VALUES OF BIODIVERSITY:

Biodiversity is very essential for the health of the biosphere and it provides the raw materials for man to make him adapt to the changing environment. Man derives many direct and indirect benefits from living things. Biodiversity provides ecological services also. The uses of Biodiversity are as follows.

1. Consumptive use value:

It includes food, medicine, fuel, fiber, timber, clothing, etc. 80,000 Species are edible wild plant species. 90% of the crops have been domesticated from wild tropical plants. Many wild animals were also sources of food (now it is banned). 75% of the world’s population depends upon plants for medicine. For instance, penicillin from a fungus namely Penicillium, quinine from a plant namely, cinchonas, tetracycline from a bacterium, and cancer-causing drugs like vinblastine and vincristine from a plant namely, Catharanthus roseus (Nithyakalyani) are obtained.

2. Productive Use Value:

The products are commercially usable. The wild gene resources are traded to introduce desirable traits in the crops and domesticated animals. Productive uses of biological resources are fuel, timber, musk, tusk, ivory, honey, fiber, gums, resins, medicines, silk, wool, etc. Though there is a ban on trade in products of endangered species, illegal smuggling does take place.

3. Social Value:

Biodiversity in India is related to our religious, cultural, and spiritual uses. Many plants like Tulsi, Pipal, Hibiscus, and Datura are considered to be sacred. Peacock, cow, snake, bull, and owl have a place in our spiritual arena.

4. Ethical Value:

We must protect every life. It is based on the concept ‘Live and let live’. we must enjoy watching all animals -Kangaroo, Giraffe, Zebra, etc., though they are not useful to us directly. We should not cage birds for our pleasure and pastime.

5. Aesthetic Value:

Biodiversity provides us with a good deal of fun and recreation. This type of tourism is known as ecotourism which generates 12billion dollars as income per year. If we have a lion in a zoo we get about Rs.2 crores as income per year. But if we kill the lion we get only Rs. 50,000\-. A teak tree fetches Rs.50,000\- if cut down; But if it lives, its value is priceless by way of its ecological role.

6. Option Values or Unknown Benefits :

We must try to explore the potential of Biodiversity for the future benefit of mankind. We must protect the biodiversity to find out drugs to fight diseases like cancer and AIDS.

BIODIVERSITY AT GLOBAL LEVEL:

According to Erwin(1982), 5 to 30 million species of the world are yet to be described and are living in tropical forests. So far only 1.7 million species have been described. These include green plants and fungi (3lakhs), insects (8lakhs), vertebrates (40,000), and microorganisms (3.6 lakhs).

1. 20,000 to 30,000 taxonomists all over the world do serious research and describe name, and classify plants every year.

2. 20,000 species are being discovered and named every year. There are about 2.5lakhs species of plants described so far.

3. The continental drift is a main reason for the increasing diversity.

4. In tropical forests, about 1,25,000 species of flowering plants are considered to be in existence.

Published by

Ayisha shabana……

Climate change and biodiversity

In the atmosphere, gases such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and methane act like the glass roof of a greenhouse by trapping heat and warming the planet. These gases are called greenhouse gases. The natural levels of these gases are being supplemented by emissions resulting from human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, farming activities and land-use changes. As a result, the Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere are warming, and this rise in temperature is accompanied by many other changes.Rising levels of greenhouse gases are already changing the climate.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I (WGI) Fourth Assessment Report, from 1850 to 2005, the average global temperature increased by about 0.76ºC and global mean sea level rose by 12 to 22 cm during the last century. These changes are affecting the entire world, from low-lying islands in the tropics to the vast polar regions.Climate change predictions are not encouraging; according to the IPCC WGI Fourth Assessment Report, a further increase in temperatures of 1.4°C to 5.8°C by 2100 is projected. Predicted impacts associated with such temperature increase include: a further rise in global mean sea level, changes in precipitation patterns, and more people at risk from dangerous “vector-borne diseases” such as malaria.

Vulnerability of biodiversity to the impacts of climate change

The present global biota has been affected by fluctuating Pleistocene (last 1.8 million years) concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature, precipitation, and has coped through evolutionary changes, and the adoption of natural adaptive strategies. Such climate changes, however, occurred over an extended period of time in a landscape that was not as fragmented as it is today and with little or no additional pressure from human activities. Habitat fragmentation has confined many species to relatively small areas within their previous ranges, resulting in reduced genetic variability. Warming beyond the ceiling of temperatures reached during the Pleistocene will stress ecosystems and their biodiversity far beyond the levels imposed by the global climatic change that occurred in the recent evolutionary past.Current rates and magnitude of species extinction far exceed normal background rates. Human activities have already resulted in the loss of biodiversity and thus may have affected goods and services crucial for human well-being. The rate and magnitude of climate change induced by increased greenhouse gases emissions has and will continue to affect biodiversity either directly or in combination with other drivers of change.

