sexual harassment, and rape, remains a pervasive problem in the country. Women’s access to education, health care, and economic opportunities is often limited by societal norms and gender stereotypes. Women’s political representation also remains low, with women holding only around 22% of seats in the national parliament.

In conclusion, women and women’s organizations have played a crucial role in shaping the history, culture, and society of India. Women’s organizations have been instrumental in promoting gender equality and advocating for women’s rights, while women leaders have made significant contributions to the country’s political, cultural, and artistic landscape. However, despite these positive developments, women in India continue to face significant challenges, and there is still a long way to go to achieve true gender equality.


Natural occurrences in the crust, oceans, and atmosphere, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, and storms, are referred to as geophysical phenomena. Waterbodies, icecaps, flora, and wildlife, as well as other geographical characteristics, can all undergo significant changes as a result of these events.

One of the most common geophysical phenomena that affect geographical features is flooding. Floods occur when an area receives more rainfall than it can handle, causing rivers and other waterbodies to overflow their banks. Floods can cause significant damage to the surrounding environment, including eroding riverbanks, damaging infrastructure such as roads and bridges, and destroying homes and crops.

One of the most notable examples of the effects of flooding on geographical features is the 1993 Mississippi River floods in the United States. The floods caused over $15 billion in damages, affected 12 states, and displaced over 50,000 people. The floods also caused significant changes to the river’s course, including the creation of new channels and the destruction of levees.

Another geophysical phenomenon that affects geographical features is changes in waterbodies, such as lakes and oceans. These changes can occur due to natural causes, such as shifts in tectonic plates, or human activities, such as damming rivers or extracting groundwater. Changes in waterbodies can have significant impacts on the surrounding environment, including changes in flora and fauna.

One example of the effects of changes in waterbodies on geographical features is the Aral Sea in Central Asia. The Aral Sea was once the world’s fourth-largest lake, but due to human activities, such as diverting water from the rivers that feed the lake for irrigation, it has shrunk by over 90%. The shrinking of the Aral Sea has had significant impacts on the surrounding environment, including the disappearance of fish species, changes in the local climate, and the emergence of new desert landscapes.

Another geophysical phenomenon that affects geographical features is changes in icecaps, such as those found in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Changes in icecaps can occur due to natural causes, such as changes in temperature or precipitation, or human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels that contribute to climate change. Changes in icecaps can have significant impacts on the surrounding environment, including changes in sea level, changes in ocean currents, and changes in flora and fauna.

One example of the effects of changes in icecaps on geographical features is the melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The Greenland ice sheet is the second-largest ice sheet in the world, covering over 1.7 million square kilometers. However, due to rising temperatures caused by climate change, the ice sheet is melting at an accelerating rate. This melting is causing sea levels to rise, which could have significant impacts on coastal areas worldwide, including flooding and the loss of habitat for flora and fauna.

Geophysical phenomena can also have significant impacts on flora and fauna. Changes in the environment, such as flooding, changes in waterbodies, and changes in icecaps, can cause significant disruptions to ecosystems, including changes in species distributions, changes in food webs, and changes in migration patterns.

One example of the effects of geophysical phenomena on flora and fauna is the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The tsunami caused significant damage to coastal ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangrove forests, and sea-grass beds. These ecosystems are critical habitats for a wide range of species, including fish, turtles, and other marine life. The loss of these habitats could have significant impacts on the survival of these species.

The Earth’s geographical characteristics, such as water bodies and ice caps, as well as the flora and fauna that depend on them, can all be significantly impacted by geophysical occurrences. While some changes can be brought on by nature, others might be accelerated by human activity like deforestation and fossil fuel burning. To better prepare for and lessen their consequences on the world and its inhabitants, it is crucial to comprehend these occurrences and their effects.

Cyclone, A Geophysical Phenomena

Natural occurrences on Earth called geophysical phenomena are linked to the planet’s physical processes and characteristics. Cyclones, changes in geographical characteristics, and changes in flora and fauna are some of the most significant geophysical events.

Strong, spinning storm systems known as cyclones are characterized by low-pressure centers, strong winds, and copious amounts of rain. They frequently occur in the tropics and subtropics and form over warm ocean waters. These storms have the potential to seriously harm infrastructure and endanger both human and animal lives in the affected areas. Typhoons in the western Pacific and hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean are two different names for the same cyclone, which is categorized based on its wind speed.

Geographical features are the physical aspects of the Earth’s surface, such as mountains, valleys, rivers, and coastlines. Changes in geographical features can occur naturally or as a result of human activities. Natural changes can be caused by geological processes such as erosion, volcanic activity, and tectonic movements, while human activities can cause changes such as deforestation, mining, and urbanization.

Waterbodies, such as oceans, rivers, and lakes, are an essential part of the Earth’s geography. Changes in waterbodies can occur due to natural processes such as climate change, melting of ice caps, and erosion, or as a result of human activities such as damming, pollution, and overfishing. Changes in waterbodies can have significant impacts on the environment, including changes in water quality, loss of biodiversity, and impacts on human populations that rely on water resources for their livelihoods.

Icecaps, including glaciers and polar ice caps, are also important geographical features that are vulnerable to climate change. Rising temperatures are causing significant melting of icecaps, leading to rising sea levels, changes in ocean currents, and impacts on marine ecosystems. The loss of icecaps also has significant implications for human populations, particularly those in low-lying coastal areas that are at risk of flooding and other climate-related impacts.

Flora and fauna are the plant and animal life that inhabit different ecosystems around the world. Changes in the environment can have significant impacts on flora and fauna, including changes in habitat availability, food sources, and temperature regimes. Climate change is one of the most significant drivers of changes in flora and fauna, with rising temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns leading to shifts in species ranges and impacts on biodiversity. Human activities such as deforestation, pollution, and hunting also have significant impacts on flora and fauna. Strong winds can uproot trees and damage other vegetation, while heavy rainfall can cause flooding and landslides, altering soil conditions and destroying habitats. Wildlife populations may be displaced or killed by the storm, and food sources may be disrupted. In some cases, cyclones can also cause pollution by releasing hazardous materials from damaged infrastructure or flooding.

The effects of these changes can be widespread and long-lasting. For example, changes in the Arctic icecap have led to the loss of habitat for polar bears and other species, as well as changes in the migration patterns of marine mammals and fish. The melting of glaciers and ice caps in the Himalayas has led to increased flooding and landslides, threatening the lives and livelihoods of people in the region.

In order to mitigate the impacts of geophysical phenomena and changes in critical geographical features, it is important to develop strategies that address both the immediate and long-term effects. This can include measures such as building infrastructure that can withstand cyclones and flooding, creating protected areas for wildlife, and promoting sustainable water management practices. Additionally, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and taking steps to mitigate climate change can help to slow the rate of change in critical geographical features and reduce the impacts on ecosystems and human societies. Changes in geographical features can also have significant impacts on human populations and ecosystems. For example, changes in waterbodies can lead to changes in water availability, which can impact agricultural production, energy production, and human health. Changes in icecaps can lead to rising sea levels, which can impact coastal communities, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Changes in flora and fauna can lead to loss of biodiversity, impacts on ecosystem services, and impacts on human populations that rely on these resources for their livelihoods.

The Earth’s ecology and human populations are significantly impacted by geophysical events like cyclones, changes in topographical characteristics, and changes in flora and fauna. Understanding these occurrences and their effects is essential for creating efficient mitigation and adaptation plans, especially in light of the ongoing effects of climate change and other global concerns.


Natural occurrences in the Earth’s physical systems, such as its atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, are referred to as geophysical phenomena. These events, along with changes in geographical features, flora and fauna, and human societies, can have a profound impact on the environment. Volcanic activity, changes in waterbodies and icecaps, and changes in geographical features are some of the most significant geophysical phenomena.

Volcanic Activity

Volcanic activity is one of the most critical geophysical phenomena that can have a significant impact on the environment. Volcanoes are openings in the Earth’s surface that allow magma, ash, and gas to escape from the Earth’s interior. When this magma reaches the surface, it can form a volcanic eruption, which can have a range of effects on the environment.

Volcanic eruptions can release massive amounts of ash and gases into the atmosphere. These gases, such as sulfur dioxide, can react with water vapor to form acid rain, which can have significant impacts on flora, fauna, and human societies. Ash and other volcanic particles can also block out sunlight and cause temporary cooling of the Earth’s surface. Additionally, volcanic eruptions can cause landslides and mudflows, which can be devastating to human settlements and infrastructure.

Geographical Features and Their Location

Geographical features refer to the physical characteristics of the Earth’s surface, such as mountains, valleys, rivers, and lakes. Changes in geographical features can occur due to a range of geophysical phenomena, including tectonic plate movements, volcanic activity, erosion, and climate change.

Tectonic plate movements can cause significant changes in the Earth’s surface, including the formation of mountains, valleys, and ocean basins. Volcanic activity can also create new landforms, such as volcanic islands and lava flows. Erosion, caused by wind and water, can slowly wear away landforms over time, creating new features such as canyons and waterfalls. Climate change can also impact geographical features, such as melting ice caps and rising sea levels.

Changes in Waterbodies and Icecaps

Waterbodies, including oceans, lakes, and rivers, can be impacted by a range of geophysical phenomena, including tectonic plate movements, volcanic activity, and climate change. These changes can have significant impacts on the environment, including changes in temperature, salinity, and nutrient levels.

Melting icecaps can also have significant impacts on the environment, including rising sea levels and changes in ocean currents. As ice melts, it can release freshwater into the ocean, which can change the salinity levels and impact the circulation of ocean currents. Additionally, melting ice can expose new land, which can impact flora and fauna in the area.

Effects on Flora and Fauna:

Geophysical phenomena can have significant impacts on flora and fauna. For example, volcanic eruptions can release ash and gases into the atmosphere, which can impact the growth and health of plants. Additionally, volcanic activity can cause landslides and mudflows, which can destroy habitats and kill animals.

Changes in waterbodies and icecaps can also have significant impacts on flora and fauna. Rising sea levels, for example, can cause coastal erosion and flooding, which can destroy habitats and force animals to relocate. Changes in ocean currents can also impact the distribution of nutrients and plankton, which can impact the entire food chain.

The most significant natural processes that take place on Earth include geophysical phenomena like volcanic activity, changes in geographical features, and changes in flora and fauna. While these occurrences have the potential to significantly impact the physical and biological systems of the planet, they can also shed important light on the intricate relationships that define our environment. Therefore, it is crucial to carefully track and research these events in order to comprehend their impacts and create plans to lessen their negative effects on both the environment and human life.


Tsunamis are a type of natural disaster that occurs when there is a sudden displacement of water in the ocean. They are large ocean waves caused by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. They can cause massive destruction to coastal regions, resulting in loss of life, infrastructure damage, and long-term environmental effects. Tsunamis affect both marine and terrestrial ecosystems, altering geographical features, water bodies, ice caps, flora, and fauna. In this essay, we will discuss the geographical features affected by tsunamis, including water bodies and ice caps, and their effects on flora and fauna.

Geographical Features


Tsunamis can cause severe changes in water bodies like oceans, seas, and lakes. They can trigger large waves that can inundate low-lying coastal areas and cause significant flooding, damaging infrastructure, and affecting marine ecosystems. Tsunamis can also cause saltwater intrusion into freshwater systems, disrupting aquatic habitats and affecting the water quality of freshwater bodies. Furthermore, the deposition of sediments and debris caused by tsunamis can alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the water bodies.For instance, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass beds in several countries, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. These ecosystems play vital roles in coastal protection, fisheries, and carbon sequestration, and their damage can have long-term impacts on the ecosystem’s functionality. Similarly, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused significant changes to the coastline, including the formation of new bays and the erosion of existing beaches.


Tsunamis can also affect ice caps, which are large masses of ice covering the polar regions. The waves generated by tsunamis can cause icebergs to break off from the ice caps, resulting in the release of freshwater into the oceans. This can affect ocean currents and weather patterns, causing fluctuations in temperature and precipitation. Moreover, the melting of ice caps caused by tsunamis can result in sea-level rise, which can inundate low-lying coastal areas and lead to coastal erosion. This can lead to the loss of land, displacement of communities, and loss of biodiversity.

Flora and Fauna:

Tsunamis can also have significant effects on flora and fauna in the affected areas. The force of the waves can cause significant damage to coastal ecosystems, including mangroves, coral reefs, and sea grass beds. These ecosystems provide critical habitats for a variety of species, and their destruction can have cascading effects throughout the food chain.In addition to physical damage to ecosystems, tsunamis can also have indirect effects on flora and fauna. For example, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to aquaculture operations in the affected regions, which had a ripple effect on the local fishing industry. Similarly, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused a significant decline in sea turtle populations due to the destruction of critical nesting habitats.

Marine Ecosystems:

Tsunamis can cause significant damage to marine ecosystems, affecting the biodiversity and productivity of the oceans. The waves generated by tsunamis can cause the death of marine organisms, such as fish, coral, and plankton. Furthermore, the deposition of sediments and debris can smother and damage seagrass beds and coral reefs, leading to long-term habitat loss and decreased biodiversity.For example, the 2011 Tohoku tsunami in Japan caused significant damage to marine ecosystems, leading to the death of marine organisms and the destruction of coral reefs and seagrass beds. The impacts of the tsunami on marine ecosystems were felt for several years after the event, affecting the fisheries and tourism industries.

Terrestrial Ecosystems:

Tsunamis can also affect terrestrial ecosystems, including forests, wetlands, and grasslands. The waves generated by tsunamis can cause significant flooding, resulting in the loss of vegetation and soil erosion. Furthermore, the deposition of sediments and debris can alter the physical and chemical properties of the soil, affecting the nutrient availability and soil structure.For instance, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to mangrove forests and other coastal vegetation. These ecosystems play vital roles in coastal protection, carbon sequestration, and habitat provision for wildlife. The loss of these ecosystems can have significant impacts on the environment and human communities.

Effects of Changes

The changes caused by tsunamis can have significant impacts on the environment, human populations, and economies in the affected regions.


The destruction of coastal ecosystems can have long-term effects on the environment. For example, the loss of coral reefs can lead to declines in fish populations, which can have cascading effects throughout the food chain. Similarly, the loss of mangroves can lead to increased coastal erosion and reduced protection from storm surges.

Human Populations:

Tsunamis can also have significant impacts on human populations. The loss of coastal infrastructure, including homes, businesses, and transportation networks, can disrupt local economies and displace communities. Additionally, the loss of critical habitats and resources can lead to food and water shortages, which can exacerbate existing poverty and inequality.


Finally, tsunamis can have significant impacts on local and global economies. The destruction of infrastructure and disruption of supply chains can lead to significant economic losses. For example, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused widespread disruptions in global supply chains, particularly in the electronics industry.

To sum up, both flora and fauna, as well as physical features like water bodies and ice caps, can be significantly impacted by tsunamis. The environment, human populations, and economies in the impacted areas may be negatively impacted for a long time by these changes. In order to lessen the effects of tsunamis and other natural disasters, it is crucial to have efficient disaster preparedness and response systems in place.

Earthquake, A Natural Disaster

One of nature’s most catastrophic catastrophes, earthquakes have the power to significantly alter the planet’s physical features, including water bodies, ice caps, flora, and fauna. The abrupt release of energy in the Earth’s crust, which causes the ground to shake violently, is the source of earthquakes. Earthquakes can have a terrible effect, resulting in human casualties and property destruction. In this article, we’ll talk about how important geographic features, including water bodies and ice caps, have changed and how that has affected the local flora and fauna.

Geographical Features and Location Changes

Earthquakes can cause significant changes in the landscape and location of various geographical features. One of the most common effects of earthquakes is the creation of new landforms, such as mountains, valleys, and canyons. This is because earthquakes can cause the Earth’s crust to fold, break, and shift, which can create new landforms.

Earthquakes can also cause changes in water bodies, such as lakes and rivers. In some cases, earthquakes can cause these bodies of water to drain or dry up entirely. This can happen when an earthquake causes a shift in the Earth’s crust, which can block the flow of water or cause it to flow in a different direction. In addition, earthquakes can cause tsunamis, which are large waves that can cause significant damage to coastal regions and can also affect water bodies such as oceans, seas and bays.

Ice caps are also at risk due to earthquakes. These large masses of ice can be affected by seismic activity in various ways. Earthquakes can cause cracks in the ice, which can lead to melting and fragmentation. In addition, earthquakes can cause avalanches, which can be especially dangerous if they occur on or near glaciers.

Water Bodies

Earthquakes can cause significant changes in water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. The most common change is the formation of new water bodies or the expansion of existing ones. For example, earthquakes can cause landslides, which can dam rivers, creating new lakes or widening existing ones. On the other hand, earthquakes can also cause the collapse of riverbanks, leading to the diversion of rivers and the creation of new river channels. Another significant impact of earthquakes on water bodies is the generation of tsunamis. Tsunamis are large waves that are triggered by earthquakes occurring in the ocean floor. These waves can travel long distances and cause significant damage to coastal communities.

