Science & Technology

Developments and their Applications and effects in everyday life

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of explanations and predictions about nature and the universe. It is the study of nature and behavior of the physical and natural world through the scientific method. It is also defined as the observation, identification, description, experimental, investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. Whereas, Technology is the collection of techniques and processes used in the production of goods or services or the accomplishment of objectives such as scientific investigation. It includes methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. The world around us behaves according to scientific laws. Scientists have discovered many of these laws, and are making new discoveries all the time. We develop technology using our understanding of science and the forces, such as magnetism, gravity and electricity, which shape our lives. Whenever we turn on a light, log on to internet or speak with our friends or relatives on a mobile phone, it has all been made possible by science.
Technology for Mankind

The World Around us

Everything, from water or air to a whale or a mobile phone, is made of tiny particles called atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms, which are in turn made of smaller parts called subatomic particles. Two or more atoms join together to make a molecule. The things around us are solids, liquids or gases depending on the arrangement of the atoms and molecules inside them.

Structure of an atom

Forces and movement

Things move only when a force is applied to them. Forces are pushes or pulls in a particular direction. A flag blows when the wind pushes it. A door opens when you pull it. Animals move when their feet push against the ground, their wings push against the air or their fins push against the water around them. Forces always work in pairs. They push and pull in opposite directions. When pairs of forces are equal they are said to be balanced. Tug of war teams remains still when each pulls with the same strength. A team falls when one side is stronger and the forces are unbalanced. Forces are also balanced when things move at one speed in the same direction. Things slow down and stop because of an opposing force. One of these forces is friction. Friction happens when tiny bumps on two surfaces rub against each other. Rough surfaces, such as concrete, create more friction than smooth surfaces, such as glass. People use high-friction materials like rubber on shoe soles to stop people slipping when they walk.
A rocket takes off when the force from the engine pushing it up is greater than the force of gravity pulling it down.
Boy kicking a football
A bicycles’ brakes use high-friction rubber to slow the wheels down

Light and Dark

The earth’s biggest source of light is the sun. Heat and light energy created by the sun travels through space in straight lines called rays at almost 300,000 kilometres per second. The Earth spins right around once a day, changing which parts of globe get sunlight. This creates day & night. Other things that radiate, or give off, light include electric light bulbs, candles and television series. Shadows happen in places where an object stops light from getting through. Materials that light shines through fully are said to be transparent. Translucent materials let only a little light through. Opaque materials do not let any light through at all.  The shape of a shadow depends on the shape of the object blocking the light. If an object is moved closer to light source, its shadow gets bigger because it blocks more light rays. All surfaces reflect light but, if they are bumpy, the light rays are reflected in all directions.Mirrors are made from very smooth surfaces that reflect the rays back in the same pattern as they hit it, creating a clear image of object. Words reflected in a mirror appear back to front, as if they were facing away from us and we were looking through the page.
Mirrors reflecting images
We make our own light in cities when the Sun goes down at night.
Shadow

Colours

There are seven colours in a rainbow and they always come in the same order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Light from the sun may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colours. When tiny drops of water in the air split white sunlight into its different colours, we see a rainbow. Gases and dust in the atmosphere make the different colours in sunlight scatter so the sky changes colour. By day, the atmosphere scatters blue light towards earth so the sky looks blue. At sunset, when sunlight has more atmospheres to travel through before it reaches the surface of the earth, red light is scattered so the sky looks orangey red. People print colour images and words on paper using just four coloured inks: yellow, cyan (blue), magenta (red) and black. Paper is printed with tiny dots of different amounts of each ink. Our brain cannot distinguish that dots we see separately, but instead, blends them together to make different blocks of different colours

A glass prism splits bright sunlight into all the colours of a rainbow
Orange Skies

Sound

Sound is a disturbance of the air made when something, such as a string, vibrates, or moves back and forwards quickly. The vibration makes the air moves in waves. Our ears detect the moving air and our brains distinguish it as a sound. High sounds, such as notes from a flute, are made by short sound waves. Low sounds, such as a tuba’s notes, are made by long ones. Sound vibrations travel way from the thing that makes them. The vibrations spread out in all directions like the ripples in a pond after you throw in pebble. The wider the vibrations spread, the smaller they become and the quieter the sound. Big vibrations, on the other hand, makes lots of energy that pushes lots of air, creating loud sounds. Sounds are measured in units called decibels. The quietest sounds, such as a leaf falling, are around 0-10 decibels. The loudest sounds, such as a rocket launch, are just less than 200 decibels. Noises above 90 decibels are dangerous to listen to because the strong waves of air can damage the sensitive insides of your ears. Echoes are the repeated noise we hear when sound waves bounce off solid objects, such as a cliff or the inside of a tunnel. If the object is close by, the waves reflect so quickly we cannot hear the echo as a separate sound. Bats use echoes to get around in the dark. They make squeaks and listen to the echoes to work out how far away things are and how big they are.

Bats use echoes to find their prey in the dark
The skin on a drum vibrates when it is banged, producing a sound
We can only just hear leaves falling, but an aeroplane taking off makes a sound that is so loud it can damage our ears.

Electricity

Electricity is a type of energy formed from tiny particles inside atoms called electrons. These electrons can move from one atom to another and this movement is electrical energy. Electricity powers many machines, from torches and mobile phones to television and computers. It moves, or flows, into machines through materials called conductors, which include metal wires. Mains electricity is produced in power stations by machines called generators. Fuel, such as coal, is burned in the power station to turn water into steam. The steam turns a turbine (a set of large circular blades), which rotates magnets inside the generator, producing electricity. The electricity flows through wires to sockets in our homes. Batteries are useful for supplying small amounts of power to portable or mobile machines without the need to plug into wall sockets. Batteries are stores of chemicals that create a flow of electrical energy. Some batteries run out when the chemicals are used up, but rechargeable batteries regain their stored electrical when plugged into a socket. Switches work by controlling the flow, or current, of electricity through machines.Electricity can only flow through a circuit, which is a continues loop of wire. A switch is rather a gate that can open or close to break or complete the circuit.

Digital Technology

It includes computer, digital cameras, MP3 players and mobiles. These records, store, send and process electronic signals as digital information. Digital means that the electrical signals are either ‘on’, ‘1’, or ‘off’, ‘0’. The 1s and 0s form a code that can represent any type of information. Microchips work using tiny electrical circuits. The circuits are built on paper-thin chips of silicon, a material that is very good at conducting electricity (allowing electricity to pass through it). A single microchip a contain thousands of circuits, allowing it to process lots of digital information. Microchips mean that computers and other digital devices can be small and light. 

The Plight of Budding Sportspeople

Remember that cricketer who failed his matriculation or the swimmer that dropped out of school? Sportspersons failing their exams or dropping out is not very unusual or unheard of. On the contrary, it is pretty commonplace. A sport requires a lot of practice and sometimes a person has to spend hours, in the end, to achieve perfect command over the technicalities. Such exhaustion renders a person incapable of doing anything other than sleep after a training session.

Studies in schools become increasingly tough after the 9th grade. Even studious kids find it difficult to cope up. It becomes a challenge for these young sportsmen to even pass their exams. The government had to introduce policies to help these struggling students. After a lot of deliberation, the sports quota was introduced. The thought behind this was to award deserving sporting talents a better and more fulfilling college education.

Yet, I believe the quota has not solved the problem. Instead of making these young sportspersons serious about their education, they have become even more indifferent towards their studies. The decision has been counterproductive as it has caused more harm than good. A student who is neglecting their studies and is only relying on their sporting talent is in for a rude awakening when they enter college.

Someone who is not regular or is completely disinterested in their studies somehow lands a seat in a top-notch college with the most difficult course because of a quota. This is unfair to other students, especially for those who have spent hours on end to secure a seat in a prestigious college. It is also going to be a shock for the sportsperson who bagged a seat with minimal marks when they look at the curriculum. For that individual, graduating from college will be an insurmountable task.

Instead of honing their skills, they would be forced to study throughout the day to keep up with their peers. They would also be the subject of mockery among other kids who have bagged a seat fair and square. How can a person reach their potential in such conditions?

But can’t these budding sportspeople study? Are they so average that they can’t even understand simple concepts? I strongly disagree. Sportspersons are anything but average. Sports requires a tremendous amount of intelligence, aptitude and observational skills. No matter how hard you work and how well you plan, there is always a factor of uncertainty that is unforeseeable, which can either result in failure or a career-threatening injury. We can study in the comfort of our rooms but in sports, a person has to practice under the blazing sun or amongst the blistering cold winds.

It is quite evident that players not studying properly is not a lack of intelligence but a lack of will and proper planning. They fail to see the pivotal role that education plays in their life and also in their performance. An educated player always has a better understanding of the game and will never fall prey to the evils of doping and substance abuse. It is easier for the bad apples to exploit uneducated players.

Time and again, the world has seen highly educated individuals dominate the playing field. Players like Sourav Ganguly and Rahul Dravid have proved that a person can excel at sports and studies at the same time. If they did it, why can’t the others? People need not always look at sports as a career option. It can also be viewed as a way of life. Sports teaches many valuable lessons that help an individual grow as a person. Determination, perseverance, integrity, humility, discipline are some of the many qualities that are required in sports. Education and sports are not two entirely different dimensions but two sides of the same coin. Both of them are equally important for the complete development of a child into an individual. Studious sportspersons exist. Though they’re not typical social butterflies and are not visible in crowds due to their hectic schedules, these people represent the best of both worlds — sports and education.

Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.

4.Muscles

There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.

Advantage

Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.

Varieties

Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.

History

The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.

Croatian

Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.

BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.

Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

India has approved Zydus Cadila’s First Covid-19 vaccine for children

  • Zydus Cadila’s ZyCoV-D Covid-19 vaccine is the world’s first plasmid DNA vaccine against the coronavirus.
  • Indian drug regulator DCGI approved Zydus Cadila’s three-dose COVID-19 DNA vaccine for emergency use in adults and children aged 12 years and above, bringing in the sixth vaccine authorized for use in the country.
  • India has now approved its first vaccine for children, a timely move amid warnings of an upcoming third wave in the country, which some experts have warned could be deadlier towards children. While the Union Health Ministry has refuted that the next wave of the pandemic would prove more serious to the ‘vulnerable and unvaccinated’ population comprising children, it has, at the same time, augmented pediatric services across the nation as a preventive measure.
  • The company said it plans to manufacture 100 million to 120 million doses of ZyCoV-D annually and has started to stockpile the vaccine.
  • The generic drug maker, listed as Cadila Healthcare Ltd, applied for the authorization of ZyCoV-D on July 1, based on an efficacy rate of 66.6% in a late-stage trial of over 28,000 volunteers nationwide.
  • “Interim results from Phase-III Clinical Trials, in over 28,000 volunteers, showed primary efficacy of 66.6 per cent for symptomatic RT-PCR positive cases,” said a government release, adding that this has been the largest vaccine trial so far in India for COVID-19.
  • “This vaccine had already exhibited robust immunogenicity and tolerability and safety profile in the adaptive Phase I/II clinical trials carried out earlier. Both the Phase I/II and Phase III clinical trials have been monitored by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB),” it said.
  • ZyCoV-D is the world’s first plasmid DNA vaccine against the coronavirus. It uses a section of genetic material from the virus that gives instructions as either DNA or RNA to make the specific protein that the immune system recognizes and responds to.
  • Zydus Cadila’s vaccine, developed in partnership with the Department of Biotechnology, is the second home-grown shot to get emergency authorization in India after Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin.
  • The drug maker said in July its COVID-19 vaccine was effective against the new coronavirus mutants, especially the Delta variant, and that the shot is administered using a needle-free applicator as opposed to traditional syringes.
  • Earlier today, the Indian drug regulator’s subject expert committee had recommended emergency use approval for the vaccine. The committee had added that Zydus needs to submit additional data for the 2-dose regimen of its vaccine.
  • Covishield, Covaxin and Sputnik V vaccines are being given to only those above 18 years and unlike ZyCoV-D, which is three-dose, these are administered in two doses.
  • The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has said that ZyCoV-D is the world’s first DNA-based vaccine against the coronavirus and when injected produces the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and elicits an immune response, which plays a vital role in protection from the disease as well as viral clearance.
  • The vaccine had already exhibited robust immunogenicity and tolerability and safety profile in the adaptive phase one and two clinical trials. Both Phase one/two and Phase three clinical trials have been monitored by an independent data safety monitoring board, it added.
  • The Union government is expecting Zydus Cadila’s needle-free COVID-19 vaccine ZyCoV-D to be available from the first week of October in India. 

Why does a student need to be industry ready & how they can be?

What do you mean by industry ready?

An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.

Importance

A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.

Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.

Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.

How can students be industry ready?

Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-

  1. Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
  2. Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
  3. Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
  4. Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
  5. Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
  6. Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
  7. Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
  8. Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.

So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.

Bahrain

Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.

Seychelles

Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.

UAE

The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused

Philippines

In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE AND THE MODERN PERIOD OF INDIA

The colonial influence in Indian architecture can be seen in office buildings. The British people from the 16th century have constructed several churches and other buildings. Basilica Bom Jesus and the church of Saint Francis are the most famous churches built by the Portuguese in Goa. Many administrative and residential buildings are built by the British in India. We can also see the influence of Greek and Roman in the colonnades and pillared buildings. Rashtrapati Bhavan, formerly the Viceroy’s residence was designed by the architect Lutyens. Writers’ Building in Calcutta, where several governmental officers worked in the British period is still the administrative center of Bengal after independence. The church buildings like St. Paul’s Cathedral in Calcutta are another design in the British period. They also left their impressions by building the railway terminals like Victoria Terminus in Mumbai. The French architect Corbusier had designed several buildings that are built on Chandigarh. The India International Centre in Delhi where conferences are held by leading intellectuals from all over the world is designed by the Austrian architect, Stein. In the past few decades, several Indian architects have emerged. Charles Correa and Raj Rewal are the architects of this generation.

CHENNAI:

Chennai, formerly known as Madras is one of the four metropolitan cities of India. The city has become the seat of Madras Presidency, the southern division of British Imperial India by the 19th century. The city had become the capital of Madras state in 1947. Later, the madras state was replaced by Tamil Nadu in 1968. Various cathedrals, buildings, and wide tree-lined avenues at Chennai influence the colonial period. The High Court Building, built in 1892, during the British period was said to be the largest judicial building in the world after the Courts of London. To store enormous blocks of ice cut from the Great Lakes in the northern USA in India, Icehouse was built during the colonial period. The Church of St. John that had wide Gothic arches and beautiful stained-glass windows is the beautiful structure of that period. The General post office in Chennai is built-in 1872. The General Post Office has a vast central hall with a high dome. The first English fortress in India, Fort St George is found in the coastal city of madras.