Links between biodiversity and climate change

There is ample evidence that climate change affects biodiversity. According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, climate change is likely to become one of the most significant drivers of biodiversity loss by the end of the century. Climate change is already forcing biodiversity to adapt either through shifting habitat, changing life cycles, or the development of new physical traits.Conserving natural terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems and restoring degraded ecosystems (including their genetic and species diversity) is essential for the overall goals of both the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change because ecosystems play a key role in the global carbon cycle and in adapting to climate change, while also providing a wide range of ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.Biodiversity can support efforts to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Conserved or restored habitats can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus helping to address climate change by storing carbon (for example, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Moreover, conserving in-tact ecosystems, such as mangroves, for example, can help reduce the disastrous impacts of climate change such as flooding and storm surges.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation

Ecosystem-based adaptation, which integrates the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall adaptation strategy, can be cost-effective and generate social, economic and cultural co-benefits and contribute to the conservation of biodiversity.Conservation and management strategies that maintain and restore biodiversity can be expected to reduce some of the negative impacts from climate change; however, there are rates and magnitude of climate change for which natural adaptation will become increasingly difficult. Options to increase the adaptive capacity of species and ecosystems in the face of accelerating climate change include:

  • Reducing non-climatic stresses, such as pollution, over-exploitation, habitat loss and fragmentation and invasive alien species.
  • Wider adoption of conservation and sustainable use practices including through the strengthening of protected area networks.
  • Facilitating adaptive management through strengthening monitoring and evaluation systems.

Ecosystem-based adaptation uses biodiversity and ecosystem services in an overall adaptation strategy. It includes the sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. Examples of ecosystem-based adaptation activities include:

  • Coastal defence through the maintenance and/or restoration of mangroves and other coastal wetlands to reduce coastal flooding and coastal erosion.
  • Sustainable management of upland wetlands and floodplains for maintenance of water flow and quality.
  • Conservation and restoration of forests to stabilize land slopes and regulate water flows.
  • Establishment of diverse agroforestry systems to cope with increased risk from changed climatic conditions.
  • Conservation of agrobiodiversity to provide specific gene pools for crop and livestock adaptation to climate change
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Why do people have so much aggression?

  • We all act aggressively from time to time—say while sitting in traffic or in the midst of an argument—but some are more aggressive than others.
  • There are several reasons we engage in aggressive behavior, which also help to explain why some people display aggression more often.
  • These causes include instinct, hormonal imbalance, genetics, temperament, nurture, and stress.
  • If there are excessively aggressive people in your life, like a loved one or coworker, you can learn to cope or deal with their behavior effectively.
  • First, try keeping your cool, empathizing, and expressing your concern—these actions should help you to navigate the interaction and make it more pleasant.
  • If these strategies don’t prove effective, consider distancing yourself from the overly aggressive person; your wellbeing should be your priority.

Aggression is hostile or violent behavior. It’s a woman yelling at her son for spilling his milk on the carpet. It’s a child pushing his friend down on the playground because she was playing with his favorite toy. It’s a girl snapping at her boyfriend because he didn’t invite her out with the guys.

As you can see (and probably know from personal experience), aggression can take many forms. We all act aggressively at some point or another in our lives, whether it’s yelling at the black Sudan that cut us off or getting into it with family or friends. But some are more aggressive than others—quick to react or engage in hostile behavior. Which begs an important question: why

What Causes Aggression? 6 Origins

Sure, traffic can spur aggression, as can a disagreement with a coworker. But what’s the psychology behind this behavior? There are actually a few reasons we become aggressive, which also help to explain why some people are more aggressive than others:

1. Instinct: Aggression is one of our many survival instincts. According to Sigmund Freud, aggression continuously builds up until it releases as aggressive behavior, at some point or another. Some individuals can suppress this aggression and use other survival instincts instead, but others simply react and release.

2. Hormonal imbalance: A hormonal imbalance in an individual can certainly contribute to aggressive behavior. For example, high levels of testosterone contribute to high levels of aggression. This explains why males are characteristically more aggressive than females.

3. Genetics: Aggression can also be passed down genetically. Children are at a greater risk of adapting aggressive tendencies if they have a biological background for it. Time and time again, father and son both display aggressive behavior.

4. Physiological illness and temperament: Serious illness can have a major effect on an individual’s mood and behavior, as the stress and other mental effects may bring about greater aggression. Additionally, one’s temperament can play a role in aggression. People with bad tempers typically become aggressive more quickly than calmer individuals.

5. Social learning: Aggression can be learned. Some become more aggressive due to personal experiences or observational learning. For example, children are always looking for cues on how to act, as illustrated by the Bobo doll experiment. They learn to act aggressively when they watch someone else commit violent acts like in movies or video games.