Flora and Fauna

Earthquakes can also have significant impacts on flora and fauna. These impacts can be both direct and indirect. The direct impact of earthquakes on flora and fauna is the destruction of their habitats. Earthquakes can cause landslides, which can bury vegetation, and collapse buildings, which can crush wildlife. In addition, earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction, which can suffocate plant roots and prevent them from obtaining nutrients and water. The indirect impact of earthquakes on flora and fauna is the disruption of ecosystems. Earthquakes can alter the availability of resources, such as water and food, leading to changes in the distribution and behavior of wildlife. For example, earthquakes can cause changes in the flow of rivers, leading to changes in the distribution of fish species.

Effects of Changes

The changes in geographical features caused by earthquakes can have significant short-term and long-term effects on the environment and human communities.

Short-term Effects:

The short-term effects of changes in geographical features include immediate impacts on human communities, such as loss of life and property damage. The destruction of habitats can also lead to the displacement of wildlife, which can have long-term impacts on ecosystems.

Long-term Effects:

The long-term effects of changes in geographical features include changes in the environment that can persist for years or even decades. For example, the creation of new water bodies can lead to changes in the hydrology of an area, altering the flow of rivers and affecting the availability of water for human communities and wildlife. The melting of ice caps due to earthquakes can also contribute to rising sea levels, leading to the displacement of coastal communities and the loss of biodiversity.

The ecology, infrastructure, and economy can all be severely harmed by earthquakes, which are a serious natural calamity. Further to having a substantial impact on flora and fauna, they can alter the terrain and the placement of many geographical features. It is crucial to take precautions to be ready for and lessen the consequences of earthquakes because their effects can be profound and lasting.

World’s Physical Geography

The study of the Earth’s surface and the forces that shape it is referred to as physical geography. This comprises the soil, vegetation, climate, water features, and landforms. We’ll talk about the key aspects of the physical geography of the world in this post.

Continents and Oceans:
The world is divided into seven continents: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. These continents are separated by five oceans: the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ocean on Earth, covering more than one-third of the planet’s surface area.

Mountains are large landforms that rise above the surrounding landscape. They are typically formed by tectonic activity, such as the collision of continental plates. The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest, which is located in the Himalayas on the border between Nepal and Tibet. The Himalayas are the tallest mountain range in the world and stretch across several countries, including India, China, Nepal, and Bhutan.

Plateaus are elevated flatlands that rise above the surrounding terrain. They are typically formed by tectonic activity, such as the lifting of large sections of the Earth’s crust. The largest plateau on Earth is the Tibetan Plateau, which covers an area of approximately 2.5 million square kilometers and has an average elevation of over 4,500 meters.

Deserts are arid regions that receive very little rainfall. The largest desert on Earth is the Sahara Desert, which covers an area of approximately 9 million square kilometers and stretches across several countries in North Africa. Other notable deserts include the Arabian Desert, the Gobi Desert, and the Kalahari Desert.

Rivers are large bodies of water that flow from higher elevations to lower elevations. They are typically formed by precipitation and the melting of snow and ice. The longest river on Earth is the Nile River, which stretches over 6,650 kilometers and flows through several countries in Africa. Other notable rivers include the Amazon River, the Yangtze River, and the Mississippi River.

Lakes are large bodies of water that are surrounded by land. They can be formed by a variety of processes, including tectonic activity, glaciation, and erosion. The largest lake on Earth is the Caspian Sea, which is located between Europe and Asia and has an area of approximately 371,000 square kilometers. Other notable lakes include Lake Superior, Lake Victoria, and Lake Baikal.

Coastlines are the areas where land and water meet. They can be characterized by a variety of features, including beaches, cliffs, and estuaries. The longest coastline on Earth is that of Canada, which stretches over 202,080 kilometers and includes several large bays and fjords. Other notable coastlines include those of Australia, Brazil, and the United States.

Climate refers to the long-term patterns of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other atmospheric conditions in a given region. The world’s climate is influenced by a variety of factors, including latitude, elevation, and proximity to oceans and other large bodies of water. The equator, for example, is characterized by a tropical climate with high temperatures and abundant rainfall, while the polar regions are characterized by a frigid climate with low temperatures and little precipitation.

Tundra is a type of biome that is characterized by low temperatures, high winds, and little vegetation. It is found in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, as well as at high elevations in mountainous areas. The Arctic tundra is the largest tundra region in the world, covering approximately 5 million square miles (13 million square kilometers).

The world’s physical geography is incredibly diverse, encompassing everything from towering mountains and vast oceans to arid deserts and dense rainforests. By understanding these salient features of the world’s physical geography, we can gain a greater appreciation for the natural world around us and the processes that have shaped it over millions of years.


The separation of religion and government is emphasized by the political and social concept known as secularism. It is a belief philosophy that advocates maintaining the separation of religion and state to avoid imposing particular religious views on the general populace. Although the idea of secularism has changed throughout time, its core idea has not changed: the state should not give preference to any one religion or any organization.

The origins of secularism can be traced back to the Enlightenment period in Europe. The Enlightenment thinkers believed in reason and rationality, and rejected the idea that religious dogma should be the basis for politics and governance. This idea of separating religion and state gained momentum during the French Revolution, which was marked by the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a secular republic.

In modern times, secularism has become an important principle for many countries around the world. In countries with a secular political system, the government is neutral in matters of religion, and does not promote or endorse any religion. This means that citizens are free to practice their own religion, or to not practice any religion at all, without fear of persecution or discrimination.

The key tenets of secularism include the following:

Separation of religion and state: This means that the state should not be involved in religious affairs and that religion should not be used as a basis for making political decisions.

Freedom of religion and belief: This means that individuals should be free to practice any religion or belief system, or to have no religion at all, without fear of persecution or discrimination.

Equality before the law: This means that all individuals, regardless of their religion or belief system, should be treated equally under the law.

Neutrality of the state: This means that the state should remain neutral with regard to religion and belief and should not favor any particular religion or belief system.

Public sphere: This means that the public sphere, which includes institutions such as schools, government agencies, and the media, should be free from any particular religious influence.

The United States is a good example of a country that has a secular political system. The First Amendment to the US Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion, and the government is prohibited from establishing a state religion. This means that citizens are free to worship as they choose, without interference from the government.

Another example of a country with a secular political system is France. The French Revolution of 1789 marked the beginning of a secular republic, which was based on the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity. The French government is neutral in matters of religion, and religious symbols such as crucifixes, headscarves, and yarmulkes are not allowed in public schools or government buildings.

In India, secularism is enshrined in the Constitution, which guarantees the right to freedom of religion and prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion. However, the practice of secularism in India has been challenged in recent years by the rise of Hindu nationalism, which seeks to promote Hinduism as the dominant religion and marginalize other religious groups.

In Turkey, secularism is a founding principle of the state. The Turkish Republic was established in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and was based on the principles of secularism and modernization. However, in recent years, there has been a growing trend towards Islamic conservatism in Turkey, which has led to tensions between secularists and religious conservatives.

The practice of secularism is not without its challenges. In some countries, the separation of religion and state is seen as a threat to traditional values and social cohesion. In other countries, religious groups may feel marginalized or discriminated against by a secular government. In some cases, secularism can be used as a cover for discrimination against religious groups, particularly minorities.

Another challenge to secularism is the rise of religious fundamentalism and extremism. Some religious groups seek to impose their beliefs on the population as a whole and may use violence or intimidation to achieve their goals. This can lead to tensions between religious groups and can undermine the stability of a secular society.

Secularism continues to be a crucial principle for many nations around the world despite these difficulties. A variety of religious practises and beliefs are permitted by the separation of church and state, which also supports individual liberty and human rights. It enables people to live their lives in accordance with their own views and ideals without worrying about discrimination or persecution.


Greater political, economic, and cultural autonomy for a single region or collection of regions within a larger nation or state is advocated by the political doctrine or movement known as regionalism. Power and resources are transferred from the federal government to the local or regional level under this type of decentralization. If regionalism is not effectively handled, it can be a source of conflict and division as well as a beneficial force for empowerment and progress. The history of regionalism can be traced back to the ancient world, where city-states and empires often had distinct regional identities and cultures. In modern times, regionalism has been a significant force in shaping the political and economic landscape of many countries around the world.

Types of Regionalism

There are different types of regionalism, each with its distinct characteristics and objectives. Some of the most common types of regionalism include:

Economic Regionalism: This refers to the integration of economic policies, institutions, and activities within a particular region. The goal is to promote economic growth, trade, and investment within the region, reduce barriers to trade, and increase the region’s competitiveness in the global market. Examples of economic regionalism include the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Political Regionalism: This refers to the establishment of political structures and institutions within a particular region. The goal is to promote regional cooperation, enhance security, and address common political challenges. Examples of political regionalism include the African Union, the Arab League, and the Organization of American States (OAS).

Cultural Regionalism: This refers to the preservation and promotion of the cultural identity and heritage of a particular region. The goal is to strengthen the cultural bonds and promote mutual understanding and respect among people of the region. Examples of cultural regionalism include the European Cultural Convention and the Latin American Cultural Integration Association (ALADI).

Causes of Regionalism

Regionalism can arise due to various reasons, including:

Economic Disparities: Regionalism can arise due to disparities in economic development between different regions within a country. This is often the case in developing countries, where some regions may be more developed and prosperous than others.

Political Marginalization: Regionalism can arise when certain regions or ethnic groups feel marginalized or excluded from political power and decision-making processes. This is often the case in countries with a history of authoritarian rule or ethnic conflicts.

Cultural Differences: Regionalism can arise due to cultural differences between different regions or ethnic groups within a country. This is often the case in countries with diverse cultural identities and traditions.

Effects of Regionalism

Regionalism can have both positive and negative effects, depending on how it is managed and implemented. Some of the positive effects of regionalism include:

Economic Development: Regionalism can promote economic development by enhancing trade, investment, and infrastructure development within a region. This can lead to increased productivity, job creation, and higher standards of living for people in the region.

Political Stability: Regionalism can promote political stability by reducing political tensions and conflicts between different regions or ethnic groups within a country. This can help to strengthen the legitimacy of the government and promote national unity.

Cultural Diversity: Regionalism can promote cultural diversity by preserving and promoting the cultural identity and heritage of a particular region. This can help to foster mutual understanding and respect among people of different cultures and promote social harmony.

Negative Effects of Regionalism:

Fragmentation: Regionalism can lead to the fragmentation of a country or larger political entity, as different regions pursue their own interests rather than working together for the common good. This can weaken the overall cohesion and stability of the country.

Economic disparities: Regionalism can exacerbate economic disparities between different regions, as some regions may have more resources or opportunities than others. This can lead to resentment and tension between regions and can also make it difficult to implement national economic policies that benefit everyone.

Political instability: Regionalism can create political instability, as different regions may have competing interests and goals. This can lead to political gridlock or even violence, as regions may seek to assert their own power or independence.

Nationalism: Regionalism can also fuel nationalism, as people in different regions may identify more strongly with their region than with the larger country or political entity. This can lead to conflicts between different nationalist groups, and can also make it difficult to promote a sense of national unity and identity.

Lack of cooperation: Finally, regionalism can make it difficult to cooperate on important issues such as infrastructure, education, and healthcare. This can lead to inefficiencies and missed opportunities, as different regions may pursue their own priorities rather than working together to address common challenges.

Overall, regionalism is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that can have both positive and negative effects. It is driven by a range of factors, including geography, history, and economics, and it plays an important role in shaping the culture and identity of communities and nations around the world.


Communalism is a phenomenon that arises from the interaction between religious or ethnic groups, where each group identifies primarily with its own religious or ethnic identity, leading to conflicts with other groups. In this sense, communalism can be seen as a form of identity-based politics. It is a complex social and political issue that has been experienced by many countries across the world, including India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia, among others. It has been defined by scholars in different ways. One of the earliest definitions comes from the Indian sociologist B.R. Ambedkar, who described communalism as “the spirit of hostility between the different religious communities.” Another definition by the Indian political scientist Paul Brass defines it as “a situation where the primary and overarching identity of individuals and groups is defined by religion or religious affiliation, and where this religious identity is used to mobilize political support.”

Communalism is often associated with the idea of communal violence, where members of one community attack members of another community based on religious or ethnic differences. Communal violence can take various forms, including riots, massacres, and targeted attacks on individuals or groups. Communal violence can be triggered by a range of factors, including political tensions, economic competition, or historical grievances. In many cases, communal violence is instigated by political parties or leaders seeking to mobilize support among their own community. It has its roots in history, where religion and ethnicity have often played a significant role in shaping social and political identities. In India, for example, the caste system has been a key factor in defining social identities, with each caste often associated with a particular religion. The legacy of colonialism has also contributed to communalism, as colonial powers often sought to create divisions between different religious or ethnic groups to maintain their control.

Communalism in India

In India, communalism has been a persistent problem, with numerous incidents of communal violence over the years. The Partition of India in 1947, which led to the creation of Pakistan, was a traumatic event that resulted in the displacement of millions of people and the deaths of hundreds of thousands. The Partition was based on religious identity, with Muslims being allocated to Pakistan and Hindus to India. The process of Partition was marked by communal violence, with members of different communities attacking each other. Since then, communalism has continued to be a major issue in India. One of the most significant incidents of communal violence in recent times was the Gujarat riots of 2002, where members of the Hindu and Muslim communities engaged in violence that resulted in the deaths of over a thousand people, mostly Muslims. The riots were triggered by an incident in which a train carrying Hindu pilgrims was set on fire, killing 59 people. The incident was blamed on Muslim militants, and members of the Hindu community retaliated by attacking Muslims in various parts of the state.

Communalism in Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, communalism has been a major issue for several decades, with the country experiencing a long-running civil war between the majority Sinhalese community and the Tamil minority. The conflict was fueled by ethnic and religious differences, with the Tamils being predominantly Hindu and the Sinhalese being predominantly Buddhist. The conflict resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people and the displacement of hundreds of thousands.

Communalism in Pakistan

In Pakistan, communalism has also been a significant issue, with the country experiencing numerous incidents of sectarian violence over the years. The country has a large Shia minority, and members of the Shia community have often been targeted by Sunni militants. In recent years, there has also been a rise in violence against religious minorities such as Christians and Hindus.

One of the key challenges posed by communalism is how to balance the interests and identity of different groups within a society. In many cases, communalism has led to violence and instability, as different communities compete for resources, power, and influence. However, there are also many examples of societies that have managed to balance the interests and identity of different groups, and to build inclusive and pluralistic societies that celebrate diversity and promote social cohesion. To address communalism, policymakers and civil society organizations must work to promote greater social and economic equality, to combat corruption and political exclusion, and to promote intercommunal dialogue and understanding. This can involve a range of different strategies, from affirmative action programs and targeted development initiatives to cultural exchange programs and grassroots dialogue initiatives.

To sum up, communalism is a complicated, diverse phenomena that can manifest itself in a variety of ways. It is possible to combat communalism by a variety of policy and civil society actions, despite the fact that it can represent serious threats to social stability and cohesion. Ultimately, the solution to defeating communalism and establishing a more tranquil and wealthier world is to construct open and pluralistic societies that respect difference and advance social justice.

Social Empowerment

The process of giving individuals or groups the resources, tools, and support they need to engage fully in society, make informed decisions, and exercise their rights is known as social empowerment. For people to access chances and realize their full potential, barriers must be removed, as well as discrimination, inequity, and other hindrances.

Empowerment can occur at various levels, from the individual to the community and the wider society. At the individual level, empowerment can involve providing access to education, healthcare, employment, and other resources that enable individuals to improve their lives and make informed choices. At the community level, empowerment can involve promoting participation, collaboration, and self-help among community members to solve common problems and create a more inclusive and supportive environment. At the societal level, empowerment can involve advocating for policies and laws that protect and promote the rights and interests of disadvantaged and marginalized groups.

Social empowerment is closely linked to the concept of social justice, which refers to the fair and equitable distribution of resources and opportunities in society. Empowerment is seen as a key strategy for achieving social justice by enabling individuals and groups to have greater control over their lives, participate more fully in society, and challenge systems of oppression and inequality. One important aspect of social empowerment is the promotion of gender equality and women’s rights. Women have historically been marginalized and discriminated against in many societies, and empowering women is essential for achieving gender equality and promoting social justice. This can involve providing education and training opportunities for women, promoting their participation in decision-making processes, and ensuring equal access to healthcare and other resources. It can also involve challenging cultural and social norms that perpetuate gender-based violence and discrimination.

Another important aspect of social empowerment is the promotion of economic empowerment. Economic empowerment involves providing individuals and communities with the resources and skills they need to generate income and build sustainable livelihoods. This can involve providing access to credit and financial services, training and education opportunities, and support for entrepreneurship and small business development. Economic empowerment is important for reducing poverty and promoting economic growth, and it is closely linked to other forms of empowerment such as education, healthcare, and gender equality. It also involves promoting civic engagement and participation. This can involve encouraging people to participate in democratic processes, such as voting and community decision-making, and promoting active citizenship and social responsibility. It can also involve promoting social cohesion and building strong, inclusive communities that are based on mutual respect and understanding. To achieve social empowerment, it is important to address the root causes of social inequality and discrimination. This can involve challenging stereotypes and prejudices, promoting cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue, and advocating for policies and laws that protect the rights of disadvantaged and marginalized groups. It also involves building partnerships and alliances between different stakeholders, including government, civil society organizations, and private sector actors.