MUMBAI:

Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra is located on the west coast of India. The city of Mumbai has come to light by the arrival of the British in the 17th century. It was known as Bombay. It is the first city in India to have railways. Also, it was the city where the newspaper came into existence. During the end of the 19th century, many buildings were constructed in Bombay in Victorian Gothic Style. The Secretariat, the Council Hall, and Elphinstone College were built in the above-mentioned style. The most impressive style was the massive railway construction in 1887, Victoria Terminus (modern Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus). It looks more like a cathedral than a railway station. To honor the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to India, the famous Gateway of India was built. Since independence, Mumbai has continued to be India’s leading commercial and industrial city. The stock exchange, business centers, film industry named Bollywood, and anything that comes under modernization and westernization is all started in Bombay.

DELHI:

Delhi was founded by Raju Dhilu and Ptolemy, the geographer who marked Delhi in his map as Daidala. Today, Delhi is one of the largest cities not only in India but in the whole world. After the period of Tomars, Chauhans built the city named Qila Rai Pithora in Lal Kot, Mehrauli. The famous Qutub Minar is finished by Iltutmish which was started by Qutb-ud-din. The Siri fort exists in Delhi and currently, this area in Delhi is known as Shahpur Jat. After some years, Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq constructed the city called Tughlaqabad. After the death of Ghiyasuddin, the earlier cities of Delhi into a single unit and were named Jahanpanah by Mohammed Bin Tughlaq. Firoz Shah constructed Firozabad, located near Firoz Shah Kotla. The Mughal ruler Humayun built the Dinpanah on the mound of ancient Indraprastha. Shah Jehan, the grandson of Humayun started building the Red Fort in 1639 and finished it in 1648. Nearly for 24 Sufis, Delhi is the hometown. After the Mughal rule in Delhi, the British occupied Delhi after defeating the Marathas in 1803. The Parliament House and the North and South Blocks, the India Gate, and the Viceroy house were all made to impress the Indian subjects of the British rule. Delhi has become an important commercial, cultural, and political center of India. Museums, beautiful parks, flyovers, the Metro, a beautiful airport, educational centers, massive buildings, big wholesale markets, large malls, major industries, etc. all contribute to male Delhi as an outstanding city.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

Volcanic emissions may have made oxygen in climate

During a new investigation of 2.5-billion-year-old Australian rocks, scientists have tracked down those volcanic emissions may have animated populace floods of marine microorganisms, making the initial puffs of oxygen into the air.

This would change existing accounts of Earth’s initial environment, which expected that most changes in the early climate were constrained by geologic or substance measures. The discoveries of the investigation were distributed in the diary ‘Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences’

However, centered around Earth’s initial history, the exploration additionally has suggestions for extra-earthbound life and even environmental change. The investigation was driven by the University of Washington, the University of Michigan and different establishments.

“What has begun to end up being undeniable in the previous few decades is there really are a lot of associations between the strong, non-living Earth and the development of life,” said first creator Jana Meixnerova, a UW doctoral understudy in Earth and space sciences. “However, what are the particular associations that worked with the development of life on Earth as far as we might be concerned, addressed Meixnerova.

In its most punctual days, Earth had no oxygen in its air and scarcely any, oxygen breathing lifeforms. Earth’s air turned out to be for all time oxygen-rich with regards to 2.4 billion years prior, likely after a blast of lifeforms that photosynthesise, changing carbon dioxide and water into oxygen. In any case, in 2007, co-creator Ariel Anbar at Arizona State University dissected rocks from the

Mount McRae Shale in Western Australia, detailing a transient whiff of oxygen around 50 to 100 million years before it turned into a super durable installation in the climate. Later examination has affirmed other, prior, transient oxygen spikes, yet hasn’t clarified their ascent and fall.

In the new investigation, specialists at the University of Michigan, driven by co-relating creator Joel Blum, broke down similar old rocks for the focus and number of neutrons in the component mercury, radiated by volcanic ejections Large volcanic emissions impact mercury gas into the upper climate, where today it circles for a little while prior to pouring out onto Earth’s surface.

The new investigation showed a spike in mercury two or three million years before the brief ascent in oxygen “adequately sure, in the stone beneath the transient spike in oxygen, we discovered proof of mercury, both in its bounty and isotopes, that would most sensibly be clarified by volcanic ejections into the environment,” said co-creator Roger Buick, a UW teacher of Earth and Space Sciences.

Where there were volcanic outflows, the creators contemplated, there probably been Laval and volcanic debris fields. Also, those supplement rich rocks would have endured in the breeze and downpour, delivering phosphorus into streams that could treat close by seaside regions, permitting oxygen creating cyanobacteria and other single-celled lifeforms to prosper. “There are different supplements that tweak natural action on short timescales, however phosphorus is the one that is generally significant on long timescales, Meixnerova said. Today, phosphorus is abundant in natural materials and in horticultural manure. However, in extremely old occasions, enduring of volcanic rocks would have been the primary hotspot for this scant asset.

“During enduring under the Archaean air, the new basaltic stone would have gradually disintegrated, delivering the fundamental full scale supplement phosphorus into the streams, Meixnerova added.

“That would have taken care of organisms that were living in the shallow seaside zones and set off expanded natural usefulness that would have made, as a result, and oxygen spike, Meixnerova clarified.

The exact area of those volcanoes and magma fields is obscure, however huge magma fields of about the right age exist in cutting edge India, Canada and somewhere else, Buick said “Our examination proposes that for these transient whiffs of oxygen, the prompt trigger was an expansion in oxygen creation, as opposed to an abatement in oxygen utilization by rocks or other non-living cycles,” Buick said “It’s significant on the grounds that the presence of oxygen in the climate is key – it’s the greatest driver for the advancement of huge, complex life,” Buick added.

Eventually, analysts said the investigation proposes what a planet’s geography may mean for any life developing on its surface, an agreement that guides in recognizing liveable exoplanets, or planets outside our close planetary system, in the quest for life in the universe.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Mountain of light: Kohinoor

Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.

Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.

Journey

Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.

It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.

After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.

Cursed?

An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as

He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.

Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.

  • Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
  • Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
  • Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
  • Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
  • Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
  • British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor

This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.

Why India can’t have an Official Language

Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?

Critics

After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.

Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.

Steps taken

India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.

Advantage of having an official language

A Chinese research concluded that

  1. When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
  2. China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
  3. Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
  4. Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.

Disadvantage of having an official language

According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said

India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.

But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.

As per as official language is concerned,

  1. English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
  2. Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
  3. This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.

Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.

CANCER

WHAT IS CANCER?

The abnormal growth of cells anywhere in the body causes cancer. These cells are called cancer cells. These cells destroy the normal tissues in the body. Normal body cells grow, divide and die in an orderly way whereas cancer cells continue to grow and divide in a disorderly fashion and these cells do not die. These cells form a tumor. But, not all cancer cells form tumors. Cancer can occur at any age but 67% of cancer deaths occur in people who are 65 years. There are two types of tumors. Malignant tumors and benign tumors. Malignant tumors spread to other parts of the body at a rapid speed. It spreads to other parts through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Whereas benign tumors stay in one place and start to grow slowly and expand in the same tissue. Although cancer is common, 5-10% of it can be hereditary, i.e they are inherited from their parents. The inherited cells undergo mutation and cause cancer.

CAUSES OF CANCER:

There are several causes of cancer. The substance that causes cancer is known as a carcinogen. This carcinogen affects the normal growth of cells.

Lifestyle factors: Smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs high fat-diet, and working with some toxic chemicals are the risk factors that may cause cancer in adults.

Inheritance: Cancer cells can also be inherited from our past generation to the present generation in some cases. It may be caused by a genetic mutation, exposure to chemicals in the living residence, or a combination of these factors. 

Genetic disorders: Some syndromes like Wiskott-Aldrich and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes are responsible for altering the immune system. The immune system helps to fight back against diseases and infections. Sometimes the stem cells in the bone marrow become damaged and when they reproduce, it results in the growth of cancer cells. The stem cells are damaged by some inherited genetic defects.

Environmental exposure: The use of pesticides and fertilizers in the growth of food plants have a direct link to childhood cancers. There is also evidence of cancer occurring in a child who lives in a polluted environment.

 TYPES OF CANCER:

Cancers are classified into four types based on where it is found.

  1. Carcinomas: This type of cancer appears in the epithelial tissues of the skin or some inner tissues of the internal organs. Carcinomas may spread to other parts of the body or it may develop in the same tissues where it was provided. The risk of carcinoma increases with age, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, exposure to ultraviolet rays. Examples of carcinomas include breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer.
  2. Sarcomas: Sarcomas appears in the tissues that support and connect the body. Sarcomas can develop in fat, joints, blood vessels, muscles, nerves, lymph vessels, bones, cartilages. Example: Bone cancer (osteosarcoma), liposarcoma in fat, and rhabdomyosarcoma in muscles. Sarcoma occurs in both children and adults.
  3. Leukemia: Cancer that occurs in the blood is known as leukemia. Leukemia involves white blood cells (WBCs). WBCs are responsible for fighting against infection and diseases. Normally they grow in an orderly fashion. But in the case of leukemia, the bone marrow produces more amount of WBCs, and those cells do not function properly. Example: Blood cancer.
  4. Lymphomas: It begins from the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of vessels and glands that help in fighting against infection. The most common types of lymphomas are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

TREATMENT:

Some of the cancers will have only one treatment. But most of the cancers have combinations of treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.

Chemotherapy: In this treatment, drugs are used to kill the cancer cells. The disadvantage is that it may also affect the normal cells and bone marrow and causes loss of hair and loss of weight and it reduces the immune responses.

Radiotherapy: In this treatment, high-energy rays are used to kill the cancer cells. These rays stop the growth and division of cancer cells. Some of the side effects are skin rashes, lowers WBCS count, and loss of appetite.

Surgery: In this treatment, the person has to undergo the surgery to remove the entire mass of cancer cells i.e, tumors in a particular area. In some cases, the only way to know if the person has cancer or what kind of cancer he has is by removing small tissue from the tumor and testing it.  

PREVENTION:

  • Always eat healthy foods. 
  • Consume more vegetables and fruits. 
  • Exercise regularly to keep your body fit and free from diseases. 
  • Don’t smoke and don’t drink alcohol. 
  • Minimize your exposure to harmful rays and chemicals. 
  • Avoid usage of tobacco. Reduce your exposure to the sun.
  • Consume nuts reduces the risk of cancer

We should follow preventive measures to avoid cancer. If already cancer has occurred, one has to undergo proper treatment.

Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap
Bladderworts
Sundew
Pitcher plant

All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.

Reason of existence

It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-

  1. Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
  2. In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
  3. This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys

Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.

Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.

BOOKS FOR CHILDREN PART 1

Hey, y’all! Do you read books? If so, do you recommend books to your niece and nephew? Here are few books for 11 children.

I started to read pretty late in life. I do regret not getting into the world of books early but better late than never right!? The books for kids and children are adventurous, colourful, exciting and thrilling.

WHY SHOULD CHILDREN READ?

  • Books are our best friends.
  • To improve their imagination.
  • Enhance communication skills.
  • Learn new words and phrases.
  • A better understanding of the world.
  • Language development.
  • Cognitive skills.
CHARLIE AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY BY ROALD DAHL

PRODUCT DETAILS:

  • Published – 1979.
  • Genres – Children’s fiction, humour, fantasy.
  • Pages – 176 pages.
  • Age – 10+
  • BUY NOW!

Roald Dahl is a fabulous author whose books are fun to read. The writing style is easy, understandable and simple. Who doesn’t like chocolate!? The book gives us a joyous experience. The children would fall in love with Willy Wonka’s Factory. The characters are vivid and we kids can imagine the story completely.

THE GOPI DIARIES BY SUDHA MURTY

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Published – 2019 & 2021.
  • Genres – Children’s Fiction.
  • Pages – 104 & 136.
  • Age – 6+
  • BUY NOW!

Sudha Murthy is one of the best authors for children. Her stories are simple yet unique and absorbing. This book has a remarkable character Gopi – a dog, the story is said from his perspective. We can see the world through his eyes which is amusing. Children will learn kindness, compassion for animals through this. They also understand the dog’s needs. The illustrations are super cute.

THE 1000 YEAR OLD BOY BY ROSS WELFORD

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Published – 2018.
  • Genre – Fiction, Adventure.
  • Pages – 400.
  • Age – 12+
  • BUY NOW!

The cover is pretty isn’t it? An adventurous story about a boy who is fated to live forever. Alfie Monk can tell us what it is like to live forever. This is a child-friendly novel that would make the child think. The children can imagine and be spellbound by this beauty. You will never guess what’s coming in this one.

THE LITTLE PRINCE BY ANTOINE DE SAINT – EXUPERY

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Published – 2016.
  • Genre –
  • Pages – 144.
  • Age – 6+
  • BUY NOW!

“All grown ups were once children…

But only few of them remember it.”

– Antoine De Saint-Exupery.

The Little Prince is not just for children but also adults. The story deals with friendship, loss, loneliness, and childhood. The illustrations are charming and one can’t put this book down. It teaches philosophy in simple words. We can learn a few things from this beautiful book. Every child should read it.

THE WIZARD OF OZ BY L. FRANK BAUM
  • Published – Hardcover(2019) Original(1900)
  • Genre – Fantasy, fiction.
  • Pages – 208.
  • Age – 9+
  • BUY NOW!

The edition is stunning! The story is pure fantasy and Dorothy stays with us every after the adventure ends. She feels like she is lost but she embraces the situation to take a thrilling journey. The magical land of Oz is mesmerizing.

Do you know that “The Wizard of Oz” was banned from libraries? It was, as it provides no values. I think books are not always meant to teach us something. Books are different so are we. It can be a reason to smile, live, dance, and it can also teach us values.

Thank you!

Sleepwalking

Did you ever Sleep walked? Here’s what I came to know that every 1 out of 3 kids aged between 4 to 8, sleep walk. And that’s a lot by the way.

Sleep walking formally known as Somnambulish is a strange phenomena where people get up and do things in their sleep, sometimes more than just walking and when they wake up they don’t have any recollection of what they were doing. Moreover, if they find way back to their bed they may not ever know that they were sleep walking.

Sleep walking is nothing about embarrassed about though or terrified for that matter, it’s relatively common. In a recent study Stanford found that 1 out of 3 people sleep walk at some point of their lives. It is specially common among children, between the age of 4 and 8. So what happened when we sleep walk.