6. Psychological frustrations: It’s human nature to become frustrated when life just doesn’t seem to be going so well. This frustration may involve work or love, for example, and can lead to an all-around feeling of negativity. This negativity then represents a threat, which can lead to aggression

How to Cope with an Aggressive Individual

Dealing with someone who constantly lashes out in hostile or violent behavior is tough—especially when it’s someone you’re close to like your boyfriend or mother, or someone you can’t get away from, like a coworker. In any case, the following can help you deal with the aggressive people in your life more effectively:

  • Keep your cool. The last thing that will alleviate this situation is another aggressive individual. Maintain your composure and use your better judgment to handle the situation. Aggressive people often seek to intimidate and upset others. You have to ensure this doesn’t happen and instead of reacting with rage like they want you to, take a moment to count to ten and think of a better way to deal with the situation at hand.
  • Put yourself in their shoes. Even if the aggression seems unwarranted, take a moment to imagine yourself in their position. Maybe they grew up in an overly aggressive household. Or, maybe they have a lot on their plate and they’re reacting to the stress with aggression. This will help calm your own negative feelings down and empathize with the individual. Then, maybe you can turn the aggressive attack into a productive conversation.
  • Express your concern. Maybe there isn’t an obvious, underlying cause of the individual’s aggression. Once you’ve taken a step away and you’re both calm, express your concern for them. They may not realize the severity of their aggression or its effect on those around them. It could take someone like you bringing it to light for them to make that realization and make a change.
  • Distance yourself. Sometimes, these aggressive individuals are just not worth it and don’t deserve a place in your life. You have to prioritize your wellbeing and if that means cutting them out of your lives, then so be it. And if cutting them completely out of your life isn’t very realistic (think, an aggressive aunt or uncle that’s at every family reunion or your coworker who doesn’t look to be going anywhere anytime soon), then just distance yourself as best you can. Avoid them.

Ultimately, you have to decide if it’s worth dealing with the aggressive individual. If you decide that it’s not, kick them to the curb and distance yourself from them. But if you decide that this individual is worth it and could maybe use your help, do your best to sympathize with them and determine the underlying cause of the aggression. This will help you both moving forward

Role of Biodiversity and Agriculture in making of Atmanirbhar Bharat

While flipping pages of my Geography textbook, a fact caught my eye – two third of the population of India is engaged in agricultural activities. We are blessed to have diverse climatic conditions because of which we see a variety of flora and fauna, and grow so many veggies, fruits and other crops. But India still imports a lot of harvested produce from other countries.

Atmanirbhar Bharat

Atmanirbhar Bharat, which translates to ‘self-reliant India’ or ‘self-sufficient India’, is a policy formulated by Prime minister of India Narendra Modi for making India a bigger and more important part of the global economy. It was launched on 12 May 2020  during the announcement of India’s COVID-19 pandemic related economic package. Not only should products be ‘made in India’, but the promotion of those products should take place so as to make those products competitive.  We should appreciate our local products, if we don’t do this then our products will not get the opportunity to do better and will not get encouraged. The agriculture and biodiversity sector were also given a lot of importance in it. This scheme helps farmers by providing better financial help, good prices of crops and a lot of new schemes are introduced which will help to support farmers and other people who are dependent on the agricultural sector for their livelihood. The improvement in PDS (Public Distribution System) has also started. Sustainable fishing practices and organic farming practices are encouraged, beekeeping shelters are increased and Rs 1500 crore is specified for animal husbandry. Many medicinal herbs are to be grown by the shore of river Ganga. Minister of Chemicals and Fertilisers, D V Sadananda Goda, in September 2020, said that “India will be self-reliant in fertiliser production by 2023”. Three Farm Bills passed in September 2020 provide the legal framework to give the farmers the right to choose the price and people to whom they want to sell. Coir Udyami Yojana aims to develop the coir-related industry’s sustainable development.

Role of Agriculture and Biodiversity

From my point of view, the making of New India does not mean cutting the forests to make big buildings, industries or exploiting the natural resources without limit. When I think about a new Bharat, I imagine a country with minimum degradation of natural resources while still sustaining the agricultural demand of our country. 

Important focus on agricultural exports should also be given so as to improve the quality of exports rather than just quantity, thereby fetching more price for the farmer. Exports of medicinal herbs and oils, agricultural produce and raw materials like cotton and jute will increase drastically; also aiding the economy. Correspondingly, many people will start to prefer Indian exported products.

Great biodiversity will help to maintain ecological balance for ecosystem stability and support ecotourism. We can use resources and conserve them due to eco-friendly practices in farming, fishing, etc. 

At school level, a new subject – Agriculture should be introduced with hands-on experience and interaction with farmers. This will inspire many students to study agriculture and forestry streams. 

I think that biodiversity and agricultural prosperity will highly assist in the making of New India. Our new Bharat will be more sustainable and more developed. India will promote eco friendly practices, biodiversity, organic farming, quality produce and build a strong economy. From a developing country, it will turn into a super-power.