Political empowerment is also critical for promoting social empowerment. By enabling individuals to participate in the political process, whether through voting, running for office, or advocating for policy change, political empowerment can help to ensure that the voices of all members of society are heard and that policies reflect the needs and interests of all citizens. This is particularly important for marginalized groups, who may be underrepresented in the political process and whose needs may be overlooked in policymaking.

Cultural empowerment involves promoting respect for cultural diversity and recognizing the value of different perspectives and experiences. This can be achieved through education, cultural exchange programs, and initiatives that celebrate cultural diversity. By promoting cultural empowerment, we can help to create a more inclusive and tolerant society that values and respects all members of the community.

Finally, personal empowerment involves helping individuals develop the confidence and skills to take control of their lives and achieve their goals. This can be achieved through mentoring programs, skills training, and counseling services. By promoting personal empowerment, we can help individuals overcome personal and social barriers that may be preventing them from achieving their full potential.

In recent years, there have been many initiatives and programs aimed at promoting social empowerment. These include education and training programs, microfinance initiatives, community development projects, and advocacy and awareness-raising campaigns. Many of these initiatives are focused on empowering women and girls, who are often the most disadvantaged and marginalized group in society. Despite the many efforts to promote social empowerment, there are still many challenges and obstacles to overcome. These include persistent gender-based violence and discrimination, lack of access to education and healthcare, poverty and unemployment, and social exclusion and marginalization. Addressing these challenges requires sustained efforts and collaboration between different stakeholders, and a commitment to promoting social justice and equality.

Effects of Globalization on India

The process of worldwide integration that comes about as a result of cross-border trade in products, ideas, and culture is referred to as globalisation. Since the 1990s, when the nation started a series of economic reforms that opened up its markets to the rest of the globe, it has had a significant impact on Indian society. This essay will examine economic, social, and cultural ramifications of globalisation on Indian society.

Economic Effects

One of the most significant effects of globalization on Indian society has been the transformation of the Indian economy. Prior to the 1990s, the Indian economy was largely closed to foreign investment and trade. However, the government’s decision to liberalize the economy led to an influx of foreign investment, which spurred economic growth and development. Today, India is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, with a GDP growth rate of around 7% per year. Globalization has also led to the emergence of a new middle class in India. As the economy has grown, so has the purchasing power of the Indian people. This has led to an increase in demand for consumer goods and services, such as automobiles, electronics, and entertainment. As a result, multinational corporations have targeted the Indian market, leading to the establishment of many foreign-owned businesses in the country.

However, the benefits of economic growth have not been evenly distributed across Indian society. While the middle class has prospered, many people in rural areas and urban slums have been left behind. Income inequality remains a significant challenge, with the top 10% of the population accounting for nearly 55% of the country’s wealth.

Social Effects

Globalization has had a significant impact on Indian society, particularly in terms of social and demographic changes. One of the most significant changes has been the rise of urbanization. As the economy has grown, many people have migrated from rural areas to cities in search of better opportunities. This has led to the growth of cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore, which are now home to millions of people.

However, urbanization has also brought with it a range of social challenges. The rapid growth of cities has led to overcrowding, pollution, and inadequate infrastructure, such as housing and transportation. In addition, urbanization has contributed to the breakdown of traditional social structures, as people move away from their rural communities and traditional ways of life. Globalization has also had a significant impact on gender relations in India. As more women have entered the workforce, their role in society has changed. Women are now more likely to be educated and employed, which has increased their economic independence and social status. However, gender inequality remains a significant challenge in India, particularly in rural areas, where women’s rights are often neglected.

Cultural Effects

Globalization has had a significant impact on Indian culture, both positive and negative. On the one hand, the exchange of ideas and cultural practices has enriched Indian culture. For example, the influence of Western music, fashion, and cinema has led to the emergence of new cultural forms that are unique to India.

On the other hand, globalization has also led to the erosion of traditional cultural practices. As people have migrated to cities and adopted Western lifestyles, traditional practices such as dress, language, and religion have been replaced. In addition, the spread of Western media has led to a decline in the popularity of traditional art forms such as classical music and dance.

In conclusion, globalization has had a profound impact on Indian society, transforming it in many ways. While there have been some positive changes, such as increased economic growth and access to technology, there have also been negative consequences, such as increased inequality, cultural change, and environmental degradation. It is up to policymakers in India to navigate these changes and ensure that the benefits of globalization are distributed fairly across the population.

India’s Diversity

With its large 3.2 million square kilometre territory, 29 states, and 7 Union territories, India is a land of diversity. India’s diversity may be seen in the nation’s people, culture, language, religion, food, geography, and climate. India has long been a nexus of various civilizations and cultures that have coexisted and impacted one another.

Geography and Climate

India is a land of diverse geography, from the snow-capped Himalayas in the North to the tropical beaches of the South. The country is divided into four major regions, the Himalayan region, the Indo-Gangetic plains, the Deccan Plateau, and the coastal region. The Himalayan region is the highest and the youngest mountain range in the world, with peaks rising over 8,000 meters. The Indo-Gangetic plains are fertile plains, which are the breadbasket of India. The Deccan Plateau is a semi-arid region in the southern part of India, known for its rich history and culture. The coastal region comprises the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and is known for its pristine beaches, backwaters, and seafood.

India’s climate is also diverse due to its size and geography. The country experiences a tropical climate in the south and a subtropical climate in the north. The Himalayas act as a barrier and prevent cold winds from the north from reaching the south, making it a tropical climate. The monsoon is an essential feature of the Indian climate, which brings rain from June to September, providing much-needed relief from the scorching summer heat.


India is a land of many languages, with over 19,500 dialects spoken across the country. However, there are 22 officially recognized languages, including Hindi, English, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Punjabi, and Gujarati. Hindi is the most widely spoken language, spoken by over 40% of the population. English is also widely spoken and is the language of government, business, and education.

Each language has its unique script, literature, and culture, which makes it different from the others. For instance, Bengali is known for its poetry, novels, and cinema, while Telugu is known for its vibrant dance and music.


India is a secular country with a majority of the population following Hinduism, followed by Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world, with a history dating back over 5,000 years. It is known for its diverse practices, including yoga, meditation, and puja. Islam is the second-largest religion in India, and its followers are concentrated in the northern part of the country. Christianity was brought to India by the Portuguese in the 16th century and is concentrated in the southern part of the country. Sikhism is a religion founded in the 16th century in Punjab and is known for its principles of equality, social justice, and service to humanity. Buddhism and Jainism are ancient religions that originated in India and are known for their emphasis on non-violence, compassion, and self-realization.


India is renowned for its cuisine, which is as diverse as its people and regions. Each region has its own unique cuisine, with different ingredients and cooking methods. Indian cuisine is known for its use of spices, which give its dishes their distinct flavors and aromas. Some popular Indian dishes include biryani, dosa, idli, samosa, and butter chicken.

Art and architecture

India’s art and architecture reflect its rich cultural heritage and diverse influences. The country has a long tradition of sculpture, painting, and architecture that dates back to ancient times. The most famous examples of Indian architecture are the Taj Mahal in Agra, the Qutub Minar in Delhi, and the Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh. India’s art forms include classical dance, such as Bharatanatyam, Kathak, and Kuchipudi, and classical music, such as Hindustani and Carnatic music.


India has a rich tradition of sports, with many traditional games and sports that have been played for centuries. Some of the most popular sports in India include cricket, football, hockey, and badminton. Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and the Indian Premier League (IPL) is one of the most-watched sports leagues in the world.

In conclusion, India’s diversity contributes to its status as a singular and intriguing nation. Together, its people, dialects, beliefs, customs, and traditions form a unique cultural tapestry that is unmatched anyplace else in the world. India is a shining example of how people with different backgrounds and beliefs can coexist because it has maintained its unity and integrity despite its diversity. One of India’s greatest assets is its diversity, which has added to the country’s history, culture, and society’s richness and complexity.

Defining Characteristics of Indian Society

With a rich cultural legacy and a history that dates back thousands of years, India is a diverse and complicated society. The social structure of the nation is influenced by a variety of elements, including geography, caste, language, and religion.


Religion plays a crucial role in Indian society, with the majority of the population being followers of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, and Sikhism. Hinduism is the dominant religion, with over 80% of the population identifying as Hindu. Religion is an integral part of Indian culture, and religious festivals and rituals are celebrated with great enthusiasm and fervor. The coexistence of multiple religions in India has led to a rich and diverse cultural landscape, but it has also been the source of religious conflicts and tensions.


Caste is another significant feature of Indian society, with the caste system being deeply ingrained in the country’s social fabric. The caste system divides society into four main groups: Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaishyas (merchants), and Shudras (laborers). In addition to these four main groups, there are also many sub-castes, known as jatis. Caste discrimination and prejudice remain a significant issue in India, despite being outlawed in the constitution.


India is a linguistically diverse country, with over 22 official languages recognized by the government. Hindi is the most widely spoken language, followed by Bengali, Telugu, and Marathi. Each state in India has its own official language, and language often plays a role in shaping regional identities.


Gender inequality is a pervasive issue in Indian society, with women facing discrimination and marginalization in various spheres of life. The country has a significant gender gap, with disparities in areas such as education, employment, and political representation. Violence against women is also a significant concern, with incidents of rape, domestic violence, and honor killings frequently reported in the media.


Family is an essential institution in Indian society, with close family ties and extended family networks being the norm. The concept of joint families, where multiple generations live together, is still prevalent in some parts of the country. Respect for elders and the importance of family honor are highly valued in Indian culture.


Education has been a key focus of the Indian government, with significant investments being made in improving access to education at all levels. Despite these efforts, however, education levels in India remain low, particularly in rural areas and among disadvantaged groups. The quality of education is also a concern, with many schools lacking basic infrastructure and resources.


India is the world’s largest democracy, with a complex political system that includes a federal structure and a parliamentary form of government. Political parties play a significant role in Indian society, with multiple parties vying for power at the national, state, and local levels. Corruption and the influence of money in politics are major challenges facing the country’s political system.


India has one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, with a large and rapidly expanding middle class. The country is a major player in industries such as information technology, pharmaceuticals, and manufacturing. However, poverty and income inequality remain significant issues, with a large percentage of the population living in poverty and lacking access to basic resources.

In conclusion, Indian society is a complex and diverse one, with a rich cultural heritage and a history of social, economic, and political changes. Despite the challenges it faces, India continues to be a country with immense potential and promise.

A Glimpse at Socialism

A political and economic philosophy known as socialism promotes group ownership and control over the means of production, exchange, and distribution of goods and services. It is a system that tries to create social and economic equality by getting rid of worker exploitation and the concentration of wealth in the hands of a small number of people or businesses.

The roots of socialism can be traced back to the 18th century Enlightenment and the French Revolution. Socialists of this era believed in the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity, and advocated for the abolition of feudalism and the establishment of a democratic system of government.

The first organized socialist movements emerged in the early 19th century, inspired by the works of philosophers such as Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Owen. These early socialists believed that the capitalist system was responsible for the exploitation of workers and the widening gap between the rich and poor, and sought to replace it with a system based on communal ownership and cooperation.

In the mid-19th century, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels developed a new brand of socialism known as Marxism. They argued that capitalism was inherently flawed and that its inevitable collapse would lead to a socialist revolution. Marx and Engels believed that the only way to achieve socialism was through the violent overthrow of the ruling class, and the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat, a system in which the working class would control the means of production. The Marxist-Leninist model of socialism, developed by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks in Russia in the early 20th century, became the dominant form of socialism in the 20th century. Lenin believed that the establishment of a socialist state was necessary to protect the revolution from counter-revolutionary forces, and that the state should control all aspects of the economy.

In the 1920s and 1930s, socialist and communist parties gained significant support in Europe, particularly in countries with weak or ineffective democratic institutions. The Great Depression of the 1930s, which led to mass unemployment and poverty, fueled popular support for socialism and communism as alternatives to capitalism.

During World War II, the Soviet Union emerged as a superpower and a leader of the socialist world. The Soviet model of socialism, characterized by central planning, state ownership of industry, and political repression, was exported to other countries in Eastern Europe and Asia through Soviet military and economic assistance. In the post-World War II era, social democracy emerged as a popular alternative to both capitalism and Soviet-style socialism. Social democrats believed in a mixed economy, with a combination of private enterprise and government intervention, and advocated for policies such as universal healthcare, education, and social security.

In the 1960s and 1970s, socialist and communist movements gained momentum in the developing world, particularly in Latin America and Africa. Many of these movements were inspired by the ideas of liberation theology, which combined Marxist analysis with Christian theology, and called for social and economic justice for the poor and marginalized. In the 1980s, however, socialism began to decline in popularity as a result of the failure of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The collapse of these regimes led to a widespread perception that socialism was a failed experiment, and that capitalism was the only viable economic system.

In recent years, however, socialism has experienced a resurgence in popularity, particularly among young people in Western countries. This resurgence has been fueled in part by growing inequality and a sense of disillusionment with the failures of neoliberal capitalism.

Socialism has been a subject of debate and controversy for decades, with critics arguing that it undermines individual freedom and creativity, stifles innovation and entrepreneurship, and results in inefficiencies and economic stagnation. Supporters, on the other hand, argue that it promotes social equality, reduces poverty, and ensures a fair distribution of resources.

Capitalism in Brief

The private ownership of the means of production and the production of goods and services for profit are the cornerstones of the capitalism economic system. Under a capitalist society, people and companies are free to operate independently to produce and market goods and services as they see fit. Socialism, which supports public ownership and control of the means of production as well as a more equitable distribution of income and resources, is frequently compared with this system.

History and Origins of Capitalism

The roots of capitalism can be traced back to the early modern period in Europe, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries. During this time, advances in trade and commerce, the expansion of colonialism, and the emergence of new technologies like the printing press created an environment where business and investment could thrive. At the same time, the decline of feudalism and the growth of cities created a new class of merchants and entrepreneurs who were eager to take advantage of these opportunities. The rise of capitalism was also aided by the growth of banking and finance, which allowed for greater investment and borrowing. As businesses became more successful, they were able to reinvest their profits into expanding their operations, creating more jobs, and generating more wealth.

Key Characteristics of Capitalism

There are several key characteristics that define capitalism as an economic system:

Private ownership: Under capitalism, individuals and businesses have the right to own property and the means of production. This means that they can make decisions about how to use their resources without interference from the government or other entities.

Market competition: Capitalism is characterized by a competitive market where businesses must compete with each other to attract customers and generate profits. This competition can help to drive innovation, improve efficiency, and lower prices for consumers.

Profit motive: The ultimate goal of capitalism is to generate profits for individuals and businesses. This motive encourages innovation and investment but can also lead to unequal distribution of wealth and resources.

Limited government intervention: In a capitalist system, the government generally plays a limited role in the economy, with the goal of preserving individual freedoms and allowing market forces to dictate economic outcomes.

Pros and Cons of Capitalism

There are both advantages and disadvantages to a capitalist system.


Economic growth: Capitalism has been associated with significant economic growth, as businesses and individuals are incentivized to innovate, invest, and expand.

Individual freedom: Capitalism promotes individual freedoms and the right to own property and make decisions about how to use one’s resources.

Consumer choice: In a capitalist system, consumers have a wide range of choices when it comes to goods and services, which can lead to better quality and lower prices.


Inequality: Capitalism has been criticized for contributing to income inequality and concentrated wealth, as those who are successful in the market may accumulate vast amounts of wealth at the expense of others.

Exploitation: Some argue that capitalism can lead to the exploitation of workers and resources, as businesses prioritize profits over social responsibility.

Externalities: Capitalism does not always account for the negative externalities of economic activity, such as pollution or environmental damage.

Current State of Capitalism

Capitalism remains the dominant economic system in much of the world today. However, there is growing concern about its sustainability and impact on society and the environment. Many are advocating for reforms to address issues such as income inequality, climate change, and the concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a few individuals and corporations.

In recent years, there has been a rise in interest in alternative economic systems, such as socialism and the circular economy, which seek to address some of the shortcomings of capitalism while still promoting economic growth and innovation.

The pursuit of profit, competition, and private property are the pillars of the capitalism economic system. Although if it has its detractors and restrictions, it has also been instrumental in fostering innovation, raising productivity, and generating wealth for numerous people and societies all over the world.

Communism and Communist Nations

Communism is a political and economic philosophy that promotes a classless society in which the community as a whole owns and controls the means of production. By constructing a system in which resources are distributed in accordance with need rather than market pressures, communism fundamentally aims to eradicate social and economic inequality.