Reasons

A leading theory about why we sleep walk is:-

  • In normal sleep cycle, your brains motor system continues to issue physical commands to the body.
  • Whereas those who sleep walks are suppressed by sleep chemical called GABA.
  • GABA access act as a break in your brain, it brings your mind and body down to rest by neutralizing Glutamate a chemical that causes excitement.
  • In sleep walkers there’s a glitch in the process that suppresses your boby from moving around namely that you don’t produce GABA.

So that’s why you are moving around when you’re still asleep. There are few causes of GABA deficient in the body:-

  1. Genetic sleepwalking :- when sleepwalking runs in the family
  2. Underdeveloped system:- when the boby simply hasn’t matured enough to produce the proper amount. That’s why it is more common amongst kids.
  3. Depression:- Those who suffer from depression are three times as likely to sleep walk.

Myths

You would have probably heard about the myth that you shouldn’t wake a sleepwalker because they’re going through a psychotic rage that could even kill you. But these are myths, if you see anyone sleepwalking, you are asked to wake them up gently, especially if they are in the kitchen or holding a knife.

Recently there was a story about a lady who drove 190 miles in her sleep without hurting or killing herself or anyone. She should be definitely called lucky.

Do Vampires exist?

You probably have seen in movies and shows about these supernatural creatures such as Vampires, Werewolves, Witches, Wizards, etc. But did you ever thought from where did we got these idea? Do the supernatural creatures really exist. Let’s learn about vampires first.

Think about the features that a vampire have. What’s the first thing you thought? Shape teeths to suck blood may be? Glowing eyes? What if I tell you some people with these features exist.

There is a Vampire Disorder in which people suffering from this condition frequently have pointed teeth like carnivore animals. This disorders also has a difficult scientific name Hypohydrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia. Therefore, they look similar to the legendary blood feeding creatures from movies.

Symptoms

People with more prominent symptoms of this illness are

  1. Extremely thin and pale
  2. Eyes are outlined with dark circles
  3. Teeths are typically pointed
  4. Hair is absent
  5. Also they don’t like stakes not actually the beef kind

Problems

The biggest problem for such patients is not mistaken for considered as vampire but something else.

  1. They always have to check their temperature.
  2. Have to stay away from the sunlight
  3. Have to strictly avoid hot weather

They don’t have sweat glands and as you know these glands serve as a thermal regulating mechanism of our body. Imagine what could happen if it is broken. And above all this is the most typical syndrome of this disorder.

For example, Actor Michael Berryman, who suffered from this disease made a career playing horror movie characters.

So now you’ve probably figured out vampires exist or not.

Dear Exams|Please be nice.

Introduction

“Exams and grades are temporary, but education is permanent.” Education is an important medium for the development of any country. India being a part of it is moving forward towards globalization, which has proved to have a positive effect on the education system, in a way making it simpler and easier. The advent of technology has steadily digitized all services and offerings, taking them to the online platform and examination has been no exception. Is it better to test it on bamboo paper or a digital page?  In my opinion, the benefits of e-examinations exceed their drawbacks.

It’s all about Exams…!!!

Why is it beneficial?

The traditional pen-and-paper exams not only affect the surroundings but also come at a high cost as far as institutions are concerned. The climate change crisis being the foremost priority forces an individual to make efforts for the reduction of natural resources. The adverse environmental impact of mercilessly cutting down trees for paper is evident. However, as far as administrative costs are concerned, it proves to be an economical way to conduct examinations on a large scale. For instance, there is no need to have spacious classrooms to fit in students, the flexibility of time and checking without glitches impels efficiency for examiners as well as examinees. Altogether, it helps education centers to go paper-free and eliminate expensive processes.

 

Don’t strive for high grades,

But always for higher learning.

Motivation hard work always leads to success.

A secured, simple, and auto-graded system has been possible, due to the advancements in technology. It has enhanced the privacy of students, reducing the risk of any malicious activities such as cheating or paper leaks. Further, the ease of setting up questionnaires, procedures, and access proves it to be reliable. Also, the automatic scoring by computers mandates flawless marking, decreases teacher’s burden, saves time, and ensures fairness. According to a survey was done by A.P Barkley, the potential for student learning is growing because of frequent assessment and reduced plagiarism. Overall, it builds mutual trust between the two, providing transparency and bias-free results. 

Let’s look at it’s demerits

When looking at the other side of the coin, we come across a few disadvantages as well. Firstly, poor internet connection can hamper the student’s possibility to attempt the examination and in turn the grades. Secondly, it does not accommodate all exam modes like long answers, letters, essays, etc. Teachers have to stick to either multiple choice or short answer questions. On the whole, two of them have to compromise their comforts. 

In conclusion, online exams have it’s own strengths and flaws, meanwhile, the pros outshine the cons. In an ever-changing world, online tests and e-assessment are at the center of it. It can be a powerful tool to educate students from diverse backgrounds and places. 

Note: students often get nervous and it, in turn, affects their results. Here are some tips to remember before appearing a test.

  • Have a thorough revision of the syllabus.
  • Take a five-minute break in between every hour and refresh yourself with some fun activity.
  • A healthy diet and sleep are necessary one day before an examination. It helps maintain the metabolism.
  • The last day should not be stressful but carefree.
  • Recheck the materials before going to the assessment hall.
  • Last but not least, believe in yourself and tick the answers in God’s name!!

Forms of Economic Analysis: Micro vs. Macro

Micro and Macro-economics

The subject matter of economics has been divided into two parts Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. These terms were first coined and used by Ragnar Frisch and have now been adopted by the economists all over the world. Nowadays one can hardly come across a text book on modern economic analysis which does not divide its analysis into two parts, one dealing with microeconomics and the other with macroeconomics.

The term microeconomics is derived from the Greek word mikros meaning “small” and the term macroeconomics is derived from the Greek word makros meaning “largo.” Thus, microeconomies deals with the analysis of small individual units of the economy such as individual firms and small aggregates or groups of individual units such as various industries and markets.

On the other hand, macroeconomics concerns itself with the analysis of the economy as a whole and its large aggregates such as total national output and income, total employment, total consumption, aggregate investment. Thus, according to K E Boulding, “Microeconomics is the study of particular fums, particular households, individual prices, wages, Incomes, individual industries, particular commodities.”

About macroeconomics he remarles, “Macroeconomics deals not with individual quantities as such but with aggregates of these quantities, not with individual incomes but with the national Income; not with individual prices but with the price level; not with individual outputs but with the national output “.

  • MICROECONOMICS

As stated above, microeconomics studies the economic actions and behaviour of individual units and small groups of individual units. In microeconomic theory we discuss how the various cells of economic organism, that is, the various units of the economy such as thousands of consumers, thousands of producers or firms, thousands of workers and resource suppliers in the economy do their economic activities and reach their equilibrium states. In other words, in microeconomics we make a microscope study of the economy.

But it should be remembered that microeconomics does not study the economy in Its totality. Instead, in microeconomics we discuss equilibrium of innumerable units of the economy piecemeal and their interrelationship to each other.

” For instance, in microeconomic analysis we study the demand of an individual consumer for a good and from there go on to derive the market demand for the good (that is, demand of a group of individuals consuming a particular group).

Examples of Microeconomic variables: Demand of a commodity, Supply of a commodity, Income of a consumer, Price of the commodity etc.

Examples of Microeconomic theories/study: Law of demand, Law of supply, Determination of consumer equilibrium, Determination of producer equilibrium etc.

-> Importance of Micro Economics

I. Price Determination:

Micro economics helps in elucidation how the prices of diverse commodities are determined.  It also explicates how the prices of various aspects of production such as rent for land, wages for labour, interest for capital and profits for entrepreneur are decided in the commodity and factor market.

II. Working of a Free Market Economy:

Free market economy is the economy where the economic pronouncements regarding production of goods such as ‘What to produce, How much to produce, How to produce etc.’ are taken by private individuals. These verdicts are based on the inclination of the consumer or demand for the product. Micro economics theory helps in grasping the working of the free market economy.

III. International Trade & Public Finance:

Micro economics helps to elucidate many international trade facets like impacts of tariff, determination of exchange rates, advantages from international trade etc. It is also beneficial in public finance to analyse both, the occurrences as well as effect of a specific tax.

IV. Utilization of Resources:

Micro economics helps in elucidating how the scarce resources can be effectually and efficiently utilized by the producers in order to achieve highest output.

V. Model Building:

Micro economics helps in grasping various complex economic situations with its modest models. It has made an imperative contribution to the science of economics by the development of numerous terms, concepts, terminologies, tools of economic evaluation etc.

VI. Helps in Taking Business Decisions:

Micro economic theories are beneficial to businessmen for taking decisive business decisions. These decisions comprise the cost of production, values, maximum output, consumer’s preferences, demand and supply of the product etc.

VII. Useful to Government:

Micro economics is that subdivision of economics which is related with the study of economic behaviour of individual economic units. It is beneficial in building economic policies such as taxation policy, public expenditure policy, price policy etc.  These policies aid the government to reach its goal of efficient distribution of resources and promoting economic wellbeing of the society.

VIII. Basis of Welfare Economics:

Micro economics endorses economic and social welfare by making finest utilization of the resources, thereby evading wastage.

  • MACROECONOMICS

Macroeconomics is a Study of Aggregates. We now turn to explain the approach and content of macroeconomics. ‘As said above, word macro is derived from the Greek word ‘makros’ meaning large and therefore macroeconomics is concerned with the economic activity in the large.

Macroeconomic analyses the behaviour of the whole economic system in totality or entirety. In other words, macroeconomic studies the behaviour of the large aggregates such as total employment, the national product or income, the general price level of the economy. Therefore, macroeconomics is also known as aggregative economics. Macroeconomics analyses and establishes the functional relationship between these large aggregates. Thus Professor Boulding says, “Macroeconomics deals not with individual quantities as such but with the aggregates of these quantities; not with individual incomes but with the national income, not with individual prices but with the price level; not with individual output but with the national output.

Macroeconomics, then, is that part of the subject which deals with large aggregates and averages of the system rather than with particular items in it and attempts to define these aggregates in a useful manner and to examine their relationships. ” Professor Gardner Ackley makes the distinction between the two types more clear and specific when he writes, macroeconomics concerns itself with such variables as the aggregate volume of output in an economy, with the extent to which its resources are employed, with the size of the national income, with the general price level”. Microeconomics, on the other hand, deals with the division of total output among industries, products and firms and the allocation of resources among competing uses. It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services.

Examples of Macroeconomic variables : Aggregate supply, Aggregate demand, National income, Total output etc.

Examples of Macroeconomic studies/theories : Determination of equilibrium level of income, Determination of foreign exchange rate, Determination of govt. budget etc.

-> Importance of macroeconomics

Macroeconomics is a vibrant concept that studies the whole nation and works for the welfare of the economy. It is beneficial for the timing of economic variations to prevent or be prepared for any financial crisis or any long – term adverse situations. The system of fiscal and monetary policies rest on entirely on the examination of the widely held macroeconomic situations in the nation. Macroeconomics mainly purposes to help the Government and the financial bodies to fix economic stability in the country. This course of economics gives a broader viewpoint of social or national issues. The ones who want to provide to the welfare of society need to study macroeconomics. It guarantees or keeps a check over the appropriate functioning of the country’s economy and real position. The analysis of macroeconomics concepts and issues helps the economists to understand the causes and possible explanations of such macro-level problems.  Dealing with numerous economic situations through the use of macro-economic data unlocks the door for development in the country.

Does Formal Education imply a successful career?

Is CBSE better than SSC? A conflict going on for years now. Even while talking to a friend who’s studying from a different educational board we end up comparing and at times arguing over which teaching and learning technique is superior. Over the past years we have come across many such instances where a formal education is compared or considered necessary for a for a ‘successful career’. Many of us must have also heard statements like’ You need to have a formal learning to achieve your desired or well settled career’. But can any one exactly define what a formal education or formal learning is?

If we put it in simple words formal education is generally a structural well organized system of training wherein we have to follow a given fixed way of learning which was followed previous learners. So such type of learning focuses more on theoretical learning and minimal practical learning. Now a query may arise that there has to be a structure, a pattern for a disciplined and proper learning experience. In a formal learning the subjects and curriculum is fixed, whatever we learn is pre-decided and repeated monotonously. Those subjects might be of liking to one student but not the other, some may excel in one subject and have hard time coping with other subject. But in the end the overall performance is noted and not individual. This results in students not being able to understand what they are good at.

Each one of us has a certain field of liking, some talents and also a few pros and cons. We on our own are very much aware of our strengths and weaknesses. All we have to do is to know what our strengths are, improve them, nurture them and whatever our weaknesses are we need to learn how to tackle them. So when it comes to formal education exploring a specific field of interest is difficult as we are obliged to keep up with all the other subjects too. This may not be the case for everyone some may even find there scope through this type of learning, but the important thing is only some may not everyone.

Photo by NEOSiAM 2021 on Pexels.com

Now, let’s come to the the point of a ‘successful career’. I am sure every one out there has own perspective towards what exactly a successful career is. Our expectations from our ownself as well as our will and capacity to achieve them collectively would give us a successful career. For me it would me something I would achieve in coming years and would enjoy, learn and grow during the process. It goes like the famous saying ‘Success is about the journey and not the destination’.

But now if we compare A formal education with a successful career what similarities can you guess? Is it really necessary that a strict patterned learning guarantees us a career? A formal education is needed but it shouldn’t be considered as the only criteria to define our success or if we could achieve our goals. Ultimately success depends on individual’s capacity to use their talents and creativity in the most effective manner. May be now we could modify a very familiar proverb ‘Education is a key to success, but not the only key to success.’

WORDS : Changing the world


Words have always been impacting the world in one or the other ways, be it in written form or spoken. Literature has shaped the present world from a confined mindset to a mindset which accepts everything easily and fight logically.


Positive impacts

  • Words have definitely played a great role in bringing the world to a stage of minimal illogical practices prevailing in the ancient world such as Sati Pratha, racism and many more.
  • Words of wisdoms has educated the world and helped it to reach the technically equipped world. Definitely the credit goes to the people who imagined the impossible and had courage to bring it true.
  • Words of courage has most us the fundamental rights. Countries like India, South Africa have gained their freedom by the courageous words of their freedom fighters.
  • Philosophical words have made their way in understanding human emotions and valuing it that now every company has a Human Resources Department and they are able to target their potential clients.
  • Even words have entertained the world and made their way to everyone’s heart and helped most to get different perspectives on a single matter. Works of the great writers are still remembered even after years and is even relevant in modern world.


Negative impacts

  • Once spoken, the words won’t return
  • The biggest problems of the words are that once they are said or written, it can’t come back. So, most of the times it eventually hurts the sentiments of the people. The current world being the digital era, trolling becomes the centric problem for the people online. Tolling is nothing but harass words said online to damage the identity of the individual or group of people. Since, the trollers are behind the account, it seems easy for them to generate hate. These hate words can damage the mental peace of an individual, can break through their confidence, can lead them to depression and worst steps can be taken by them.
  • Words have the greatest power to influence the people and most people use them to take their works from others. Bad influence is a major issued faced by the present-day younger generation as they are mostly online and online is only filled by the influencers. Good influencers exists but bad ones too. Insisted of thinking logically and rational, most of the younger kids blindly follows the words. This needs to be changed in the digital world to let the world grow into the better version.

Thus, words are creating impact on each one of us. So, watch out the words, process it before allowing it to impact your mind. Neglect the harmful words and hit like for the useful words.

Sex Education

What is sex? Is it normal to talk about it? Why sex education is important?

Avoidance of this topic, increased my willingness to write on this topic. I will try to cover up these questions in my article.

Sex is the most common word used for sexual intercourse, having various synonymous such as coitus, commerce, lovemaking, sexact etc. It is completely obvious for mammals to perform intercourse. It’s the reason for our existence, so why we avoid talking about it? It don’t make us inferior if we talk about it, it must be included in primary education . Yeah it take time to bring a change, we have saw addition of reproduction and menstrual cycle in our Academic syllabus in past decades, now we are looking forward to include sex education also soon.

I was 10 years old , when I got my first period. A blood stain on my white frock, I was amused and scared , my mother watched me out and I was told, ‘Ab tum badi ho gyi ho’ It felt like lot, like my life has just changed in few minutes, I was a tiny girl few minutes back and now I am an adult with responsibilities. It felt like lot to bear, my mum guided me with how to handle sanitary napkins and hygiene. Knowing the fact that all this new thing is going to happen now every month scared shit out of me. So this is the story how I came to know about Menstrual Cycle.

In 6th , a boy became good friend of mine , charming , cute boy. I used to talk to him a lot, and one day he held my hands out, it might seem no big thing to you, but it beacame my biggest fear. My periods were delayed and all I could think was Am I pregnant because my friend holded my hand. Hilarious? Offcourse it is. But yes, that’s were we lacked acknowledging the requirement of sex education in our schools and family. I could not talk about this to anyone, back in those years I was not aware of incognito so searching ‘delayed periods reason’ which would apper in the search history of my parents phone abstained me from searching it. So I was all alone with my miseries and fear. I was scared if my own family is going to accept me because my friend holded my hand that made me pregnant.

Luckily ,I got my periods a week later. I felt so relaxed, as if god has listened to my prayers and helped me out from the trauma. Remembering that incident still make me laugh, if someone could have just told be right reasons, I won’t be that lonely kid feeling guilty then. If family is supposed to be the closest, then these things should be made normal to talk about, we can’t just wait and avoid.

Sex education is required in family, society and at schools. We can just normalize out things instead of covering it up. We will see a better understanding upcoming generations , where things will be heard and solution will be well entertained and implemented.

By Esha Singh Sisodiya

Accept to be the accepted one for others. 🙂

FIBRE AS A COMPONENT OF BALANCED DIET

Fibre, which can seemingly be perhaps the most missed fixings in our eating regimen, has benefits galore. While it keeps up with typical assimilation, it additionally assists us with remaining fuller for more by affecting the retention of supplements in the body. To know more, we need to see how fibre functions.

Dietary fibre is a kind of starch, clarifies master nutritionist Sparkly Surendran, and in authoritative terms it tends to be known as the consumable parts of plant food varieties that are not processed in people which is vital for assimilation of supplements. It adds mass to the eating regimen, impacts satiety, adds mass to stool and advances routineness. It is for the most part named dissolvable and insoluble dietary fibre premise their water solvency.

Dissolvable filaments are found in food sources like apples, beans, oats, citrus organic products, psyllium and so on Insoluble filaments are found in grains like entire wheat, wheat grain, vegetables like cauliflower, green beans, and so on

Multigrain atta is another acceptable wellspring of fibre. It is made of an assortment of grains that are normal wellsprings of fibre like wheat, oats, psyllium husk, chana, maize, soya and so forth It gives the upside of giving supplements and fibre advantage of various grains. These aides help assimilation and can altogether add to the fibre necessity of one’s every day diet.

Drink satisfactory measure of water and remember fibre for your eating regimen progressively to keep up with great assimilation.

Dietary fibre is the palatable part of plant food varieties that are impervious to absorption in small digestive tract. It is arranged into dissolvable and insoluble dietary fibre. It is a significant segment of our fair eating regimen and has numerous helpful properties. Utilization of dietary fibre keeps up with stomach related framework.

Our Indian eating regimen for the most part comprises of numerous normal wellsprings of dietary fibre, similar to oats like entire wheat, grain and ragi. Stringy vegetables like carrots, beets, cabbage, peas, broccoli and beans, just as natural products like apples, oranges, guava, are different wellsprings of fibre. Nuts and seeds including almonds, raisins, figs, pecans, groundnuts, flax seeds and so forth additionally contain fibre. Multi grains are additionally a decent wellspring of dietary fibre as they are a blend of assortment of entire grains.

The Indian Chamber of Clinical Exploration suggests that 40g of dietary fibre (in light of 2000 Kcal diet) is viewed as safe for every day admission Utilization of entire grains or multigrain items alongside at least 5 servings of vegetables and one serving of organic product is useful and altogether contribute towards the day-by-day necessity of dietary fibre.

As per prominent nutritionist Glossy Surendran, adding fibre to your eating routine, with careful dinner arranging helps absorption. There are numerous approaches to increase fibre admission. Adding 2 chapatis produced using atta with multigrain to a dinner with a little bit of rice and a mixture of vegetables is a decent beginning. Chapatis themselves can be made with ground carrot or beets, or even whitened spinach, and eaten with curd. Different changes to mainstream arrangements incorporate making kootu with chayote, plantain stem, spinach or keerai.

Multigrain Atta is one of the great wellsprings of dietary fibre. It is a blend of fluctuated entire grains like entire wheat, psyllium, soy bean, oats, corn, Bengal gram and so forth as each grain has its own wholesome profile, devouring multigrain helps to the upside of acquiring the nourishing profit with a combination of grains as various oats source various kinds of dietary fibre.

The dietary fibre in 3 chapatis made out of multigrain flour is comparable to the dietary fibre in 4 beetroots or 6 carrots and help add to ~1/fourth of day-by-day dietary fibre prerequisite. Adding 2 chapatis produced using atta with multigrain to a feast with a little part of rice and a mixture of vegetables is a decent beginning. A straightforward green serving of mixed greens can be given surface and fibre by throwing in some hacked apples, nuts or seeds.

So, you must have got It how important role does fibre plays in our diet. So, we should start including it in our daily diet which will definitely help us to build a healthy and fit physique both from inside and outside.

Romeo Juliet – Love Retold

Fanfiction of Romeo and Juliet by wordsoflavanya

On the way to the castle

“Take your hand inside sweetheart, you’ll catch a cold,” said the nurse. The coldness of the night and the beauty of the moon can’t stop Julia from peeping out. She wrapped her warm arms around and lost herself in the view. She was distracted by the sudden fire and cries of the people. 

“Nurse, the carriages are set on fire by the Montagues” a stammered and broken voice was heard. 

“Julia, come here dear. We’ll be okay” comforted the nurse. 

A man who hid in his clothes pulled Julian’s hand. “Dare to harm my child!” the nurse shouted in anger. 

“What are you doing…we aren’t here for this” he took his hands off her. 

“But these people…they…”

“Romeo…let’s move. They’re here”, Benvolio shouted at the top of his voice. 

But they were already lost in their sight. They couldn’t take their eyes off each other but were forced to move. 

Tybalt and the Capulet men rushed to the scene and found the carriages and their commodities set on fire. Tybalt took off his sword and tried to tear their face cover. Within a strike of lightning, the men in the black horses disappeared. And Julian was finally able to hear the nurse’s voice.

“Are you okay dear…Speak something?” she asked. “Yeah…I…I’m okay…” she replied.

“Calm and cold was the night

Until the lovers were made to meet

The dreamers had their first dream

Romeo and Juliet – destiny they called

The moon smirked behind the clouds

As if it already knew their fate.”

That night neither the two eyes had a wink of sleep. Both had a question linger in their mind, “Are we meant to be?”

Capulet’s castle

“We are having a ball in a fortnight and Montague is trying to trigger us into a fight,” said Lady Capulet.

“Calm down. We must not react as we shall meet Count Paris anytime” advised the Lord. 

“You have promised Julian to me, Uncle,” Tybalt interrupted. 

“You are unable to save the people and my Julia…how can I promise my child to you and the connections are more important to us than your feelings” replied Lord Capulet and left the room hastily.

“Prepare the ball and let the Montagues be invited as it is a social gathering” ordered Lady to the servants. 

Juliet’s room

“Nurse, I think I’m in love. I couldn’t think of anything else since I met him” she told the nurse. 

“Julia, who are you talking about?” asked the nurse with a smile. 

“The man we met last night…Romeo”

 “Have you lost your mind? This can’t happen. Your father is going to announce your engagement in a fortnight. Better forget him dear” she advised her. 

“Why can’t you understand nurse, Count Paris isn’t a good man…” 

“But that’s what the Lord wants my child” she replied. Julia sighed and went outside the room to watch the stars or it was the silly reason she gave herself to get lost in Romeo’s thoughts. 

“Oh, Romeo! Thou art a Montague?

You and I are foes but I love you

I don’t care about the rest if I have you

Will I ever hear a word from you?”

She questioned looking at the sky. 

“Juliet, Oh my love!

And a sudden yet familiar voice hit her ears. 

Will you be my bride?

Our name is the pain

Our love is the cure”

“I recognize your voice, Romeo?” “How did you come here?” she asked. 

“Didn’t you want me here, Julia?” Romeo jumped into her balcony from the dark.  

“Your eyes are the lanterns of my night sky. I would get lost in the depth of your eyes and never wake up. You are the sun that lights up my world and the serene moon which makes me calm. You’re my life, my love!” 

“Don’t you feel the same, Juliet? 

“I do, my love”. Her eyes gleamed in the moonlight. 

“Come inside Juliet” her nurse called. 

“Go. Otherwise, they’ll find you Romeo” “Let’s meet at the square tomorrow at noon. I’ll wait for you,” she said, holding his hands unwilling to let go. 

“I’ll wait for you there…come soon. Good night love. Let’s meet in our dreams” he kissed her forehead. It’s been a perfect night for the lovers, the nightingale sang their love story and the sky blushed. 

“Where have you been my dear friend, I find something mysterious in you…?” 

“Mercutio, I met the most beautiful woman in the world. Her eyes teach me new words and I wish to be hers’ forever. I’m in love with her, my friend” 

“I’m in love with Juliet Capulet”

“So, Romeo Montague is in love with Capulet” “But do you know that Count Paris is suited to Juliet?” Mercutio asked.

“It doesn’t matter when love is the only language we know” he smiled and took his departure. 

At the Square

It has been their longest wait. They craved to see each other, hold hands, and to get lost in their world. Julia was on the way riding a black horse to meet the love of her life.

“You look more beautiful in the day than at night,” he said, resisting himself to adore her. 

“Finally, I see your hair color,” she said smiling.

A week passed in a fraction of a second. Their love grew stronger and greater as days passed by. They lived an eternity every time they met. They decided to marry in the presence of Friar Lawrence as they knew it would be impossible to convince their parents.

Two days before the ball

On a bright sunny day, at the holy church, the lovers exchanged their marriage vows. Their meeting wasn’t an accident. Their paths are meant to be crossed and now they are two bodies and a soul. It was the happiest moment for the lovers. They weren’t lovers anymore. After spending the entire day together, they had their goodbye kiss as husband and wife. 

“I’ll sort everything out very soon. Don’t you worry my wife” he said.

“We will,” she said. 

Some stories last for a lifetime

Some are just made to cross paths

But there are some which are

meant to be – the eternal one

Romeo and Juliet.

At the ball

The Capulets, the Montagues, the King and the Prince all were gathered for the ceremony. Lord Capulet was very eager to inform his daughter’s engagement with Count Prince. Tybalt was filled with anger. Romeo and Juliet were in mixed emotions. It is the last opportunity to expose their relationship to their family. 

“You’re beautiful Juliet Capulet, my wife,” said Count Prince.

“I’m a loyal wife of Romeo and I have the same second name as him” she confronted everyone in the hall. 

Everyone in the ceremony was speechless. Lord Capulet and Montague started to argue. Tybalt, who was full of anger, took out his sword and tried to attack Romeo. But he wasn’t ready to fight as Tybalt is his family now. Mercutio tried to convince Tybalt but was triggered by his anger. He took out his sword and started fighting. Within a moment, Mercutio was hurt. There was blood and he was on his verge of death. Romeo was crying beside him, unable to control his emotions.

“You must live, my friend. Violence won’t end violence; only love will. My love wasn’t meant to be and I want you to live. I want your love to end this war” he said. He smiled at a woman in the crowd. He knew she was the only one who could give him peace even in the pain. 

Mercutio died. 

The Prince lost his temper. He ordered Tybalt to leave the country. He also ordered the Capulets and the Montagues to accept Romeo and Juliet. Juliet was crying. Romeo consoled her. 

“We won’t accept you,” said Lord Capulet.

“Neither will we,” said Montague.

But the lovers were sure. It’s them or nothing. They started their life hoping it will grow beautiful someday. 

Ten years later

“Wake up kids. We need to pay a visit to your grandparents” Jula said to Catherine and Harry. 

Romeo entered the room.

“You’re beautiful my love” he kissed her. 

Julia held his hands and smiled at him. 

On a beautiful morning
At our home filled with
our children’s laughter
With you by my side
I would still tell,
“You’re beautiful”
And you’ll smile back at me.


Pollution

The term pollution refers to any change in the natural quality of the environment brought about by chemical,physical or biological factors. Thus, environmental pollution refers to any unfavourable alteration of our surroundings,wholly or largely as a byproduct of man’s actions.

TYPES OF POLLUTION

Pollution can be classified as follows: On the basis of the part of the environment where it takes place- atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere , it is known as air pollution ,water pollution and soil pollution, respectively.

AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution is the excessive concentration of foreign matter in the air which adversely affects the well beings, animals, plants and their environment. Air pollution takes place through the pollutants of gas, solid and liquid particles of both organic and inorganic chemicals .Gases such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide , pollens from plants etc. are continuously added to the air thereby, lowering its quality. Thus, the natural composition of the air is disturbed by natural or by man made sources.