Origins of Communism

The origins of communism can be traced back to the 19th century, when Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848. Marx and Engels believed that capitalism was a flawed system that inevitably led to the exploitation of workers and the concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a few. According to Marx and Engels, the solution to this problem was to establish a classless society in which the means of production were owned by the community and goods and services were distributed according to need. This system, which they called communism, would eliminate the profit motive and ensure that everyone had access to the resources they needed to live a fulfilling life.

Key Principles of Communism

The key principles of communism are based on the idea of collective ownership and control of the means of production. In a communist society, there is no private property, and all resources are owned by the community as a whole. This means that there is no exploitation of workers by capitalists, and all individuals are free to pursue their interests and passions without being constrained by economic considerations. Another key principle of communism is the idea of central planning. In a communist society, economic decisions are made by a centralized authority rather than through market forces. This allows resources to be allocated according to the needs of the community, rather than the whims of the market. This system is intended to prevent wasteful competition and ensure that everyone has access to the resources they need.

Pros and Cons of Communism

The main advantage of communism is that it seeks to eliminate social and economic inequality. By establishing a system in which resources are distributed according to need, rather than market forces, communism ensures that everyone has access to the resources they need to live a fulfilling life. This system also eliminates the exploitation of workers by capitalists, which is a major problem in capitalist societies. However, communism has also been criticized for its lack of incentives. Because there is no profit motive in communism, there is less motivation for individuals to work hard and innovate. This can lead to inefficiencies and a lack of progress.

Communism has also been criticized for its tendency towards authoritarianism. Because economic decisions are made by a centralized authority, there is a risk that this authority will become corrupt and oppressive. This has been seen in many communist countries, where the government has become oppressive and violated the basic rights of its citizens.

Examples of Communist States

The Soviet Union:

One of the most well-known examples of communism is the Soviet Union. After the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, the Soviet Union was established as a socialist state with the goal of eventually achieving communism. The government owned and controlled all means of production, and there was no private property. The Soviet Union experienced rapid industrialization and modernization, but also faced economic struggles and political repression under the leadership of Joseph Stalin.


China is another country that has implemented communism in various forms. After a long period of civil war, the Communist Party of China established the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the government implemented policies aimed at collectivizing agriculture and industrializing the country. The Great Leap Forward, a campaign to rapidly industrialize and modernize China, resulted in a massive famine that caused millions of deaths. The Cultural Revolution, another campaign launched by Mao, led to widespread political persecution and repression.


Cuba is a small island nation in the Caribbean that has been under communist rule since 1959, when Fidel Castro and his revolutionary forces overthrew the previous government. The government controls all aspects of the economy, and there is no private property. Despite facing economic sanctions and isolation from much of the international community, Cuba has achieved significant advancements in healthcare, education, and social welfare.

North Korea:

North Korea is a communist country that has been ruled by the Kim dynasty since its establishment in 1948. The government controls all aspects of the economy and daily life, and there is no private property. North Korea is known for its strict censorship and propaganda, as well as its nuclear weapons program.


Vietnam is a country that has implemented various forms of communism since its establishment as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945. After decades of conflict, the government implemented market-oriented reforms in the 1980s and 1990s, but the Communist Party of Vietnam remains in power and controls much of the economy.

Other examples of countries that have implemented communism include Laos, Cambodia, and Ethiopia. While communism has been associated with repression, political persecution, and economic struggles in many cases, some argue that it has also led to significant advancements in social welfare and economic development.


The process of decolonization, which started in the late 18th century and lasted until the majority of the 20th century, is intricate and multifaceted. Decolonization is essentially the process by which former colonial powers handed over authority of their overseas possessions and conferred independence to the colonized populations. The roots of decolonization can be traced back to the late 18th century, when Enlightenment thinkers began to question the legitimacy of imperialism and colonialism. Philosophers such as Immanuel Kant argued that all human beings had the right to self-determination, and that no one group had the right to dominate another. This idea helped to lay the groundwork for later anti-colonial movements.

The first major wave of decolonization occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries, as European powers began to relinquish control over their colonies in the Americas. The United States gained independence from Britain in 1776, and many Latin American countries gained their independence in the early 19th century. However, these early decolonization efforts were often driven by elite, Western-educated intellectuals, rather than by popular movements.

The 20th century saw a much broader and more diverse wave of decolonization, as colonial powers began to lose control over their overseas territories in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. This process was driven by a variety of factors, including nationalist movements, anti-colonial struggles, and global geopolitical shifts.

One of the key factors driving decolonization was the rise of nationalism in colonized countries. As people in these countries began to develop a sense of national identity and pride, they also began to demand greater political autonomy and self-determination. This often took the form of protests, strikes, and other forms of mass mobilization. One of the most important early decolonization movements was the Indian independence movement, led by figures such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Beginning in the early 20th century, Indians began to demand greater autonomy from British rule, and the movement eventually culminated in India’s independence in 1947. This in turn inspired other anti-colonial movements across Asia and Africa.

Another key factor driving decolonization was the changing global balance of power. Following World War II, the United States emerged as a global superpower, and the Soviet Union emerged as a major rival. Both of these powers were opposed to colonialism, and they provided political and material support to anti-colonial movements around the world.

The process of decolonization was not without its challenges, however. In some cases, colonial powers were reluctant to grant independence to their former colonies, and they often resisted efforts to do so. This led to violent conflicts in many countries, as nationalist movements fought against colonial powers and their local allies. One of the most dramatic examples of this violence occurred in Algeria, where the Algerian National Liberation Front fought a long and bloody war against French colonial forces. The conflict, which lasted from 1954 to 1962, resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people and ultimately led to Algerian independence.

Other countries, such as Angola, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe, also experienced prolonged and violent struggles for independence. In some cases, such as in South Africa, decolonization was accompanied by intense social and political upheaval, as newly independent countries struggled to establish stable political systems and address long-standing social and economic inequalities.

Despite these challenges, however, the process of decolonization ultimately led to the creation of many new, independent nations around the world. Today, there are more than 190 sovereign states, many of which were formerly colonized territories.

The Rise of Colonialism

The spread of European countries as well as Russia and the Ottoman Empire into various parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and the Americas, were characteristics of colonization in the 18th century. By military force, trade, and diplomacy, these empires frequently strove to enlarge their holdings and spread their influence around the world. Violence, exploitation, and the imposing of European culture and ideals on native populations were frequently part of the colonization process. The British colonization of India, which started in earnest in the middle of the 1800s, was one notable event of the century. A trading post for the British East India Company was established in Calcutta in 1690, but it wasn’t until the middle of the 18th century that they started to exert their dominance over most of the subcontinent. By the beginning of the 19th century, the British had gained control of the majority of India through a strategy that combined military conquest with alliances with regional tsars.

Colonization of North America

Another significant event of the 18th century was the colonization of North America by European powers. The British, French, and Spanish all established colonies in the region, and there were numerous conflicts between these powers as they competed for control of the continent. The British ultimately emerged as the dominant power, and their colonies eventually became the United States of America.

Rise of New Colonial Powers

The 19th century saw the growth of new colonial powers like the United States and Japan as well as the continuation of the expansion of European colonial empires. An important development at this time was the “scramble for Africa,” in which European powers split up the continent among themselves. Almost the whole continent of Africa was under European rule by the early 20th century when the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 codified the split of the continent. Southeast Asian nations including Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines were colonized by Europeans during the nineteenth century. The British colonized Australia and New Zealand in the Pacific, and the United States seized Hawaii.

The colonized regions saw significant economic, political, and social effects of colonialism. Colonial powers typically used the resources they plundered from the colonies for their own industrial expansion. Africa was the source of raw materials like rubber, ivory, diamonds, and gold, while India provided textiles, tea, and spices. The economies of the colonized areas suffered long-term effects from this resource exploitation. Moreover, colonial powers frequently imposed their own political systems on the colonies through the installation of puppet administrations or direct colonial domination. In Africa, European powers drew arbitrary borders that disregarded pre-existing ethnic and linguistic divisions, while the British established a centralized bureaucracy and legal system that is still in use today in India.

Socially, colonialism had a profound impact on the colonized populations, often leading to the imposition of European cultural norms and values. This was particularly true in Africa, where missionaries often played a role in spreading Christianity and European culture. The introduction of European languages also had a lasting impact, as many former colonies continue to use the language of their former colonizers as an official language.

Decline of Colonial Rule

The 20th century saw the decline of colonial empires as nationalist movements in colonized countries sought independence. World War II was a major turning point, as it weakened the colonial powers and provided opportunities for nationalist movements to gain strength. India gained independence from Britain in 1947, and other countries soon followed. The process of decolonization was often fraught with conflict and violence, as colonial powers sought to maintain their control and nationalist movements struggled to assert their independence. In some cases, such as Algeria and Vietnam, the struggle for independence involved prolonged wars and significant loss of life.

Today, the legacy of colonization can still be seen in many parts of the world. The borders of many countries were drawn by colonial powers, often without regard for local populations or historical realities. The exploitation of natural resources and labor during the colonial period has also had long-lasting effects on many countries’ economies and social structures.

In conclusion, colonization since the 18th century was a complex and often violent process that had a profound impact on the world. The legacy of colonization is still felt today, and understanding this history is essential for understanding the challenges and opportunities facing the world in the 21st century.

Redrawal of National Boundaries

Across the world, the 18th century saw a lot of change and upheaval. Political and social change occurred during this period, which was characterised by important events as the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the redrawing of international borders. The direction of world history and the way that countries and regions evolved in the centuries that followed were significantly influenced by these events and similar ones.

One of the most significant events of the 18th century was the Seven Years’ War, which was fought between 1756 and 1763. This global conflict involved many major European powers, including Great Britain, France, Spain, and Prussia, and resulted in significant territorial changes around the world. One of the most notable outcomes of the war was the transfer of several French colonies in North America to Great Britain, including Canada and the territory that would become the United States.

The American Revolution

It took place between 1775 and 1783, was another major event of the 18th century that had a profound impact on the course of world history. This war between Great Britain and the thirteen American colonies led to the establishment of the United States as an independent nation and the redrawing of the boundaries of North America. The American Revolution also inspired other movements for independence and self-determination around the world, including in Latin America.

The French Revolution

It began in 1789 and lasted until 1799, was another transformative event of the 18th century. This period of political and social upheaval in France had profound effects on the country’s borders and on the wider European continent. The French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792, resulted in the expansion of French territory and the creation of new client states, while the Napoleonic Wars that followed led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the redrawing of European boundaries.

Partitions of Poland

One of the most significant events of this period was the Partition of Poland, which took place between 1772 and 1795. This was a series of three partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by the neighboring powers of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. The partitions resulted in the disappearance of Poland as a sovereign state and the annexation of its territory by its neighbors. This event had a profound impact on the history of Poland and the surrounding region and set the stage for future conflicts and tensions.

The Congress of Vienna

It took place in 1815, was another important event of the 18th century that had a significant impact on the course of world history. This international conference was held after the Napoleonic Wars to redraw the political map of Europe and establish a new balance of power. The Congress resulted in the restoration of many of the pre-Napoleonic monarchies and the creation of new nation-states, including Belgium and the Netherlands. This event had a profound impact on the political and social landscape of Europe and helped to shape the course of world history in the years that followed.

Overall, the 18th century was a period of great change and transformation around the world. The redrawing of national boundaries was a major theme of this period, as nations and empires vied for power and influence in a rapidly changing world. The events of this century had a profound impact on the course of world history and set the stage for many of the political and social tensions that continue to exist today. From the American Revolution to the French Revolution to the Partition of Poland, the 18th century was a time of great upheaval and transformation that helped to shape the course of world history for centuries to come.

World Wars That Had an Impact on World Politics

Since the 18th century, there have been a number of significant wars, including the Seven Years’ War, the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, and World War II. Global history, politics, and economics have all been significantly impacted by these battles.

The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)

The Seven Years’ War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763, primarily between Great Britain and France, but involving several other European powers, including Austria, Prussia, Spain, and Portugal. The war began as a struggle for control of North America and India, but it eventually spread to Europe, Africa, and the Philippines. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, which saw Britain emerge as the dominant colonial power in North America and India. One of the major causes of the Seven Years’ War was the competition between Britain and France for global dominance. The two countries had been bitter rivals for centuries, and their struggles for power had frequently led to armed conflicts. In the 18th century, this rivalry intensified as both nations expanded their colonial empires and sought to control trade routes and resources around the world. Another major cause of the Seven Years’ War was the emergence of Prussia as a powerful military state in Europe. Prussia’s leader, Frederick the Great, sought to increase his country’s influence and territory by aligning with Britain and attacking France. This led to a wider conflict involving several other European powers.

The Crimean War (1853-1856)

The Crimean War (1853-1856) was fought between Russia and an alliance of France, Britain, and the Ottoman Empire. The war was caused by Russia’s desire to expand its influence in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire’s declining power. The war resulted in Russia’s defeat and the establishment of a new balance of power in Europe. The war also marked the beginning of modern warfare, with the use of new weapons such as rifles, steamships, and railroads.

The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)

The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) was fought between France and Prussia and led to the unification of Germany. The war was caused by a series of diplomatic and territorial disputes between the two powers. The war resulted in France’s defeat, the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany, and the establishment of the German Empire. The war also marked the end of French dominance in Europe and the beginning of German power.

The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts fought primarily between France and a coalition of European powers, including Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. The wars were caused by the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, who seized power in France and sought to extend his influence across Europe. The wars ended with Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo and the restoration of the bourbon monarchy in France. The Napoleonic Wars had a profound impact on Europe, leading to significant political, economic, and social changes. The wars saw the rise of nationalism and the decline of the old European order, as many countries gained independence and sovereignty. The wars also led to the spread of democratic ideals and the rise of liberalism, as people sought greater individual rights and freedoms.

World War I (1914-1918)

World War I, also known as the Great War, was a global conflict that lasted from 1914 to 1918. It was one of the deadliest wars in history, causing the deaths of millions of people and reshaping the political and social landscape of Europe. The causes of the war were complex, but can be traced back to a combination of factors, including nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the complex system of alliances that existed among the major powers of Europe. These tensions came to a head in June 1914, when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. This event triggered a series of diplomatic crises and military mobilizations that ultimately led to the outbreak of war. The war was fought primarily in Europe, but also involved theaters of war in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It was characterized by trench warfare, where soldiers dug in and fought from elaborate systems of trenches and fortifications. The war also saw the use of new and advanced technologies, such as machine guns, tanks, and poison gas.

The war was a brutal and bloody conflict that exacted a heavy toll on all sides. Millions of soldiers and civilians were killed, wounded, or displaced, and entire cities and landscapes were destroyed. The war also had a profound impact on the social and political structures of Europe, leading to the collapse of empires and the rise of new nations. One of the key turning points in the war was the entry of the United States on the side of the Allies in 1917. The US brought significant economic and military resources to the conflict and helped to turn the tide of the war in favor of the Allies. The war ended on November 11, 1918, with the signing of the Armistice of Compiègne, which ended the fighting on the Western Front.

The peace settlement that followed the war was dominated by the Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28, 1919. The treaty imposed heavy penalties on Germany, including the payment of large reparations, the loss of territory, and restrictions on its military capabilities. The treaty helped set the stage for World War II, as many Germans felt humiliated by the treaty and sought to reverse its terms. The war had far-reaching consequences that shaped the course of the 20th century. It led to the collapse of several empires, including the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian empires, and the emergence of new nation-states. It also paved the way for the rise of totalitarian regimes, such as those in Russia, Germany, and Italy, that would dominate the political landscape of Europe in the interwar years.

The war also had a profound impact on society and culture. It shattered traditional notions of heroism and glory and led to a sense of disillusionment and cynicism among many people. The war also led to significant advances in medicine and technology, as doctors and engineers developed new treatments for injuries and disabilities caused by the war.

World War II (1939-1945)

World War II was one of the deadliest and most destructive conflicts in human history, fought between 1939 and 1945. The war involved the majority of the world’s nations, including all of the great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies (primarily composed of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain) and the Axis (primarily composed of Germany, Japan, and Italy). The immediate cause of World War II was the invasion of Poland by Germany in September 1939. This act violated the agreement signed between the two nations, and the subsequent declaration of war by France and Great Britain resulted in the beginning of a conflict that would ultimately claim the lives of millions of people. The war quickly spread to other parts of Europe, with Germany conquering much of the continent in the first two years of the war. The Axis Powers also expanded their territories in Asia, with Japan’s aggressive expansion into China and Southeast Asia.

The tide of the war began to turn in 1942, when the Soviet Union repelled a major German invasion and began to push the German army back toward Germany. The entry of the United States into the war following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor also tipped the balance of power in favor of the Allies. By 1944, the Allies had landed in Italy and were launching a massive invasion of German-occupied France. The war in Europe came to an end in May 1945, when Germany surrendered to the Allies. The war in the Pacific continued until August of that year, when the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, leading to Japan’s surrender and the end of the war. The consequences of World War II were profound and far-reaching. The war resulted in the deaths of an estimated 70-85 million people, making it the deadliest conflict in human history. It also caused immense physical and economic damage, particularly in Europe and Asia.