WATER POLLUTION

Water pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water,making it unsuitable for designated use in its natural state. WHO has defined water pollution as any foreign material either from natural or other sources that may contaminate the water supply and make it harmful to life. Pollution of water leads to reduction of normal oxygen level of water, causes aesthetically unpalatable effects and spread of epidemic diseases.Water pollution impacts the entire food chain and affects human health as toxins from contaminated fishes,prawns etc, get deposited in human tissues. This leads to cancer,birth defects or long term health problems.

SOIL POLLUTION

Soil is the upper layer of earth’s crust which is formed by weathering of rocks.Organic matter in the soil makes it suitable for living organisms. Soil pollution is defined as the change in physical, chemical and biological conditions of the soil throghs man intervention resulting in degradation in quality and productivity of the soil. The pollutants enter the food chain at the plant level and get magnified as we move up the food chain. Also soil pollution differs air and water pollution as the pollutants remain in soil for longer period.

NOISE POLLUTION

Noise pollution is defined as an unwanted sound that is an irritant and a source of stress. Sound is the means of communication and entertainment. A low sound is pleasant but a loud sound is unpleasant and is often referred to as a noise. Noise is a physical form of pollution which is not directly harmful to the life supporting systems namely air, water and soil. Its effects are more directly felt by the receiver .Most of the noise originates from modern industrialised urban life. The main sources of noise pollution are industrial sector ,transport sector ,household sector defence sector ,loud speakers etc.

THE PRESENCE OF THE U.S. MILITARY TROOPS IN AFGHANISTAN.

AFGHANISTAN: BACKGROUND AND U.S. POLICY ( in brief )

Afghanistan emerged as a significant U.S. foreign policy concern in 2001, when the United States, in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, led a military campaign against Al Qaeda and the Afghan Taliban government that harbored and supported it. in the intervening 19 years, the United States has suffered over 22,000 military casualties in Afghanistan and congress has appropriated approximately $144 billion for reconstruction and security forces there. In that time, an elected Afghan government has replaced the Taliban; improvement in most measures of human development is limited; and future prospects of gains remain mixed.

The United States and its international partners are removing their military forces from Afghanistan as part of a withdrawal announced by President Biden on April 14, 2021, heralding a possible end to the nearly two-decade U.S. military presence in the country. In a February 2020 agreement with the Taliban, the Trump Administration preventing other groups, including Al Qaeda, from using Afghan soil to recruit, train, or fundraise toward activities that threaten the United States or its allies.

INTRODUCTION :-

This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. policy in Afghanistan, with a focus on the ongoing U.S. military withdrawal and its implications for a number of factors, including :

  • security dynamics and the ongoing conflict between the Afghan government and the Taliban.
  • the social and political gains made in Afghanistan since 2001; and
  • intra- Afghan negotiations, which began in Doha, Qatar, in September 2020, but appear tp have since stalled.

The report also provides information on question about the future of U.S. development and security aid to Afghanistan.

BACKGROUND : U.S.- TALIBAN AGREEMENT

After more than a year of negotiations, U.S. and Taliban representatives signed a bilateral agreement on February 29, 2020, agreeing to two “interconnected” guarantees : the withdrawal of all U.S. and international forces by May 2021, and unspecific Taliban action to prevent other groups from using Afghan soil to threaten the United States and its allies.

In the months after the agreement, several U.S. officials asserted that the Taliban were not fulfilling their commitments under the accord, especially with the regard to Al Qaeda. U.S. officials also described increased Taliban violence as “not consistent” with agreement. Although no provisions in the publicly available agreement address Taliban attacks on U.S. forces in non- public annexes accompanying the accord. Some lawmakers have raised questions about the executive branch’s decision to classify these annexes.

Survival Guide For Distance Learning Education

Computers have provided students and teachers with a plethora of new opportunities in recent years. Technology has progressed beyond books and chalkboards. Every day, more computers are being introduced into schools. With the world becoming more computerized, it is more important than ever to teach people how to use technology. Learning for kids is not only more fascinating, but also more enjoyable, thanks to the modern technologies that teachers employ. The Internet has made a huge difference in schooling. We can now take lessons online from hundreds of miles away while yet feeling like we are in the classroom thanks to the Internet.

Learning can be a difficult task for anyone who wishes to broaden their horizons. Learning has entered a new era with the help of online schools, which is quickly expanding. Secondary education is now available online for individuals who wish to earn their degree. For some pupils, this may not be the best schooling, but for others, it is ideal. To maximize the benefits of online college, a student in an online school must learn to apply his or her educational abilities and tools.

Goal-Setting and Goal-Achievement

Creating an action plan is the first step in doing anything significant. This action plan will assist any student in achieving his or her objectives. This strategy is just a set of objectives. Short-term and long-term attainable goals should be established in order to demonstrate the student’s progress. The long-term goal would be considered the action plan’s final result. Although a student may have numerous long-term goals, it is critical that each long-term goal has its own plan. Short-term goals should serve as stepping stones toward the achievement of the major long-term goal. Short-term goals should also be attainable in order to help the student gain confidence and demonstrate progress. Setting and achieving goals will be extremely vital throughout one’s online learning journey.

Retrieval technique

Retrieval technique entails bringing knowledge from memory to mind. Students do this when they take practice tests or quizzes, but it can also happen in other ways. Students can, for example, jot down what they remember on a blank sheet of paper or even sketch ideas. The important thing is that they should recall the knowledge from memory. So, while duplicating one’s notes would be ineffective, attempting to summarize one’s notes from memory would be extremely valuable. Students do not need to recall everything and can use their notes or course materials to fill up any gaps following retrieval.

Using Time Efficiently

Time is a valuable commodity. Each kid has an own learning style. It is critical to understand each student’s personality and learning style in order to maximize each student’s abilities. Participating in Discussion Questions and speaking with one another allows each student to evaluate who is the greatest at learning in each type. People with the personality styles of organizer, adventurer, giver, and thinker fall into this category.

Elaboration

Elaboration entails posing “how” and “why” questions regarding a certain issue and then attempting to find answers. Students understand and learn more when they try to describe and explain how and why things work. Students can also apply the themes to their own life, or compare and contrast two topics to see how they are similar and different. This method can be assigned to a single student or a group of pupils. Students can use elaboration in online discussion boards or virtual groups via video chat in a distance environment.

CHANGING DYNAMICS OF EMERGING ACADEMICS

Emerging academics

There are so many academic studies introduced in this emerging world. The value for these new studies is great and respectful. Some new academic studies include Artificial intelligence, Machine learning, Deep learning, Cloud computing, and so on. Though the demand for studying these is less among students earlier, it attracts students who are interested in that field. The moment people realize about emerging technologies chooses to study in these fields.

New Technologies
New Technologies

Blooming Fields

Since these studies involve the development in science and the world, software industries are interested to show their talent among their competitors. So, this increases the search for talented students to work with them. Therefore it creates large employment opportunities in these fields. So, we can mark these as a blooming fields.

Awareness among students and parents

Also, due to the pandemic situation right now, the internet discovered many students interested in these fields. Many inventions and discoveries have been made by students to help this world. Thereby it enhances the academic and leadership potential of the students. This shows people’s awareness about the new academic fields.

In India, many new courses and streams have been introduced in colleges and schools to develop the standard in education. Also, awareness about these courses is being made among students by government and industry peoples. 

Online class
Online Class

Due to the pandemic situation, students attend online classes which also made students think about the necessity of new technologies and the demand for these technologies. Since new streams are introduced in colleges, some parents who understood the real demand are interested to join their children to enlighten their knowledge.

 Hereby, we can conclude that the dynamics for emerging academics are changing in developing countries.

Computer literacy is an essential.. find out why?

Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently.
Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs
and other applications that are associated with computers. The precise definition of “computer
literacy” can vary from group to group. However, “computer literate” often connotes little more
that the ability to use several specific applications (such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft
Internet Explorer) for certain very well-defined simple tasks.

The great thing about computer knowledge, though, is that learning begets learning. Once you
figure out how one part works, it gets easier to dive into other parts and figure out how things
work.
And the benefits of having some basic computer knowledge under your belt extend way beyond
just the tech industry, especially in the 21st century. And here’s why:

They Make You a Better Problem-Solver

Problem-solving skills are universal and can be applied to virtually every part of your life, and
work, regardless of industry. From identifying an issue and breaking it down into parts to problems.

They Future-Proof Your Career

Virtually every career and industry is becoming more tech-reliant. From agriculture to education,
all are integrating tech into their day-to-day operations. It’s clear – those who have tech skills and
are comfortable working with technology will have a much easier time adapting to changing
expectations.

They Make You a Better Collaborator

Connecting with others from diverse backgrounds increases the ability to understand multiple
perspectives. Learning from and with others all over the world is possible with digital tools like
Twitter and Skype, to name a few. Students can work beyond their classroom walls to find
answers to real problems. By engaging in this type of collaboration, individuals are even more
prepared to participate successfully in our global economy.

They Make You a Well-Rounded Individual

Having a well-rounded set of skills and knowledge will serve you well, both professionally and
personally. Being able to list basic tech skills on your resume will make you more attractive to
virtually every employer out there, regardless of industry. And as more and more people become
involved in the tech industry, having at least a passing knowledge of what it’s all about can come
in handy when networking personally or professionally.

They Make You a Better Leader

Companies are now reliant on technology and as a manager or CEO, it’s important to be able to work effectively with either a department that handles web development or with an outside
agency that handles the same. And if you don’t know the first thing about the jobs those
departments or agencies do, it makes it a lot harder to work with them in a way that’s both
efficient and productive.

The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.

Stephen Hawking

Appreciating Teachers Virtually On Their Special Day

Across the world, Teachers Day is the mark of appreciation in the world among everybody. It is one of the most memorable days in the life of a teacher and a student

It stands a greatly respectable job with significant honour and several responsibilities.

God made a profession like a teacher who can play multiple roles in their career as he knows he can’t be everywhere

From google

Like a Candle, they burn throughout to lighten our lives with their knowledge and leaves us with their knowledge and wisdom.

From google

Teachers are like magicians who use their magic wands to help us make our lives easier and more fruitful. They push us to attain our motivation and understands our problems without the need to tell them.

In Independent India, the first man teacher is known as Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan who was an Indian academic, professor, philosopher and politician and who served as the first Vice President of India (1952-1962) and the second President of India (1962-1967).

First Male Teacher of India

His famous quote is-

Instead of celebrating my birthday, it would be my proud privilege if 5 September is observed as Teacher’s Day

From google

And on the other side, Savitribai Phule is regarded as the first female teacher of India(1848). she was a trailblazer in providing education for girls and ostracised portions of society. she opened a school for girls with her husband, Jyotirao Phule.

First Female Teacher of India

Her famous quote is-

Awake, arise and educate. smash traditions. liberate.

From google

To celebrate this occasion, students perform songs and plays, affirming the contribution of their teachers. Students also show their devotion to their favourite teachers in the form of cards, speeches, flowers, and chocolates.

In this pandemic time of COVID, teachers have shown that learning never stops, they have made an effort very hard to discover solutions and establish different learning surrounding for their students to permit education to go on with.

From google
From google

So, We also should not hold back from appreciating them. we all have seen how much they do and how their devotion help students to learn and grow even in this challenging time.

But now the question is How do we thank our teachers for their immense work?

There are various ways to celebrate this day virtually-

1.Students can make a short video to praise the teacher. they can dedicate poetry or some Thankyoulines.

This idea is ensured to bring tears to a teacher’s eye

2.Make a beautiful card, virtual stickers, or certificate or many more just to say #Thankyou

3.Make a lovely sketch to appreciate your teacher

4.Send your teacher a virtual gift card to thank them for all they do

5.Sing a Thankyou Song and post it to celebrate teacher’s day

6.And many more.

Just show your emotions towards your teachers and made them realize how valuable they are for the whole nation because teachers are the Nation builder

They have been our guiding spirits and role models and we are grateful to them.

Thank you!

Importance of an Internship

Individuals from different sections of the society often see to get confused with their present career interest or worry about their career goals or want to give shape to their career after a gap. For them, internship exposure can be one of the ways to structure their career.

  • A recent college graduate who could not get a job through college placement and whose resume lacks professional experience can start their career with internship.
  • A mother who took a break from her career to take care of her child and want to start her career again, can join any organisation as an intern to update herself about the market.
  • Internship can be a good strategy for an individual who in his late 30s is planning to switch careers to convert his interest as his profession.

4 ways college students benefit from internships

  • 1. Students can apply their classroom learning in professional environments
  • Students can gain exposure to their chosen field
  • Students can establish critical networking connections
  • Students can gain coveted work experience

“Whenever you are asked if you can do a job, tell ‘em, ‘Certainly I can!’ Then get busy and find out how to do it.”

Shah Rukh Khan

Internships are not limited to college students. Anyone seeking a career change will find that internships introduce them to a new career, help them to explore different skills, and prepare them for new experiences. For college students, summertime is an ideal opportunity to explore career interests while still in school but not actively involved with classroom and homework requirements.

Reasons Why An Internship is Important to All Students

  • Application of education and career exploration. Internships are a great way to apply the knowledge from the classroom to real-world experience. Learning is one thing, but taking those skills into the workforce and applying them is a great way to explore different career paths and specializations that suit individual interests.
  • Gain experience and increase marketability. Having an internship gives you experience in the career field you want to pursue. Not only does this give individuals an edge over other candidates when applying for jobs, it also prepares them for what to expect in their field and increases confidence in their work.
  • Learn how a professional workplace operates. Depending on your major, you may read about how organizations thrive and function in textbooks, hear from guest speakers who talk about organizational structures, or dive into case studies about workplace culture, but nothing compares to living the actual experience.
  • Professionalism. Internships can provide students with the soft skills needed in the workplace and in leadership positions. In a LinkedIn Skills Report (2018), 57% of people rated soft skills as being more important than technical skills. Skills, such as communication, leadership, problem-solving, and teamwork can all be learned through an internship and utilized beyond that experience.
  • Build your resume. Most organizations and jobs that you apply to following graduation want employees to have some sort of professional experience, even for entry-level jobs. In the event that you are a finalist for a position and haven’t had an internship experience but the other finalist has, you may lose out on a job opportunity, so make sure you at least have one internship on your resume before leaving college to give you a leg up on the competition.
  • Figure out what you like and don’t like. While everyone probably wants to walk away from an internship feeling excited and passionate about the experience, there’s a silver-lining to be found if you didn’t enjoy the job: you’ll know what you don’t like. According to an article from monster.com, “figuring out what type of job you don’t want while you’re interning can help prevent you from accepting an ill-fitting job when you graduate.”

Revisiting our school days: Memories We Miss

As we developed more seasoned, we perceived that our school years were the greatest long periods of our lives. School days are the greatest days since there is no work pressure, no worry about bringing in cash, and we have limitless opportunity to play and appreciate life as we pick.

I detested getting up toward the beginning of the day (which I actually do) and preparing for school, reviewing the entirety of the earlier day’s homework that was forced upon us every one of us. Consistently, I used to ponder internally, “Gracious, wow! When will I grow up and not need to stress over concentrating constantly? “.. However, at the present time, I’d effectively return to my grade school days, sit in my study hall, play flares and spasm tac toe with my buddies, and tattle about who really have crush on whom. I’m certain we have a billion different recollections from our school days; for what reason don’t we restore them on the spot?

Picture of school trip with teachers and students.
  • The adventure of getting another school uniform, covering books in earthy colored paper, and staying your favourite stickers on them.
  • Checking whether the teacher brings the appropriate response sheets after the test.
  • It is one of the undertakings offered to understudies that falls under the classification of The Most Daring Tasks. The ideal title for you is Khatron Ke Khiladi since you can open your lunch box and burn-through your food without the teacher taking note. You are accountable for the whole class. We as a whole anticipated the mid-day break since it gave us a break from contemplating and a chance to socialize. We additionally anticipated the break time eagerly when we realized we had our number one food in our lunch box.
  • Perhaps the main parts of education is social studies. We ordinarily bunked the social studies class avoided a few or the entirety of my homework since I’m a particularly good-for-nothing. Notwithstanding the schoolwork component, I’m certain the vast majority of us wanted for a too arrogant teacher to deal with and would leave us with a substitute teacher. Yaayyyy! Available energy was the most delightful thing that consistently happened to me.
  • We as a whole have accounts of times when we bothered our mates. We stimulated my pals and composing on their notebook to prod them, which by and large formed into a composing war. THOSE WERE THE GOOD OLD DAYS!
  • At the point when companions are trapped amidst the most troublesome events, they can turn into the most interesting. Indeed, even the most ludicrous things sound interesting. Furthermore, when you have a parody amigo adjacent to you, it’s outlandish not to laugh.
  • We used to count the number of children and adhere to the passage that we needed to peruse to relinquish the strain of focusing on each section.
  • The most euphoric second was the point at which the last ringer rang and the time had come to pack things. They’re all prepared to get back with smiles and fun.
  • We are totally favored to have encountered these wonderful minutes, the hints of which will live on to us for eternity.
  • The last exam was constantly joined by euphoric sentiments, as though one were eased and flying through the air. Likewise, the staggering pleasure made it hard to decide the best strategy to celebrate.
  • Last-minute revision, regardless of whether for a short test or a last, most important test, consistently made my heart race.
  • Without these large events, school would be incomplete. We can recall how excited we were at the prospect of wearing traditional dress for the first time in school. We were all so psyched about the farewell we’d be holding the following year before even finishing 9th grade.
  • The school trips and picnics, which were full of fun and learning, are undoubtedly one of the fondest memories we have of our school years. We were bound by a set of rules, dos and don’ts as students. While these limits and constraints are crucial for a our overall growth, it is equally critical that they be allowed to explore and experiment on occasion.
  • The best part about our school life was our First Crush. You become a regular student at school exclusively to see your crush everyday. At the prize conveyance function, you may have gotten an regular student prize. Thank your crush for everything.

Looking back, we understand how uninformed we were in school and how many flaws we possessed. Our time in school, on the other hand, taught us the value of education, and we would not have the excellent friends, knowledge, experiences, or memories that we do now if it weren’t for our school years.

Despite the excitement that fills our days and years in high school, we also mature enough to recognize the value of time. Because we acquired dedication, hard effort, motivation, and self-actualization in high school, it is a fantastic chapter in our memory.

Conclusion

It is claimed that a person always remembers his or her first and last days of school. The first day a youngster remembers is when he or she arrived weeping. And the last day a pupil remembers is the day they leave school, crying once more. In my situation, I recall my first day of school and my last day of school vividly. The benefits of attending school are unquestionably numerous. School days are, without a doubt, the happiest of our lives.

Why is Reading so important?

When we can watch the movie, listen to the audiobook, or watch a YouTube video synopsis instead, it can be difficult to convince ourselves to read a 382-page book.

Am I correct?

You’re missing out if the majority of your daily reading consists of social media posts, text messages, and news headlines.So, what are some of the advantages of reading books?

Boosts your imagination and creativity.

Reading can help you extend your creative muscles if you’re ever stuck. Reading a book, particularly fiction, enhances your creativity. You become an active participant in the activity when your mind creates a picture of what you’re reading. At least one study backs up this claim. A questionnaire was given to 100 people after they read either a fictitious story or a nonfiction piece. The fiction readers’ responses were more imaginative than the essay readers’.

Enhances concentration

If you’re still not convinced or convinced that reading is necessary, or that it isn’t beneficial to you, it’s crucial to remember that reading actually improves focus. Reading may teach our minds to focus correctly, which is beneficial in practically everything we do on a daily basis from studying to working and maintaining personal relationships. We may all benefit from improving our ability to concentrate.

Reading helps us to break free from the constant state of ‘multitasking.’ It permits us to concentrate entirely on one task at a time and be fully present in it.

Improve vocabulary

Stanovich discovered that passionate readers have a 50 percent bigger vocabulary in the same studies. This is due to the fact that the more you read, the more unfamiliar words you encounter. You can learn the meanings through context or by looking them up, and your vocabulary will grow over time. Learning new phrases is beneficial to your mental health.

Increases your empathy

Empathy is the ability to comprehend and sympathize with others, even if we disagree with them on a particular issue. While some people are born with a lot of empathy, the majority of us could use a little more. Reading can be beneficial. Members of a group read a variety of genres in 2013, including literary fiction, popular fiction, and nonfiction. A control group did not get any information. Researchers discovered that participants who read literary fiction were better at recognizing facial expressions and estimating how the characters in their books would respond during the experiment. This is due to the fact that characters in literary literature are often multifaceted. Readers must be more attentive and empathic.

Create a Feeling of Belonging

A book might also be your best buddy if you are ever feeling lonely or lost. It may sound stupid, but it is absolutely true, and there is nothing to be ashamed about. We’ve all been there, and we could all use some comfort and a nice book.Reading can give us a sense of belonging, give us hope through difficult times, and remind us that we are not alone. Reading about people who have faced similar difficulties and overcame them may be a real source of motivation. If they can do it, you can do it, too! A good book can sometimes be just what we need to keep going.

Is a great Conversation starter

Reading is beneficial not only to the soul and mind, but it also serves as an excellent conversation starter. Reading exposes you to a wealth of new information and allows you to connect with people from all over the world.If two people have read the same book, it will always bring them together, regardless of where they are from. You never know when a book you’ve just finished will come in helpful in a conversation. Perhaps it will help you land the job in an interview, or perhaps it will help you get closer to a romantic partner you’ve been eyeing.

Enhances emotional well-being

Emotions abound in books. With each page turn, they will make you cry at times, and at other moments, they will make you smile. It can make you angry when the story’s opponent succeeds in his terrible scheme, but it can also make you happy when your hero accomplishes his aim. Books have the power to make us happy, sad, envious, loved, betrayed, and many other emotions! Books are thus a mash-up of various conflicting feelings that, in the end, help us grow emotionally!

Improves Communication Capabilities

A key life skill is the capacity to communicate effectively.According to one research, 69 percent of companies prefer to hire persons who have “soft” talents like excellent communication.What’s the good news? One of the most important advantages of reading is that it improves our communication skills.How? Reading every day can help us communicate better in a variety of ways. Reading, for example, can improve your writing skills and expand your vocabulary.

Assist You in De-Stressing

In our busy and chaotic lives, many of us have a lot of things that stress us out, and we’re often seeking for fresh, concrete ways to deal with these worries. Reading, believe it or not, can genuinely help you relax. It’s not always necessary to spend a lot of money on professionals and programs to create a sense of peace; sometimes a simple book can suffice. Reading is an excellent method to unwind and soothe those tense nerves that plague you at work.

In fact, a recent study indicated that just six minutes of reading was enough to reduce muscular tension and bring down readers’ heart rates.Overall, it resulted in a 68 percent reduction in stress levels.

Enhances your writing abilities

If you’re at all interested in the craft of writing, you’re aware that some of the best authors advise extensive reading. You grow more familiar with structure, character development, and literary styles as you read more. This is true for both fiction and nonfiction. Even if you don’t need to write much in your daily life, reading prepares you for any eventuality, whether it’s a Christmas card, an email, a personal blog, or a diary post.

Overall, reading every day increases your chances of retaining your mental faculties and living longer!

Hyperthyroidism Awareness

It is important to remember that hyperthyroidism can occur at any age. While most may present with a rather typical constellation of symptoms, many may present with exacerbation of pre-existing conditions which may make the diagnosis initially elusive. Worsening anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, panic attacks, palpitations, hypertension or diarrhea may not initially signal that the thyroid is involved. Clinicians must have a low threshold to check thyroid function early to rule out a component of hyperthyroidism.

Once a suppressed thyrotropin (TSH) has been detected, further investigation with serum triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxine (free T4) can help delineate overt from subclinical disease. A thorough history of past thyroid disease, as well as current medications and supplements, can help detect any pre-existing diagnoses or exogenous sources of thyroid hormone or over supplementation with iodine. More commonly, hyperthyroidism is due to either Graves diseasetoxic multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma. Distinction between these can usually be made with the assistance of a thyroid uptake scan, TSH receptor antibody measurement, and thyroid ultrasound. An additional physical exam finding of exophthalmos can further support the diagnosis of Graves’ disease. Understanding the etiology can help guide patient expectations. A small percentage of patients with Graves’ Disease may undergo spontaneous remission after 1 to 2 years, which may prompt patients to wait before considering a definitive treatment option.

With confirmation of the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, focus is on hormonal control with an antithyroid medication (ATM, most commonly Methimazole in the United States). This may be augmented with beta-blockade, steroids, cholestyramine or SSKI for those who are difficult to control.

Many patients may need further consideration for definitive management with either radioactive iodine ablation (RAI) or thyroidectomy. Your local resources may also influence these options, but it is critical to understand that all three treatments (ATM, RAI and thyroidectomy) are possible options. Certain patient factors and priorities may alter the preferred definitive treatment. Smaller gland size, easy to control hormones, and lack of eye symptoms are factors that may favor continued ATM management. A large goiter with compressive symptoms, difficult to control hormones requiring high dose medications/ multiple modalities, pregnancy, severe eye disease, multiple nodules within the thyroid with or without thyroid cancer, or desire for rapid and reliable hormone control may favor thyroidectomy. RAI is a good option for patients with a smaller gland size, and a desire to pursue definitive management but avoid surgery.

There are also relative contraindications for treatment options. ATMs may have serious side effects, like agranulocytosis or liver failure, which prevent further use, or may cause skin eruptions making long term use intolerable. Additionally, high dose requirements or fluctuating doses may make long term use of ATMs not reliable. Women who are pregnant, wanting to become pregnant in the next 6 months to 1 year, breast feeding or have small children in the home will want to avoid RAI. Patients with severe eye involvement, have a large goiter with compressive symptoms, or are smokers should also avoid RAI. Thyroidectomy will be a poor option for patients with multiple previous neck operations on or around the thyroid due to internal scarring, or who are high risk for general anesthesia. Additionally, if they have a history of previous gastric bypass surgery, they are higher risk for major complications from hypocalcemia/hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy.

To help the patient navigate these decisions, it is important to allow them the opportunity to discuss each treatment option with respective physician experts – medical management with endocrinology, RAI with endocrinology and potentially nuclear medicine as well, and thyroidectomy with the thyroid surgeon.

In summary, patients with hyperthyroidism require medical control, as well as a clear understanding of the etiology of their hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma have more than one treatment option, and it is important for patients to be educated and engaged in treatment decisions.

For Further Reference:
American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and other causes of Thyrotoxicosis| by the American Thyroid Association

Self care is not selfish thing

Often times, when we do something for ourselves, it is considered selfish. Growing up it is common to be taught to take care of other people and put others first. However, when it comes to our mental and emotional health, these types of actions of neglecting yourself to put others first can have huge consequences.

Self-care can be confusing and it can make you feel like you are putting too much attention on yourself. But remember, self-care never has and never will be selfish, especially when it comes to mental health.

In order to take care of other people, you must take care of yourself first. 

Why Self-Care is Important

Self-Care is one of the most important things that a person can do for themselves. It is not only vital for your physical health, but also your emotional and mental health as well.

There are many misconceptions around self-care and what exactly it entails. However, self-care is really not that complicated. At the most basic level,

self-care is just doing good things for yourself. This could be anything from working out, to taking an hour every night to journal, anything that makes you feel good.

Self-care requires you to know and understand yourself. You are forced to listen to your body and mind, understand what resources are running low and what you have to do to replenish them. 

There are many benefits that come with performing self-care. Some of them include increased productivity, improved resistance to illnesses & better physical health are just a few. These benefits are just the beginning.  Some of the other, more personal benefits are, enhanced self-esteem, increased self-knowledge, and most importantly, you have more to give to other people.

When you are mindful about reguarily carving out time for yourself and making sure that your physical, emotional, and mental needs are being met, you will feel better in all aspects of your life.

This makes it easier for you to work with and help others in their time of need. Just like when you are on an airplane, you have to take care of yourself before you can help anyone else. 

Stigma Around Self-Care

Self-care can be hard, not only because of the stigma that surrounds it, but because it can be extremely difficult to admit that you need help or to take care of yourself when you are struggling with your own mental health.

Growing up, it is extremely common to hear that you should put others before yourself. Kids are taught that being too vain or thinking about yourself is selfish. When you take time to take care of yourself, friends and family may start to get frustrated or say that you need to spend more time thinking about others and spending time with them.

Read also: We need support, not stigma. How do we end the stigma around mental illness and start talking about it?

However, the worst stigma, is self-stigma. The voice in your head that tells you to stop focusing on yourself, saying that you don’t deserve the time or attention that you are giving yourself.

You start to think about all of the things that you are neglecting and the people who deserve your attention more. However, this self-stigma, and any outside stigma, is far from true.

By taking care of yourself you are making sure that you will be able to help and encourage others.  

How you can Take Care of Yourself 

Self-care can be difficult because of the stigma that comes with it. However, understanding how, and being able to take care of yourself is one of the strongest things that you can do.

It is also important to distinguish between the things that actually make you feel good and things that you think make you feel good, but often have the reverse effect, like drugs & alcohol, over-eating, and taking risks. 