The war also had significant political consequences, leading to the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers and the beginning of the Cold War. The war also marked the end of colonial empires, with many former colonies gaining independence in the aftermath of the war. One of the most significant consequences of World War II was the Holocaust, the systematic murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime. The Holocaust had a profound impact on Jewish communities around the world and led to the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948.

World Wars were devastating conflicts that had profound consequences for the world. It resulted in the deaths of millions of people, caused immense physical and economic damage, and had significant political and social consequences. Its legacy continues to shape the world today, reminding us of the need to work towards peace and understanding among nations.

Industrial Revolution

By inventing new forms of production and substituting manual labor with machines, the Industrial Revolution, which started in Great Britain in the 18th century and extended to the rest of the world, drastically altered civilizations and economies. Industrialization has had a profound and complicated impact on society, having both beneficial and negative impacts. The Industrial Revolution was a time of unprecedented economic growth and technological innovation, fueled by a combination of scientific discoveries, political stability, and economic competition. This period saw the rise of new technologies like the steam engine, the cotton gin, and the power loom, which revolutionized manufacturing and led to the creation of new industries. The impact of the Industrial Revolution on society was enormous, as it led to significant changes in social and economic structures, as well as changes in cultural attitudes and values. The Industrial Revolution also had a profound impact on the natural environment, as it led to the development of new methods of resource extraction and the exploitation of natural resources on an unprecedented scale.

The Rise of Industrialization in Britain

The Industrial Revolution was driven by a combination of scientific advancements, political stability, and economic competition. One of the key factors that contributed to the rise of industrialization in Britain was the availability of coal and iron, which were essential raw materials for the new machines that were being developed. The development of new technologies like the steam engine, which was invented by James Watt in 1765, helped to fuel the growth of industrialization in Britain. The steam engine was used to power textile mills, which allowed for the mass production of textiles and clothing. This led to the growth of the textile industry, which became one of the driving forces behind the Industrial Revolution. It also saw the rise of new forms of transportation, including the steam locomotive and the steamship. These innovations helped to connect different parts of Britain and made it easier to transport goods and raw materials across long distances.

The Impact of Industrialization on Society

The Industrial Revolution had a profound impact on society, as it led to significant changes in social and economic structures, as well as changes in cultural attitudes and values. One of the most significant effects of industrialization was the growth of cities and urbanization. As factories and other industries were established, people moved from rural areas to urban centers in search of employment. This led to the development of large cities and the growth of new urban communities, which contributed to the emergence of new social classes and the formation of new political and economic systems. However, urbanization also brought about a range of social problems, including poor living conditions, overcrowding, and the spread of disease. Another significant impact of industrialization was the rise of capitalism as the dominant economic system. The growth of industry and commerce created new opportunities for entrepreneurs and investors, who established new businesses and corporations. This led to the emergence of a capitalist class, which accumulated wealth and power, and the rise of wage labor, in which workers sold their labor to capitalists in exchange for a wage. This new economic system had both positive and negative consequences. On the one hand, it stimulated economic growth, created new jobs, and led to technological innovations that improved people’s lives. On the other hand, it also led to the exploitation of workers, the widening of economic inequality, and the environmental degradation.

It also had an impact on social relations and cultural norms, as people migrated to cities and became part of the new industrial workforce, traditional social structures and relationships were disrupted. The rise of factories and wage labor led to the decline of craft-based production and the erosion of artisanal skills. This, in turn, contributed to the erosion of traditional values and cultural practices. At the same time, industrialization facilitated the spread of new cultural forms, such as mass-produced literature, music, and other forms of entertainment.

The Impact of Industrialization on the Environment

The Industrial Revolution had a major impact on the natural environment, as it led to the development of new technologies of resource extraction and the exploitation of natural resources on an unprecedented scale. For instance, the expansion of the coal and iron industries resulted in the depletion of natural resources as well as air and water pollution. The growth of urbanization also led to the degradation of the natural environment, as cities became increasingly crowded and polluted. The use of coal as a primary energy source also led to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which contributed to global warming and climate change. Fossil fuels were heavily utilized as a result of increased trade and industry, which harmed the environment by polluting the air and water and destroying natural habitats. Similar effects on the environment were caused by the rise of industrial agriculture and the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers, such as soil deterioration, deforestation, and biodiversity loss.

The Spread of Industrialization

One of the key factors that contributed to the spread of industrialization was the availability of natural resources, such as coal, iron, and timber. These resources were essential for the development of new machines and technologies, and they were often found in abundance in other parts of Europe and North America. For example, the growth of the steel industry in the United States was driven by the abundance of iron ore and coal in the Great Lakes region.

Another factor that contributed to the spread of industrialization was the development of new technologies. Many of the key innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as the steam engine and the power loom, were quickly adopted in other parts of Europe and North America. This was facilitated by the growth of international trade and the exchange of ideas and information between different countries. The growth of international trade was another factor that contributed to the spread of industrialization. As new industries developed in Britain, they created a demand for raw materials and finished goods from other parts of the world. This led to the growth of international trade, which facilitated the exchange of goods and ideas between different countries.

On society and the economy in other regions of Europe and North America, industrialization had a significant impact. It resulted in the expansion of new industries, such as the steel industry in the United States and the textile industry in France, which produced new jobs and economic prospects. The spread also led to significant changes in social and economic structures. In many cases, it led to the growth of new urban centers, as people flocked to cities in search of work in the new factories and mills. This led to the growth of new social classes, including the working class and the middle class, which had a significant impact on politics and culture in these regions.

Several regions of Europe and North America also experienced significant environmental damage as a result of the development of industrialization. As new businesses grew, they frequently resulted in the loss of natural resources as well as air and water pollution. For instance, France’s expanding textile sector contributed significantly to water pollution because companies dumped effluent into rivers and streams.

Overall, a number of variables, such as the accessibility of natural resources, the advancement of new technology, and the expansion of international trade, contributed to the spread of industrialisation. While it contributed to rapid economic growth and scientific advancement, it also had a substantial negative influence on society and the environment. It also presented new opportunities and challenges for people all over the world.

India After Independence

A pivotal moment in Indian history occurred when the country became independent from British rule in 1947. After decades of foreign rule, the country was left with the tremendous task of uniting and reforming the nation. Political, economic, and social aspects together make up the three major spheres of India’s consolidation and reorganization following independence.

Political Consolidation

The Indian Constitution was adopted on 26th January 1950, and India became a republic, with a federal system of government. The constitution provided for a parliamentary system of government with a President as the head of the state. The Constitution also provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (The first general elections were held in 1952, and the Indian National Congress, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, won a massive victory. The Congress party dominated Indian politics for several decades, and Jawaharlal Nehru was the Prime Minister of India until his death in 1964. The Congress party played a crucial role in consolidating the country after independence by building a strong central government, ensuring the unity and integrity of the nation, and promoting economic development.The Indian Constitution also provided for the creation of states based on linguistic and cultural identity. This policy of linguistic reorganization was a significant step in consolidating the country as it helped to resolve many linguistic and regional conflicts. In 1956, the States Reorganization Act was passed, which created states based on linguistic and cultural identity. This act led to the creation of 14 states and six union territories. The reorganization of states helped to promote regional development and cultural identity.

Economic Consolidation

India’s economy was in shambles when it gained independence in 1947. The country faced many economic challenges, including low per capita income, high poverty levels, and inadequate infrastructure. The government took several measures to consolidate and reorganize the economy, including land reforms, industrialization, and the development of the agricultural sector. Land reforms were introduced to redistribute land from the wealthy landlords to the landless peasants. This policy helped to promote social justice and reduce inequality. The government also encouraged industrialization to promote economic growth and development. The Industrial Policy Resolution was passed in 1948, which aimed to develop heavy industries, such as steel, cement, and machine tools. The government also focused on the development of the agricultural sector. The Green Revolution, which started in the 1960s, was a significant step towards achieving food self-sufficiency. The government provided farmers with high-yielding seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation facilities. The Green Revolution helped to increase agricultural production, reduce hunger, and promote economic growth.

Social Consolidation

Constitutional guarantees: The Indian Constitution, adopted in 1950, provided several guarantees for women’s rights, including equality before law, non-discrimination on the basis of sex, and the right to freedom and personal liberty.

Women’s suffrage: In 1950, India granted women the right to vote and contest in elections. This helped to increase their political participation and representation in the country.

Legal reforms: The post-independence period saw several legal reforms aimed at improving the status of women. The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, for instance, provided for the first time, women’s right to divorce and inherit property. The Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 sought to curb the practice of dowry, which had been a major source of harassment and violence against women.

Educational opportunities: The government introduced several measures to increase educational opportunities for girls and women, such as the establishment of women’s universities, colleges, and scholarships for female students.

Employment opportunities: The post-independence period saw a significant increase in employment opportunities for women. The government introduced several affirmative action policies, such as reservations in government jobs and educational institutions, to promote women’s participation in the workforce.

Women’s movements: The post-independence period also saw the emergence of several women’s movements aimed at addressing issues such as violence against women, gender discrimination, and reproductive rights. These movements played a crucial role in raising awareness about women’s issues and advocating for their rights.

The challenges that the Indian government faced was to reorganize the country’s administrative and political structure to meet the aspirations of the diverse population. India’s post-independence period was characterized by a strong central government that wielded considerable power over the states. However, this model was not sustainable in the long run as it failed to address the regional disparities and the demands for greater autonomy. The Indian government’s response to these challenges was to embark on a process of reorganization that aimed to create states on linguistic lines. The idea was to create states that would cater to the linguistic and cultural aspirations of the people and promote regional development. The first linguistic state, Andhra Pradesh, was created in 1953, and this was followed by the creation of several other states such as Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. The process of reorganization culminated in 1987 with the creation of three new states, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Goa, bringing the total number of states in India to 28.

The reorganization of the country had several benefits. It gave voice to the linguistic and cultural aspirations of the people and promoted regional development. It also helped to address the problem of regional disparities and gave the states greater autonomy to manage their affairs. However, it also had some negative consequences. The creation of new states led to demands for further fragmentation, which could weaken the unity and integrity of the country. Overall, India’s post-independence period witnessed significant efforts towards social consolidation and reorganization, with a particular focus on women’s rights and status. While there have been significant improvements, there is still much work to be done to ensure gender equality and empower women in India.

In conclusion, India’s post-independence consolidation and reorganization were critical to the country’s progress and development. The consolidation of the princely states and the strengthening of the defense capabilities helped to secure the country’s territorial integrity. The reorganization of the country on linguistic lines helped to address the regional disparities and gave voice to the linguistic and cultural aspirations of the people. However, the process of reorganization also had some negative consequences, and the challenge for India’s leaders is to strike a delicate balance between unity and diversity.

Modern Indian History at a Glance

A fascinating and intricate topic, modern Indian history from the middle of the eighteenth century to the present spans more than two centuries of India’s rich cultural, social, economic, and political history. As India progressively transitioned from a colonial past to an independent nation-state, this time period saw tremendous changes in the social, political, and economic environment of the country.

British Colonial Rule (1757-1947)

India was colonized by the British East India Company in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey. The British gradually expanded their control over India until the country was formally ruled by the British Crown from 1858 to 1947. This period was marked by the exploitation of Indian resources, the introduction of Western education, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and the emergence of Indian nationalism.

Indian National Movement (1885-1947)

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 with the goal of achieving self-rule for India. Prominent leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Subhas Chandra Bose played a significant role in the movement. The movement gained momentum with the Salt Satyagraha in 1930, and India finally gained independence from British rule in 1947.

Partition of India (1947)

India was partitioned into two separate countries, India and Pakistan, in 1947, following communal violence and political unrest. This event led to the displacement of millions of people and marked the beginning of a long-standing conflict between India and Pakistan.

Post-Independence India

It was marked by the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India. Nehru’s socialist policies focused on central planning and state-led development. Land reforms, which aimed to redistribute land from wealthy landlords to landless peasants, were implemented during his tenure. Nehru also established institutions of higher education, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru’s foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment. India did not align with any major power bloc during the Cold War and played a significant role in the Non-Aligned Movement. Indira Gandhi, Nehru’s daughter, succeeded him as Prime Minister in 1966. Gandhi was a dynamic leader who pursued a socialist economic agenda and implemented policies such as nationalization of banks and industries. Her government was marked by authoritarian tendencies, and the period of Emergency from 1975-1977 was a significant event in Indian history. During the Emergency, civil liberties were suspended, political opposition was suppressed, and the press was censored. The period was marked by widespread human rights abuses, including forced sterilization programs. The post-Emergency period saw the rise of regional parties and the decline of the Congress party’s dominance in Indian politics. The 1990s saw the rise of The Bhartiya Janta Party. The BJP’s most significant electoral victory came in 2014 when Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat, was elected as Prime Minister. Modi’s government has pursued a range of policies including the Citizenship Amendment Act, which grants citizenship to non-Muslim refugees from neighbouring countries.

India’s Wars and Conflicts

India has been involved in several wars and conflicts since independence. The Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971, the Sino-Indian War of 1962, and the Kargil War of 1999 are some of the major conflicts that have shaped India’s modern history.

Economic Liberalization (1991-present)

The Indian economy underwent significant changes in the early 1990s when the government of P.V. Narasimha Rao initiated a process of economic liberalization. The liberalization program aimed to reduce government control over the economy and promote private sector growth. The reforms included measures such as the reduction of import tariffs, deregulation of industries, and privatization of state-owned enterprises. The economic liberalization program had a significant impact on the Indian economy, leading to an increase in foreign investment, a rise in GDP growth, and the emergence of a new middle class. However, the liberalization program also led to increasing income inequality and the marginalization of certain sections of society.

Contemporary Issues

India continues to face various contemporary issues such as corruption, communalism, casteism, terrorism, and environmental degradation. The country is also grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impact.

In conclusion, a number of important incidents, people, and problems have shaped contemporary Indian history and will continue to have an effect on how the nation develops. Conflicts with its neighbours, the fight for independence, the division of the country, economic liberalization, and other factors have all had a significant impact on India’s modern history.


Indian colonial rule was overthrown after a protracted and difficult struggle for freedom. It started in the late 19th century and continued until 1947, when India attained independence. Many rallies, marches, and acts of civil disobedience were part of the movement, and all were directed towards bringing about India’s independence. The Indian Rebellion of 1857, commonly referred to as the Indian Mutiny, is the beginning of the Indian freedom fight. Widespread resistance to British authority was sparked by a number of grievances, including the imposition of British laws, excessive taxes, and the theft of Indian resources. Although the British brutally put down the revolt, it was a driving force behind the Indian independence movement.

One of the key figures in the Indian freedom struggle was Mahatma Gandhi. He was a leader of the Indian National Congress, and he advocated for non-violent resistance as a means of achieving independence. Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, known as Satyagraha, inspired many Indians to join the struggle for independence. Gandhi’s famous Salt March in 1930, in which he and his followers walked 240 miles to the Arabian Sea to make their own salt in defiance of British salt taxes, is one of the most iconic events of the Indian independence movement.

Another important figure in the Indian freedom struggle was Jawaharlal Nehru, who became the first Prime Minister of independent India. Nehru was a leader of the Indian National Congress, and he worked tirelessly to achieve independence for India. He was also a strong advocate for democracy and secularism, and his vision for India was one of a modern, democratic, and secular nation.

The Indian freedom struggle was marked by many important events, including the Partition of India in 1947, which resulted in the creation of Pakistan. The partition was a deeply divisive event that resulted in the displacement of millions of people and the loss of countless lives.

The Indian freedom struggle can be divided into several phases, each marked by a distinct set of events, movements, and leaders. These phases are as follows:

The Early Nationalists (1857-1905)

The early nationalist phase of the Indian freedom struggle was marked by the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which is also known as the First War of Indian Independence. Although the rebellion failed, it laid the groundwork for the nationalist movement that followed. The early nationalists were a diverse group of people who shared a common goal of achieving independence from British rule. Some of the prominent leaders of this phase were Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

The Extremists (1905-1918)

The extremist phase of the Indian freedom struggle was marked by the rise of the Indian National Congress and the emergence of a more militant form of nationalism. The Extremists, also known as the Swadeshi Movement, advocated for complete independence from British rule and launched several protests, boycotts, and agitations to achieve this goal. Some of the prominent leaders of this phase were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

The Gandhian Era (1919-1947)

The Gandhian era of the Indian freedom struggle is perhaps the most well-known phase of the struggle. Mahatma Gandhi, who was a key figure in this phase, advocated for non-violent civil disobedience and launched several mass movements to achieve India’s independence. The Salt Satyagraha, the Quit India Movement, and the Non-Cooperation Movement are some of the most significant movements of this era. Other prominent leaders of this phase were Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, and Subhas Chandra Bose.

The Post-Independence Era (1947-Present)

The post-independence era of the Indian freedom struggle saw India gain independence from British rule in 1947. This phase was marked by the challenges of nation-building, including the partition of India and the integration of princely states. The post-independence era also saw the emergence of new challenges, such as poverty, illiteracy, and communal tensions. Some of the prominent leaders of this phase were Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, and Rajiv Gandhi.

Throughout the freedom struggle, there were several important contributors and contributions from different parts of the country. In Bengal, leaders like Aurobindo Ghosh, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Surendranath Banerjee played a significant role in the nationalist movement. In Punjab, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh, and Udham Singh were important contributors to the freedom struggle. In Maharashtra, leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Gopal Krishna Gokhale played a significant role in the nationalist movement. In South India, leaders like C. Rajagopalachari, K. Kamaraj, and S. Satyamurthy played important roles in the freedom struggle. In the Northeast, leaders like Rani Gaidinliu and Tirot Sing played significant roles in the nationalist movement. In Kerala, leaders like K. Kelappan, T. K. Madhavan, and A. K. Gopalan played important roles in the freedom struggle.

In conclusion, today, India is a vibrant and diverse democracy, with a population of over 1.3 billion people. The Indian freedom struggle was a long and difficult journey, but it ultimately succeeded in achieving independence for India and paving the way for the country’s future as a democratic and secular nation.

A Brief Overview of English Literature

The body of literary works in the English language, such as novels, short tales, poetry, plays, and essays, is known as English literature. It has a lengthy and rich history that spans several centuries and has made a substantial contribution to the intellectual and cultural heritage of the English-speaking world. It has through various stages of growth, each with its own aesthetic, philosophical concerns, and literary strategies. The Medieval period, the Renaissance period, the Restoration period, the Romantic period, the Victorian era, and the Modernism era are among them. Some of the most renowned writers in English literature include William Shakespeare, Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Emily Bronte, Oscar Wilde, Virginia Woolf, and J.K. Rowling, among others. Their works continue to be widely read and studied today and are considered classics of the literary canon.

English literature is not only important for its literary value, but also for its insights into history, society, and culture. Through literature, readers can gain a better understanding of the world around them, as well as the human condition and the complexities of the human experience. It is a vast and diverse field that has contributed significantly to the cultural and intellectual heritage of the English-speaking world. Spanning over several centuries, it encompasses a wide range of genres, styles, and themes, from the epic poetry of Beowulf to the modernist novels of Virginia Woolf. One of the defining features of English literature is its ability to reflect and respond to the social, cultural, and historical contexts in which it was produced. From the medieval ballads and romances to the contemporary works of postcolonial writers, English literature offers a rich and complex tapestry of human experience that transcends time and place.


The earliest English literature dates back to the medieval period, which spans from the 11th to the 15th century. During this time, most literary works were written in Old English, a language that is very different from modern English. One of the most notable works from this period is the epic poem “Beowulf,” which tells the story of a heroic warrior who battles monsters and dragons. Other important works from the medieval period include the “Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer, a collection of stories told by a group of pilgrims on their way to Canterbury, and the anonymous poem “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” which tells the story of a knight who must face supernatural challenges to uphold his honor.


The Renaissance period, which began in the 16th century, marked a significant shift in English literature. This was a time of great intellectual and artistic growth, as writers began to explore new forms and styles of writing. One of the most significant figures of this era was William Shakespeare, whose plays continue to be performed and studied today. Shakespeare’s plays, including “Hamlet,” “Macbeth,” and “Romeo and Juliet,” explore complex themes such as love, power, and mortality, and are known for their masterful use of language and poetic imagery. Another important writer of the Renaissance period was John Milton, whose epic poem “Paradise Lost” tells the story of Adam and Eve and their fall from grace. Milton’s work is known for its complex themes and use of classical allusions and is considered one of the greatest works in the English language.


The Romantic period, which began in the late 18th century, marked a return to emotion and imagination in literature. Romantic writers, such as William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and John Keats, were interested in exploring the natural world, individualism, and the power of the imagination. Their works, including Wordsworth’s “Lyrical Ballads” and Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale,” are known for their beautiful language and vivid imagery.


The Victorian era, which began in the mid-19th century, was a time of great social and cultural change. Many writers of this period, such as Charles Dickens and Jane Austen, explored issues related to class, gender, and morality. Dickens’s novels, such as “Oliver Twist” and “Great Expectations,” exposed the harsh realities of life in Victorian England, while Austen’s works, such as “Pride and Prejudice” and “Sense and Sensibility,” explored the lives of women in a male-dominated society. The 20th century saw a great deal of experimentation and innovation in English literature. Modernist writers, such as Virginia Woolf and James Joyce, were interested in exploring the interior lives of their characters and experimenting with form and style. Woolf’s “Mrs. Dalloway” and Joyce’s “Ulysses” are known for their complex narrative structures and stream-of-consciousness writing.


The Modernist period, which spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was marked by a radical break with traditional forms and styles, as well as a deep sense of disillusionment and fragmentation. Some of the most notable writers of this period include Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, and T.S. Eliot, who produced works that challenged conventional notions of narrative and language.

English literature has also been shaped by the diverse cultural influences of the English-speaking world. From the colonial literature of the Americas, Africa, and Asia to the postcolonial literature of the 20th century, English literature has been enriched by a wide range of perspectives and voices. In addition to its literary value, English literature offers insights into history, society, and culture. Through literature, readers can gain a better understanding of the world around them, as well as the complexities of the human experience. Whether exploring themes of love, loss, identity, or power, English literature offers a timeless and universal language that speaks to the human condition. English literature has also played a crucial role in shaping the English language itself. From the Anglo-Saxon chronicles to the modernist experiments of James Joyce, English literature has been instrumental in the development and evolution of the English language, as well as its global spread and influence. In conclusion, English literature is a vast and diverse field that continues to captivate and inspire.


The degradation of the earth’s land surfaces, both above and below ground level, is referred to as land pollution.

Land pollution occurs when trash, compost, and other toxins are dumped on the land, contaminating or polluting it. Land pollution is caused by human activities such as littering and waste washed ashore from boats, oil rigs, and sewage treatment plants.

The accumulation of solid and liquid waste products, which contaminate groundwater and soil, is the cause. The greater the permeability of the soil, the greater the risk of land contamination.



Littering, the improper disposal of waste products, is unfortunately common. Every cigarette butt tossed on the ground or food wrapper tossed out of a car window is a small contribution to a monumental issue. According to Keep America Beautiful, 76% of litter found on roadways is from pedestrians and motorists. Not all litter, however, is intentional. A large volume of litter also comes from unsecured items that fall off the back of vehicles or out of trash receptacles. 

All litter, whether intentional or not, causes pollution by releasing chemicals and microparticles as it degrades. Check out our blog post on littering to learn more about the effects of littering and how to reduce it in your community. 

Urbanization and Construction

While urbanization is not in itself littering, large quantities of people living, producing trash and littering in a dense area does inevitably lead to land pollution. To accommodate this increased population, construction activities also occur, which result in large waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, and bricks. When these materials are not properly disposed of, it contributes to the land pollution of that area. 

To help reduce the environmental impact of construction sites, it’s important to work with partners that offer comprehensive builder solutions to achieve cost-effective construction recycling and waste disposal plans. 


Mining is the extraction of minerals and other geological materials from the ground, which are then used for a wide range of purposes, including but not limited to, producing gasoline for automobiles, generating electricity, and selling materials such as gold and silver. This extraction and the methods used, however, deplete the earth of its natural resources and cause damage and pollution in its wake. That’s why finding alternatives for energy (think solar and wind power) that aren’t mined from the earth’s surface are so vital in helping to reduce land pollution moving forward.


Agriculture is foundational for both everyday life, as well as the economy as a whole. It also, however, can have profound effects on the planet. Agricultural pollution occurs when contamination created as a by-product of raising livestock and growing food crops is released into the environment, and the contamination is vast. 


Land pollution touches essentially every area of the living world, including:

  • Water that isn’t safe to drink.
  • Polluted soil, which leads to a loss of fertile land for agriculture.
  • Climate change, which causes an onslaught of disastrous problems, including flash floods and irregular rainfalls .
  • The endangerment and extinction of species in wildlife.
  • Habitat shifting, where some animals are forced to flee where they live in order to survive.
  • An increase in wildfires, due to polluted areas often becoming very dry
  • Increased air pollution, which burning waste contributes to.

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The presence of materials in the air in such a concentration, which are harmful to man and the environment is called air pollution.

About 1×10^12 tons of emission enter air annually, of which 5×10^8 tons are emitted by man and the remaining by natural air pollution. Many pollutants do not rise above 600 meters of earth’s surface or they are diluted. So, air pollution affects locally than globally. All living organisms inhale a large quantity of air. An average human being breaths 22,000 times a day, inhaling 16kg of oxygen. About 98% of the total air pollution is accounted by the following pollutants globally. CO-52%, SO2-18%, Hydro carbons-12%, Particulars-10% and oxides of Nitrogen-6%. These pollutants are derived from natural sources and human activity. The surface of our planet consists of 78% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.03% CO2, water vapours and other gases. In addition, to these gases, particular matter such as pollen grains , dust algae, bacteria and spores of fungi causing different odours, vapours and fumes prevail in the air. Some of the substances are harmful to living organisms. The atmosphere is being continuously polluted with harmful materials by the activity of man.


There are two basic types of pollutants in the air. They are known as primary pollutants and secondary pollutants.

Primary pollutants enter the air directly. Some are released by natural processes, like ash from volcanoes. Most are released by human activities.
Carbon oxides are released when fossil fuels burn.
Nitrogen oxides form when nitrogen and oxygen combine at high temperatures. This occurs in hot exhausts from vehicles, factories, and power plants.
Sulfur oxides are produced when sulfur and oxygen combine. This happens when coal that contains sulfur burns.
Toxic heavy metals include mercury and lead. Mercury comes from smokestacks. Both metals have industrial uses.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon compounds, such as methane. VOCs are released by many human activities. Raising livestock, for example, produces a lot of methane.
Particulates are solid particles. These particles may be ash, dust, or even animal wastes. Many are released when fossil fuels burn.
Secondary pollutants form from primary pollutants. Many occur as part of photochemical smog. This type of smog is seen as a brown haze in the air. Photochemical smog forms when certain pollutants have a chemical reaction in the presence of sunlight. Photochemical smog consists mainly of ozone (O3). Ozone near the ground is a pollutant (Figure below). This ozone is harmful to humans and other living things. However, ozone in the stratosphere protects Earth from the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation.


“Most air pollution comes from energy use and production,” says John Walke, director of the Clean Air Project, part of the Climate and Clean Energy program at NRDC. “Burning fossil fuels releases gases and chemicals into the air.” And in an especially destructive feedback loop, air pollution not only contributes to climate change but is also exacerbated by it. “Air pollution in the form of carbon dioxide and methane raises the earth’s temperature,” Walke says. “Another type of air pollution, smog, is then worsened by that increased heat, forming when the weather is warmer and there’s more ultraviolet radiation.” Climate change also increases the production of allergenic air pollutants, including mold (thanks to damp conditions caused by extreme weather and increased flooding) and pollen (due to a longer pollen season).


Biodiversity is very essential for the health of the biosphere and it provides the raw materials for man to make him adapt to the changing environment. Man derives many direct and indirect benefits from living things. Biodiversity provides ecological services also. The uses of Biodiversity are as follows.

1. Consumptive use value:

It includes food, medicine, fuel, fiber, timber, clothing, etc. 80,000 Species are edible wild plant species. 90% of the crops have been domesticated from wild tropical plants. Many wild animals were also sources of food (now it is banned). 75% of the world’s population depends upon plants for medicine. For instance, penicillin from a fungus namely Penicillium, quinine from a plant namely, cinchonas, tetracycline from a bacterium, and cancer-causing drugs like vinblastine and vincristine from a plant namely, Catharanthus roseus (Nithyakalyani) are obtained.

2. Productive Use Value:

The products are commercially usable. The wild gene resources are traded to introduce desirable traits in the crops and domesticated animals. Productive uses of biological resources are fuel, timber, musk, tusk, ivory, honey, fiber, gums, resins, medicines, silk, wool, etc. Though there is a ban on trade in products of endangered species, illegal smuggling does take place.

3. Social Value:

Biodiversity in India is related to our religious, cultural, and spiritual uses. Many plants like Tulsi, Pipal, Hibiscus, and Datura are considered to be sacred. Peacock, cow, snake, bull, and owl have a place in our spiritual arena.

4. Ethical Value:

We must protect every life. It is based on the concept ‘Live and let live’. we must enjoy watching all animals -Kangaroo, Giraffe, Zebra, etc., though they are not useful to us directly. We should not cage birds for our pleasure and pastime.

5. Aesthetic Value:

Biodiversity provides us with a good deal of fun and recreation. This type of tourism is known as ecotourism which generates 12billion dollars as income per year. If we have a lion in a zoo we get about Rs.2 crores as income per year. But if we kill the lion we get only Rs. 50,000\-. A teak tree fetches Rs.50,000\- if cut down; But if it lives, its value is priceless by way of its ecological role.

6. Option Values or Unknown Benefits :

We must try to explore the potential of Biodiversity for the future benefit of mankind. We must protect the biodiversity to find out drugs to fight diseases like cancer and AIDS.


According to Erwin(1982), 5 to 30 million species of the world are yet to be described and are living in tropical forests. So far only 1.7 million species have been described. These include green plants and fungi (3lakhs), insects (8lakhs), vertebrates (40,000), and microorganisms (3.6 lakhs).

1. 20,000 to 30,000 taxonomists all over the world do serious research and describe name, and classify plants every year.

2. 20,000 species are being discovered and named every year. There are about 2.5lakhs species of plants described so far.

3. The continental drift is a main reason for the increasing diversity.

4. In tropical forests, about 1,25,000 species of flowering plants are considered to be in existence.

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Forest ecology is the scientific study of the interrelated patterns, processes, flora, fauna, and ecosystems in forests. A forest ecosystem comprises soil, trees, insects, animals, birds, and man as its interacting units. It is a large and complex ecosystem. It also plays a significant role in controlling the water cycle, stabilizing soils, leveling the climate, and providing a habitat for wildlife. The forest ecosystem is dominated by trees. Forests are natural plant communities. They are found in regions where there is moderate to high rainfall. They are the climax communities occupying 19% of the total land area in India. There are different types of forests depending upon the climate. They are as follows:

1. Tropical Rain Forests: They are evergreen forests found occurring near the equator. They get high temperatures, high humidity, and heavy rainfall. These forests are famous for the richest biodiversity. There are three layers, namely the topmost layer of tallest trees, (e.g., Lianes and orchids), Shrub layer(many shrubs), and ground layer (herbs) eg., The Silent Valley in Kerala.

2. Tropical Deciduous Forests: They are found a little away from the equator. There is a warm climate throughout the year. Monsoon rainfall occurs during the monsoon seasons. Since drought prevails in the forest during most of the year, the leaves fall during the dry season. In India, the tropical deciduous forests are found in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and some parts of Maharashtra.

3. Tropical Scrub Forests: The tropical scrub forest is a biome that makes up the arid land. This type of biome consists of desert region and areas of low-lying regions, there are dense bushes which are growing over these places. … The plants and animals of the tropical scrub forest have to adapt and flourish in this type of harsh environment.The Deccan thorn scrub forests are a xeric shrubland ecoregion of south India and northern Sri Lanka.

4. Temperate Rain Forests: They occur in areas where there is adequate rainfall. Coniferous trees like firs, redwoods, and pines dominate these forests. There are also evergreen trees, with broad leaves. Temperate forests are mainly found in the regions of high altitudes and in maximum rainfall areas. They are found mostly in the north and northeastern states of India and consist of tall trees.

5. Temperate Deciduous Forests: Temperate deciduous or temperate broad-leaf forests are a variety of forests forests ‘dominated’ by trees that lose their leaves each year. They are found in areas with warm moist summers and cool winters. Temperate forests found between an altitude of 1,000 and 2,000 m. In the higher hill ranges of northeastern India; for example, hilly areas of West Bengal and Uttaranchal, evergreen broad leaf trees such as oak and chestnut are predominant.

6. Evergreen Coniferous Forests (or) Boreal Forests: A forest that grows in regions of the northern hemisphere with cold temperatures. Made up mostly of cold-tolerant coniferous species such as spruce and fir. The Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests in temperate coniferous forests ecoregion that is found in the middle and upper elevations of the eastern Middle Himalayas, in western Nepal, Bhutan, and northern Indian states including Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim.

Published by,

Ayisha Shabana. M


Solar Energy is the energy obtained from the sun. The sun gives out a vast amount of light and heat. It is only a little less than half (47%) of solar energy which falls on the atmosphere reaches the earth’s surface. If we could use just a small part of this energy it would fulfill all the country’s need for power. Solar Energy has advantages and also certain limitations.


The energy from the sun can be harnessed to provide power. The various devices used for harnessing the sun’s energy are called solar energy devices.


Solar cells ( Photovoltaic devices) are made up of silicon that converts sunlight directly into electricity. The solar cell produces electricity without polluting the environment. Since it uses no fuel other than sunlight, no harmful gases, no burning, and no wastes are produced. These can be installed in remote and inaccessible areas ( forests and hilly regions) were setting up of power plant is expensive.