There are many different types of self-care; the most well-known is physical self-care. When people say that they are trying to take care of themselves this is often what they mean.

Physical self-care can be helpful not only for your physical health but also to help you let off steam. This doesn’t have to be going to the gym, it can also mean dancing around the house to your favorite song, doing yoga, or going outside and going for a walk. This could also be taking a nap when you need some extra rest or giving yourself a break when you are down or unwell.

However, while physical health is important and this type of self-care can make a huge difference, it can also be harmful to your mental health if you focus on your physical self too much and too often. Working out and getting the ‘perfect’ body isn’t what self-care is all about.

It is vital to remember the other parts of yourself that need to be taken care of, make sure that you aren’t focusing on the outer-self to avoid taking care of your inner-self. 

Sensory self-care helps to calm the mind. This will help you to live in the moment, focus better, and let go of the past and forget your anxieties.

This type of self-care is all about sight, smell, touch, and sound. This could be considered sitting outside at the beach, enjoying the feeling of the water on your skin from a shower or a bath, or listening to calming music. Anything that helps you feel calm and relaxed. 

Purpose of Education?

“The purpose of education has always been to every one, in
essence, the same—to give the young the things they need in
order to develop in an orderly, sequential way into members of
society. This was the purpose of the education given to a little
aboriginal in the Australian bush before the coming of the white
man. It was the purpose of the education of youth in the golden
age of Athens. It is the purpose of education today, whether
this education goes on in a one-room school in the mountains
of Tennessee or in the most advanced, progressive school in a
radical community. But to develop into a member of society in
the Australian bush had nothing in common with developing into
a member of society in ancient Greece, and still less with what
is needed today. Any education is, in its forms and methods, an
outgrowth of the needs of the society in which it exists.”(1934)

“The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may be the man gifted with reason but no morals. … We must remember that intelligence is not enough. Intelligence plus character—that is the goal of true education.” (1948)

“The main purpose of the American school is
to provide for the fullest possible development
of each learner for living morally, creatively, and
productively in a democratic society.”(1954)

“[The purpose of education] has changed from that of producing a literate society to that of producing a learning society.”(1961)

“The one continuing purpose of education, since ancient times,
has been to bring people to as full a realization as possible of
what it is to be a human being. Other statements of educational
purpose have also been widely accepted: to develop the intellect,
to serve social needs, to contribute to the economy, to
create an effective work force, to prepare students for a job or
career, to promote a particular social or political system. These
purposes offered are undesirably limited in scope, and in some
instances they conflict with the broad purpose I have indicated;
they imply a distorted human existence. The broader humanistic
purpose includes all of them, and goes beyond them, for it seeks
to encompass all the dimensions of human experience.”(1991)

Unemployment-hindrance to development

Unemployment became a never ending war problem in front of our country .But the outbreak of covid19 make this problem more dense. Now along with the problem of unemployment the problem of disguised employment is in front of us. Unemployment means the numbers of individuals in the state are finding jobs for which they are fit, and they are willing to, but not getting that. Or simply a person is willing for a paid job or searching for one. It is a curse to society and decreases the economic growth of the country. The particular age group of unemployment is adults. The main reason for unemployment is the rapidly increasing population is one of the most affecting factors of unemployment. Slow economic growth, industrial growth is also the main reason for unemployment.
Unemployment leads to an increase in poverty and sets back the economic growth of the country. The women’s unemployment rate is higher in rural areas than in urban sectors of the country. Unemployment also misguides or makes our youth helpless to do criminal activities. The migration of people from rural to urban areas for the search of the job also affects it. As the demand for jobs is high and the number of posts is less. Unemployment is also a reason for our youth is getting addicted to drugs. Due to lack of a job, they get addicted to drugs, alcohol, and may even get into criminal activities. The government, as well as the society or we, should focus on population control and make people aware of its ill effects, long-time advantages, and ways to control which help the government to provide jobs to needy ones if there are some limited members.
Agriculture is the backbone of our economy. Agriculture in India is not developed enough to accommodate all the unemployed youth. Our agriculture is still dependent on old and traditional ways of farming. And our education should also be upgraded as it mainly focuses on practical aspects of learning, should offer the vocational course and with that indirectly it will give the job to teachers.

Mob lynching-to what extent correct?

Mob Lynching is an open punishment applied by a gather that does not have the authority to do so. Most times, lynching occurs when a group believes that a person has committed a crime, even if it has not been trialed or convicted. lynching’s practice may include public hangings, tar, and feathering, or other forms of extreme punishment or execution performed in public. Lynching differs from uncommon types of punishment because the public performs it outside the legal system. This is often handled by a group of people. Lynching is a mob justice in which ordinary people come together to terrorize or punish someone they think violates a legal, moral, and social standard. Today in our society cases of mob-lynching occur in the name of homecoming, love jihad, cow protection, and self-defense camps, the longstanding issues of communalism against the community are being expressed now as violence. The crowd is making a target of people .also many cases recorder where There is an attempt to provoke communities suffering from such attacks. 

The instant “justice” of the crowd also reveals the breaking of people’s confidence in law and order. mass lynching cases are mainly caused by the spread of rumors, suspicions, or religious beliefs. If we understand the events in what order they happened then, we may consider that some were the consequences of caste-based horrors, some were because of religious beliefs, and the rest was because of false news or rumors.

No doubt we should respect religious beliefs, but what if few people kill a person based on suspicion or suspicion? But the main question is that too what extend it is justified to take law in the hands. And to do injustice with someone in the name of the justice. Now need of the time is that government itself investigate the matter and give punishment to those who are culprit.

 

Evil corruption

Corruption refers to a form of criminal activity or dishonesty. It refers to an evil act by an individual or a group. It includes activities like bribery or embezzlement. Most people in positions of authority are susceptible to Corruption. Corruption certainly reflects greedy and selfish behavior. Bribery is the most common method of Corruption which involves improper use of favors and gifts in exchange for personal gain. the favors include money, gifts, company shares, sexual favors, employment, entertainment, and political benefits. Also, the personal gain can be – giving preferential treatment and overlooking crime.

One important way of preventing Corruption is to give a better salary in a government job. Many government employees receive pretty low salaries. so they resort to bribery to meet their expenses. So, government employees should receive higher salaries. , high salaries would reduce their motivation and resolve to engage in bribery. By Increasing the number of workers we can curb Corruption. In many government offices, the workload is very high. This provides an opportunity to slow down the work of government employees. Consequently, these employees then indulge in bribery in return for faster delivery of work. Hence, this opportunity to bribe can be removed by bringing in more employees in government offices.

Strong laws are very important for stopping Corruption. strict punishments need to be meted out to guilty individuals. Furthermore, there should be an efficient and quick implementation of strict laws. Applying cameras in workplaces is an excellent way to prevent corruption. Above all, many individuals would refrain from indulging in Corruption due to fear of being caught. Furthermore, these individuals would have otherwise engaged in Corruption. Furthermore, the politician supports them due to the benefits they receive. Corruption is a great evil in society. This evil should be quickly eliminated from society. 

Prominence of education

Education is the act of discovering things around us. And so the prominence of the education in a person life. To discover the real meaning of life. We need to educate not ourselves but our environment also. Education helps us to easily recognize and deal with any difficulty and makes balance throughout the whole life in every aspect. Education is the first and foremost right of every human being. And therefore we have the right to education in our constitution. Without education we are incomplete and our lives are useless. Education helps us to set a goal and go ahead by working on that throughout life. It improves our knowledge, skill, confidence level, and personality. It empowers us intellectually to interact with others in our life. Education brings maturity and teaches us to live in a society with changing environment. For adaptability, education is a must. It is the way to social development, economic growth, and technological development. For being a proper social person we need to educate ourselves.

Education plays a great role in everyone’s life by building personality, improving knowledge and skill, and providing a feeling of well-being for a person. Education has been divided into three categories in our country as Primary education, Secondary education, and Higher Secondary education. It develops our analytical skills, character, and overall personality. Education plays a pivotal role in nourishing his present and future by ensuring aim of the life. 

Every child must to go school at his/her appropriate age as everyone has equal rights to education from birth. The growth and development of any country depend on the quality of the education system set for young ones in schools and colleges. However, the education system in every area of the country is not the same so the proper growth and development of the people and society vary according to the weak and strong education system of the particular region. The future of our country is the youth and the more our youth will learn more advanced our nation will become.

Agony of covid19

COVID has not only affected us by entering our bodies but the agony of Losing family members, jobs, income, a completely disrupted education system, and constant fear of what next have severely damaged the peace of people. Even doctors, nurses are under the agony of constant threat and tremendous work pressure. Oxygen plants are being constructed and vaccines are being produced, however, what the mind has been going through cannot be cured by steroids or vaccines.

These are some of the thoughts that haunt many of us who are infected or have lost people close to us due to COVID. Whenever we surf the internet through information pieces or even when we watch the news, we see they offer COVID helpline numbers, hospital details, and other valuable information on how to tackle COVID. In the same way, we can have a COVID Mental Health support helpline, wherein people can interact with therapists or more precisely connect to somebody who can listen and feel empathetically.

At this point advice like yoga, meditation, or “keep yourself engaged” does not work. There has to be sharing, there has to be handholding throughout the process of recovery. To heal completely from COVID or COVID implications the mind needs to be healed as well and we all have to pay attention to this

Mental Sickness

Covid-19 has shaken the entire world. Even though Major Pharma companies have developed vaccines intending to end the pandemic. we are still struggling to find an end to this pandemic. One of the issues that India faces is the delay in immunizing the population again Covid-19. The delay is partly due to overpopulation. And If the vaccines are not effective against the new variant, it needs to be redesigned to combat the new variant, prolonging the pandemic.

Due to covid, our country has to suffer Major economies struggle to cope with the health care burden as millions of infected people need hospitalization for several days, depending on the severity of the disease.

No one knows when lockdown will be enforced again to control the situation. Many are losing their families and not allowed to attend the final rites due to strict quarantine and lockdown measures. Along with these major problems This disease has seriously created mental health issues, and it may take years to recover from such mental health conditions. Governments have to set up a separate budget to manage increasing mental health issues. The freedom to move around has now been crippled by Covid-19, and most people in lockdown are confined in a small space, limiting them to have face-to-face interactions with their dear ones and friends. It has affected people from all walks of life and has led to mental health issues. It is hard to find a common solution to all as mental health issues differ from person to person. Students are the worst affected community as Many schools and colleges have resorted to online teaching, which isn’t as good as a regular session. 

The digital screen has now become our portal to communicate with the outside world. Many children have lost their parents in this second wave in India and have become orphans since then. There were several appeals to the Government of India requesting to support the children who have lost their parents/guardians/adopted parents. In such a drastic situation people are feeling alone. The best thing to overcome negative thoughts is by performing regular meditation and yoga, listen to music, news, recall sweet memories, watch favorite movies, plays, and read books. Only by overcoming our negative thoughts we can overcome mental sickeness.

Importance of Education

Education is a powerful weapon that will help the person to survive the difficulties of life, and to overcome the social stigma such as poverty, fear, and status, in order to be successful. Education is the hope for the development of the Third World, and the world of dominion lands. Compulsory education creates the right conditions for the proper growth and development.

The role of the education system in India

The education sector has the potential to be a revolution for the people, of course, with a skilled and well-educated young people. The nation provides a higher rate of achievement of the objectives of economic growth, and the competition is known as a developed nation. The well-trained people reject all the obstacles that are holding back the growth, and strive hard in order to achieve sustainable development.

The education system in India refers to the process of education, training of human resources in colleges and universities. The government of india reflects some of its economic policies, with an emphasis on the importance of education in India.





The factors that contribute to the significance of education in India:

It is designed to eliminate the volatility of the unemployment rate

An important consequence of the presence is the “unemployment rate”. The unemployment rate is impeding the progress of the nation, which in turn leads to a decrease in the standard of living, and an increase in the crime rate.

In India, it is to be stuck in a critical situation, with almost 58 percent of the jobless graduates, and 77 per cent of the households are deprived of a permanent income tax. About 67% to receive an annual income of about 1.2 lakhs per anum.

In these circumstances people will not be able to afford a good quality of life aand it will take them to a life of poverty and unemployment.

Eliminates Poverty

India is one of the world’s fastest-growing economies in the year 2020, the poverty rate in the country is high and it is one of the greatest evils of illiteracy.

In India, nearly 70.6 million people still live in extreme poverty, and a way to break out of the vicious cycle of poverty is through Education. Education provides high level of skills, resulting in greater access to the labour market, which, in turn, allows for better living.

To eliminate the cabinets

The caste-system is the longest in the social hierarchy in the world and has remained in India. Caste discrimination has been tearing up the path, the path of sustainable development in India. As a company that discriminates on the basis of caste, religion, race, religion, color, continue to be entangled in the bonds of hatred, poverty, and lack of resources.

Education changes a person’s view of caste discrimination. This is what makes it a distinct caste-neutral, with a progressive mindset, which aims to make a constructive contribution to the nation.

Economic stability and growth

Education is an important tool that helps in the achievement of economic growth and stability. Providing education to young people and adults to reveal the hidden potential that could put India on the path of development.

Improvisation is in the health & hygiene

In countries with a high level of illiteracy is associated with poor health and hygiene conditions. India has gone through decades, millions of lives have been lost as a result of diseases caused by a lack of medical supplies and poor sanitation.

In order to improvise, the country’s health-and the health of the sector programmes, such as the “Mission Swah Bharat”, “Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Instagram, etc. are the attraction to the people to be secure under the state university. With the right person, you will get the knowledge about health and hygiene products.



Conclusion
Education is very important for every person in the country as it helps them to increase their knowledge and skill and develops their ability to compete with other people. Thus, it helps to provide them with good quality of life and higher standard of living and at a wider scale contributes in the growth and development of the country.

Why unemployment occurs?

Being 2nd in terms of the population can seem a curse to our country especially in terms of employment. The competition that youngsters face these days is because of this population. Even those who get a job didn’t get the desired salary. Most employees are not paid in proportion to the work that we put in. What’s more, this is not a new problem or one that has been created by a single government. In our country, low monthly incomes are a norm – across all states, and as a consequence, wage inequality remains high. Wage growth significantly trails economic growth in the country. The sluggish growth of our GDP has led to a rise in inequality and widened the economic divide between rural and urban India.