Uses of Solar Cells:

• It can be used for street lightning, traffic signals, water pumping, battery charging system etc.

• It is used in artificial satellites and space probes.

• It provides radio and TV transmission to remote areas.

• It is used in calculators, electronic toys, and watches.


Arrangement of many solar cells side by side connected to each other is called a Solar panel. The capacity to provide electric current is much increased in the solar panel. But the process of manufacture is very expensive. Installation of solar panels in homes helps in combating the harmful emissions of greenhouse gases and thus helps reduce global warming. Solar panels do not lead to any form of pollution and are clean. They also decrease our reliance on fossil fuels (which are limited) and traditional power sources. These days, solar panels are used in wide-ranging electronic equipments like calculators, which work as long as sunlight is available.However, the only major drawback of solar panels is that they are quite costly. Also, solar panels are installed outdoors as they need sunlight to get charged.


It consists of an insulated metal box or wooden box which is painted from inside to absorb maximum solar radiation. A thick glass sheet forms the cover over the box. The reflector is the plane mirror that is attached to the box. The food is cooked by energy radiated by the sun .A solar cooker, or solar oven, is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it. High-tech versions, for example electric ovens powered by solar cells, are possible, and have some advantages such as being able to work in diffuse light.


Solar thermal power plants are electricity generation plants that utilize energy from the Sun to heat a fluid to a high temperature. This fluid then transfers its heat to water, which then becomes superheated steam. This steam is then used to turn turbines in a power plant, and this mechanical energy is converted into electricity by a generator. This type of generation is essentially the same as electricity generation that uses fossil fuels but instead heats steam using sunlight instead of combustion of fossil fuels. These systems use solar collectors to concentrate the Sun’s rays at one point to achieve appropriately high temperatures.

Advantages of Solar Energy:

• It is available in abundance in India and is free of cost.

• It is a renewable source of energy.

• It can be used for generating electricity or heat.

• It does not cause Pollution.

Published by

Ayisha Shabana.M

Rivers of India

The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, as well as provide livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country.

Seven major rivers (Indus, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi) along with their numerous tributaries make up the river system of India.

All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds;

  • The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges
  • Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India
  • Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India

Based on the topography, the river systems of India can be classified into four groups.

  • Himalayan Rivers
  • Deccan Rivers
  • Coastal Rivers
  • Rivers of the Inland Drainage Basin

The Himalayan Rivers – The Himalayan Rivers receive input from rain as well as snowmelt and glacier melt and, therefore, have continuous flow throughout the year. The main river systems in Himalayas are those of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna. The Indus rises near Mansarovar in Tibet. Flowing through Kashmir, it enters Pakistan and finally falls in the Arabian Sea near Karachi. Bhagirathi and Alakhnanda are two important rivers that originate in Garhwal Himalayas. . These join at Devprayag to form Ganga which is the most sacred river of India. This river traverses through Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal and thereafter enters Bangladesh. Yamuna River is an important tributary of Ganga and its own important tributaries are Chambal and Betwa. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet where it is known by the name Tsangpo. It enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and after traversing through Assam, enters Bangladesh. The combined Ganga-Brahmaputra River meets Meghna in Bangladesh and their huge volume of water flows into the Bay of Bengal.

The Deccan Rivers – The Rivers of Deccan can be further classified in two groups: west flowing rivers and east flowing rivers. The Narmada and the Tapi rivers flow westwards into Arabian Sea. The important east flowing rivers are the Brahmani, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Pennar, and the Cauvery. These rivers fall into the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi, rising in the state of Madhya Pradesh, is an important river in the state of Orissa. The Krishna rises in the Western Ghats and flows east into the Bay of Bengal. The Krishna is the third longest river in India. The source of the Cauvery is in the state of Karnataka and the river flows south eastward. The Narmada and the Tapi are the only major rivers that flow eastward into the Arabian Sea.

The Narmada rises in Madhya Pradesh and crosses the state, passing swiftly through a narrow valley between the Vindhya Range and spurs of the Satpura Range. It flows into the Gulf of Khambhat (or Cambay).

The Coastal RiversThere are numerous coastal rivers which are comparatively small. While only handful of such rivers drains into the sea near the deltas of east coast, there are as many as 600 such rivers on the west coast. The West Coast Rivers are important as they contain as much as 14% of the country’s water resources while draining only 3% of the land.

Rivers of the Inland Drainage Basin – The Rivers of the inland system, centred in western Rajasthan state, are few and frequently disappear in years of scant rainfall. A few rivers in Rajasthan do not drain into the sea. They drain into salt lakes or get lost in sands with no outlet to sea.

The rivers of India can be classified on the basis of origin and on the type of basin that they form.

On the basis of Origin: Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular Rivers.

Himalayan Rivers -The main Himalayan river systems are the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river systems. The Himalayan Rivers form large basins. Many rivers pass through the Himalayas. These deep valleys with steep rock sides were formed by the down – cutting of the river during the period of the Himalayan uplift. They perform intense erosional activity up the streams and carry huge load of sand and silt. In the plains, they form large meanders and a variety of depositional features like flood plains, river cliffs and levees. These rivers are perennial as they get water from the rainfall as well as the melting of ice. Nearly all of them create huge plains and are navigable over long distances of their course. These rivers are also harnessed in their upstream catchment area to generate hydroelectricity.

Peninsular Rivers – The main peninsular river systems include the Narmada, the Tapi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Mahanadi river systems. The Peninsular Rivers flow through shallow valleys. A large number of them are seasonal as their flow is dependent on rainfall. The intensity of erosional activities is also comparatively low because of the gentler slope. The hard rock bed and lack of silt and sand does not allow any significant meandering. Many rivers therefore have straight and linear courses. These rivers provide huge opportunities for hydro-electric power.

The Indus River System – The Indus originates in the northern slopes of the Kailas range in Tibet near Lake Mansarovar. It follows a north-westerly course through Tibet. It enters Indian Territory in Jammu and Kashmir.

The main tributaries of the Indus in India are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej

  • Jhelum – The Jhelum originates in the south-eastern part of Kashmir, in a spring at Verinag.. It follows the Indo-Pakistan border flowing into the plains of Punjab, finally joining the Chenab at Trimmu.
  • Chenab – The Chenab originates from the confluence of two rivers, the Chandra and the Bhaga, which themselves originate from either side of the Bara Lacha Pass in Lahul. It is also known as the Chandrabhaga in Himachal Pradesh. It is further joined by the Ravi and the Sutlej in Pakistan.
  • Ravi – The Ravi originates near the Rohtang pass in the Kangra Himalayas and follows a north-westerly course. It flows as a part of the Indo-Pakistan border for some distance before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab River. The total length of the river is about 720 km.
  • Beas – The Beas originates in Beas Kund, lying near the Rohtang pass. It runs past Manali and Kulu, where its beautiful valley is known as the Kulu valley. It joins the Sutlej river near Harika, after being joined by a few tributaries. The total length of the river is 615 km.
  • Sutlej – The Sutlej originates from the Rakas Lake, which is connected to the Mansarovar Lake by a stream, in Tibet. Its flows in a north-westerly direction and enters Himachal Pradesh at the Shipki Pass, where it is joined by the Spiti river.  It turns west below Rupar and is later joined by the Beas. It enters Pakistan near Sulemanki, and is later joined by the Chenab. It has a total length of almost 1500 km.

The Narmada River SystemThe Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India, and is a total of 1,289 km long. Its total length through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat amounts to 1312 kilometres (815 miles), and it empties into the Arabian Sea in the Bharuch district of Gujarat.

The Tapi River System – The Tapi is a river of central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with the length of around 724 km, and only the Tapi River along with the Narmada River, and the Mahi River run from east to west. It rises in the eastern Satpura Range of southern Madhya Pradesh state emptying into the Gulf of Cambay of the Arabian Sea, in the State of Gujarat.

The Godavari River System – The river with second longest course within India, Godavari is often referred to as the Vriddh (Old) Ganga or the Dakshin (South) Ganga. The river is about 1,450 km (900 miles) long. It rises at Trimbakeshwar, near Nasik and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) in Maharashtra around 380 km distance from the Arabian Sea and empties into the Bay of Bengal. It is a seasonal river, widened during the monsoons and dried during the summers

The Krishna River System – The Krishna is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). It originates at Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, passes through Sangli and meets the sea in the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh. The Krishna River flows through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Its most important tributary is the Tungabhadra River, which itself is formed by the Tunga and Bhadra rivers that originate in the Western Ghats.

The Kaveri River System – The Kaveri (also spelled Cauvery or Kaveri) is one of the great rivers of India and is considered sacred by the Hindus. This river is also called Dakshin Ganga. It flows generally south and east for around 765 km, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths. Its basin is estimated to be 27,700 square miles (71,700 km²), and it has many tributaries including Shimsha, Hemavati, Arkavathy, Kapila, Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani, Noyyal and famous Amaravati.

The Mahanadi River System – The Mahanadi is a river of eastern India. The Mahanadi rises in the Satpura Range of central India, and flows east to the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi drains most of the state of Chhattisgarh and much of Orissa and also Jharkhand and Maharashtra. It has a length of about 860 km. Near the city of Sambalpur; a large dam – the Hirakud Dam – is built on the river.


Science & Technology

Developments and their Applications and effects in everyday life

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of explanations and predictions about nature and the universe. It is the study of nature and behavior of the physical and natural world through the scientific method. It is also defined as the observation, identification, description, experimental, investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. Whereas, Technology is the collection of techniques and processes used in the production of goods or services or the accomplishment of objectives such as scientific investigation. It includes methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. The world around us behaves according to scientific laws. Scientists have discovered many of these laws, and are making new discoveries all the time. We develop technology using our understanding of science and the forces, such as magnetism, gravity and electricity, which shape our lives. Whenever we turn on a light, log on to internet or speak with our friends or relatives on a mobile phone, it has all been made possible by science.
Technology for Mankind

The World Around us

Everything, from water or air to a whale or a mobile phone, is made of tiny particles called atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms, which are in turn made of smaller parts called subatomic particles. Two or more atoms join together to make a molecule. The things around us are solids, liquids or gases depending on the arrangement of the atoms and molecules inside them.

Structure of an atom

Forces and movement

Things move only when a force is applied to them. Forces are pushes or pulls in a particular direction. A flag blows when the wind pushes it. A door opens when you pull it. Animals move when their feet push against the ground, their wings push against the air or their fins push against the water around them. Forces always work in pairs. They push and pull in opposite directions. When pairs of forces are equal they are said to be balanced. Tug of war teams remains still when each pulls with the same strength. A team falls when one side is stronger and the forces are unbalanced. Forces are also balanced when things move at one speed in the same direction. Things slow down and stop because of an opposing force. One of these forces is friction. Friction happens when tiny bumps on two surfaces rub against each other. Rough surfaces, such as concrete, create more friction than smooth surfaces, such as glass. People use high-friction materials like rubber on shoe soles to stop people slipping when they walk.
A rocket takes off when the force from the engine pushing it up is greater than the force of gravity pulling it down.
Boy kicking a football
A bicycles’ brakes use high-friction rubber to slow the wheels down

Light and Dark

The earth’s biggest source of light is the sun. Heat and light energy created by the sun travels through space in straight lines called rays at almost 300,000 kilometres per second. The Earth spins right around once a day, changing which parts of globe get sunlight. This creates day & night. Other things that radiate, or give off, light include electric light bulbs, candles and television series. Shadows happen in places where an object stops light from getting through. Materials that light shines through fully are said to be transparent. Translucent materials let only a little light through. Opaque materials do not let any light through at all.  The shape of a shadow depends on the shape of the object blocking the light. If an object is moved closer to light source, its shadow gets bigger because it blocks more light rays. All surfaces reflect light but, if they are bumpy, the light rays are reflected in all directions.Mirrors are made from very smooth surfaces that reflect the rays back in the same pattern as they hit it, creating a clear image of object. Words reflected in a mirror appear back to front, as if they were facing away from us and we were looking through the page.
Mirrors reflecting images
We make our own light in cities when the Sun goes down at night.


There are seven colours in a rainbow and they always come in the same order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Light from the sun may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colours. When tiny drops of water in the air split white sunlight into its different colours, we see a rainbow. Gases and dust in the atmosphere make the different colours in sunlight scatter so the sky changes colour. By day, the atmosphere scatters blue light towards earth so the sky looks blue. At sunset, when sunlight has more atmospheres to travel through before it reaches the surface of the earth, red light is scattered so the sky looks orangey red. People print colour images and words on paper using just four coloured inks: yellow, cyan (blue), magenta (red) and black. Paper is printed with tiny dots of different amounts of each ink. Our brain cannot distinguish that dots we see separately, but instead, blends them together to make different blocks of different colours

A glass prism splits bright sunlight into all the colours of a rainbow
Orange Skies


Sound is a disturbance of the air made when something, such as a string, vibrates, or moves back and forwards quickly. The vibration makes the air moves in waves. Our ears detect the moving air and our brains distinguish it as a sound. High sounds, such as notes from a flute, are made by short sound waves. Low sounds, such as a tuba’s notes, are made by long ones. Sound vibrations travel way from the thing that makes them. The vibrations spread out in all directions like the ripples in a pond after you throw in pebble. The wider the vibrations spread, the smaller they become and the quieter the sound. Big vibrations, on the other hand, makes lots of energy that pushes lots of air, creating loud sounds. Sounds are measured in units called decibels. The quietest sounds, such as a leaf falling, are around 0-10 decibels. The loudest sounds, such as a rocket launch, are just less than 200 decibels. Noises above 90 decibels are dangerous to listen to because the strong waves of air can damage the sensitive insides of your ears. Echoes are the repeated noise we hear when sound waves bounce off solid objects, such as a cliff or the inside of a tunnel. If the object is close by, the waves reflect so quickly we cannot hear the echo as a separate sound. Bats use echoes to get around in the dark. They make squeaks and listen to the echoes to work out how far away things are and how big they are.

Bats use echoes to find their prey in the dark
The skin on a drum vibrates when it is banged, producing a sound
We can only just hear leaves falling, but an aeroplane taking off makes a sound that is so loud it can damage our ears.


Electricity is a type of energy formed from tiny particles inside atoms called electrons. These electrons can move from one atom to another and this movement is electrical energy. Electricity powers many machines, from torches and mobile phones to television and computers. It moves, or flows, into machines through materials called conductors, which include metal wires. Mains electricity is produced in power stations by machines called generators. Fuel, such as coal, is burned in the power station to turn water into steam. The steam turns a turbine (a set of large circular blades), which rotates magnets inside the generator, producing electricity. The electricity flows through wires to sockets in our homes. Batteries are useful for supplying small amounts of power to portable or mobile machines without the need to plug into wall sockets. Batteries are stores of chemicals that create a flow of electrical energy. Some batteries run out when the chemicals are used up, but rechargeable batteries regain their stored electrical when plugged into a socket. Switches work by controlling the flow, or current, of electricity through machines.Electricity can only flow through a circuit, which is a continues loop of wire. A switch is rather a gate that can open or close to break or complete the circuit.

Digital Technology

It includes computer, digital cameras, MP3 players and mobiles. These records, store, send and process electronic signals as digital information. Digital means that the electrical signals are either ‘on’, ‘1’, or ‘off’, ‘0’. The 1s and 0s form a code that can represent any type of information. Microchips work using tiny electrical circuits. The circuits are built on paper-thin chips of silicon, a material that is very good at conducting electricity (allowing electricity to pass through it). A single microchip a contain thousands of circuits, allowing it to process lots of digital information. Microchips mean that computers and other digital devices can be small and light. 

The Plight of Budding Sportspeople

Remember that cricketer who failed his matriculation or the swimmer that dropped out of school? Sportspersons failing their exams or dropping out is not very unusual or unheard of. On the contrary, it is pretty commonplace. A sport requires a lot of practice and sometimes a person has to spend hours, in the end, to achieve perfect command over the technicalities. Such exhaustion renders a person incapable of doing anything other than sleep after a training session.

Studies in schools become increasingly tough after the 9th grade. Even studious kids find it difficult to cope up. It becomes a challenge for these young sportsmen to even pass their exams. The government had to introduce policies to help these struggling students. After a lot of deliberation, the sports quota was introduced. The thought behind this was to award deserving sporting talents a better and more fulfilling college education.

Yet, I believe the quota has not solved the problem. Instead of making these young sportspersons serious about their education, they have become even more indifferent towards their studies. The decision has been counterproductive as it has caused more harm than good. A student who is neglecting their studies and is only relying on their sporting talent is in for a rude awakening when they enter college.

Someone who is not regular or is completely disinterested in their studies somehow lands a seat in a top-notch college with the most difficult course because of a quota. This is unfair to other students, especially for those who have spent hours on end to secure a seat in a prestigious college. It is also going to be a shock for the sportsperson who bagged a seat with minimal marks when they look at the curriculum. For that individual, graduating from college will be an insurmountable task.