The sad part is that India’s unemployed are mostly the higher educated and the young. And those who have jobs are not satisfied enough. If you believe that only a few people at the top are getting huge paychecks, think again. Because data suggest that we aren’t creating too many high-paying jobs either. And even though labor productivity has risen in India, growth in remuneration has remained slow. The sad part is statistic, graphs of unemployment are still the same. The new jobs and opportunities are nothing in front of our population. This problem needs to review and can be to some extent need to be solved through bargaining power. Skilling, sometimes, multi-skilling at all levels is the most effective way to fight the wage crisis and the coming job crisis -the crucial designation before talent can be matched with demand. If the skilling exception isn’t corrected, job seekers will end up in the bad job trap. Skills produce productivity, and productivity brings with it higher pay.

The problem is that the business power of workers in India is low and getting more worse. Wage changes are also a result of changes in the way of production. Throughout the last few years, production has become more capital intensive or less dependent on labor in nearly every manufacturing industry in the organized and unorganized sectors. This is true, if to a lesser extent, for agriculture and services as well. While technical know-how and increased use of machinery is a change that needs to be welcomed since it translates to increased productivity, in labor surplus economies like India, the enhanced productivity does not automatically translate to higher wages for employees. Therefore need of the time is to cope up with the desired need of the institutes and became more high tech by learning more digital skills.

Pandemic, Placement, and Future of young generation.

Covid19 binds us to our shelters, and study remains restricted to computer screens. In one way or another way, covid19 does impact the life of the people. So to the final year students. Due to covid19 outbreak and lockdown, many students did not receive their job letters those who received them faced delaying joining dates even after getting hired. some students did not get a call back from the employer regarding their status of employment. Along with elders, students were hoping too for things to get back to normal But the second wave of the virus crushed all the hopes of the students. Students will have to set in the new normal of digitization.


Firms have changed their hiring process also from full-time to unpaid or stipend-based internships, to cut costs. Companies are even reducing the number of hiring employees and are also offering comparatively lower compensation packages. Only a few companies have joined so far for placement in the but only with minimal vacancies. besides affecting the health sector, Covid19 has also posed major setbacks for small businesses and it’s going to affect freshers.

Marginal or no placements have hugely affected students. There’s a persistent fear of remaining unemployed even after college ends. Sadly, the institutions no longer take the responsibility of getting their students placed and ensuring their economic and financial safety. Also, there’s a lack of strategy behind planning placement drives. Government should interrupt to negotiate between the colleges and companies for the interest of the students.. The government has to put in extra effort to ensure that unemployment levels among the youth do not increase further. A lot of people lost their jobs during the pandemic. Now, the challenge in front of freshers is to compete with those who are experienced enough but unemployed. Our state should look into this matter and try to create job opportunities for the youth so that the number of unemployed population could be declined.

The ruthless approach of private institutes.

Right to education a right that is just on the paper. The pandemic situation makes access to education more challenging. The expensive fees of institutes, colleges, and tuition teachers along with the cost of digital gadgets. Make it a dream for the unprivileged child. Along with expensive gadgets, the additional cost of the internet is a matter of concern. This all thing make together cost of education very expensive. That is not affordable for all. The Pandemic hit makes our environment full of grief. Many lost their loved ones as well as earning hands. The question is in that situation how an innocent child pays for the education expenses. the answer is simple. The unprivileged child eventually drops out of school. People have to deal with financial pressure and subsequent anxiety. The pandemic has financially impacted the Indian middle and upper-middle class. Also many lost their jobs during the covid19 hit. The savings are diverted towards the needs. The reduction in earnings with the additional monthly cost of electricity, rent, and other bills make education cost impracticable.

Even during this time that certain private colleges are charging mercilessly an expensive amount of fees. This has put enormous pressure on families that sometimes have only one earning member per family. OR those who lost only earning members of the family. They have continued with their regular scheme of fees without issuing even the slightest bit of deduction. Even the government is not supporting the pitty family;
Even though government gives the judgment that Colleges should not charge more than the students’ tuition fees because they practically have online-only classes. Many students think it is not justified to charge students for the facilities they are no costs such as the library, sports grounds, canteen, etc. Some colleges have given ridiculous explanations about electricity bills, infrastructural cost and maintenance fees. But on the ground private institution didn’t care about this judgment and continue to charge whole fees from the students.
The colleges even ruthlessly pressuring the students and the parents to pay the semester fees on time, which would result in serious consequences if not paid. Private colleges are still looking at their profit margin even during a pandemic. The second wave hit more badly than the first wave. half of the population is covid positive. and admitted to the hospital looking for the medicine, oxygen cylinder, and ICU wards. The grief situation as well as the financial expense in the medical treatment. Given the scarcity of beds, private hospitals are charging a huge amount to the patients’ families. They have no option but to comply. The medical expenses are an additional burden that they have to bear. The bills keep adding and resulted in borrowing .and then never adding a circle of depth began. In such a sad situation how can a student pay his fees?

The students not only have to give compulsory examinations but they also have to pay with the financial expenses. Owing to this expense, students in the middle and lower strata of society are thinking to drop out the college. They are taking up whatever odd jobs they can get with little pay to support their family. Many of them had plans to pursue degrees post-graduation, but they have no option but to give up given the circumstances. In certain families with more than two children, it is becoming an increasing burden for the earning member to keep up with the rising expenses.

Lack of income source, lack of money, and diversion of savings towards basic needs as well as medical expenditures are some of the reasons stated by students facing such a crisis. Even authorities are not assisting the common people. Government is silent on this issue. That’s the reason many students give theatre life as being hopeless by committing suicide. Students want the college to either waive off the fees or provide them with some aid or assistance. The absolute lack of understanding for students has been reflected by these colleges. The mental fatigue and pain caused by this constant pressure are harmful to the well-being of students and parents as well.
It is unfair on the part of private colleges to seek their profits during the pandemic situation. Instead of charging such a high amount, they should either waive it off for students going through a financial crisis or charge them just the tuition fee. The students are already facing mental pressure and anxiety. There is a lack of accessibility to online education existing already. Some have had to purchase laptops, good mobile sets, and costly data packs to attend classes. To assume that everyone’s financial condition will remain unaffected because they belong to a privileged background is wrong and fallacious.
Some colleges are giving excuses that they have to pay to there teachers. Therefore they have to ask for money. But it is not convincing enough for the students who have time and again asked for a breakup of the fee structure. The students are helpless at this point. Even after approaching multiple authorities, they have not received a helpful solution. We can help these needy students through our small contribution. We common people should assist those who are in need.

Child Labor and the miserable fate of unprivileged children.

Youth is the future of the country. if this statement is true. Then why our country is not able to eradicate the sin of child labor? we encounter the term child labor every time. and take it very casually. That’s the reason it still prevails within our society. we can find children doing work in 

Every city, lane, and corner of society. We have been taught since our childhood that child labor is wrong. the future is in the hand of the young fellow who is making their livelihoods in factories, big industries, and local vendors and shops working endlessly.

Why this young fellow has to deprived of their education? why their childhood is stolen from them? why do they bear to do the work from such a young age? While other children are enjoying their childhood.Why some unprivileged kids have to work with heavy machinery and weapons under a huge risk to their health, just to earn a two-figure income to afford a single meal. children have to resort to working and earning, instead of learning. who is responsible for their worst situation? The ones who should be earning are the young and unemployed youth, who are sitting at home without any scope for jobs. who will take responsibility for them? The need of the hour is to provide these children education They are the future of India, and they deserve an education.

Child labor means exploitation of children through any work that deprives them of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially, or morally harmful.  The practice of child labor is a crime ad people employing it people are the biggest criminals of Indian society. Another reason why child labor is wrong is that by making a child work, we are decreasing the quality of our education system and spoiling the innocent life of that child.

These children are suffering in the dark world of mental and physical pressure. by allowing these children to work in our houses and societies, as by employing them we are spoiling their future and career.

child labor is the evil part of society and needs to be eliminated. 

By taking the labor of children we are spoiling the life of an innocent child for their cheap labor and our selfish motives. If we want to maintain the quality of the education system, we have to educate children, especially those from rural areas who are deprived of education, basic amenities, and other advancement opportunities.

For the progress of society and our economy, this evil practice needs to be removed. so that our economy will be balanced so flawlessly that there will be no cases of poverty and child labor in the upcoming years. We should not forget that child labor arises from poverty, so we need to eradicate their poverty level through the power of education leading them towards their career goals.

The lack of knowledge and skill leads to child labor. Therefore the need for time is to increase the accessibility of education to everyone. we need to start moe initiatives like mid-day meal. to increase the reach of students to education.

Digital Disparity.

Covid19 expanded the digital divide. And shows the disparities within the society between the rural and urban, rich and poor. Lockdown compelled the shift to the virtual model. some of the students managed to receive an education without any obstacles. but many unprivileged students have been deprived of it. resulted in drop out of college and institutes due to the financial crisis of lockdown. Before the pandemic differences prevail in access to education but corona widened the gap. Rural areas have severe internet connectivity problems but Half of India’s population is living in rural parts of the country.

India is the second-largest populated country in the world. But it is a developing country. to maintain education for all during the lockdown when the schools are shut is quite challenging. the digital divide between the government and private institutes can be witnessed. Virtual learning wasn’t much challenging for private school students. Unlike the students of the government schools, who didn’t have access to the digital equipment. the Unprivileged children can’t afford access to quality internet and gadgets. Thus being deprived of education. The right to education is meaningless in the covid scenario. The government needs to bridge the digital divide to ensure students’ education. Some students are ahead of others. As many students drop out of school due to financial problems.

 Access to the internet on their mobile phones is a matter of concern as well. The need of the time is to provide digital infrastructure and tools access to unprivileged ones to access online classes. The digital divide has led to incidences of student suicides. many students committed suicide after drop out. Even in urban areas, disparities prevail. those living in slumps and downtrodden areas can’t afford education.

The government needs to focus on technology and extending the vision of digital India.

Those who have access to education face many hurdles such as in assembling notes, in paying attention due to bad network coverage. Getting time to do self-study is also difficult. preparation of online tests is another problem. seeking notes from some of the online sources is also difficult because some websites charge for the subscription which is not possible for everyone. students have to sit in front of the computer screen for many hours and Practical knowledge is not possible during the pandemic because it is hard for the students to perform practical virtually. even for teachers, it is difficult to prepare presentations for the students. 

pandemic hit increases our dependence on technology. The focus had always been on practical knowledge and skills. we are being actively tested for our knowledge without any proper structure of assessment. Most importantly, not all teachers are not good at technical stuff to manage classes or material distribution.

. COVID-19 also raised prominent questions about the need, significance, and value of virtual learning platforms. The majority of the students have been affected negatively and therefore the government should come up with such education policies that would benefit all the students. Common people also need to volunteer to lead a hand to needy people.

The complex paradigm of streams.

“Now what?”This question every student encounter in life after completing school. A career plan is the most significant and difficult question of life. Our whole life depends on this small question. Sometimes we choose our path and sometimes our society decides for us. 

The question  “What do I want to do in life?” is hard to answer.

It is tough for a school student to find their path at such a young age, because of the complicated model of ‘streams’. Studying science means you are limited to the medical and the engineering line. Studying commerce means being captured in chartered accountancy, banking, and finance and learning humanities imply that I must choose to become a lawyer or journalist.

The problem is the high competition within society The tragic fact is that we can never come back from this model of education, studies, and streams. we don’t have the right to choose subjects that are a combination of different streams. The reason streams are a challenge for us is that they directly affect our careers. Choosing a career is choosing life. As a career is related to financial independence. The question became more significant. every parent expects from there child to pursue a career that has the reputation, high earning prospect, and quite popular in society. Boys, in particular, are supposed to choose a career that can support their families financially one day. Today passion and happiness don’t matter when it comes to a career. The thing that matters for society is the reputation of the career. For society, boys should not go for teaching jobs, fashion designing and cooking are something that society doesn’t consider ideal jobs. some jobs are called ‘feminine jobs’ not meant for boys. Like cooking is related to females. Some jobs get undermined like fashion designing is compared to tailoring.

Students’ choices are also impacted badly by the stereotypes and repercussions. and they have to choose paths unwillingly as per society’s concern. Even though we are heading towards an impartial society, such differences prevail in our society. The ‘pay scale’ affects the choice of career. Women are still paid less and the gender pay gap continues to widen. 

Lack of awareness of new opportunities is a major challenge that school students face. We are not aware of the options beyond the ‘visible careers’. Visible careers are those careers that we see in everyday life, such as doctors, teachers, engineers, journalists, politicians, and businessmen. We lack knowledge about other options we have. There is a world beyond these visible careers: such as being a therapist, an urban planner, a singer, a beautician, a blogger.

so many jobs are available now because of the internet. such jobs can provide a great opportunity to the newcomer. Like social media marketing, a YouTuber, a blogger, a digital marketer. But the problem is students don’t have access to and knowledge of this career.

 Your career should be based on your strengths. The best choice of career comes from one’s passions and hobbies. Your career should inspire you and be the reason for your existence. It is you who can decide your career, not others. and being yourself and the following passion makes you happier.

Traditional education system how much effective?

Covid Pandemic left many Indians unemployed. While unemployment has always been a cause of attention for India. But mandatory experience and training made it more worse and challenging. the lack of practical skills holds us back. The recent unemployment numbers among educated youth show the drawback of India’s faulty education system and the lack of the right learning opportunities for young professionals.

 The government of India wanted to create a workforce of skilled professionals but the coronavirus pandemic made the situation drastic and critical. There was a time when a degree could help a person getting a desired job. But with more competition., a degree is not sufficient itself. The biggest issue is practical knowledge with theoretical knowledge. Classroom learning is more focused on theory. When students step into the professional world, they find themselves not capable enough to handle the work because of the drawbacks of our education system. Our country has educated unemployed people. Shows the inadequacies in our education system.

companies want educated fellows with practical skills. That our education system is unable to give. Because it is limited to academics. Youth lack new-age skills that companies need from their employees. With limited online and offline courses for industry-specific training such as engineering, IT, etc., Most young professionals lack confidence while dealing with problems at their workplace. Moreover, since schools, colleges and universities are following the traditional system of education. it acts as a hurdle when professionals come to face real-life circumstances.

Students need to develop new skills. So that student can learn something above education and makes students ready to be professionals. India has the potential to be a preferred destination for global sourcing. Skill development can bring this to reality by instilling more confidence in young professionals. As their skill increases their employability will increase, and ultimately lead to the nation’s financial growth.

The government needs to assist India’s workforce informally trained. With immediate competition, we need to adopt better strategies too. we need to improve standards of education and adopt newer methods. The higher the standards of training and skill development, the better our workforce can be. The country National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) can also contribute to solving the problem by creating more awareness and come up with suitable programs that can help professionals.

Transformation can only come with the government. The education system, industries, and students collectively understand and recognized the significance of skill improvement.