Instead of honing their skills, they would be forced to study throughout the day to keep up with their peers. They would also be the subject of mockery among other kids who have bagged a seat fair and square. How can a person reach their potential in such conditions?

But can’t these budding sportspeople study? Are they so average that they can’t even understand simple concepts? I strongly disagree. Sportspersons are anything but average. Sports requires a tremendous amount of intelligence, aptitude and observational skills. No matter how hard you work and how well you plan, there is always a factor of uncertainty that is unforeseeable, which can either result in failure or a career-threatening injury. We can study in the comfort of our rooms but in sports, a person has to practice under the blazing sun or amongst the blistering cold winds.

It is quite evident that players not studying properly is not a lack of intelligence but a lack of will and proper planning. They fail to see the pivotal role that education plays in their life and also in their performance. An educated player always has a better understanding of the game and will never fall prey to the evils of doping and substance abuse. It is easier for the bad apples to exploit uneducated players.

Time and again, the world has seen highly educated individuals dominate the playing field. Players like Sourav Ganguly and Rahul Dravid have proved that a person can excel at sports and studies at the same time. If they did it, why can’t the others? People need not always look at sports as a career option. It can also be viewed as a way of life. Sports teaches many valuable lessons that help an individual grow as a person. Determination, perseverance, integrity, humility, discipline are some of the many qualities that are required in sports. Education and sports are not two entirely different dimensions but two sides of the same coin. Both of them are equally important for the complete development of a child into an individual. Studious sportspersons exist. Though they’re not typical social butterflies and are not visible in crowds due to their hectic schedules, these people represent the best of both worlds — sports and education.

Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.


There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.


Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.


Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants


The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.


Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.


The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.


Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.


Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior


The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.


Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.


A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.


Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

India has approved Zydus Cadila’s First Covid-19 vaccine for children

  • Zydus Cadila’s ZyCoV-D Covid-19 vaccine is the world’s first plasmid DNA vaccine against the coronavirus.
  • Indian drug regulator DCGI approved Zydus Cadila’s three-dose COVID-19 DNA vaccine for emergency use in adults and children aged 12 years and above, bringing in the sixth vaccine authorized for use in the country.
  • India has now approved its first vaccine for children, a timely move amid warnings of an upcoming third wave in the country, which some experts have warned could be deadlier towards children. While the Union Health Ministry has refuted that the next wave of the pandemic would prove more serious to the ‘vulnerable and unvaccinated’ population comprising children, it has, at the same time, augmented pediatric services across the nation as a preventive measure.
  • The company said it plans to manufacture 100 million to 120 million doses of ZyCoV-D annually and has started to stockpile the vaccine.
  • The generic drug maker, listed as Cadila Healthcare Ltd, applied for the authorization of ZyCoV-D on July 1, based on an efficacy rate of 66.6% in a late-stage trial of over 28,000 volunteers nationwide.
  • “Interim results from Phase-III Clinical Trials, in over 28,000 volunteers, showed primary efficacy of 66.6 per cent for symptomatic RT-PCR positive cases,” said a government release, adding that this has been the largest vaccine trial so far in India for COVID-19.
  • “This vaccine had already exhibited robust immunogenicity and tolerability and safety profile in the adaptive Phase I/II clinical trials carried out earlier. Both the Phase I/II and Phase III clinical trials have been monitored by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB),” it said.
  • ZyCoV-D is the world’s first plasmid DNA vaccine against the coronavirus. It uses a section of genetic material from the virus that gives instructions as either DNA or RNA to make the specific protein that the immune system recognizes and responds to.
  • Zydus Cadila’s vaccine, developed in partnership with the Department of Biotechnology, is the second home-grown shot to get emergency authorization in India after Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin.
  • The drug maker said in July its COVID-19 vaccine was effective against the new coronavirus mutants, especially the Delta variant, and that the shot is administered using a needle-free applicator as opposed to traditional syringes.
  • Earlier today, the Indian drug regulator’s subject expert committee had recommended emergency use approval for the vaccine. The committee had added that Zydus needs to submit additional data for the 2-dose regimen of its vaccine.
  • Covishield, Covaxin and Sputnik V vaccines are being given to only those above 18 years and unlike ZyCoV-D, which is three-dose, these are administered in two doses.
  • The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has said that ZyCoV-D is the world’s first DNA-based vaccine against the coronavirus and when injected produces the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and elicits an immune response, which plays a vital role in protection from the disease as well as viral clearance.
  • The vaccine had already exhibited robust immunogenicity and tolerability and safety profile in the adaptive phase one and two clinical trials. Both Phase one/two and Phase three clinical trials have been monitored by an independent data safety monitoring board, it added.
  • The Union government is expecting Zydus Cadila’s needle-free COVID-19 vaccine ZyCoV-D to be available from the first week of October in India. 

Why does a student need to be industry ready & how they can be?

What do you mean by industry ready?

An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.


A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.

Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.

Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.

How can students be industry ready?

Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-

  1. Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
  2. Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
  3. Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
  4. Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
  5. Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
  6. Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
  7. Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
  8. Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.

So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.


In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.


Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.


Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.


The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused


In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.


The colonial influence in Indian architecture can be seen in office buildings. The British people from the 16th century have constructed several churches and other buildings. Basilica Bom Jesus and the church of Saint Francis are the most famous churches built by the Portuguese in Goa. Many administrative and residential buildings are built by the British in India. We can also see the influence of Greek and Roman in the colonnades and pillared buildings. Rashtrapati Bhavan, formerly the Viceroy’s residence was designed by the architect Lutyens. Writers’ Building in Calcutta, where several governmental officers worked in the British period is still the administrative center of Bengal after independence. The church buildings like St. Paul’s Cathedral in Calcutta are another design in the British period. They also left their impressions by building the railway terminals like Victoria Terminus in Mumbai. The French architect Corbusier had designed several buildings that are built on Chandigarh. The India International Centre in Delhi where conferences are held by leading intellectuals from all over the world is designed by the Austrian architect, Stein. In the past few decades, several Indian architects have emerged. Charles Correa and Raj Rewal are the architects of this generation.


Chennai, formerly known as Madras is one of the four metropolitan cities of India. The city has become the seat of Madras Presidency, the southern division of British Imperial India by the 19th century. The city had become the capital of Madras state in 1947. Later, the madras state was replaced by Tamil Nadu in 1968. Various cathedrals, buildings, and wide tree-lined avenues at Chennai influence the colonial period. The High Court Building, built in 1892, during the British period was said to be the largest judicial building in the world after the Courts of London. To store enormous blocks of ice cut from the Great Lakes in the northern USA in India, Icehouse was built during the colonial period. The Church of St. John that had wide Gothic arches and beautiful stained-glass windows is the beautiful structure of that period. The General post office in Chennai is built-in 1872. The General Post Office has a vast central hall with a high dome. The first English fortress in India, Fort St George is found in the coastal city of madras.


Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra is located on the west coast of India. The city of Mumbai has come to light by the arrival of the British in the 17th century. It was known as Bombay. It is the first city in India to have railways. Also, it was the city where the newspaper came into existence. During the end of the 19th century, many buildings were constructed in Bombay in Victorian Gothic Style. The Secretariat, the Council Hall, and Elphinstone College were built in the above-mentioned style. The most impressive style was the massive railway construction in 1887, Victoria Terminus (modern Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus). It looks more like a cathedral than a railway station. To honor the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to India, the famous Gateway of India was built. Since independence, Mumbai has continued to be India’s leading commercial and industrial city. The stock exchange, business centers, film industry named Bollywood, and anything that comes under modernization and westernization is all started in Bombay.


Delhi was founded by Raju Dhilu and Ptolemy, the geographer who marked Delhi in his map as Daidala. Today, Delhi is one of the largest cities not only in India but in the whole world. After the period of Tomars, Chauhans built the city named Qila Rai Pithora in Lal Kot, Mehrauli. The famous Qutub Minar is finished by Iltutmish which was started by Qutb-ud-din. The Siri fort exists in Delhi and currently, this area in Delhi is known as Shahpur Jat. After some years, Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq constructed the city called Tughlaqabad. After the death of Ghiyasuddin, the earlier cities of Delhi into a single unit and were named Jahanpanah by Mohammed Bin Tughlaq. Firoz Shah constructed Firozabad, located near Firoz Shah Kotla. The Mughal ruler Humayun built the Dinpanah on the mound of ancient Indraprastha. Shah Jehan, the grandson of Humayun started building the Red Fort in 1639 and finished it in 1648. Nearly for 24 Sufis, Delhi is the hometown. After the Mughal rule in Delhi, the British occupied Delhi after defeating the Marathas in 1803. The Parliament House and the North and South Blocks, the India Gate, and the Viceroy house were all made to impress the Indian subjects of the British rule. Delhi has become an important commercial, cultural, and political center of India. Museums, beautiful parks, flyovers, the Metro, a beautiful airport, educational centers, massive buildings, big wholesale markets, large malls, major industries, etc. all contribute to male Delhi as an outstanding city.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?


During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

Volcanic emissions may have made oxygen in climate

During a new investigation of 2.5-billion-year-old Australian rocks, scientists have tracked down those volcanic emissions may have animated populace floods of marine microorganisms, making the initial puffs of oxygen into the air.

This would change existing accounts of Earth’s initial environment, which expected that most changes in the early climate were constrained by geologic or substance measures. The discoveries of the investigation were distributed in the diary ‘Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences’

However, centered around Earth’s initial history, the exploration additionally has suggestions for extra-earthbound life and even environmental change. The investigation was driven by the University of Washington, the University of Michigan and different establishments.

“What has begun to end up being undeniable in the previous few decades is there really are a lot of associations between the strong, non-living Earth and the development of life,” said first creator Jana Meixnerova, a UW doctoral understudy in Earth and space sciences. “However, what are the particular associations that worked with the development of life on Earth as far as we might be concerned, addressed Meixnerova.

In its most punctual days, Earth had no oxygen in its air and scarcely any, oxygen breathing lifeforms. Earth’s air turned out to be for all time oxygen-rich with regards to 2.4 billion years prior, likely after a blast of lifeforms that photosynthesise, changing carbon dioxide and water into oxygen. In any case, in 2007, co-creator Ariel Anbar at Arizona State University dissected rocks from the

Mount McRae Shale in Western Australia, detailing a transient whiff of oxygen around 50 to 100 million years before it turned into a super durable installation in the climate. Later examination has affirmed other, prior, transient oxygen spikes, yet hasn’t clarified their ascent and fall.

In the new investigation, specialists at the University of Michigan, driven by co-relating creator Joel Blum, broke down similar old rocks for the focus and number of neutrons in the component mercury, radiated by volcanic ejections Large volcanic emissions impact mercury gas into the upper climate, where today it circles for a little while prior to pouring out onto Earth’s surface.

The new investigation showed a spike in mercury two or three million years before the brief ascent in oxygen “adequately sure, in the stone beneath the transient spike in oxygen, we discovered proof of mercury, both in its bounty and isotopes, that would most sensibly be clarified by volcanic ejections into the environment,” said co-creator Roger Buick, a UW teacher of Earth and Space Sciences.

Where there were volcanic outflows, the creators contemplated, there probably been Laval and volcanic debris fields. Also, those supplement rich rocks would have endured in the breeze and downpour, delivering phosphorus into streams that could treat close by seaside regions, permitting oxygen creating cyanobacteria and other single-celled lifeforms to prosper. “There are different supplements that tweak natural action on short timescales, however phosphorus is the one that is generally significant on long timescales, Meixnerova said. Today, phosphorus is abundant in natural materials and in horticultural manure. However, in extremely old occasions, enduring of volcanic rocks would have been the primary hotspot for this scant asset.

“During enduring under the Archaean air, the new basaltic stone would have gradually disintegrated, delivering the fundamental full scale supplement phosphorus into the streams, Meixnerova added.

“That would have taken care of organisms that were living in the shallow seaside zones and set off expanded natural usefulness that would have made, as a result, and oxygen spike, Meixnerova clarified.

The exact area of those volcanoes and magma fields is obscure, however huge magma fields of about the right age exist in cutting edge India, Canada and somewhere else, Buick said “Our examination proposes that for these transient whiffs of oxygen, the prompt trigger was an expansion in oxygen creation, as opposed to an abatement in oxygen utilization by rocks or other non-living cycles,” Buick said “It’s significant on the grounds that the presence of oxygen in the climate is key – it’s the greatest driver for the advancement of huge, complex life,” Buick added.

Eventually, analysts said the investigation proposes what a planet’s geography may mean for any life developing on its surface, an agreement that guides in recognizing liveable exoplanets, or planets outside our close planetary system, in the quest for life in the universe.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.


Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Mountain of light: Kohinoor

Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.

Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.


Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.

It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.

After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.


An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as

He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.

Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.

  • Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
  • Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
  • Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
  • Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
  • Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
  • British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor

This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.

Why India can’t have an Official Language

Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?


After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.

Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.

Steps taken

India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.

Advantage of having an official language

A Chinese research concluded that

  1. When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
  2. China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
  3. Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
  4. Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.

Disadvantage of having an official language

According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said

India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.

But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.

As per as official language is concerned,

  1. English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
  2. Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
  3. This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.

Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.



The abnormal growth of cells anywhere in the body causes cancer. These cells are called cancer cells. These cells destroy the normal tissues in the body. Normal body cells grow, divide and die in an orderly way whereas cancer cells continue to grow and divide in a disorderly fashion and these cells do not die. These cells form a tumor. But, not all cancer cells form tumors. Cancer can occur at any age but 67% of cancer deaths occur in people who are 65 years. There are two types of tumors. Malignant tumors and benign tumors. Malignant tumors spread to other parts of the body at a rapid speed. It spreads to other parts through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Whereas benign tumors stay in one place and start to grow slowly and expand in the same tissue. Although cancer is common, 5-10% of it can be hereditary, i.e they are inherited from their parents. The inherited cells undergo mutation and cause cancer.


There are several causes of cancer. The substance that causes cancer is known as a carcinogen. This carcinogen affects the normal growth of cells.

Lifestyle factors: Smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs high fat-diet, and working with some toxic chemicals are the risk factors that may cause cancer in adults.

Inheritance: Cancer cells can also be inherited from our past generation to the present generation in some cases. It may be caused by a genetic mutation, exposure to chemicals in the living residence, or a combination of these factors. 

Genetic disorders: Some syndromes like Wiskott-Aldrich and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes are responsible for altering the immune system. The immune system helps to fight back against diseases and infections. Sometimes the stem cells in the bone marrow become damaged and when they reproduce, it results in the growth of cancer cells. The stem cells are damaged by some inherited genetic defects.

Environmental exposure: The use of pesticides and fertilizers in the growth of food plants have a direct link to childhood cancers. There is also evidence of cancer occurring in a child who lives in a polluted environment.


Cancers are classified into four types based on where it is found.

  1. Carcinomas: This type of cancer appears in the epithelial tissues of the skin or some inner tissues of the internal organs. Carcinomas may spread to other parts of the body or it may develop in the same tissues where it was provided. The risk of carcinoma increases with age, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, exposure to ultraviolet rays. Examples of carcinomas include breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer.
  2. Sarcomas: Sarcomas appears in the tissues that support and connect the body. Sarcomas can develop in fat, joints, blood vessels, muscles, nerves, lymph vessels, bones, cartilages. Example: Bone cancer (osteosarcoma), liposarcoma in fat, and rhabdomyosarcoma in muscles. Sarcoma occurs in both children and adults.
  3. Leukemia: Cancer that occurs in the blood is known as leukemia. Leukemia involves white blood cells (WBCs). WBCs are responsible for fighting against infection and diseases. Normally they grow in an orderly fashion. But in the case of leukemia, the bone marrow produces more amount of WBCs, and those cells do not function properly. Example: Blood cancer.
  4. Lymphomas: It begins from the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of vessels and glands that help in fighting against infection. The most common types of lymphomas are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.


Some of the cancers will have only one treatment. But most of the cancers have combinations of treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.

Chemotherapy: In this treatment, drugs are used to kill the cancer cells. The disadvantage is that it may also affect the normal cells and bone marrow and causes loss of hair and loss of weight and it reduces the immune responses.

Radiotherapy: In this treatment, high-energy rays are used to kill the cancer cells. These rays stop the growth and division of cancer cells. Some of the side effects are skin rashes, lowers WBCS count, and loss of appetite.

Surgery: In this treatment, the person has to undergo the surgery to remove the entire mass of cancer cells i.e, tumors in a particular area. In some cases, the only way to know if the person has cancer or what kind of cancer he has is by removing small tissue from the tumor and testing it.  


  • Always eat healthy foods. 
  • Consume more vegetables and fruits. 
  • Exercise regularly to keep your body fit and free from diseases. 
  • Don’t smoke and don’t drink alcohol. 
  • Minimize your exposure to harmful rays and chemicals. 
  • Avoid usage of tobacco. Reduce your exposure to the sun.
  • Consume nuts reduces the risk of cancer

We should follow preventive measures to avoid cancer. If already cancer has occurred, one has to undergo proper treatment.

Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap