SAILENT FEATURES OF CONSTITUTION: WELFARE STATE AND SECULAR STATE

WELFARE STATE


The Indian Constitution has been conceived and drafted in the mid-twentieth
century when the concept of social welfare state is the rule of the day. The
Constitution is thus pervaded with the modern outlook regarding the objectives
and functions of the state. It embodies a distinct philosophy of government, and
explicitly declares that India will be organised as a social welfare state, i.e., a
state which renders social services to the people and promotes their general
welfare. In the formulations and declarations of the social objectives contained
in the Preamble, one can clearly discern the impact of the modern political
philosophy which regards the state as an organ to secure the good and welfare
of the people.
This concept of a welfare state is further strengthened by the Directive Principles
of State Policy which set out the economic, social and political goals of the
Indian Constitutional system. These directives confer certain non-justiciable
rights on the people, and place the government under an obligation to achieve
and maximise social welfare and basic social values like education, employment,
health, etc.
In consonance with the modern beliefs of man, the Indian Constitution sets up
a machinery to achieve the goal of economic democracy along with political democracy,
for the latter would be meaningless without the former in a poor country
like India.

SECULAR STATE


India is a country of religions. There exist multifarious religious groups in
the country but, in spite of this, the Constitution stands for a secular state of
India.
The word ‘secular’ was not present originally in the Preamble. It was added
thereto by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976. What was implicit in
the Constitution until then became explicit. Even before 1976, the concept of
secularism was very much embedded in the Indian constitutional jurisprudence as
many court cases of this era would testify.


The concept of “secularism” is difficult to define and has not thus been defined
in the Constitution. Secularism has been inserted in the Preamble by reason
of the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. The object of insertion
was to spell out expressly the high ideas of secularism and the compulsive need
to maintain the integrity of the nation which are subjected to considerable
stresses and strains, and vested interests have been trying to promote their selfish
ends to the great detriment of the public good. The concept is based on certain
postulates. Thus, there is no official religion in India. There is no state recognized
church or religion. Several fundamental rights guarantee freedom of
worship and religion as well as outlaw discrimination on the ground of religion

and, thus, by implication prohibit the establishment of a theocratic state. The
state does not identify itself with, or favour, any particular religion. The state is
enjoined to treat all religions and religious sects equally. No one is disabled to
hold any office on the ground of religion. There is only one electoral roll on
which are borne the names of all qualified voters.


The essential basis of the Indian Constitution is that all citizens are equal,
and that the religion of a citizen is irrelevant in the matter of his enjoyment of
Fundamental Rights. The Constitution ensures equal freedom for all religions
and provides that the religion of the citizen has nothing to do in socio-economic
matters. “Though the Indian Constitution is secular and does not interfere with
religious freedom, it does not allow religion to impinge adversely on the secular
rights of citizens or the power of the state to regulate socio-economic relations.”
The Supreme Court has declared secularism as the basic feature of the Indian
Constitution. The Court has further declared that secularism is a part of
fundamental law and an unalienable segment of the basic structure of the
country’s political system. It has explained that secularism is not to be confused
with communal or religious concepts of an individual or a group of persons.

It means that the State should have no religion of its own and no one
could proclaim to make the State have one such or endeavour to create a
theocratic State. Persons belonging to different religions live throughout the
length and breadth of the country. Each person, whatever be his religion, must
get an assurance from the State that he has the protection of law freely to profess,
practise and propagate his religion and freedom of conscience. Otherwise,
the rule of law will become replaced by individual perceptions of one’s
own presumptions of good social order. Religion cannot be mixed with secular
activities of the State and fundamentalism of any kind cannot be permitted
to masquerade as political philosophies to the detriment of the larger interest
of society and basic requirement of a Welfare State. The Court noted disturbing
trends. It noted that lately, vested interests fanning religious fundamentalism
of all kinds, and vying with each other, are attempting to subject
the Constitutional machineries of the State

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: SOCIALIST STATE


The word “socialist” was not there originally in the Preamble. It was added to
the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution in 1976. Thus, the
concept of “socialism” has been made explicit and India’s commitment to this
ideal has been underlined and strengthened.


The term “socialist” has not been defined in the Constitution. It does not however envisage doctrinaire socialism in the sense of insistence on state ownership as a matter of policy. It does not mean total exclusion of private enterprise and complete state ownership of material resources of the Nation. In India, there has always been emphasis on mixed economy, i.e., along with a public sector, the private sector also has a role to play. The government accepts
the policy of mixed economy where both public and private sectors co-exist side by side. However, the private enterprises has so far been rigorously controlled by the government, but signs are appearing on the horizon that in future the private enterprise is going to play a much more important economic role than it has
played so far.


The Supreme Court has in a number of decisions referred to the concept of socialism
and has used this concept along with the Directive Principles of State
Policy to assess and evaluate economic legislation. The Court has derived the
concept of social justice and of an economically egalitarian society from the concept
of socialism. According to the Supreme Court, “the principal aim of socialism
is to eliminate inequality of income and status and standards of life, and to
provide a decent standard of life to the working people.”
Democratic socialism aims to end poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality
of opportunity. Socialistic concept of society should be implemented in the true
spirit of the Constitution.

In Samatha v. State of Andhra Pradesh, the Supreme
Court has stated while defining socialism : “Establishment of the egalitarian
social order through rule of law is the basic structure of the Constitution.”

The Court has laid emphasis on social justice so as to attain substantial degree
of social, economic and political equality. Social justice and equality are complimentary
to each other.
Another idea propounded by the Court is that socialism means distributive
justice so as to bring about the distribution of material resources of the community
so as to subserve the common good.
By reading the word ‘socialist’ in the Preamble with the Fundamental Rights
contained in Arts. 14 and 16, the Supreme Court has deduced the Fundamental
Right to equal pay for equal work and compassionate appointment.

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: PREAMBLE

Unlike the Constitutions of Australia, Canada or the U.S.A., the Constitution
of India has an elaborate Preamble. The purpose of the Preamble is to clarify who
has made the Constitution, what is its source, what is the ultimate sanction behind
it; what is the nature of the polity which is sought to be established by the
Constitution and what are its goals and objectives?


The Preamble does not grant any power but it gives a direction and purpose to
the Constitution. It outlines the objectives of the whole Constitution. The Preamble
contains the fundamentals of the Constitution. It serves several important
purposes, as for example:


(1) It contains the enacting clause which brings the Constitution into
force.
(2) It declares the great rights and freedoms which the people of India
intended to secure to all its citizens.
(3) It declares the basic type of government and polity which is sought to
be established in the country.
(4) It throws light on the source of the Constitution, viz. the People of India.


The words in the Preamble, “We the people of India…in our Constituent Assembly…
do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this Constitution”, propound
the theory that the ‘sovereignty’ lies in the people, that the Constitution,
emanates from them; that the ultimate source for the validity of, and the sanction
behind the Constitution is the will of the people; that the Constitution has not
been imposed on them by any external authority, but is the handiwork of the Indians
themselves.


Thus, the source of the Constitution are the people themselves from whom the
Constitution derives its ultimate sanction. This assertion affirms the republican
and democratic character of the Indian polity and the sovereignty of the people.
The People of India thus constitute the sovereign political body who hold the ultimate
power and who conduct the government of the country through their
elected representatives.
The claim that the People of India have given to themselves the Constitution
is in line with similar claims made in several other democratic Constitutions,
such as those of the U.S.A., Ireland, etc.

As regards the nature of the Indian Polity, the Preamble to the Constitution declares
India to be a ‘Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic’. The term
‘Sovereign’ denotes that India is subject to no external authority and that the state
has power to legislate on any subject in conformity with constitutional limitations.
The term ‘democratic’ signifies that India has a responsible and parliamentary form
of government which is accountable to an elected legislature. The Supreme Court has
declared ‘democracy’ as the basic feature of the Constitution. The term ‘Republic’
denotes that the head of the state is not a hereditary monarch, but an elected functionary.
As to the grand objectives and socio-economic goals to achieve which the Indian
Polity has been established, these are stated in the Preamble. These are: to
secure to all its citizens social, economic and political justice; liberty of thought,
expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and opportunity, and to
promote among them fraternity so as to secure the dignity of the individual and
the unity and integrity of the Nation.
Emphasizing upon the significance of the three concepts of liberty, equality
and fraternity used in the Preamble, Dr. Ambedkar observed in his closing speech
in the Constituent Assembly on November 25, 1949 : “The principles of liberty,
equality and fraternity are not to be treated as separate items in a trinity. They
form a union of trinity in the sense that to divorce one from the other is to defeat
the very purpose of democracy. Liberty cannot be divorced from equality, equality
cannot be divorced from liberty. Nor can liberty and equality be divorced
from fraternity. Without equality liberty would produce the supremacy of the few
over the many. Equality without liberty, would kill individual initiative”.
The Supreme Court has emphasized that the words “fraternity assuring the
dignity of the individual” have “a special relevance in the Indian context” because
of the social backwardness of certain sections of the community who had
in the past been looked down upon.
To give a concrete shape to these aspirations, the Constitution has a Chapter
on Fundamental Rights which guarantee certain rights to the people, such as,
freedom of the person, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, etc.
According to the Supreme Court, “The Constitution envisions to establish an
egalitarian social order rendering to every citizen, social, economic and political
justice in a social and economic democracy of the Bharat Republic.” The Constitution
thus ensures economic democracy along with political democracy.
The goals and objectives of the Indian Polity as stated in the Preamble are
sought to be further clarified, strengthened and concretized through the Directive
Principles of State Policy.

The Preamble lays emphasis on the principle of equality which is basic to the
Indian Constitution. The principle of equality is a basic feature or structure of the
Constitution which means that even a constitutional amendment offending the
basic structure of the Constitution is ultra vires. A legislature cannot transgress
this basic feature of the Constitution while making a law.

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: WRITTEN CONSTITUTION

India’s Constitution is a lengthy, elaborate and detailed document. Originally
it consisted of 395 Articles arranged under 22 Parts and eight Schedules. Today,
after many amendments, it has 441 Articles and 12 Schedules. It is probably the
longest of the organic laws now extant in the world.

Several reasons contributed to its prolixity.

First, the Constitution deals with
the organization and structure not only of the Central Government but also of the
States.

Secondly, in a federal Constitution, Centre-State relationship is a matter
of crucial importance. While other federal Constitutions have only skeletal provisions
on this matter, the Indian Constitution has detailed norms.

Thirdly, the
Constitution has reduced to writing many unwritten conventions of the British
Constitution, as for example, the principle of collective responsibility of the
Ministers, parliamentary procedure, etc.

Fourthly, there exist various communities and groups in India. To remove
mutual distrust among them, it was felt necessary to include in the Constitution
detailed provisions on Fundamental Rights, safeguards to minorities, Scheduled
Tribes, Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.

Fifthly, to ensure that the future India be based on the concept of social welfare,
the Constitution includes Directive Principles of State Policy.

Lastly, the Constitution contains not only the fundamental principles of governance
but also many administrative details such as the provisions regarding citizenship,
official language, government services, electoral machinery, etc.

In other Constitutions,
these matters are usually left to be regulated by the ordinary law of the
land. The framers of the Indian Constitution, however, felt that unless these provisions
were contained in the Constitution, the smooth and efficient working of the
Constitution and the democratic process in the country might be jeopardized.
The form of administration has a close relation with the form of the Constitution,
and the former must be appropriate to, and in the same sense as, the latter. It
is quite possible to pervert the Constitutional mechanism without changing its
form by merely changing the form of the administration and making it inconsistent
with, and opposed to, the spirit of the Constitution. Since India was emerging
as an independent country after a long spell of foreign rule, the country lacked
democratic values. The Constitution-makers, therefore, thought it prudent not to
take unnecessary risks, and incorporate in the Constitution itself the form of administration
as well, instead of leaving it to the legislature, so that the whole
mechanism may become viable.
It would, however, be wrong to suppose that the Indian Constitution with all
its prolixity finally settles all problems of government. It leaves a number of
matters to be taken care of by ordinary legislation. It also provides scope, though
not so much as in Britain, for the growth and development of conventions.


Thus, the relationship between the President or the State Governor and his Council
of Ministers, the concept of ministerial responsibility for acts of the officials,
the relationship between the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister in a State and
his Council of Ministers, the appointment of a State Governor, dissolution of the
Lok Sabha or of a State Legislative Assembly by the President or the Governor
respectively, the relations between the President and the Governor, are some of the
matters which are left to be evolved by conventions.


It is not correct to assume that the conventions of the British Constitution would operate suo motu in India wherever relevant and applicable. In course of time, some of these conventions have been questioned, and new conventions are in the process of emergence. This is mainly because most of the conventions of the British Constitution have been evolved in the context of a two-party system, while in India, a multiparty system is evolving. More will be said on this subject in later pages.

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: MODERN CONSTITUTION



The fact that the Indian Constitution was drafted in the mid-twentieth century gave an advantage to its makers in so far as they could take cognizance of the various constitutional processes operating in different countries of the world and thus draw upon a rich fund of human experience, wisdom, heritage and traditions in the area of governmental process in order to fashion a system suited to the political, social and economic conditions in India. In the end result, the Indian Constitution has turned out to be a very interesting and unique document. One could discern in it the impact of several Constitutions. As for instance, the Indian Federalism is influenced by the American, Canadian and Australian Federalism. Fundamental Rights in India owe a great deal to the American Bill of Rights; the process of Constitutional amendment adopted in India is a modified version of the American system.


The influence of the British Constitutional Law, theories and practices on the
Indian Constitution is quite pervasive. As for example, the parliamentary form of
government in India closely follows the British model in substance; the system of
prerogative writs which plays a crucial role in protecting peoples’ legal rights and
ensuring judicial control over administrative action is Britain’s contribution to
India. Australia’s experiences have been especially useful for ordering the Centre-
State financial relationship, and for promoting the concept of freedom of trade
and commerce in the country. Inspiration has come from the Irish Constitution in
the shaping of the Directive Principles of State Policy.
The Government of India Act, 1935, which preceded the Indian Constitution,
has furnished not only administrative details, but also the verbatim language of
many provisions of the Constitution.
It will, however, be wrong to suppose that the Indian Constitution is just a carbon
copy of other Constitutions and contains nothing new and original. While
adopting some of the principles and institutions developed in other democratic
and federal countries, it yet strikes new paths, new approaches and patterns, in
several directions. It makes bold departures in many respects from the established
Constitutional norms and introduces many innovations. For example, in the area
of Centre-State relationship, with a view to achieve the twin objectives of promoting
the unity of India and reducing rigidity inherent in a federal system, the
Indian Constitution makes several provisions which are original in conception as
nothing parallel to these is to be found in any other federal Constitution and, to
this extent, it makes a distinct contribution to the development of theories and
practices of federalism in general.

Rights and Rulings regarding Live-in relationship

In India, the concept of Live-In Relationships is not expressly recognized by the legislature.

However, the courts in India have time and again observed that a long continued live-in relationship can raise a presumption of marriage to safeguard the interests of the parties (generally women) to such arrangement and the children born out of such arrangement.

Reforms of Criminal Justice System

Recommendations 

1) That evidence regarding a man and woman living together for a sufficiently long period should be enough to draw the presumption that the marriage was performed according to the customary rights and ceremonies of the parties

2) It was proposed that the word wife in the section 125 CrPC should be altered to include a woman who was living with the men like his wife for a reasonably protracted period.

Marvin versus Marvin

Court used a new expression of “palimony” has been coined the which is a combination of “pal” and “alimony”. For social obligation of a man entering into a live-in relationship with another woman without the formalities of a marriage.

It was held that

1) The provisions of the family law do not govern a non-marital relationship; such a relationship remains subject solely to the judicial decisions.

2) The court should enforce Express contracts between non marital parents except founded on the consideration of meretricious sexual services.

Gokal Chand versus Pravin Kumari

It was held that continuous cohabitation of men and women as husband and wife may raise the presumption of marriage but the presumption which may be drawn from long cohabitation is rebuttable and if there are such circumstances which we can destroy that presumption, the court cannot ignore them.

Badri Prasad v Director of consolidation

A strong presumption arises in favour of wed-lock where the partners have lived together for a long spell as husband and wife. Although the presumption is rebuttable, a heavy burden lies on him who seeks to deprive the relationship of legal origin.

D. Velusamy and D. Patchaimal

To get recognized as “in the nature of marriage,” certain conditions were set by the Supreme Court in the case of “D. Velusamy and D. Patchaimal (5 SCC 600).”

1) Duration of period of relationship Section 2 (f) of the DV Act has used the expression “at any point of time”, which means a reasonable period of time to maintain and continue a relationship which may vary from case to case, depending upon the fact situation.

(2) Shared household The expression has been defined under Section 2(s) of the DV Act and, hence, need no further elaboration.

(3) Pooling of Resources and Financial Arrangements Supporting each other, or any one of them, financially, sharing bank accounts, acquiring immovable properties in joint names or in the name of the woman, long term investments in business, shares in separate and joint names, so as to have a long standing relationship, may be a guiding factor.

(4) Domestic Arrangements Entrusting the responsibility, especially on the woman to run the home, do the household activities like cleaning, cooking, maintaining or upkeeping the house, etc. is an indication of a relationship in the nature of marriage.

(5) Sexual Relationship Marriage like relationship refers to sexual relationship, not just for pleasure, but for emotional and intimate relationship, for procreation of children, so as to give emotional support, companionship and also material affection, caring etc.

(6) Children; Having children is a strong indication of a relationship in the nature of marriage. Parties, therefore, intend to have a long-standing relationship. Sharing the responsibility for bringing up and supporting them is also a strong indication.

(7) Socialization in Public Holding out to the public and socializing with friends, relations and others, as if they are husband and wife is a strong circumstance to hold the relationship is in the nature of marriage.

(8) Intention and conduct of the parties Common intention of parties as to what their relationship is to be and to involve, and as to their respective roles and responsibilities, primarily determines the nature of that relationship. Live-in relationships are the new and on-going trends among the youth that gives them the freedom to live without any pressure of arranged marriages.

Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.

4.Muscles

There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.

Advantage

Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Legal Remedy against a false case

With the sharp increase in number of cases filed has seen Indian citizens becoming aware of their rights. People are now less timid to come out and fight against injustice. However, on the other side of the coin, the proliferation of false and vexatious cases before the judiciary has been taken place for past few decades. It’s imperative to know the legal way out of this trap so that one does not spend a long period of time fighting in the court against a false accusation which consumes his time and energy.

Section 209 in The Indian Penal Code

Dishonestly making false claim in Court.—Whoever fraudu­lently or dishonestly, or with intent to injure or annoy any person, makes in a Court of Justice any claim which he knows to be false, shall be punished with imprisonment of either descrip­tion for a term which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine.

The essential ingredients of an offence under Section 209 are:

  1. The accused made a claim;
  2. The claim was made in a Court of Justice;
  3. The claim was false, either wholly or in part;
  4. That the accused knew that the claim was false; and
  5. The claim was made fraudulently, dishonestly, or with intent to injure or to annoy any person.

A litigant makes a ‘claim’ before a Court of Justice for the purpose of Section 209 when he seeks certain relief or remedies from the Court and a ‘claim’ for relief necessarily impasses the ground for obtaining that relief.

The offence is complete the moment a false claim is filed in Court.

The section provides a remedy for making false and dishonest claims in the court. This provision has been seldom used. Despite that, there are some rulings in which the courts have initiated the criminal proceedings for false claims and dismissed their case.

In Badri vs Emperor, the court stated that it is immaterial whether the court in which the false claim was made had jurisdiction to try the suit or not.

Ramnandan Prasad Narayan Singh vs Public Prosecutor, The Patna High Court held that mere dismissal of the plaintiff’s case would not justify sanction under section 209 of Indian penal code. A mere proof that the accused failed to prove his claim in the civil suit or the court did not rely upon his evidence on account of discrepancies or improbabilities is not sufficient.

There are many prudent legal provisions to punish the offender who institute a false case, but in the presence of these legal provisions, the courts have witnessed an increase of false cases large number. Hence, there is a need to bring a special law to deal with the false cases as recommended by the Law Commission in its 192ndreport, to bring strong deterrence in society regarding this crime. Apart from this there is a need to spread awareness in people regarding their rights and remedies available in case of a false F.I.R.

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.

Varieties

Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.

History

The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.

Croatian

Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.

Science and technology

The 19th and 20th centuries were marked by great scientific and technological developments. These developments encompassed many different fields like transportation, communication, manufacturing, education, trade, health care and others.

The life of people has become quite comfortable with these scientific innovations as various types of machines have begun to perform complex tasks for them.

There was a time when man used to walk long distances to reach other places for trade and other pursuits. The invention of wheel enabled him to make hand-driven and animal driven carts to transport various types of goods to different destinations.

With the invention of petrol and the engines that could be used it as fuel came different types of vehicles. Cars, trucks, buses, bikes and other road transport means started being made. This was perhaps the greatest scientific development. People could go to long distances and in large number.

They started going to other countries. Not only the trade flourished but also there was cultural development because of interaction of people of different heritages, beliefs, traditions-each influencing the other in some way. Man conquered the oceans with the making of ships, vessels, boats. Going to other continents became easier. Also with the help of large ships the countries could transport large quantities of products to other places for purposes of trade. The fishing trawlers enabled people to get sea-food in large quantities, adding to their food security.

The biggest achievement in the field of transportation came in the shape of aeroplanes. The Wright brothers made the first aeroplane and flew on it for a few seconds, but most importantly, they gave the idea of the air transport. The idea was subsequently developed by aeronautical engineers into the making of aeroplanes. Today, air travel is perhaps the most important means of travel for its speed and comfort.

A person can have breakfast in India, lunch in London and dinner in some American or African country-thanks to the speedy air-travel. With the development of trade and increase in population, there was a need to build a transport system that could carry a large number of people and heavy amounts of cargo to different places on a regular basis. The answer came in the form of railways which solved both these problems. Crores of people travel to various destinations in trains across the globe. India’s railway transport system is the biggest in Asia.

The latest technological development in this area is the metro railways. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has made a network of metro services in the capital providing sophisticated, comfortable and quick mode of mass public transport system. Similar services are being started in many other major cities in India.

The invention of computers has been another major development in the history of mankind. Broadly speaking, computers are the machines that convert data into information. But with regular upgradation of computer technology, these machines have started to perform the most complex functions.

They are the storehouses of information, disseminators of data, processors of fed information and display systems of the latest positions relating to the area being searched. Invariably all the fields concerned with service industry-including banking, insurance, booking, education, diagnostics, developing, designing, etc. are working with the help of computers-which not only provide accuracy and speed but also variety and attractiveness.

Whereas the new technologies in diagnosis of various diseases have enabled us to detect deformities at exact places in the body and at an early stage of such happening, the treatment has also become easy and sure though expensive. There was a time when lakhs of people died due to epidemics of plague, smallpox, cholera, etc. But, due to research and new treatment technologies involving prevention through immunisation, these diseases are not allowed to assume epidemic and devastating proportions.

Some of diseases like plague, polio, smallpox, etc. have been eradicated. There are medicines for most dangerous of diseases and conditions. Serious ailments like heart trouble, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, liver damage, etc. are kept under control with the use of medication regularly. Medical check-ups have been very convenient and accurate with the help of new machines.

In the field of communication technology, the innovation of mobile phones has revolutionised the society. People can make a call from anywhere to anywhere exchanging valuable information. This has facilitated trade, strengthened relationships and brought connectivity in the society.

The cellphones can also be used to send messages, listen to music, set alarms, store telephone numbers, addresses, etc. Mass media thrives on technology. The TV programmes which run twenty-four hours a day, three-hundred-sixty-five days a year, bring latest news from all over the world. With serials, films, live telecasts and game shows, the TV has become the biggest source of information and entertainment for us. Its value to students through educational programmes and to people in general for increasing their awareness level is highly significant.

There are certain disadvantages of scientific developments. Scientists have made weapons of mass destruction and other warheads which are used in wars. Humanity has already suffered vast damage and destruction in two Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki when America dropped atom bombs on them in the Second World War-in which thousands of people were killed, several thousands were wounded, property worth several crores of rupees was destroyed.

With the making of such dangerous weapons, today’s wars have become highly dangerous. If there is a third World War only God knows what will happen to the world. The terrorists are using dangerous weapons like mines, explosives, machine guns and rocket launchers to terrorise civil society.

Another fall out of scientific development is the pollution of air and water which has reached alarming levels. The factories, industries and vehicles are giving out tonnes of smoke and effluents which are vitiating the air and water which are our main sources of consumption.

Scientific and technological inventions are for the benefit of mankind. It is for us to use them to bring progress and happiness in society. What we require is judicial use of resources at our proposal, banish war and confrontation and adopt methods of sustainable development. We need to enforce strict discipline to stop unscrupulous and illegal use of technologies.

Stringent laws need to be made against cyber crimes. We also have to ensure that scientific development does not become environmentally destructive. Sustainable practices need to be adopted to protect habitats and natural ecosystems. At international level, the world body-the UNO and other leading nations should assume the responsibility of ensuring that science and technology are not misused.

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Science and technology has a profound impact on all of humanity’s activities.

Science and technology inventions and discoveries, including the theory of the origin of the universe, the theory of evolution, and the discovery of genes, have given humanity many hints relating to human existence from civilized and cultural points of view. Science and technology have had an immeasurable influence on the formation of our understanding of the world, our view of society, and our outlook on nature.

The wide variety of technologies and science discoveries produced by humanity has led to the building and development of the civilizations of each age, stimulated economic growth, raised people’s standards of living, encouraged cultural development, and had a tremendous impact on religion, thought, and many other human activities. The impact of science and technology on modern society is broad and wide-ranging, influencing such areas as politics, diplomacy, defense, the economy, medicine, transportation, agriculture, social capital improvement, and many more. The fruits of science and technology fill every corner of our lives.

The hundred years of the twentieth century have been called the “century of science and technology,” the “century of war,” and the “century of human prosperity,” among other expressions. Science and technology have thus far brought humanity immeasurable benefits. In the twenty-first century, dubbed the “century of knowledge” and the time of a “knowledge-based society,” it is hoped that the diverse potentials of science and technology, built upon the foundation of the hard-won science and technology of the twentieth century, will be used to solve the serious issues faced by humanity, such as global environmental problems. Moreover, it is also important to hold the firm belief that science and technology must be faithfully passed on to future generations as an irreplaceable asset of humanity, driven by the trust and support of the public.

In the present, squarely addressing the relationship between science and technology and society is an essential challenge to the sound development of science and technology, one which it is important to continue addressing in the future based on historical and civilized perspectives, while also maintaining a deep awareness of the needs of the times.

Medals won by India in Tokyo Olympics 2020

Neeraj Chopra, Mirabai Chanu, Ravi Dahiya, PV Sindhu, Lovlina Borgohain, Bajrang Punia made India proud.

India completed 48th on the decoration count in Tokyo, its most elevated positioning in more than forty years (if one somehow managed to pass by the all out number of awards, India would have really completed 33rd. Be that as it may, positioning is done essentially dependent on gold awards won). The past best in this period was the 51st position finish at Beijing in 2008, when India won three awards, including Abhinav Bindra’s gold.

India has completed fundamentally higher in the time in which it used to win gold in hockey, yet that time isn’t actually tantamount both due to the many nations that have appeared from that point forward and the extension in the quantity of sports and henceforth decorations. In Moscow, for example, India completed at 23rd position however with simply a single decoration, the hockey gold. A rehash of that at Tokyo would have set India at joint 63rd, a proportion of how unique the two times are.

In London 2012, India had completed 57th notwithstanding winning a larger number of awards than in Beijing on the grounds that the decoration table positions nations by gold, silver and bronze in a specific order and India didn’t win a gold in London. In Rio in 2016, the award count collided with only two thus did the positioning to 67th. From that point, it’s currently gone up almost 20 spots.

SEVEN SAMURAI

1 gold, 2 silver, 4 bronze – India delivered it’s most extravagant ever award pull and the best exhibition ever at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, which finished on Sunday. Here are the people of steel and thunder who made India glad and gave the country something to cheer about in these dull occasions of a lethal pandemic.

GOLD

NEERAJ CHOPRA | Athlete

There were greater names with better records in Tokyo. In any case, while most surrendered to the pressing factor of the large stage, the 23-year-old kid from Haryana’s Panipat area savored and delighted at the time. Following his brilliant toss, millions became enthusiastic on hearing the public hymn at the Olympics interestingly since Beijing 2008. A fitting peak to the narrative of Neeraj Chopra, who risked upon the game while attempting to get in shape and who defeated a grip of wounds to give Indian games its most prominent second on the world’s greatest donning stage

SILVER

SAIKHOM MIRABAI CHANU |Weightlifter

Much was normal from Mirabai Chanu at Rio 2016. She slumped, neglecting to make a solitary quick lift. The strain to convey was smashing at Tokyo 2020. In any case, trained by Vijay Sharma, the obliging 26-year-old from Manipur easily handled the significant burdens to secure a silver happily in the 49kg class. Reclamation had never been seriously fulfilling and better for the one who got logs to accumulate winter fuel for her family as a youngster

RAVI KUMAR DAHIYA |Wrestler

He was positioned world no. 4. In any case, in the approach the Olympics, the spotlight was barely ever on the 23-year-old Olympic debutant from Sonipat. Incognizant, Kumar created a presentation of dazzling dauntlessness and perseverance while following 2-9 against adversary Nurislam Sanayev in the semis. Frantic to escape his iron grasp, the Kazakh bit him severely in his lower arm yet Dahiya wouldn’t give up till the tide was changed. Dahiya contended energetically yet lost in the last to turn into India’s second silver decoration winning grappler after Sushil Kumar. Not really settled competitor, he could well enhance his award tone in 2024

Bronze

Men’s group Hockey

None of them was conceived when India last won an Olympic decoration in hockey. Be that as it may, nothing, not so much as a possibly spirit draining 7-1 misfortune to Australia, could stop skipper Manpreet Singh’s young men from their tryst with the platform. The loss prodded them to convey one standout execution after another, subsequent in a bronze season finisher. The match against Germany was for the ages. You can continue to watch India’s 5-4 victory for the remainder of your lives. However, this group holds the guarantee of a lot more successes to come

PV sindu badminton

the beginning phases in Tokyo, she looked underneath her best. Be that as it may, similar to a finely-tuned accuracy instrument, Pusarla Venkata Sindhu hit the ideal notes as the competition crested.

BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.

Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

Corruption

Corruption is ubiquitous and unlimited. It has became all pervading, a world phenomenon. It has increased by leaps and bounds worldwide, in direct relation and proportion to our moral degradation, destruction of character, devaluation of human values and lust for power and money.

It is said that when character is lost everything is lost. There is no character and so we have lost all. The political leaders, the heads of governments and others at helm of the affairs of many nations are corrupt and corruption is contagious. It spreads rapidly and percolates to all the lower levels. It is there in Japan, Italy, Pakistan, Mexico, China, Iran, Iraq, America, and England, etc. There is no country immune from it. There might be a difference of degrees, but as far as its quality, gravity and pervasiveness are concerned, there is hardly any difference.

Corruption in India is rampant and well established in all spheres of our life — public life, politics, administration, business, judicial system, education, research and security. There is hardly any exception. There are scandals and scams in plenty, right from the Bofors scandal to the recent Taj heritage corridor scandal. In foreign countries, when corruption charges are proved there is suitable punishment, but in India there is no system, no tradition to bring the corrupt to trial and then to make him pay for his crime. There is crime but no punishment. It is a salient feature of Indian corruption.

In a write-up, Mr. K. Subrahmanyan has wittily remarked, “Long before our economic globalisation began, India was globalised in respect of political corruption and politician- organised crime nexus. Therefore, smugglers, narcotics’ barons, vice syndicates and protection rackets have become patrons of political parties. The former provides large resources to politicians and the latter ensures no legal enforcement against organised crime.” For example, take the Securities scam. Harshad Mehta manipulated things in such a way as to enable himself to siphon crores of rupees fraudulently from banks, under the very noses of the managers, high officials and other members of the staff of the Reserve Bank of India. Was it because of alleged system failure or because there was collusion between him and the officials concerned? The connivance of one or two cabinet ministers has also been there.

Fingers were also raised at M. J. Fherwani, the then Chairman of the National Housing Bank, who died under mysterious circumstances soon after. Consequently, a Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) was constituted under the chairmanship of Mr. R.N. Mirdha to probe the scandal. The JPC finally submitted its report to the Parliament but nothing happened to the people found involved in the scam. When there was a hue and cry from the Opposition, a couple of ministers were asked to submit their resignations and that was all. As has already been pointed out, we have no system, no tradition, either to punish the guilty or to bring an investigation to its logical conclusion. Moreover, public memory is very short.

There is a parallel economy in operation in India and black money is ever on the increase because of political patronage and collusion. There is a widespread evasion of taxes, to the tune of crores of rupees every year, owing to corruption in politics, administration and enforcement agencies. In return, the political gurus get huge funds to fight elections and bribes for personal accumulations. This helps them to keep themselves in positions of power and influence. The funding from organised black marketers, drug traffickers, underworld dons, mafias and smugglers is actually on a much larger scale than is apparent. This has crippled our economy and turned our planning haywire.

Corruption has become a way of life. There is no effective check on this growing menace because there is lack 6f political will. In spite of anti-corruption departments and squads, it has permeated the rank and the file of the administration. No work can be got done unless the palms of the concerned officials are greased. Lubricant in the form of gratification is a must to make the administrative machinery move smoothly in your favour. First satisfy the officials and then get satisfying results in return.

Often, investigations by CBI and vigilance departments into corruption charges against the bureaucrats have proved futile. Such is the power of manipulation, money and nepotism. Kickbacks, gratifications, bribes, and commissions are the order of the day. Students pay capitation fees to get admission in professional courses, job-seekers purchase positions in the administration, contractors grease the palms of the engineers so as to enable themselves to use sand in place of cement in contractual constructions, businessmen use the appropriate ‘lubricant’ to keep their illegal operations moving smoothly. And then these people, in turn, want to regain their money manifold and quickly by resorting to fraudulent, easy and corrupt means. Thus, there is a vicious circle engulfing all and sundry.

Honest, sincere and god-fearing officials are looked down upon. They are considered simpletons, while the bribe-takers are the heroes. The corrupt officials are doing very well for themselves and their higher-ups patronize and protect them because of their fair share in the bribes. These people, in collaboration, co-operation and collusion with others, are enriching themselves. They have fat bank balances, houses in prime locations, and all the modern amenities. They are really rolling in wealth and comprise the most successful segment of the society. There are a few honest ones but they are not courageous enough to condemn and criticism their dishonest and bribe-happy colleagues. They are silent spectators to their corrupt counterparts, being favoured with important posts and assignments. The honest officers are a demoralized lot. Consequently, the fence-sitters are being pushed on to the bandwagon of the corrupt lot.

Corruption cannot be checked and minimised unless political leaders themselves are honest and have a strong will and desire to stem the rot. The leaders should encourage honest officials and help them to unite against corrupt and dishonest ones. Corruption should be dealt with an iron hand and further rules and regulations enacted to punish the corrupt government servants and administrators. Nepotism, favoritism, and red- tapism, etc., should be eliminated because they form the very foundations of corruption. Improvement in salaries, creation of more employment opportunities can also go a long way in tackling the menace successfully.

Honesty is conspicuous these days by its absence. According to a newspaper report, even the judiciary does not seem to be free from the evil. The former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, E.S. Venkatramaiya speaking in an interview said, “The judiciary in India has deteriorated in its standard because such judges are appointed as are willing to be influenced by lavish parties and whiskey bottles.” He added, In every high court, there are at least four to five judges who are practically out every evening, wining and dining either at a lawyer’s house or a foreign embassy.” Corruption is now so well-organized and entrenched in the system that it requires a will of steel and the courage of a lion to fight it.

Now, effective and strong strategies, backed by strong political will, should be devised to checkmate it. There should be deterrent Punishment for those indulging in corruption. Both giving and taking of bribes should be a cognizable offence. Much depends upon our political leaders, bureaucrats and the enlightened public consciousness. Unless these three units make sincere efforts and show their commitment to the democratic nation and society, nothing much will be achieved to check and eliminate corruption.

A quote says that” one cannot fight Corruption by fighting it” and this is entirely correct. Corruption means the act which stems from Lust or greed for money and going to any and every length needed to get illegal tasks done. Corruption is active in each and every part and country of the world. Corruption cannot be stopped or executed in any way. It can only be finished if it is inside a man’s heart to stop it. There are many methods of Corruption, and the most common one is bribery.

Bribery means the tactic that is used for using favours or gifts for personal gain. There are different types of favours included in this. The other is embezzlement which means withholding assets which can be further used for theft. Usually, there are one or more persons involved who are entrusted with these assets, and it can also be called a financial fraud. The third one is ‘the Graft’ which means illegal use of a politician’s power for personal gain. This one is the most commonly used by Drug lords or Narcotic Barons.

Extortion means to claim any assets, land or property illegally. Favouritism or Nepotism is also in full-fledged flow these days when only the favourite persons or direct relatives of those in power ascend into their potential. There are not many ways of stopping Corruption, but they do exist.

The government can give a better salary to their employees who are equivalent to the amount of work that they put in. Decreasing the workload and increasing workers can also be an excellent way to cease this influential and illegal practice. Strict Laws are needed for stopping this and the best way to compete; this is the way of putting guilty criminals to their End. The government can work to keep the inflation levels low in the country so they can work accordingly. Corruption cannot be fought against, and it can only be stopped.

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Top 10 Indian Crime Series On Internet to Watch

This quarantine, chances are that each one of us has binge-watched at least one series or movie on the web. With the advent of online web-based entertainment apps and ever since the Star Network introduced Hotstar to the public and Netflix found its way into the Indian market, the web content has become just too full of quality to ignore. There is quality in the plot, acting, scripts, and more importantly the freedom of choosing bold content. That is the primary reason why well-accomplished actors and directors are choosing the web platforms while some great new actors are being unearthed.

However, over the last two years, there have been so many platforms with so many quality shows that the catalogue seems simply endless. The two domains that have attracted a majority of the crowd are crime/action and comedy. But we are spoilt for choices to such an extent where identifying a really good show has just become impossible. Some raging shows may not be up to the mark while some undiscovered gems are critically well acclaimed but don’t often make the headlines. In this article, we have compiled a list for you of the 10 best crime series on Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Voot, and Zee5. These are all high-octane, action-packed, crime thrillers that are sure to leave you gasping for more at the end. Here are the 10 best Indian crime series On Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Voot and Zee5:

10. Abhay

Gore, gruesome deaths, murders, suspense, and thrill. If these things hook you on, Abhay is a must-watch for you. Revolving around the story of Abhay – a forever-frowning cop from the Special Task Force, this original inspired by true events hooks you on from the word go. Every episode is packed with intriguing mysteries, fascinatingly tantalizing deaths and engrossing cases. Produced by crime expert B.P. Singh – best known for the TV show “CID” which was the longest-running TV show on the Indian small screen, the show does not know how to disappoint.

9. Asur: Welcome to your dark side –

Starring Bollywood veterans Arshad Warsi and Barun Sobti, Oni Sen’s directorial venture “Asur” is a mythic-crime thriller that takes you on a journey of murders, suspense and the supernatural. Set in the scenic city of Varanasi, it follows the story of Nikhil Nair (Barun Sobti) and his mentor Dhananjay Rajput (Arshad Warsi) as they race against time to take on a dangerous serial killer out on a rampage in the

8. Jamtara – Sabka Number Ayega – Netflix

When the world of technology meets crime, the most common cybercrime is identity fraud. Jamtara deals with a true story of phishing activities in the Jamtara district of Jharkhand state. When Soumedra Padhi read an article about the same in a newspaper, he got hooked and sent his research team to collect more information. The result was seen four years later as Padhi weaved his research team’s efforts to direct a gripping story with a spellbinding screenplay.

7. Mirzapur – Amazon Prime Video

If you haven’t seen a Mirzapur sticker or meme out there, ask yourself this: What am I doing with my life? Primarily shot in the titular district of Mirzapur, the series was received very well by young adults and the critics. Starring Pankaj Tripathi and Ali Faizal in leading roles, this is a typical gun-first-words-later mafia movie with corrupt politicians, daring dons, and bold language.

6. SHE – Netflix

Featuring an undercover female constable who is ordered to use her sexuality as a weapon to infiltrate a gang, this thrilling crime show is written by Imtiaz Ali and author Divya Johri. Officer Bhumika Pardeshi has been recently inducted into the Anti-Narcotics Group and her first assignment is to capture an underworld drug lord. With twists and turns each episode, this is a riveting tale of the true power of seduction and the protagonist is a great example of beauty with brains.

5. Sacred Games – Netflix

You had to be living under a rock if you haven’t heard of the Sacred Games. Starring Saif Ali Khan as Inspector Sartaj Singh, Nawazuddin Siddiqui as Ganesh Gaitonde, Radhika Apte as Anjali Mathur and Pankaj Tripathi as the Guruji, the series revolves around a threat to a city that is supposed to be destroyed in 25 days. With a highly unpredictable plot and twists like never seen before, the Sacred Games has been listed in the New York times 30 best TV shows of the decade – and deservedly so!

4. Rangbaaz – Zee5

Rangbaaz is the true story of a gangster Prakash Shukla of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. The man who studied at DDU became the second most wanted man in India at one point of time, and this series is a retelling of his story.

3. Special OPS – Hotstar

Created by Neeraj Pandey and starring Kay Kay Menon, Karan Tacker, Vinay Pathak and Vipul Gupta in leading roles, the film centers around Kay Kay Menon’s character – Himmat Singh as he studies the patterns in all terrorist attacks on the country and is convinced that one man is responsible for all this. The episodes see him and his team of five try to track down the ultimate mastermind before another explosion or terrorist attack can rock the country.

2. Delhi Crime – Netflix

The series focusses on the aftermath of the brutal Delhi Gang-Rape Case of 2012 where 16 men in a moving bus raped and assaulted a 23-year old physiotherapy intern and assaulted her male friend accompanying her. The series revolves around the efforts of the Delhi Police in searching and apprehending the men responsible.

1. Breathe – Amazon Prime Video

Breathe is a psychological crime-thriller depicting the lengths that a father would go to, to save his son. R. Madhavan stars as the desperate father trying to save his son Joshua (Atharva Vishvakarma) from a deadly medical condition. Murders, cover-ups and more murders are all you get when you cross path with an over-protective father, and by the end, you cannot help but feel sympathy for the murderer, confused if he was ever the criminal or himself a victim.

So those were the Top 10 Indian crime series On Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Voot, and Zee5. Do you feel a show is missing? Or is a show wrongly placed on the list? Do let us know in the comments.

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History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

ROLE OF INDIA IN QUAD

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

The Quadrilateral Dialogue was established in 2007 when four countries—the United States, India, Japan, and Australia—joined forces. However, it did not take off at first due to a variety of factors, and it was resurrected in 2017 after almost a decade due to factors such as growing country convergence, the expanding importance of the Indo-Pacific area, and rising threat sentiments toward China, among others.

Since then it has evolved into a platform for diplomatic discussion and coordination among participating countries, who meet on a regular basis at the working- and ministerial levels to discuss shared interests like ensuring a rules-based international order.

SIGNIFICANCE FOR INDIA

The Quad, ASEAN, and the Western Indian Ocean are the three groupings in which India participates as a partner in the Indo-Pacific area.

India as a Net Security provider

In the region of Indian Ocean India must be a Net Security Provider. Its supremacy in the IOR must be maintained and sustained if it is to claim this position as a Region. QUAD offers India with a platform to strengthen regional security through collaboration while also emphasising that the Indo-Pacific concept stands for a free, open, and inclusive area.( Inclusive here refers to a geographical notion that encompasses all countries inside it as well as those having a stake outside of it)

Countering China

The Quad offers India with a forum to seek collaboration with like-minded countries on a variety of problems, including maintaining territorial integrity and sovereignty, as well as peaceful dispute settlement. It also shows a united front against China’s unceremonious and aggressive actions towards the nation which is especially important now, since ties between India and China have deteriorated as a result of border intrusions along the Tibet-India boundary in many locations. The Chinese policy of encircling India with the String of Pearls poses a direct threat to India’s maritime sovereignty, which must be addressed.

Framing post-COVID-19 international order

QUAD can assist India in not just recovering from the pandemic’s impacts through a series of integrated measures, but also in securing a part in the modern international order. Enhancing such cooperation was one of the first actions made in 2021. The vaccination initiative will serve as a good litmus test for the QUAD administrations’ ability to work together.

Convergence on other issues

On a range of topics, India shares common interests with other Quad members, including connectivity and infrastructure development, security, especially counter-terrorism; cyber and maritime security; multilateral institutions reform, and so on. Assistance from members on these problems might help India achieve its strategic and economic objectives.

Supplementing India’s defence capabilities

Assistance in the sphere of defence among Quad countries, such as joint patrols, strategic information exchange, and so on, can help India overcome its disadvantages in terms of naval capabilities, military reconnaissance, technology, and surveillance systems.

Ensuring a free Indo Pacific

The Indo-Pacific region must be accessible and vibrant, regulated by international norms and bedrock values such as freedom of navigation and peaceful resolution of conflicts, and the nations involved must have the right to make decisions, free of coercion.

Counter-terrorism Table top Exercise for QUAD nations to improve collaboration and common capabilities in dealing with potential terrorist threats, as well as examine CT response systems.

INDIA’S ROLE IN THE INDO-PACIFIC

In the Indo-Pacific, India’s geographic and geopolitical importance provides a counterbalance to China’s rising influence in the Indian Ocean. India’s security concerns, centred primarily on China’s encirclement policy through port facilities in India’s neighbourhood mainly Gwadar and Hambantota and the desire to maintain and protect open and free sea lanes of information exchange against concerns about China’s chokepoint in the South China Sea and increasing maritime presence in the ocean

India’s critical significance in the Indo-Pacific may be seen as a multiple framework. First, unlike the Asia-Pacific architecture, the Indo-Pacific architecture allows New Delhi to move above its long-held standing as a middle-power. This is bolstered by India’s admission to the League of big powers especially the United States and Japan and the development of tight strategic ties with Washington and its regional allies. This promotes India’s great-power ambitions and force projection capability inside the Indo-Pacific and beyond.

Second, India’s Act East Policy and Extended Neighbourhood Policy benefit from New Delhi’s strong participation in the Indo-Pacific. New Delhi’s stronger relations with ASEAN members have also bolstered this boost.

Third, the development of India-US strategic relations, particularly in military, works as a significant counterweight to India’s adversaries. Increased engagements between New Delhi and Washington are exemplified by the four foundational contracts signed between the two countries, which include the General Security of Military Information Agreement, Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement, Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement, and Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement—all of which promote in-depth partnership Most significantly, the improved partnership boosts India’s military capacity, particularly when it comes to striking targets with precise accuracy.

Fourth, under India-Australia ties, which were elevated to a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership in 2020, India’s strategic position is bolstered yet further. In fact, Canberra and New Delhi inked nine agreements, the most important of which are the Australia-India Mutual Logistics Support Arrangement and the Defence Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement, both of which provide a framework for the two nations’ security cooperation.

Fifth, and most significantly, during COVID-19, India demonstrated its ability to be a first responder to a regional disaster by giving medical assistance to its near neighbours, including the Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Seychelles. In addition, India sent medical quick response teams to Comoros and Kuwait to help them prepare for the epidemic. In addition, nine Maldivians were evacuated from Wuhan, China, the site of the pandemic.

In addition, India pushed for virtual summits like the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation web conference on March 2020 and the “Extraordinary Digital G20 Leaders’ Summit” to help develop a worldwide reaction to the epidemic on 26 March 2020. In addition, New Delhi established a SAARC Emergency Response Fund for Coronavirus, with India contributing an initial 10 million USD.

In addition, as countries attempt to move manufacturing away from China, India is viewed as one of the world’s new “favoured” investment destinations. The enormous scale of India’s marketplace as well as the low labour costs, make it a desirable destination. Apple, for example, created a production facility in India in partnership with Foxconn, while Samsung, of South Korea, ceased operations in China and moved manufacturing units to India.

There is little dispute about India’s rising position in the Indo-Pacific, not just as a significant participant but also as a responsible actor.  As a result, India’s manoeuvring room in the post-COVID international order is anticipated to expand, as India is seen as one of the major movers in guiding policy and protecting allied interests in the Indo-Pacific. COVID-19 has, in fact, expanded the Quad framework, allowing important parties to play a more active role in addressing critical conventional and unconventional regional issues.

RULE OF LAW



A few words may be said here about the concept of Rule of Law as other ideas
and concepts relating to Constitutionalism will be discussed in due course in the
following pages.
The doctrine of Rule of Law is ascribed to DICEY whose writing in 1885 on
the British Constitution included the following three distinct though kindered
ideas in Rule of Law:


(i) Absence of Arbitrary Power : No man is above law. No man is punishable
except for a distinct breach of law established in an ordinary
legal manner before ordinary courts. The government cannot punish
any one merely by its own fiat. Persons in authority in Britain do not
enjoy wide, arbitrary or discretionary powers. Dicey asserted that
wherever there is discretion there is room for arbitrariness.


(ii) Equality before Law : Every man, whatever his rank or condition, is subject
to the ordinary law and jurisdiction of the ordinary courts. No man is
above law.


(iii) Individual Liberties : The general principles of the British Constitution,
and especially the liberties of the individual, are judge-made, i.e.,
these are the result of judicial decisions determining the rights of private
persons in particular cases brought before the courts from time to
time.


DICEY asserted that the above-mentioned features existed in the British Constitution. The British Constitution is judge-made and the rights of the individual form part of, and pervade, the Constitution. The rights of the individuals are part of the Constitution because these are secured by the courts. The British Constitutional Law is not the source, but the consequence, of the rights of the individuals as defined by the courts.
DICEY was thinking of the common law freedoms, such as, personal liberty, freedom of speech, public meeting, etc. What DICEY was saying was that certain Constitutions proclaim rights but do not provide adequate means to enforce those rights. In the British Constitution, on the other hand, there is inseparable connection between the means of enforcing a right and the right to be enforced.
Referring in particular to the Habeas Corpus Act, DICEY said that it was “worth a hundred Constitutional articles guaranteeing individual liberty.” DICEY however accepted that there was rule of law in the U.S.A., because there the
rights declared in the Constitution could be enforced, and the Constitution gave legal security to the rights declared.
The third principle is peculiar to Britain. In many modern written Constitutions, the basic rights of the people are guaranteed in the Constitution itself. This is regarded as a better guarantee for these rights and even in Britain there exists at present strong opinion that basic rights should be guaranteed. DICEY’S thesis has been criticized by many from various angles but, the basic tenet expressed by him is that power is derived from, and is to be exercised according to law.

In substance, DICEY’S emphasis, on the whole, in his enunciation
of Rule of Law is on the absence of arbitrary power, and discretionary power,
equality before Law, and legal protection to certain basic human rights, and these
ideas remain relevant and significant in every democratic country even to-day.
It is also true that dictated by the needs of practical government, a number of
exceptions have been engrafted on these ideas in modern democratic countries,
e.g., there is a universal growth of broad discretionary powers of the administration;
administrative tribunals have grown; the institution of preventive detention
has become the normal feature in many democratic countries. Nevertheless,
the basic ideas are worth preserving and promoting.
The concept of Rule of Law has been discussed in several international forums.
The effort being made is to give it a socio-legal-economic content and a
supranational complexion.
Rule of Law has no fixed or articulate connotation though the Indian courts refer
to this phrase time and again. The broad emphasis of Rule of Law is on absence
of any center of unlimited or arbitrary power in the country, on proper
structuration and control of power, absence of arbitrariness in the government.
Government intervention in many daily activities of the citizens is on the increase
creating a possibility of arbitrariness in State action. Rule of Law is useful as a
counter to this situation, because the basic emphasis of Rule of Law is on exclusion
of arbitrariness, lawlessness and unreasonableness on the part of the government.

Why does a student need to be industry ready & how they can be?

What do you mean by industry ready?

An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.

Importance

A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.

Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.

Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.

How can students be industry ready?

Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-

  1. Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
  2. Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
  3. Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
  4. Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
  5. Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
  6. Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
  7. Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
  8. Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.

So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.

Bahrain

Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.

Seychelles

Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.

UAE

The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused

Philippines

In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.

Indian national movement

The Indian national movement was undoubtedly one of the biggest mass movements modern society has ever seen. It was a movement which galvanized millions of people of all classes and ideologies into political action and brought to its knees a mighty colonial empire. Consequently, along with the British, French, Russian, Chinese, Cuban and Vietnamese revolutions, it is of great relevance to those wishing to alter the existing political and social structure.

Various aspects of the Indian national movement, especially Gandhian political strategy, are particularly relevant to these movements in societies that broadly function within the confines of the rule of law, and are characterized by a democratic and basically civil libertarian polity. But it is also relevant to other societies. We know for a fact that even Lech Walesa consciously tried to incorporate elements of Gandhian strategy in the Solidarity Movement in Poland.

The Indian national movement, in fact, provides the only actual historical example of a semi-democratic or democratic type of political structure being successfully replaced or transformed. It is the only movement where the broadly Gramscian theoretical perspective of a war of position was successfully practiced; where state power was not seized in a single historical moment of revolution, but through prolonged popular struggle on a moral, political and ideological level; where reserves of counter-hegemony were built up over the years through progressive, stages; where the phases of struggle alternated with ‘passive’ phases.

The Indian national movement is also an example of how the constitutional space offered by the existing structure could be used without getting co-opted by it. It did not completely reject this space, as such rejection in democratic societies entails heavy costs in terms of hegemonic influence and often leads to isolation – but entered it and used it effectively in combination with non-constitutional struggle to overthrow the existing structure.

The Indian national movement is perhaps one of the best examples of the creation of an extremely wide movement with a common aim in which diverse political and ideological currents could co-exist and work – and simultaneously continue to contend for overall ideological and political hegemony over it. While intense debate on all basic issues was allowed, the diversity and tension did not weaken the cohesion and striking power of the movement; on the contrary, this diversity and atmosphere of freedom and debate became a major source of its strength.

Today, over sixty years after independence, we are still close enough to the freedom struggle to feel its warmth and yet far enough to be able to analyze it coolly, and with the advantage of hindsight. Analyze it as we must, for our past, present and future are inextricably linked to it. Men and women in every age and society make their own history, but they do not make it in a historical vacuum, de novo. Their efforts, however innovative, at finding solutions to their problems in the present and charting out their future, are guided and circumscribed, moulded and conditioned, by their respective histories, their inherited economic, political and ideological structures. To make myself clearer, the path that India has followed since 1947 has deep roots in the struggle for independence. The political and, ideological features, which have had a decisive impact on post-independence development, are largely a legacy of the freedom struggle. It is a legacy that belongs to all the Indian people, regardless of which party or group they belong to now, for the ‘party’ which led this struggle from 1885 to 1947 was not then a party but a movement – all political trends from the Right to the Left were incorporated in it.

What are the outstanding features of the freedom struggle? A major aspect is the values and mean ideals on which the movement itself was based and the broad socio-economic-and political vision of its leadership (this vision was that of a democratic , civil libertarian and secular India, based on self-reliant, egalitarian social order and an independent foreign policy).

The movement popularized democratic ideas and instructions in India. The nationalists fought for the introduction of a representative government on the basis of popular election and demanded that elections be based on adult franchise. The Indian National Congress was organized on a democratic basis and in the form of a parliament. It not only permitted but encouraged free expression of opinion within the party and the movement. Some of the most important decisions in its history were taken after heated debates and on the basis of open voting.

From the beginning, the nationalists fought against attacks by the State on the freedom of the press, expression and association, and made the struggle for these freedoms an integral part of the national movement. During their brief spell in power, from 1937-39, the Congress ministries greatly extended the scope of civil liberties. The defence of civil liberties was not narrowly conceived in terms of one political group, but was extended to include the defence of other groups whose views were politically and ideologically different. The Moderates defended Tilak, the Extremist, and non-violent Congressmen passionately defended revolutionary terrorists and communists alike during their trails. In 1928, the Public Safety Bill and Trade Disputes Bill were opposed not only by Motilal Nehru but also by conservatives like Madan Mohan Malaviya and M.R. Jayakar. It was this strong civil libertarian and democratic tradition of the national movement which was reflected in the constitution of independent India.

The freedom struggle was also a struggle for economic development. In time an economic ideology developed which was to dominate the views of independent India. The national movement accepted, with near unanimity, the need to develop India on the basis of industrialization which in turn was to be independent of foreign capital and was to rely on the indigenous capital goods sector. A crucial role was assigned to the public sector and, in the 1930’s there was a commitment to economic planning.

From the initial stages, the movement adopted a pro-poor ordination which was strengthened with the advent of Gandhi and the rise of the leftists who struggled to make the movement adopt a social outlook. The movement also increasingly moved towards a programme of radical agrarian reform. However, socialism did not, at any stage, become the official goal of the Indian National Congress through there was a great deal of debate around it within the National Movement and the Indian National Congress urging in the 1930s and 1940s. For various reasons, despite the existence of powerful leftist trend within the nationalist mainstream, the dominant vision within the Congress did not transcend the parameters of a capitalist conception of society.

The national movement was, from its early days, fully committed to secularism. Its leadership fought hard to inculcate secular values among the people and opposed the growth of communalism. And despite the partition of India and the accompanying communal holocaust, it did succeed in enshrining secularism in the constitution of free India.

It was never inward looking. Since the days of Raja Rammohan Roy, Indian leaders had developed a broad international outlook. Over the years, they evolved a policy of opposition to imperialism on a world-wide scale and solidarity with anti-colonial movements in other parts of the world. They established the principle that Indians should hate British imperialism but not the British people. Consequently, they were supported by a large number of Englishmen, women and political groups. They maintained close links with the progressive, anti-colonial and anti-capitalist forces of the world. A non-racist, anti-imperialist outlook, which continues to characterize Indian foreign policy, was thus part of the legacy of the anti-imperialist struggle.

In my view, India’s freedom struggle was basically the result of a fundamental contradiction between the interests of the Indian people and that of British colonialism. From the beginning itself, India’s national leaders grasped this contradiction. They were able to see that India was regressing economically and undergoing a process of underdevelopment. In time they were able to evolve a scientific analysis of colonialism. In fact, they were the first in the 19th century to develop an economic critique of colonialism and lay bare its complex structure. They were also able to see the distinction between colonial policy and the imperatives of the colonial structure. Taking the social experience of the Indian people as colonize subjects and recognizing the common interests of the Indian people vis-à-vis colonials, the national leaders gradually evolved a clear-cut anti-colonial ideology and critique of colonialism were disseminated during the mass phase of the movement.

The national movement also played a pivotal role in the historical process through which the Indian people got formed into a nation or a group of people. National leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjee, Tilak, Gandhiji and Nehru accepted that India was not yet a fully structured nation but a nation-in-the-making, and that one of the major objectives and functions of the movement was to promote the growing unity of the Indian people through a common struggle against colonialism. In other words, the national movement was seen both as a product of the process of the nation-in-the-making that was never counter-posed to the diverse regional, linguistic and ethnic identities in India. On the contrary, the emergence of a national identity and the flowering of the narrower identities were seen as processes deriving strength from each other.

The pre-nationalist resistance to colonial rule failed to understand the twin phenomena of colonialism and the nation-in-the-making. In fact, these phenomena were not visible, or available to be grasped, on the surface. They had to be grasped through hard analysis. This analysis and political consciousness based on it were then taken to the people by intellectuals who played a significant role in arousing the inherent, instinctive, nascent, anti-colonial consciousness of the masses.

The Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian National

Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2.1869 A.D. in a trading family of porbander, a small town in Kathiawara. His full name was Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi and his father was the Diwan of Rajkot. He went off to South Africa after marriage and worked as barrister there for twenty years. In South Africa, he had his first brush with apartheid. Once while he was traveling in a train, he was thrown out of the first class compartment despite having a ticket. This made him swear that he would do his best to erase apartheid from the face of his world. He went back to India only to find that his own country was being ruled by the British and his fellow citizens were being treated harshly by the British. Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle Like other great men in history, Gandhi took his time to grow and develop his techniques to ensure that his actions made an impact. His faith in different religions was commendable. His listened to the teachings of Christianity with the same belief and faith he read the Hindu scriptures with. Gandhi arrived in India on 9 January, 1915. Initially, he spent a year visiting various places in India to have an understanding of the situation. His political engagement started in the 1917-18 period when he took up the issues of Champaran indigo farmers, the Ahmedabad textile workers and the Kheda peasants. These struggles witnessed his specific method of agitation, known as Satyagraha, which had earlier developed in the South African context and through which he was partially successful in achieving his goals.

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Constitutionalism



Besides the concept of the Constitution, there is also the all-important concept of ‘Constitutionalism’. Modern political thought draws a distinction between ‘Constitutionalism’ and ‘Constitution’. A country may have the ‘Constitution’ but not necessarily ‘Constitutionalism’. For example, a country with a dictatorship, where the dictator’s word is law, can be said to have a ‘Constitution’ but not ‘Constitutionalism’. The underlying difference between the two concepts is that a Constitution ought not merely to confer powers on the various organs of the government, but also seek to restrain those powers. Constitutionalism recognizes the need for the government but insists upon limitations being placed upon governmental powers. Constitutionalism envisages checks and balances and putting the powers of the legislature and the executive under some restraints and not making them uncontrolled and arbitrary.


Unlimited powers jeopardize the freedom of the people. As has been well said:
power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. If the Constitution confers
unrestrained power on either the legislature or the executive, it might lead to
an authoritarian, oppressive government. Therefore, to preserve the basic freedoms
of the individual, and to maintain his dignity and personality, the Constitution
should be permeated with ‘Constitutionalism’; it should have some in-built
restrictions on the powers conferred by it on governmental organs.
‘Constitutionalism’ connotes in essence limited government or a limitation on
government. Constitutionalism is the antithesis of arbitrary powers. ‘Constitutionalism’
recognizes the need for a government with powers but at the same time
insists that limitations be placed on those powers. The antithesis of Constitutionalism
is despotism. Unlimited power may lead to an authoritarian, oppressive,
government that jeopardizes the freedoms of the people. Only when the Constitution
of a country seeks to decentralize power instead of concentrating it at
one point, and also imposes other restraints and limitations thereon, does a country
have not only ‘constitution’ but also ‘constitutionalism’.
‘Constitutions spring from a belief in limited government. According to
SCHWARTZ, in the U.S.A., the word Constitution means “a written organic instrument,
under which governmental powers are both conferred and circumscribed”.
He emphasizes that “this stress upon grant and limitation of authority is
fundamental”. As PROFESSOR VILE has remarked:
“Western institutional theorists have concerned themselves with the problems
of ensuring that the exercise of governmental power, which is essential to
the realization of the values of their societies should be controlled in order that
it should not itself be destructive of the values it was intended to promote.”
The idea of Constitutionalism is not new. It is embedded deeply in human
thought. Many natural law philosophers have promoted this idea through their writings.

Some of these philosophers are: ACQUINAS, PAINE, LOCKE, GROTIUS AND
ROUSSEAU. The Magna Carta (1215) strengthened the traditional view that law is
supreme. As observed by ARTHUR SUTHERLAND, “The Great Charter was obviously
a cherished standard, a welcome assurance that people could set some limitation on
the arbitrary power of the king.”
A written Constitution, an independent judiciary with powers of judicial review,
the doctrine of rule of law and separation of powers, free elections to legislature,
accountable and transparent democratic government, Fundamental Rights of the
people, federalism, decentralization of power are some of the principles and norms
which promote Constitutionalism in a country.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

KALA AZAR (visceral leishmaniasis)

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

INTRODUCTION

After moving to internal organs such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, a parasite causes illness. If not treated, it nearly invariably leads to death.

People get this condition by sandfly bites, which contracted the parasite after consuming the blood of a parasite-infected person. There are more than 20 distinct Leishmania parasites that cause the illness around the globe, and 90 different sandfly species that carry the infection.

However, in India, there is just one parasitic species, Leishmania donovani, and only one sandfly species, Phlebotomus argentipes, that spreads the illness.

Visceral leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is marked by recurrent bouts of fever, significant weight loss, spleen and liver enlargement, and anaemia (which may be serious).

In underdeveloped nations, if the illness is not treated, the mortality rate can reach 100% in as little as two years.

SYMPTOMS

When people develop visceral leishmaniasis, the most typical symptoms are

 FEVER

 ENLARGEMENT OF SPLEEN AND LIVER

Misdiagnosis is critical, because kala-azar has a near-100 percent death rate if not treated properly. It does not always leave its hosts unmarked, even after restoration. A secondary form of the illness called post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, or PKDL, may develop after effective treatment—usually a few months after kala-azar, but as long as many years with the Indian strain. This illness begins with tiny, measles-like skin lesions on the face that grow in size and spread throughout the body.

In individuals who have recovered from the illness , it is characterised by a hypopigmented macular, maculopapular, and nodular rash and  generally emerges 6 months to a year or more after the disease appears to be cured, although it can happen sooner or even simultaneously.

It is thought to have a crucial role in the disease’s maintenance and transmission, notably by functioning as a parasite reservoir. The lesions may eventually consolidate into disfiguring, bloated formations that resemble leprosy, causing blindness in certain cases if they extend to the eyes.

The visceral type of Leishmania is caused by two different species of Leishmania. L. donovani is the species found in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent, whereas L. infantum, also known as L. chagasi, is found in Europe, North Africa, and Latin America.

LIFE CYCLE

 Life cycle is completed in two hosts: humans and sandflies. The adult female sandfly feeds at night and is a bloodsucker. When a Leishmania-infected person is bitten by a fly, the parasite is consumed along with the blood.

The protozoan is an amastigote, which is spherical, non-motile, and just 3–7 micrometres in diameter. The amastigotes inside the sandfly’s stomach soon change into the promastigotes, which are elongated and motile forms. It is spindle-shaped and thrice the size of the amastigote, and has a single flagellum that allows it to move. They live extra cellularly in the alimentary canal reproducing asexually and migrating to the proximal end of the gut where they become ready for a transmission.

The promastigotes are introduced after being released locally at the biting site as the fly bites. Promastigotes infect macrophages once inside the human host. They revert to their tiny amastigote form inside the cells.

In macrophage cells, amastigotes reproduce. They tear down their host cell by sheer mass pressure after repeated replication, although there is also new hypothesis that they are able to exit the cell via activating the macrophage’s exocytosis response.

The protozoans in the daughter cells then move to new hosts in fresh cells or through the circulation. The infection progresses and affects the spleen and liver in particular. Sandflies eat the liberated amastigotes in peripheral tissues, which starts a new phase.

TREATMENT

The traditional treatment is with

  • Sodium stibogluconate 
  • Meglumine antimoniate

Resilience is increasingly prevalent in India, with resistance rates as high as 60% in some regions of Bihar. Amphotericin B in its many liposomal formulations is now the treatment of choice for visceral leishmaniasis acquired in India. The first oral therapy for this illness was miltefosine. Miltefosine had a cure rate of 95% in Phase III clinical studies.

The medicine is typically well tolerated compared to other medications. Gastrointestinal disruption on the first or second day of therapy (a 28-day course of treatment) is the most common adverse effect, but it has no influence on effectiveness. Miltefosine is a medication of choice since it is accessible as an oral formulation, which eliminates the cost and inconvenience of hospitalisation and allows for outpatient delivery of the drug.

The drawbacks include that after a decade of usage, there is evidence of decreased effectiveness. It is teratogenic and should not be used by women who are planning to have children. Sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate have been used to treat kala-azar (Glucantime). Only injections can be used to deliver these medications. They are poisonous, have several adverse effects, and are administered over a 30-day period.

BLASTOMYCOSIS

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

INTRODUCTION

The fungus Blastomyces causes blastomycosis and the fungus can be found in nature, especially in damp soil and decomposing organic materials like wood and leaves. It is found mostly in the midwestern, south-central, and southern regions of the United States, notably in locations near the Ohio and Mississippi River basins, the Great Lakes, and the Saint Lawrence River. The fungus can also be found in Canada, and there have been a few instances of blastomycosis documented in Africa and India.

People can get blastomycosis by inhaling tiny fungus spores in the air, which frequently occurs after engaging in activities that disrupt the soil. Although the majority of individuals who inhale the spores do not become ill, some will have symptoms such as fever and cough. The infection can be serious in certain people, such as those with weaker immune systems, especially if it spreads from the lungs to other organs.

SYMPTOMS

Blastomycosis is characterised by a high fever.

About half of those infected with the fungus Blastomyces will have symptoms. Blastomycosis symptoms are frequently comparable to those of other lung infections, and include the following:

•             Fever

•             Cough

•             Night sweats

•             Muscle aches or joint pain

•             Weight loss

•             Chest pain

•             Fatigue (extreme tiredness)

Blastomycosis symptoms generally develop 3 weeks to 3 months after a person inhales the fungus spores.

Severe blastomycosis

Blastomycosis can spread from the lungs to other parts of the body, including the skin, bones and joints, and the central nervous system, in some people, especially those with weakened immune systems (the brain and spinal cord).

WHO IS AT RISK

Anyone who has been in an area where Blastomyces is present in the environment can acquire blastomycosis. People who engage in outdoor activities in these locations that expose them to forested areas (such as forestry labour, hunting, and camping) may be more susceptible. People with compromised immune systems are more prone than those who are otherwise healthy to acquire severe blastomycosis.

PREVENTION

There is no vaccination to prevent blastomycosis, and it may not be feasible to avoid being exposed to the fungus that causes the disease in regions where it is prevalent. People with weaker immune systems should avoid activities in these areas that require disturbing the soil.

LIFE CYCLE

Blastomyces is a mould that generates fungal spores that thrives in the environment. The spores are too tiny to see with naked eyes. People and animals who inhale the spores are at danger of contracting blastomycosis. The body temperature permits the spores to convert into yeast when they enter the lungs. The yeast can remain in the lungs or spread to other areas of the body via the circulation, including the skin, bones and joints, organs, and the central nervous system.

DIAGONOSIS

Blastomycosis is diagnosed using your medical and travel history, symptoms, physical examinations, and laboratory testing. A doctor will most likely test for blastomycosis by sending a sample of blood or urine to a laboratory.

Imaging studies, such as chest X-Rays or CT scans of your lungs may be performed by your healthcare practitioner. They may also take a sample of fluid from your lungs or perform a tissue biopsy, which involves taking a tiny sample of damaged tissue from your body and examining it under a microscope. Laboratories may also examine it may grow in bodily fluids or tissues (this is called a culture).

TREATMENT

The majority of patients with blastomycosis will require antifungal therapy. Itraconazole is an antifungal drug that is commonly used to treat blastomycosis in mild to moderate cases. For severe blastomycosis in the lungs or infections that have spread to other areas of the body, amphotericin B is generally used. Treatment might last anywhere from six months to a year, depending on the severity of the illness and the person’s immunological condition.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Mountain of light: Kohinoor

Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.

Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.

Journey

Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.

It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.

After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.

Cursed?

An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as

He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.

Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.

  • Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
  • Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
  • Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
  • Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
  • Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
  • British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor

This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.

Preliminary inquiry before FIR?

In India, there is no law which gives the police power to conduct preliminary inquiry but there are certain judgements which have stated that in the case of matrimonial disharmony, police can prefer preliminary inquiry before filing FIR.

But let’s first start first definition of “inquiry”

Section 2(1)(g) of CrPC

” Inquiry” means every inquiry, other than a trial, conducted under this Code by a Magistrate or Court.

Now, whether investigation and inquiry the same?

Manubhai Ratilal Patel vs State of Gujarat:-

Investigation by police is neither inquiry nor trial

Section 157(1) in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973:-

Procedure for investigation preliminary inquiry.

(1) If, from information received or otherwise, an officer in charge of a police station has reason to suspect the commission of an offence which he is empowered under section 156 to investigate, he shall forthwith send a report of the same to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of such offence upon a police report and shall proceed in person, or shall depute one of his subordinate officers not being below such rank as the State Government may, by general or special order, prescribe in this behalf, to proceed, to the spot, to investigate the facts and circumstances of the case, and, if necessary, to take measures for the discovery and arrest of the offender; Provided that-

(a) when information as to the commission of any such offence is given against any person by name and the case is not of a serious nature, the officer in charge of a police station need not proceed in person or depute a subordinate officer to make an investigation on the spot;

(b) if it appears to the officer in charge of a police station that there is no sufficient ground for entering on an investigation, he shall not investigate the case.

Police have the authority to not investigate after filing the FIR if the matter is trivial but will have to send the report to the magistrate. Further, on receiving such report, Magistrate may direct an investigation, or, if he thinks fit, at once proceed, or depute any Magistrate according to Section 159 of CrPC.

State of Telengana vs Managipet Reddy

A preliminary enquiry may be conducted pertaining to matrimonial disputes, commercial offences, medical negligence cases, corruption cases etc. The judgement of the court and Lalita Kumari does not state that proceedings cannot be initiated against an accused without conducting a preliminary enquiry. There is no set format or manner in which a preliminary enquiry is to be conducted the objective of the same is only to ensure that a criminal investigation process was not initiated on a frivolous and untenable complaints.

Preeti gupta vs State of Jharkhand

It is a matter of common experience that most of these complaints under Section 498a IPC are filed in the heat of the moment over trivial issues without proper deliberation. A large number of such complaints which are not even bona fide and are filled with oblique motive at the same time Rapid increase in the number of judgement cases of dowry harassment are also a matter of serious concern and it is imperative for the legislature to take into consideration the informed public opinion and the pragmatic realities into consideration and make necessary changes in the relevant provisions of law.

273rd Law commission of India report

Misuse of Section 498-A in many cases has been judicially noticed by the apex court as well as various High Courts. This has also been taken note of by Parliamentary Committee on Petitions (Rajya Sabha). However, misuse (the extent of which is not established by any empirical study) by itself is not a ground to abolish S,498-A. The law on the question whether registration of FIR could be postponed for a reasonable time is in a state of uncertainty. Some High Courts have been directing that FIR shall not be registered under S, 498A (except in cases of visible violence, and the like) till the preliminary investigation is done and reconciliation process is completed. The issue has been referred to a larger Bench of Supreme Court recently. In this regard, the police have to follow the law laid down by the jurisdictional High Court until the Supreme Court decides the matter.

Lalita Kumari vs State of UP

If the inquiry discloses the commission of cognizable offence, FIR must be filed. Scope of preliminary enquiry is not to verify the veracity of or otherwise of the information received but only to a certain whether the information reveals any cognizable offence. A preliminary enquiry should be made time bound and, in any case, it should not exceed 7 days.

Therefore, police can conduct a preliminary inquiry before filing the FIR in matrimonial disharmony cases which relate to Section 498a of IPC as misuse of Section 498-A in many cases has been judicially noticed by the apex court as well as various High Courts. If the inquiry discloses the commission of cognizable offence, FIR must be filed.

Why India can’t have an Official Language

Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?

Critics

After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.

Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.

Steps taken

India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.

Advantage of having an official language

A Chinese research concluded that

  1. When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
  2. China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
  3. Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
  4. Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.

Disadvantage of having an official language

According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said

India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.

But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.

As per as official language is concerned,

  1. English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
  2. Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
  3. This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.

Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.

Banned cartoons and their reasons

You may have came across the word “ban” Or “censored’ used in movies, but do you know these terms are also used for some cartoons in some countries which are liked by other countries. Let’s have a look at some popular cartoons which are banned in some countries and their reasons.

1. SpongeBob SquarePants

This is the longest running Nickelodeon show ever. It got banned because of violence and foul language which are used in this show. Countries like Russia, America and 120 others have banned this show from watching.

2. The Simpsons

This is America’s most popular cartoon show till now. This show had scenes where public figures like Donald Trump, were insulted. This show also promoted disorderly behavior which were totally misleading for kids. After sometime, the show is now available to watch, but there has been argument going on this show as countries like US have censored this cartoon show.

3. Mickey Mouse

This is world’s first cartoon show which had voice, and the first word that Mickey Mouse said was “Hot Dogs”. This cartoon show got banned in 1930s in the Romanian region because Romania government stated that big Mouse in this cartoon will scare the kids rather than making them laugh.

4. Doremon

This is a Japanese cartoon show which is ban in more than 50 countries because of the character Nobita. The Nobita character is a lazy character who always depends upon the character Doremon for helping gadgets. An argument concluded that the Nobita character was promoting laziness, procrastinating, etc, which resulted in banning.

Cartoon shows should be developed keeping kids as their main audience. It should have the simplicity and cleanness that attract audience and also focusing on the impact and effect that it’ll leave mainly on audience. That’s why shows that promotes foul language can always make a big effect on kids. This makes banning a healthy and better option.

Organ Donation: Myths and facts

Every years, many thousands receives the gift of life, a life saving transplant of Heart, Kidney, Liver, Lungs, Pancreas and Interesting. And thousands more people receive Corneas and other tissues that restore sight and health. Organ transplantation is one of the medicals advances of our time.

How does it work?

It all starts when someone’s organ begins to fail and that person will need a transplant to survive. The steps are as folllow:-

  1. A through evaluation is conducted at a transplant centre and the person is a good candidate for transplant, he or she will be put into the National Transplant Waiting List.
  2. Once a person is on the waiting list, the wait for organ begins.
  3. A national system matches people on the waiting list with donors. That factors matching donors to recipient includes
    • Blood type
    • Body size
    • How sick the patient is
    • Distance from donor
    • Tissue type
    • Time on list

What isn’t taken into account, organs are never matched based on

  • Race
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Celebrity
  • Social status

There is no telling how long the wait will take. Infact, some people don’t receive an organ in time, because the Waiting List is really long and there aren’t enough donors available. That’s why an average of 20 people on the Waiting List died each day. Imagine how many could we save if we all were donors.

Becoming a donors

Most of organs transplant comes a deceived donors. For example, a person comes to the hospital with a life threatening brain injury, such as from an accident, stroke, our lack of oxygen. The doctors work hard to save them patients life but sometimes nothing can be done. There’s a complete, irreversible loss of brain function. The patient is clinically and legally dead.

Thats when being a donor can turn a time of loss into a time of hope. Because machines have blood containing and oxygen flowing into the organs, they can be passed along. One person can give life to as many as eight people through organ donation, and enhance the lives of fifty people or more with eye and tissue donation. But now minutes matter, matches must be found and transplants must happen quickly.

Organ Procurement organization

The hospital contracts an Organ Procurement Organization (OPO), it manages the recovery process. The OPO checks the state of organ donor registry, if the person is already registered as a donor they inform the family, if not they’ll ask the family to authorise donation.

A medical examination is taken place. They check the medical and social history and the person is eligible to be an organ donor, the computer begins to search on the National Waiting List for well matched patients The best matched patients are contracted by the transplant team. This is the call that every person on the Waiting List was waiting for.

The Transplant

A surgical team recovers the organs, then Corneas and other tissues. The organs are sent to the transplant hospital where patients and transplant teams are waiting and the life saving transplant takes place. It will take health living and medication to keep the organ working well in its new home.

You too could make the decision today, sign up on your state registry as an organ, eye and tissues donor, any age is the right age, Young or old, any day is the right day to sign up as a donor. You can register through your drivers license or you can register online. Remember to tell your family so that they can support your wishes. More than 1r5 million people have already registered, and we all need to save kore lives. So let’s share the gift of life.

INDIA, BIMSTEC and ASEAN

ASEAN


The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was born in 1967 and was aimed at
promoting regional trade, investment and joint ventures. It proved to be the nucleus of regional
cooperation, was booming and looking for new markets and investment opportunities. It found
India and Vietnam complementary, now attracting investment opportunities. It also perceived
India and Vietnam complementary for strengthening regional political and security profile. Vietnam
had started the process of Doi Moi (Renovation) aimed at liberalisation, privatisation and
globalisation. India on the other hand, adopted the policy of economic liberalisation under the
stewardship of P V Narasimha Rao and Manmohan Singh, prime minister and finance minister
respectively, in 1991. The new government in India also started initiating the process of liberalisation,
privatisation and globalisation. India too announced tax-free incentives for foreign investors.
These policies encouraged the ASEAN for further consolidation of its co-operation with India.
ASEAN offered sectoral dialogue partnership to India in 1992. Accordingly, four core sectors
of co-operation were recognised, namely trade, investment, tourism, science and technology.
Sectoral partnership was instrumental in establishing the institutional linkage between India and
ASEAN and the partnership proved so useful that the ASEAN upgraded it within two years to
full dialogue partnership in 1995. This facilitated the growth of relationship in different areas with
economic, security and political implications. India was invited to participate in the post-ministerial
conferences of the ASEAN and also in ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the security forum of
ASEAN. Subsequently, both India and ASEAN began to talk of a common vision and a shared
destiny.
ASEAN-India co-operation committee was established to function as a key institutional mechanism
to provide substantive content to different sectors of co-operation. ASEAN-India working group
was also established to find out the areas for co-operation in science and technology, trade and
investment, human resource development and culture. The Joint co-operation committee
recognised the Indian expertise in the field of science and technology, especially in biotechnology
and IT (Information Technology). Proposals were given to co-operate in food processing, health
care, agriculture, engineering, electronics, communication and service sectors.
The meeting of the ASEAN-India co-operation committee decided to set up the India- ASEAN
fund to develop co-operation in trade, investment, tourism, computer technology, solar energy
and environmental protection. This fund was placed at the disposal of ASEAN Secretariat and
administered by a joint management committee. Joint co-operation committee also agreed to set
up an ASEAN-New Delhi committee consisting of the heads of diplomatic missions of the ASEAN
countries. The then Indian foreign secretary J.N. Dixit announced the scheme of scholarship and
said that each side could offer six post-doctoral fellowships upto six months in the area of science
and technology. India and the ASEAN region also started ASEAN lecture series from eminent
persons under which prominent ASEAN leaders and intellectuals delivered their lectures in India
and vice versa. This has proved useful in the confidence building and objective understanding of
the issues in the foreign policy and diplomacy of the ASEAN vis-a-vis dialogue partners.

BIMSTEC


BIMSTEC is a sub-regional economic grouping involving Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka
and Thailand. This is the first grouping of its kind in which two ASEAN partners have come
together with three South Asian Countries for economic cooperation. Established in 1998, this
grouping has already identified important areas for cooperation such as communications,
infrastructure, energy, trade and investment, tourism and fisheries. Each country has assumed a
specific responsibility for coordination and important projects under consideration of the forum
have been Asian Highway Link, Asian Railway Network and a Natural Gas Pipeline Grid.
Constituted on the Bay of Bengal Rim, BIMSTEC aims at tapping the vast potential of resources,
both natural and human in this sub region.
BIMSTEC (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand Economic Cooperation) is
endeavoured to provide an economic forum with both private and public sector participation
from member countries to promote a high level exchange of views relating to trade, investment
and economic cooperation. The primary emphasis is on the exchange of views on sectors such
as textiles and clothing, drugs and pharmaceuticals, gems and jewelleries, horticultural and floricultural products and information technology. Economic and Social Commission for Asia- Politic (ESCAP) hosted an expert group meeting in March 1998 at Bangkok to promote private sector participation in the BIMSTEC process. There were more than 80 participants at the meeting from all five countries. The meeting urged the private sector to play a key role in enhancing
economic cooperation and concluded with a series of general and specific recommendations.
A BIMSTEC chamber of commerce and industry was established and decided that there would
be annual meetings of BIMSTEC Economic and Trade ministers to follow up on the implementation
of economic cooperation initiatives. A BIMSTEC Senior Economic Officials Committee (SEOC)
was also established. The responsibilities for the various sectors identified for cooperation were
delegated amongst the five countries, as follows:
Bangladesh – Trade and investment
India – Technology
Thailand – Transport and Communication
Myanmar – Energy
Sri Lanka – Tourism and Fisheries.
It is remarkable that the economic ministers agreed that BIMSTEC should aim and strive to
develop into a free trade arrangement. The new sub-sectors were added to the aforementioned
five sectors for future cooperation and they were the following:
i) Commodities such as rubber, tea, coffee, coconut and spices.
ii) Automotive industries and parts thereof.
iii) Processed food.
BIMSTEC Ministerial meeting in Dacca on 19 December 1998 stated: “We emphasise the need
for establishing a BIMSTEC economic forum which will work as an important engine of greater
economic cooperation and progress within the BIMSTEC sub-region. We reiterate our resolve
to take all necessary steps to making the BIMSTEC economic forum operational for convening
at the next ministerial meeting”. It stated further that, “conscious of the important role that can be
played by transport and communication linkages in enhancing commercial, industrial, cultural and
social interaction and tourism, we reiterate the emphasis that we place on developing rail, road,
multi-modal transport, shipping and air-linkages. This would reinforce complementarities arising
out of the Bay of Bengal rim identity of BIMSTEC”.
The BIMSTEC meeting in Myanmar in December 2001 emphasised the desirability of
strengthening linkages among the think tanks of the member countries. They also agreed to
explore external financing of Mekong-Ganga Co-operation (MGC), a programme of action
involving India and Indo-China states. It was hoped that the flexible nature of the co-operation
agenda, ranging from culture and tourism to transport and communication could enable speedy
progress. MGC involves India with five ASEAN countries, namely Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar,
Vietnam and Thailand. It is endeavoured to build a road linking Thailand to India through Myanmar.
MGC wants to go a long way in developing the infrastructure for transnational trade involving
India’s northeast border, Myanmar, Mekong region and beyond. Located between India and
China, Mekong region is very important for India’s security, peace and trading with East Asian
countries.
The first India-ASEAN Summit, which took place at Phnom Penh in November 2002, had
focused attention on relations with the countries in the Mekong region. Prime Minister A.B.
Vajpayee on this occasion spoke about the common visions and designs with the ASEAN. India
extended $ 10 million credit to Cambodia and signed three agreements in the areas of trade,
technical education and maintenance of the 1000-year-old Tam Pram Temple. India also accorded/
granted greater tariff concessions to Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. It was considered
as an important gesture towards the ASEAN.

Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap
Bladderworts
Sundew
Pitcher plant

All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.

Reason of existence

It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-

  1. Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
  2. In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
  3. This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys

Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.

Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.

India and South Asia

Southeast Asia is comprised of ten countries namely Burma, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. All these countries are members of Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Burma (Myanmar) shares a contiguous land and sea frontier with India while Thailand, Indonesia and other countries in the region share
common maritime frontiers. Needless to say, that they are India’s close neighbors, with whom its relations date back to time immemorial. The history of the ancient Southeast Asian Kingdoms, i.e. Funan, Champa, Cambodge, Pagan, Dwarabati, Srivijaya and Majapahit indicate India’s intimate cultural ties. The art, architecture, epic and language have had similarities and their origin and growth cannot be understood in proper perspective without understanding their Indian counterparts. Ashoka the Great, had sent his emissaries, Sona and Uttara to spread the gospel of Buddhism in the region of Burma, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. These nations declared Buddhism as their state religion. The impact of Hinduism still remains as part of their indigenous culture and religion. The ethnic Malays accepted Islam as their religion but the Muslims in Java have not yet disowned their Hindu traditions. Some of them still believe in animism and worship many spirits in different names. Bali remains a Hindu dominated society, and adherents of Buddhism
can be found in all parts of the Southeast Asia.


Malacca, Sunda and Lombok are the important sea-lanes linking East Asia with the rest of the world. Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand are industrially advanced. Singapore has an effective service sector in the field of finance, airlines, computers and shipping. Mainland Southeast Asia has diverse mountain ranges and rivers running from North to South, and most of them originate in Tibet. The main rivers are Mekong passing through Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Other rivers are Irrawadi, Chindawin and Salween in Burma, Menam Chao Phraya in Thailand,
Song Koi (Red River) and Song Bo (Black Rivers) in Vietnam. These rivers bring rich alluvial deposits regularly to make the land fertile. Most fertile areas created by these rivers are lower Burma, Central Thailand, Tongking and Mekong deltas. Thailand and Vietnam are the largest rice exporting countries in the world. This unit examines various aspects of socio-economic-political features of South-East Asian countries. India’s relations with ASEAN countries are analysed in this Unit. India attaches great importance towards pursuing good neighbourly relations with the countries in Southeast Asia. The policy of “Look East” is the strategy of the Indian diplomacy ever since 1991 and its major thrust has been to improve India’s existing ties with the ASEAN region, and promote trade, investment, tourism, science and technology relations. Indian policies are endeavored to resurrect close historical and cultural ties, which were marred during the colonial period. The Cold War paradigm in the past prevented India to attend various issues in its bilateral relations but the situation changed only after the end of the Cold War. Various initiatives have been taken to rejuvenate our economic, cultural and strategic connections. Total bilateral trade with ASEAN countries has shown increasing trends from 5.98 billion in 1998-99 to 7.98 billion in 2002-03.


ASEAN investments which were dismal during the Cold War period, started coming and confidence was displayed on both sides. Various packages for the promotion of tourism were mooted and now it is not limited only to visit Buddhist sites in Bodh Gaya. India is willing to attract investments from the ASEAN region and they have been advocating liberalisation and free trade. ASEAN is trying to reciprocate the Indian gestures. They recognise the importance of
India as a great market where they find the existence of middle class people in millions. Besides, they have common historical, religious and security interests. Both of them support the policy of democratisation, liberalisation and free trade. Both are opposed to the rise of fundamentalism and terrorism and both are supporting human rights to be universally respected.

Are you a Smartphone Zombie?

Few days back i saw a question on a site asking “I want to put my phone aside and study, but i’m not able to do it? Is there any I can get rid of it?”

Well we can say that we all faced this phase where we get too much addicted to Mobile phone and couldn’t keep it aside and focus on other works. A research recently released the details of a study which told us where in the world was the biggest Smartphone penetration:-

  1. South Korea
  2. Australia
  3. Israel
  4. U.S
  5. Spain
  6. U.K

But this doesn’t mean that people in this countries are using mobile phones all the time. Based on a 2016 study led by Statistica, it does look like people in those countries might fall into the category of smartphone zombies. The study also said that

  • Brazilian spend the most hours on average connected to a smartphone as 4 hr 48 mins per day.
  • Chinese spend the most hours on average 3 hours 3 mins
  • Followed by U.S 2 hours 37 mins
  • Italy 2 hours 34 mins
  • Spain 2 hours 11 mins
  • South Korea 2 hours 10 mins

One thing range true for all countries in the study, and that was the fact time spent on a smartphone for the average person was up quite a lot from 2012 to 2016.

It’s not totally people’s fault that we are addicted to the smartphones. We have this exciting thing in our pocket that flashes, beeps and invites us to use it. NPR in 2018 talked about this manipulative object we carry around with us, that is just so irresistible. The story mentions Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, and what we know as Pavlov’s dog. The psychologist one day realised that when his dog heard a bell or a buzzer, he knew it was feeding time, thereby associate with a sound to eating, which led to the dog drooling and looking excited.

Modern psychologist tells us this is what is happening to us when we hear a beep or a ding inside our pocket; we become excitable, like Pavlov’s dog. Our reward is coming, and we get a hit of dopamine and we want more. We check our phone on average every 15 mins and that make the tech use psychological tricks to keep us checking in.

All the time spent checking in may affect our sleep, our relationship, our work, or even all the creative things we might do to have a flourishing existence. Psychologist tend to agree we should be checking in less, and tech producers need to start thinking about creating less powerful digital drugs. But that isn’t easy because as most people now need those beeps and likes, and need to feel that they are not missing out on something.

Experts even states that putting your phone down, you may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as craving, restlessness, irritability or difficulty in concentrating. So from now on you might turn off notifications, have a plan for the day and stick to it, take off the apps you really don’t need as that might lead to a kind of app surfing. In general, not many people are against these technologies, but we should be focusing on what we might call device quality time, educating ourselves and being productive and creative.

APJ Abdul Kalam

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Regarded as an ideal Indian and a source of inspiration for the future generations president Dr. A.PJ Abdul Kalam was born on October 15 1931 in an ordinary Tamil family of Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu. His full name is Avul Pakir Jainulabdin Abdul Kalam His father Jainul aabedin and mother Aashiamma were a simple and religious-minded couple.

They held an honourable place in the society and were regarded as an ideal couple. They lived in a joint family Kalams father was a simple person. He never cared for luxuries and gave more importance to rational thoughts and human values. The senior-most priest of Rameshwaram temple, Pt. Lakshman Shastri was his dear friend.

They used to have long spiritual discussions and Kalam as a boy listened attentively to those discussionsAl though Kalam could not understand everything but his thinking has been largely influenced by it.

During his childhood, Abdul Kalam partook his meals with his mother sitting on the kitchen floor. His mother used to spread a banana leaf before him and serve him a simple meal of garnished rice-tasty sambhar, home made pickles and fresh coconut chutney.

Right from his childhood Dr. Kalam was honest, God fearing laborious and simple traits which he inherited from his parents. Dr. Kalams childhood was deeply influenced by his cousin Shamsuddic who was the sole distributor of newspapers in Rameshwaram During those days there was great demand for Di naming, a Tamil newspaper.

Though Kalam had not yet learnt to read yet he satisfied himself by looking at the pictures, when Shamsuddin used to bring the newspaper.

When 2 World War started in 1939 Kalam was only 8 years old. During those days there was a sudden increase in demand for tamarind seeds in the market. Although Kalam did not know the reason, he started collect ing tamarind seeds and selling them at grocery shops.

This way he earned one anna everyday During that time emergency was announced in India because of the Second World War. As a result, the trains did not stop at Rameshwaram station. In that situation bundles of newspapers were thrown from the moving train be tween Rameshwaram and Dhanushkodi station.

At that time Shamsuddin felt the need of an assistant who could assist him in picking up those bundles. Child Kalam was well prepared to help him and in this way he earned his first salary from his cousin Shamsuddin.

In his childhood, Kalam used to wear a skull cap, which is a symbol of being a Muslim. At that time Kalam was a student of class V in a primary school. Once a new teacher came to his class. Kalam was sitting in the front row with his friend Ramanand Shastri.

The new teacher did not like a Hindu boy sitting next to a Muslim boy So he ordered Kalam to sit at the last bench Child Kalam did not like this. Ramanand Shastri too was very much grieved by this behaviour of the teacher.

When Lakshman Shastri, Ramanand Shastri’s father came to know about it he called the teacher and reprimanded himYou should not sow the seeds of religious discrimination in the hearts of innocent children.”

The teacher apologised for his behaviour and eventually a great change came in his attitude Having completed the primary education, Kalam was admitted to Swartz High School in Ramanathapuram. He had to stay in the school hostel. While at Ramanathapuram he very often missed his parents, his home and especially the South Indian sweetmeat poli prepared by his mother.

In spite of his great love for home, Kalam was fully dedicated to his studies because his parents and teachers had high expectations from him He worked very hard to achieve his aim and nothing could deter him from his firm determination.

Once, during his school days, it so happened that the maths teacher Ramakrishna Aiyar was teaching in another class Unknowingly Kalam entered the class roomSeeing this the teacher immediately caught hold off him by his neck and hit him with a rod before the entire class.

Later, when Kalam secured the highest marks in mathematics, Ramakrishna Aiyar narrated the episode at the time of morning prayer before everyone. He announced, The boy whom I beat with a rod will become a great man one day Mark my words, this student is going to become the pride of his school and teachers.

Since childhood, Kalam developed a deep liking for the mysteries of the sky, and the flight of birds across the seas. He enjoyed the sight Of cranes flying over the sea and long flights of birdsHe decided that one day he too would go for long flights in the sky. Later he was the first person in Rameshwaram to fly in a plane .

When Kalam completed his schooling, he was brimming with enthusiasm and confidence Without a second thought he entered Saint Joseph College, Tiruchirapalli, in 1950. During his college days he worked hard. He was a very disciplined student.

When he was a final year student in the college he developed a great liking for English LiteratureHe read all the available books on English literature by great writers such as Tolstoy, Scott. Also when he was a student of the final year he developed a deep in Clinton towards Physics. He felt great pleasure in reading about the highest knowledge of as tronomy, particularly our solar system To fulfil his dream Kalam decided to study Engineering after his B.Sc. fro Saint Joseph College. For this he needed at least one thousand rupees, but his father did not have that much money.

It was his elder sister Johra who came to his rescue. She mortgaged her gold bangles and necklace and got Kalam admitted to Madras Institute of Technology (MIT). At that time Kalam had a single ambition – to be a pilot.

Modesty is a good quality but Kalam had to face many difficulties at MIT because of it. Be cause of his humble nature, he was quite hesitant to ask questions or reply to them in front of everyone in the class. That is why his fellow students used to make fun of himKalam was depressed about it.

He lost his self-confidence During those days, he used to remember his father’s teachings and inspirational advicesHis father often said: “One who understands others, learns but a person is called wise when he understands himself. Learning without wisdom is nothing but crammed knowledge, it is of no use. Knowing oneself is much important.” This thought brought self-confidence in him and he was recharged with enthusiasm for achieving his aim.

During his studies in MIT, Kalam was inspired by three teachers – Prof Spander, Prof. K.A. B. Panadalaiin and Prof.

Nara Singha Rao to give his thoughts a concrete formKalam was able to construct his work field with the joint assistance of these teachers which laid the foundation of his life

After completing his third year from Madras Institute of Technology he joined as a technical instructor at the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. After becoming an aeronautical engineer from Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. he got two excel lent job opportunities and both of which were enough to fulfil his childhood dreams One was in the Indian Air Force and the other was in the Technical Development and Production Di rectorate Ministry of Defence. Kalam prepared well with full dedication and hard labour. He was very much assured of his selection in the Indian Air Force.

But he was deeply disappointed when he came to know that out of 25 candidates only 8 had been selected and he had stood ninth. It was a great setback. He was disappointed but he soon recovered from this. Another chance yet remained with himHere he achieved success and was appointed as Technical Assistant in the Technical Development and Production Directorate Ministry of DefenceGovt. of India.

In the 196Os Dr. Kalam joined the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Thumba (Kerala). There he played a key role in the development of the first indigenous satellite launcher. After that in 1982, he worked as Director of the Defence Research and the Development Organisation of India and was in charge of the Joint Controlled Launcher Development Programme.

After that he worked as a Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister and later as a Defence Advisor to the Prime Minister. He also played a major role in the 1998 nuclear experiments.

Dr. Kalam was quite cooperative with his colleagues in the work front. He paid attention to their ideasHe never made an attempt to impose his ideas upon them He tried to maintain discipline faith and mutual understanding in his teamHis behaviour was friendly with everyone. Because of these qualitiesKalam was a favourite among his col leagues. In spite of these, he has few friends in his private life. He has been totally dedicated to his work throughout his life and work has been his companion.

While serving the country in various ways Dr. Kalam not only fulfilled the dreams of his parents and teachers but also his own. He put India in an equal position with advanced countries and thereby enhanced its honour and pride After retirement, Dr. Kalam taught at the Annamalai University in Tamil Nadu. He has been conferred with various prestigious awards.

In 1981 he was awarded the Padma Bhushan) in 1990, ‘Padma Vibhushan, and in 1997, he was honoured with the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award. Besides this, he was awarded the Dr. Virender Roy Space Award, National Nehru Award and Arya Bhatt Award. 28 universities throughout the country awarded him the title of Doctor of Science

Undoubtedly we can assume Dr. Kalam as a fortunate person after having received so many awards and honours but he did not get any thing out of luck but as a result of sheer hard Work and strong determination.

He had to face obstacles throughout his life at every step There was problem of economic scarcity lack of will he worked as a Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister and later as a Defence Advisor to the Prime Minister. He also played a major role in the 1998 nuclear experiments. Dr. Kalam was quite cooperative with his colleagues in the work front.

He paid attention to their ideas He never made an attempt to impose his ideas upon them. He tried to maintain discipline faith and mutual understanding in his teamHis behaviour was friendly with everyone. Because of these qualitiesKalam was a favourite among his col leagues. In spite of these, he has few friends in his private life. He has been totally dedicated to his work throughout his life and work has been his companion.

Whether it was the assignment as a scientist or as a teacher, whatever work he was given, he accomplished it sincerely During his tenure as a teacher in Annamalai UniversityDr. Kalam was nominated as the President of India. On 25th July 2002, he was elected the 12th President of India. He took oath as a president under Chief Justice B.N. Kripal.

As President, Dr. Kalam replied strictly to the criticism of those people who were protesting strongly against a scientist being appointed as President, who had the image of a ‘missile man Dr. Kalams heart is as soft as a child’s although he has firm determination and will power in achieving his aim. He forgets himself in the company of children and becomes a part of themHe regards children as a seed in which the future tree is hidden He is of the view that children are the future of India.

He has not only hopes from the young generation, but also has full faith in themHe has the dream of educating each and every child of India and it is his mes sage that we should nurture high dreams and at the same time create confidence in our heart to transform those dreams into reality because this thought only can take our country towards path of progress.

Dr. Kalam believes that by 2020, our country will be able to become a developed country To transform his ideas into a solid form Dr. Kalam has many plans These programmes can turn to a reality but it is not possible only by the inspiration of a few selected Indians, for that every Indian has to work together. He accepts that the role of the younger generation is of utmost importance in the development of a nation Therefore he considers the Indian youth as the most powerful resource and inspires them to work unitedly.

He opines that if you are a good man then you can perform every job in the best manner. For example, if we take the instance of Dr. Kalams personality then he is a capable scientist, an ideal teacher besides being a wonderful colleague and an excellent writer. He has not only a good knowledge of Indian classical music, but he is a perfect violin player tooHe also has interest in gardening.

He feels unlimited peace of mind and pleasure in the company of nature He has a very busywork schedule, but even then he has kept a few regular habits such as morning walk, prayer, yoga, head massage with coconut oil before bath and drinking a glass of milk be fore retiring at night.

He always says that keep every moment busy and meaningful, but at the same time always take out time to feel the fragrance of flowers or to watch the myriad colours of butterties Dr. Kalam has this message for the young generation As a young citizen of India, armed with technology knowledge and love for my nation, I realise, small aim is a crime I will work and sweat for a great vision the vision of transforming India into a developed nation powered by economic strength with value system I am one of the citizens of a billion only the vision will ignite the billion souls.

It has entered into me , the ignited souls compared to any resource, is the most powerful resource on the earth, above the earth and under the earth.

I will keep the lamp of knowledge burning to achieve the vision Developed India. While delivering a lecture at the Indian

Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83 His death was mourned across the nation with thousands including national level dignitaries attending the funeral ceremony hold in his hometown of Rameshwaram where he buried with full state honours.

Do Vampires exist?

You probably have seen in movies and shows about these supernatural creatures such as Vampires, Werewolves, Witches, Wizards, etc. But did you ever thought from where did we got these idea? Do the supernatural creatures really exist. Let’s learn about vampires first.

Think about the features that a vampire have. What’s the first thing you thought? Shape teeths to suck blood may be? Glowing eyes? What if I tell you some people with these features exist.

There is a Vampire Disorder in which people suffering from this condition frequently have pointed teeth like carnivore animals. This disorders also has a difficult scientific name Hypohydrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia. Therefore, they look similar to the legendary blood feeding creatures from movies.

Symptoms

People with more prominent symptoms of this illness are

  1. Extremely thin and pale
  2. Eyes are outlined with dark circles
  3. Teeths are typically pointed
  4. Hair is absent
  5. Also they don’t like stakes not actually the beef kind

Problems

The biggest problem for such patients is not mistaken for considered as vampire but something else.

  1. They always have to check their temperature.
  2. Have to stay away from the sunlight
  3. Have to strictly avoid hot weather

They don’t have sweat glands and as you know these glands serve as a thermal regulating mechanism of our body. Imagine what could happen if it is broken. And above all this is the most typical syndrome of this disorder.

For example, Actor Michael Berryman, who suffered from this disease made a career playing horror movie characters.

So now you’ve probably figured out vampires exist or not.

Gender and Socialization

Children learn early on that there are different expectations of boys and girls. Cross-cultural studies show that children get aware of gender roles by the age of two or three. By four or five years of age, most children are firmly embedded in the culturally appropriate gender roles. Children acquire these roles through socialization, a process in which people learn to behave in certain ways dictated by society’s values, beliefs, and attitudes. For example, society often views motorcycling as a male activity and therefore sees it as a part of the male gender role. Attitudes like this are usually based on stereotypes, oversimplified ideas about group members. Gender stereotypes involve an over-generalization of the attitudes, characteristics, or behavior patterns of women or men. For example, women may be thought of as too timid or weak to ride a motorcycle.

Gender stereotypes form the basis of sexism; Sexism refers to biased beliefs that place one gender over another; varies in severity; In parts of the world where women are severely undervalued, girls may not have equal access to food. They will also grow up believing that they deserve to be treated differently from boys. While it is illegal as discrimination in the United States, inequality of women continues to permeate social life. It should be noted that gender discrimination occurs at both micro and macro levels. Many sociologists focus on the discrimination that is built into the social fabric. This type of discrimination is known as institutional discrimination. Gender socialization occurs through four main agents in socialization: family, education, peers, and media. Each agent reinforces gender roles by creating and maintaining normative expectations for gender-specific behavior. Exposure also comes from secondary agents such as religion and the workplace. Repeated exposure to these agents over time leads men and women to mislead them into thinking that they are acting naturally rather than following a socially constructed role.

Family is the first agent of socialization. There is considerable evidence that parents socialize sons and daughters differently. Generally speaking, girls are given more latitude to step outside of their prescribed gender role. However, differential socialization typically results in greater privileges afforded to sons. For instance, boys are allowed more autonomy and independence at an earlier age than daughters. They may be given fewer restrictions on appropriate clothing, dating habits, or curfew. Sons are also often free from performing domestic duties such as cleaning or cooking and other household tasks that are considered feminine. Daughters are limited by their expectation to be passive and nurturing, generally obedient, and to assume many of the domestic responsibilities.

The strengthening of gender roles and stereotypes will continue till the child has reached school age. Until recently, schools made an explicit effort to stratify boys and girls. The first step in stratification was segregation. The girls were encouraged to take courses in home economics or the humanities. Studies suggest that gender socialization in schools is still happening today, possibly in a less overt way. Teachers may not even realize that they are acting to reproduce separated gender behavioral patterns. Ask students to arrange their seats or to align by gender, teachers may indicate that boys and girls should be treated differently.

Imitating the actions of other important people is the first step in developing separate sense of self. Like adults, children become agents who actively promote normative gender expectations and apply them to their surroundings. When children do not conform to the appropriate gender role, they may face negative sanctions such as being criticized or marginalized by their peers. Though many of these sanctions are informal, they can be quite severe. For example, a girl who wishes to take karate lessons instead of dance lessons may be referred to as a “tomboy” and has difficulty gaining acceptance from male and female peer groups. Children in particular are severely ridiculed because of gender mismatches.

Mass media serves as another significant agent of gender socialization. In television and films, women tend to play a less important role and are often portrayed as wives or mothers. When women are given a lead role, it often falls at one of the two extremes: a healthy and holy figure or a malicious hypersexual figure. The same inequality is widespread in children’s films.

Unity In Diversity

India is a great country where people of different religions and cultures live in different regions. They live in harmony. It is known as Unity in Diversity. 

The Unity in diversity was coined by Late. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian national congress and Prime minister of India. Main 5 examples of unity in diversity have given.

How does unity in diversity represent India: Indian people can speak any language and can believe in any religion. Nobody is allowed to interfere in their affairs.

India does not have one but many great traditions. Although, the Hindu religion is the oldest religion. Yet, the other religions also enjoy full freedom and respect. 

People of all religions live united. Sometimes they take part in one another’s festivals. For example, Diwali, Holi, and Id have become common festivals that explain about what are the main reasons for unity in diversity in Indian society.

India has been ruled by the Mughals and the English for centuries.  But even the foreign rulers have not been able to destroy the Indian traditions and cultures. 

Indian culture is so old and vast that it can absorb the good things of any other culture. No doubt, some states of India have been carved out on the basis of language but it is only a political division. 

In the new states, people of all languages and religions are living normally as they used to live before. 

The English ruled over India with the policy of Divide and Rule’ but it could not completely change the mindset of thinking of the people. 

The unity of the country has been attacked many times but it is sound as ever.

There has been Unity in Diversity in India for hundreds of years. It is now for the younger generation to keep it intact.

Importance of Unity in Diversity in India points 

India is a land of different languages and different religions. The population of the country also lives in different states. 

People of every state speak their own language and the other languages also. They celebrate their local festivals along with the national festivals. 

(1) Customs and traditions: They do not interfere in the customs and traditions of others. Everyone is free to go to any place of worship. 

There is no restriction in the celebration of marriage rites, etc. Thus, there is Unity in Diversity in India. It is not a new concept but this tradition is in vogue since time immemorial.

People of many religions like Islam, Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Hinduism live in India. Every religion has its own principles. 

(2) All religions: Some religions are further divided into sects. In the past, sometimes religions have been a great dividing force of the Indian community. 

But on the whole, people of all sects had been living in unity and harmony. All the religions have enriched the civilization of India.

Indian society has seen many ups and downs in the ancient past. In those days, the missionaries of every religion tried to persuade the people of other religions to join their religion. 

This conversion of religion has not stopped even in the modern age. The Muslim invaders and the English also tried to make a dent in the Indian culture. 

(3) Different living styles in Indian culture: No doubt, some of the Indian people have adopted some customs and traditions of the Muslims and the English. But they have not totally given up on the Indian way of life and the Indian culture.

They still live with one another like human beings. Without interfering in the customs and traditions of the other sect, all are living in unity.

It is true that the problem of diversity in Indian traditions and cultures has a great impact on the process of unity of the civilization. 

This unity can be observed at several levels. Traveling mendicants, traders, storytellers, craftsmen, and artists in traditional India established cultural bridges of unity between regions and cultural traditions. 

The institution of pilgrimage, fairs, and festivals provided yet another nodal point for communication and for cultural unity in the framework of its diversity.

(4) Importance to secularism: However, we had to see the ugly face of religion when the partition of India took place. Later on, the Constitution of India gave paramount importance to secularism. 

The constitution guarantees each individual the freedom to profess, practice, and propagate any religion and assures strict impartiality towards all religions. 

It clearly shows that India is a secular state. The prime ministers and presidents of India have been persons belonging to different religions. 

In spite of this, certain anti-national forces and external forces try to disrupt the unity of the country by encouraging communal feelings. For some time, they do succeed in their mission but ultimately they fail.

(5) Civilization and Culture: The Indian Civilization and Culture are based on religious and moral values. These are the strength of India’s unity. Cultural unity and diversity of faiths go side by side in India. 

There may be some clashes off and on between the people of the two communities. But these unfortunate occurrences are forgotten like a bad dream. 

If you visit some parts of the country, you will find the people of all communities living in harmony. A common thread of unity binds them all. 

This is because that the Indian culture has preserved its fundamental character through the ages.

We have passed through many revolutionary changes in the economic and political field in recent times. But we have not discarded our past. 

(6) Rich cultural heritage: Our rich cultural heritage and its values have permanently remained with us. They pass from one generation to another. 

Indian civilization has evolved through many stages providing a network of ideologies and institutions which offer unity in plurality. 

These institutions and guiding principles reflect the cultural-religious traditions of Hinduism. But they also emerge as a composite system of values.

During the reign of the English in India, the British followed a contradictory policy in pursuit of their colonial objectives. 

With their policy of divide and rule’, they disintegrated India into various castes, creeds, tribes, religions, and language groups with no sense of unity. 

They propagated, esp. through their toadies, that we were never a nation. They further said that India was never a united nation. 

They did their utmost to make us fight with one another. But India and its people made it clear that they are one and will remain one.

In order to maintain our unity in diversity, we shall have to take some solid steps. 

(7) Constitution: The Constitution of India, which was framed after Independence, reflects and incorporates the dualism of territory, religion, language, caste, and tribe, etc. 

Then it also propounds the foundations of a civic society based on secularism, rationalism, freedom, and equality. 

At the same time, it also recognizes the special rights and privileges of those sections of the Indian society which were exploited for centuries. 

They still feel insecure due to their minority status in society. We should take along all the sections of the unprivileged classes to maintain unity in diversity. 

Religion, regionalism, and language issues raise their ugly head at the time and people are divided into these lines. 

But these diversities are short-lived and good sense prevails on the people sooner or later. People again begin to live in unity. 

This unity has been witnessed during Chinese aggression and during wars with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971. 

During the undeclared war with Pakistan in the Kargil sector, the whole country rose up in unison and demonstrated the true national spirit of unity.

Conclusion of unity in diversity

How can we promote national unity in diversity: The Indian government has always made keen efforts to create cultural awakening among the people of all categories. 

It has tried to promote national integration and national unity by organizing big cultural events. It has also set up some regional cultural centers in different parts of the country. 

All these steps will promote strengthening the common bond of unity among the people. In spite of the diversity in the people’s beliefs and religions, there is no danger to India’s unity.

Milestones in India’s science and technological development

The fashionable age is the age of science, technology and knowledge in which all of these are interrelated and are different aspects of the same thing. Explosion of knowledge and data , supported breathtaking advancement within the world of science and technology, has bestowed on man powers enviable even for gods. it’s helped man conquer space and time. Now one has unraveled many mysteries of nature and life and is ready to face new challenges and move forward within the realm of the unknown and thus the undiscovered. In India there has been an extended and distinct tradition of scientific research and technological advancement since the past .

Since independence, India has accelerated it’s speed and efforts in this field and have established many research laboratories, institutions of upper learning and technical education. The results would make anybody’s heart swell with pride , confidence and fulfillment. The best, however, is yet to return . The central and state governments, various public and private sector establishments are engaged in scientific research and technological development to require the state on the trail of rapid development, growth and prosperity. There are about 200 research laboratories spread everywhere in the country. The institutions of upper learning, and universities, the fashionable temples of learning, are all committed to need the country forward. they’re well equipped and staffed to secure for the people of the state all the blessings and benefits which can accrue from the acquisition and application of knowledge and technology. But there is no room for complacency, for during this field only the sky’s the limit and that we are yet a developing country.

Our technology policy is comprehensive and well thought out. It aims at developing indigenous technology to ensure efficient absorption and adoption of imported technology suitable to national priorities and availability of resources. Its main objective is attainment of technical competence and self- reliance, leading to reduction in vulnerability in strategic and important areas.

With a view to strengthening our economy and industrial development, our government has introduced many structural reforms through adoption of a replacement industrial policy which features an important pertaining to the programmes of development concerning science and technology. Consequently, technology has become our mainstay enterprise and now we’ve built a robust and reliable infrastructure for research, training and development in science and technology. Within the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains.

Today, India withstand droughts and natural calamities with much greater confidence than ever before. Now, we are at an edge to export food grains, etc. and are on the sting of white and blue revolutions. Our agricultural scientists and farmers, who are always ready to imbibe new technologies, our country has many kinds of hybrid seeds, crop- protection technologies, balanced farming practices and better water and irrigation management techniques. Similarly within the sector of economic research, we’ve achieved many milestones and India is emerging as a significant industrial power of the earth .

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), which has its network of research laboratories and institutions, has been chiefly instrumental in our major achievements in scientific and industrial research. We’ve now joined the exclusive club of six advanced nations by developing our own supercomputer at the Centre for Development of Advance Computing (C- CAD) at Pune. Our Atomic Research Commission, acknowledged in 1948, is engaged in valuable nuclear research for peaceful purposes. The chief agency for implementing atomic energy programmes is the Department of atomic energy . The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, near Mumbai is the most important single scientific establishment within the country, directing nuclear research. Now, we’ve five research reactors, including Cyrus, Dhruua, Zerina and Purnima. We’ve administered two underground nuclear tests at Pokhran in Rajasthan.

This is often an interesting achievement by our nuclear scientists, which has enabled us to become one of the chosen few countries on earth to have done it. India is additionally the first developing country, and one of the seven countries of the earth to master fast breeding technology. Research in breeder technology is currently happening at Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research at Kalpakkam, Chennai. The successful launching of the Polar Space Launching Vehicle (PSLV- D-2), in October 1994, marked India’s entry into the league of the world’s major space powers. Within the INSAT-2 series of satellites, launched first in 1992, India has shown its ability to fabricate complex systems like anything made anywhere within the earth . Our previous launches of the SLV-3 and thus the SLV were merely stepping stones to what’s going to be the workhorses of the business, the PSLV, which can launch one tone satellite into orbit of up to 1000 km, and therefore the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, which can take 2.5 tonne satellite to orbits 36,000 km away. India’s space programme rocketed to greater heights with the successful launch of the second Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D2) in May, 2003. As has been rightly observed, the challenge before Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is to take care of the momentum of the programme by integrating it with other missions. The foremost obvious ones are related to military communication and reconnaissance.India’s first space mission to specialize in an extraterrestrial landing, Chandrayaan-2, would have commenced by the time you read this. It’s a symbol achievement for India’s technological capability, in areas ranging from propulsion , signals and communications, materials, robotics, remote guidance and even AI , to let the lunar lander navigate on its own on the far side of the moon. If successful on all targeted fronts, it’d also increase humankind’s understanding of cosmology and thus the origins of the planet , because the moon probably could also be a piece of this planet that got thrown out at a stage when it had been mostly molten matter. And, of course, it’d cause greater understanding of the moon itself, its chemistry and composition. America landed men on the moon essentially to demonstrate that it had overcome the Sputnik scare — the shock realisation that the Soviet Union was before it in space science and technology which its own education system had to repair for greater specialize in science and maths — and had beaten the Soviet Union therein lone area of human achievement during which the Communist nation had been ahead.

Achievements in space still have a component of demonstration of technological capability, apart from their intrinsic utility. So, becoming the fourth nation within the world, behind the US, the previous Soviet Union and China, to land a mobile explorer on the moon, tells the earth of India’s capability altogether the intricate technologies that are marshalled and harmonised to carry out Chandrayaan-2, its predecessor having orbited the moon with a proximity of 100km. The mission, conceived in 2008, has taken 11years to end . The mission director and thus the project director are both women, to boot. The Indian Space Research Organisation is standing testimony to the overall public sector’s capacity to deliver outstanding results, when given autonomy and resources. There’s a case for similar public sector initiatives in cyber security, telecom systems and AI . What it lacks is political vision and commitment. Our success on Antarctica speaks volumes of our scientific genius and technological wisdom within the world . So far, 13 scientific expeditions by our oceanographers,scientists and technicians are to Antarctica where we’ve two permanent stations on the icy continent. within the field of defence also our achievements are quite laudable.

The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists. we’ve also been successful in producing opt-electronic preparation and night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. The HAL at Bangalore has already produced the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH). Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved so that its benefits reach the masses. Scientists within the country will strive hard to bring technological developments to people’s doorsteps.

Therefore, they can not rest on their laurels, but should remember the famous and galvanizing lines of the poet Robert Frost: The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I even have promises to stay, And miles to travel before I sleep……

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Kalpana Dutta

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Kalpana Dutta

Kalpana Dutta was born in 1913.

She joined the Bethune College in 1929 and around the same time she also joined Chatri Sangha.

In September of 1932, she joined the group of almost 65 people which also included Pritilata Waddedar. The group torched the European Club. But Kalpana was arrested one week prior to the attack on the European Club.

While she was imprisoned she came to know about Pritilata Waddedar’s death.

Soon she was released from jail. But in the May of 1933 she was arrested again in the Chittagoan Army Raid and sentenced to life. However she was released in 1939.

In 1940, she joined the Communist Party of India and kept engaging in revolutions against the British Raj.

She married a fellow communist leader Joshi in 1943.

Post Independence

Kalpana migrated to India and retired from active politics.

She passed away in 1995.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Aruna Asaf Ali

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Aruna Asaf Ali

Aruna Asaf Ali(1909-1996) was an Indian educator, political activist and publisher who actively participated in Indian Independence Movement.

She was a member of Congress Socialist Party, factions within the Congress Party for activists that had socialist-leaning.

She was jailed for actively engaging in the Salt Satyagraha and remained in jail till 1931. She was imprisoned several times over the course of her lifetime.

Aruna Asaf Ali, popularly known as the ‘Grand Old Lady’ of the Independence Movement, is known for hoisting the Indian flag at Gowalia Tank Maidan in Mumbai during the Quit India Movement.

Post Independence

She served as Delhi’s first Mayor.

Later she left the Congress Socialist Party to join the Communist Party of India(CPI).

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Bina Das

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Bina Das

Bina Das(1911-1986) was an Indian revolutionary and nationalist from West Bengal.

She was a member of the Chatri Sangha revolutionary society, a semi-revolutionary organization for the women in Kolkata.

After 1928 session of the Congress, Bina joined a circle of revolutionaries whose leader was Bhupal Bose.

In 1932, she marked herself into history by attempting to shoot the Governor of Bengal, Stanley Jackson, in the Convocation Hall of the University of Calcutta, where she was to receive her degree. She was caught and sentenced to rigorous imprisonment.

After her early release in 1939, Das joined the Congress party.

In 1942, she participated in the Quit India movement and was imprisoned again till 1945.

Later she became the secretary of the South Kolkata Congress Committee.

Post Independence

She won the Padma Shri award in 1960 for her Social work.

Bina wrote two autobiographical accounts in Bengali: Shrinkhal Jhankar and Pitridhan.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Usha Mehta

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Usha Mehta

Usha Mehta(1920-2000) was a Gandhian and freedom fighter of India.

At the age of 8 years she became an active member of the Indian freedom struggle with her first protest being against the Simon Commission in 1928.

She became even more actively involved when her family shifted to Mumbai in 1932 by distributing clandestine bulletins, publications and carrying messages to jailed leaders.

She was known for broadcasting the Congress Radio (an underground radio station), which functioned for a few months during the Quit India Movement of 1942.

  • The radio broadcasts recorded messages from Gandhi and other prominent leaders of the freedom movement. The messages were played across India by the Congress Radio.
  • The Congress Radio played an important role in the freedom struggle by spreading uncensored news and other information banned by the colonial authorities.

The British eventually found it and all the organizers including Usha were arrested. Usha was held in solitary confinement and offered incentives to betray the movement but she chose to remain silent. For this she was sentenced to four years imprisonment at Yerwada Jail in Pune. She was released in 1946.

Post Independence

Upon India’s independence, Usha Mehta actively spread Gandhian thought and philosophy.

She was conferred the Padma Vibhushan in 1998, second-highest civilian award of India.

Benefits of Love Marriage

Through marriage you enter into a committed relationship with your ‘life partner’, meaning he or she promises to share a life-long bond with you. Hence depending on whether you have made the right or wrong choice, your marriage can make or mar your life. Marriages happen in two ways. In arranged marriages, the family searches for a suitable spouse for the bride or groom. In love marriages, the boy or girl chooses his or her own life partner by entering into a mutual love relationship. While people talk both for and against both these kinds of marriages, here we discuss the benefits of love marriages.

What is love marriage?

Love is not a recent concept in the history of human civilization. Humans are falling in love with their desired partner from unknown times. In fact, love marriage is the natural form of marriage wherein the spontaneous liking for the other person results in a marital union. Comparatively speaking, arranged marriage is a concept that should have developed later with the maturing of human civilizations.

Love marriage lets you choose your own partner

You do not fall in love with all the people you meet. Because someone has impressed you in some ways, you start liking them. This liking turns into love relationship that will eventually mature into marriage if everything goes well. Hence in love marriage you get to marry the person who you like.

Love marriage results in finding a compatible partner

Not all the people who go for arranged marriage are blessed with compatible partners

. We find many people lament that they have made a wrong choice. Hence love marriage is the royal road to choose the best partner who will walk with you for the rest of your life and exhibit a high degree of compatibility and understanding in your married life.

Love marriage paves way to social equality

Love marriage breaks the conventions underlying marriages. It brings together individuals from two different communities, castes or social groups. Hence love marriages give way to realizing social equality.

Love marriage gives rise to new class of people

When two individuals of unrelated communities come together in love marriage, they both give rise to a new class of people when they get their offspring. Experts in biology say this is the best way to procreate since the rare and unusual combinations promoted by love facilitate some excellent genetic codes. Majority of children born out of love marriages are found to be intellectually gifted, immunologically strong and emotionally matured.

Love promotes happy and successful marriages

In love, the common feeling that brings two hearts in the marital union is “I am for you and you are for me”. This mutual love results in a strong relationship. People marrying through love feel they have landed on happy and successful life. Love marriage is often not an easy journey. In many cases, the couple faces trials and tribulations on the way to its union. Hence they are motivated to demonstrate a strong commitment that will put them in a lifelong bond.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Rani Gaidinliu

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Rani Gaidinliu

Rani Gaidinliu(1915-1993) was a Naga tribal and political leader who organized a rebellion to overthrow British from Manipur.

At the age of 13 she joined her cousin, Haipou Jadonang, who had led the Heraka Movement. This movement was for the revival of the Naga Tribal religion. She led this movement when she was 17, which resulted in her arrest. She was then sent for a fourteen year long imprisonment.

Her forces had started to engage in armed rebellion against the British in Cachar Hills(February 1932) and the Hangrum village(March 1932).

Known for the armed resistance against the British Raj, she was given the title “Rani of Nagas”.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Nanibala Devi

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Nanibala Devi

Nanibala Devi(1898-1977) a women from Bengal was an active worker of Jugantar group, an extremist organization from Bengal led by Amarendranath Chattopadhyay.

She was arrested for transporting weapons and ammunition.

She was the first and only woman to be tortured by the police under Regulation III of 1818.

Importance of Voting – Why should we vote!

Importance of Voting in India:

Voting in India is a Constitutional right if one is a citizen over 18 years of age. However, that also makes it optional. It has been a tendency among voters, especially in the urban areas, to treat the voting day as a day of rest. While skipping the vote may not seem to cause any harm,the long-term consequences are disastrous.

What’s the need to vote?

  • We complain that we don’t have proper roads, no regular supply of water, no development, corruption etc. Rather than complaining if we elect a good candidate who will work for the people then that’s what the true power of common man.
  • Voting is not just our RIGHT, it’s also our DUTY.
  • Our country is a republic and its the responsibility of the people to elect the right candidate.
  • A good leader will make sure that the next 5 years will be safe, progressive and pro-development.
  • We should never think that how will it matter if one or two persons don’t vote. Our constitution has given a very important power to us to elect the person who can take forward the country on the right path, so we have to use our power intelligently.
  • We should always remember that we ( as an individual ) should not vote a person based on just caste (thinking that he is of my caste), religion. We should not accept any gifts or monetary benefits from any candidate in exchange for vote.
  • We should check the candidates standing for elections in our constituency and then among them, we have to vote for one candidate.
  • Please take necessary help from the staff in the voting poll centres as the incorrect process will make your vote invalid.
  •  In 2014, the voting percentage of our country was around 66.5%, which can be improved if we all decide to vote and also create awareness of voting among our friends and family.
  • On the voting day it will be a holiday, but don’t go for outing/movie without voting as one day of enjoyment may cost us and our country.
  • Those people who have migrated to different cities due to different reasons and if they have their vote in their native then they need to plan to visit their native and vote as each and every vote matters for electing the right candidate.

It has become a common ritual to talk bitter about any candidate or an elected leader of any legislative assembly or the parliament. The faultfinding then comes down to the ‘System’ and how democracy is not working as it should. However, a very little room has been given to ‘What the people can do’ to strengthen the democratic roots and bring about a change in the system. Just as it is the responsibility of the elected leader to fulfill the well-beings of the voters, the same is the need for the people of India to contribute to choosing the correct leader for their representation.

Democracy has given people a powerful right- that is to VOTE. Voting is the fundamental basis of democracy’s ‘Of the people, for the people, and by the people’ slogan. Therefore, rather than enjoying it as a holiday, one must vote if he truly wants to contribute to the nation-building process and bring about a change. A Citizen should actually not need to find any reason to Vote. It must be done as a compulsive duty although there is no legal obligation to vote.

Every Single Vote Is Significant:

Needless to say, every citizen’s vote is counted in the polling process. If the people are equally divided between two candidates, one single vote can be a game-changer and a decisive factor. We have seen in the past how one vote from an MP can decide the fall of the government. Exactly the same way, a single person’s vote can confirm the win/fall of an aspiring MP or MLA.

Whom to Vote?

  • Check the candidate’s manifesto and his/her background. If he/she is sitting MP then check his/her and his/her party’s work and based on that you can decide.
  •  If you want to vote based on political party’s work then check the party’s last time’s promises and check which all party has fulfilled their promises and compare their work.
  • Think about the country, present and future of our next generations when you vote.

Non-choosers get NOTA:

At times, it is possible that one does not want any single candidate to be elected from all who are contesting. The election commission has made a special provision of NOTA. It stands for None of The Above. Hence if none of the candidates fit into your criteria, just hit the NOTA option and voice the opinion. Introduction of this alternative is believed to play a significant role in the future. In the late future, it may also be possible that the NOTA will decide the re-elections with fresh candidates.

We must honor the right of voting given by the constitution of India. The youngsters are well excited to exercise their right to vote as soon as they turn 18. The feeling after having cast a vote infuses a sense of pride for being a responsible citizen. As can be witnessed from the sharing of the inked finger on social media. The trend is continuing to gain popularity amongst the youngers and the elders as well.

Gone are the days when it was required for people to motivate them to vote. The vote share for the General Election of 2014 was 8% higher than the previous election. Voter turnout in the Lok Sabha Election 2019 was 67%. Voter awareness program has become successful in its mission and the vote share continues to increase till date in many state elections. With this increasing number of voter turnout, we will soon reach the 80-90% golden mark.

“Voting is the expression of our commitment to ourselves, one another, this country, and this world.”

Sharon Salzberg

127th Amendment Bill, 2021: The way to comprehensive turn of events

Indian Constitution is well known for the social designing of a conventional society, to change it from the customary progressive request into a cutting-edge libertarian country, where positive segregation in the blessing of least advantaged areas of the general public, is looked as a system for advancement and development. Indeed, Right to Equality cherished in Article 15 and Article 16 plans to appear the longing of Constitution producers of India to carry thorough development to individuals of India. One of the systems to guarantee equity is the possibility of reservation in training in the state-run establishment just as work in the public authority and public area. As to Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes instance of the booking is quite clear. Be that as it may, the account of reservation has seen many good and bad times on account of the Other Backward Communities.

In India, there has been a background marked by the backwardness of networks outside of the pale of timetable positions and clans. Rank System in our nation is a perplexing snare of social association where standing personalities advise person’s position in the customary social request. Notwithstanding, the issue with the standing framework is that for the sake of societal position it has prompted the double-dealing and inside and out torment of the lower stations throughout the long term, justifying the sear of pioneers like Baba Sahib Ambedkar, Jyotiba Phule and others. It is to guarantee the comprehensive advancement of individuals from the lower positions under the aegis of the Indian government assistance state, reservation is given. Truly, OBCs are those networks which fall in the middle of the least rungs of positions and the higher standings. Their issue is financial backwardness. To survey their backwardness different advisory groups from Kalekar Committee to Mandal Committee were establishes to distinguish the networks which are really in reverse, to bring them under the umbrella of State supported government assistance. It is in this light that the Hundred and Twenty Seventh Constitution Amendment Bill, 2021 should be seen.

127th Constitution Amendment Bill: States right to make Inclusive OBC list

The new revision bill was presented following quite a while of organization of the booking systems for the Obc’s. Starting from the giving the sacred height to the National Commission for the Backward Communities in 2017, the NCBC was made the nodal office to manage the issues in regards to OBCs including a pivotal part of complaint redressal which was being managed by the National Commission for Schedule Castes. The revision gave a solid balance to the OBCs by guaranteeing the institutional component and sacred status. Nonetheless, in ongoing past there have been many issues which have sprung up with respect to consideration/prohibition of networks in the OBC list. One of the significant mixes was brought about by the interest for the OBC status to Maratha people group in Maharashtra. This interest has seen cases and counter cases in different echelons of Judiciary. Yet, the Hon’ble Supreme Court judgment of 2021 completely made Central Government the watchman of OBC list. It put the Center in an off-kilter position since it has been the states which are principally liable for the government assistance of their residence. Additionally through this judgment, by one assessment, around 671 networks were kept out of the ambit of OBC classification, getting them far from the advantages that this booking involves.

The effectivity of 127th Constitution Amendment Bill 2021 should be surveyed against this foundation. The revision has enabled states to add networks to OBC list. It has enabled NCBC to be counseled by states in the matter concerning OBCs. It is a significant revision for different reasons. First and foremost, this change permits state governments to add networks to the OBC records that they consider fit. This proviso is huge in light of the fact that it permits the advantages of OBC reservation to reach to the grassroot level. Also, it unites the situation of NCBC, by ordering states to hold discussion with this established body in all issue identified with OBCs. Besides, this revision should be found in the light of development of the OBC reservation from advertisement hocism of early days to the more noteworthy organization of components that arrangements with the issues of OBCs, going from established status of NCBC to substantial job for states in keeping up with their OBC records. The greater clearness in this regard is a welcome advance as it will just reinforce the government assistance measures for the more vulnerable areas of our general public as embraced in the Constitution of India.

The ramifications of 127th Constitution Amendment Bill are all over. It’s undeniably true that the social design and chains of importance in India have stayed unaltered even get-togethers given to the more vulnerable networks, the synthesis of the elites in our nation is intensely shifted towards the forward positions. Reservation as a device of positive separation can be utilized to modify the social request to the advantage of the individuals who have been taken advantage of at its hands for millenniums. All the more critically, the equity that laws like this will grant will likewise guarantee social correspondence, and in the end might even modify the structure of the elites in our country. Just before 75th commemoration of India’s Independence, a fortunate advance was taken by noteworthy Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi for the advantages of in reverse networks of India. This choice will be an achievement for making another personality of a New India.

Alternately the meaning of this sacred alteration focuses to the more noteworthy need of advancement and development in our general public, a development that would reach to each person of India, so the requirement for reservation will become repetitive. The way that various networks need the front of OBC order is connected with the possibility that there is an immense degree for cultural improvement in India even following 74 years of our autonomy. This is a bleak reality that requirements further reflection and strategy development. Additionally, one worry that ascents from this alteration is the crystallization of rotating entryway strategy as to OBC reservation, as states will be constrained by the neighborhood governmental issues to add more current networks into their individual OBC records. This viewpoint should be remembered, in case we wind up weakening the impacts of this way breaking alteration.

All in all, the Constitution Amendment Bill has acquired sufficient measure of clearness the standard working systems of working of OBC reservation. It additionally has a gigantic potential to enable individuals from in reverse networks, upgrading their societal position through well-rounded schooling and business openings, making ready for comprehensive turn of events. In the hours of COVID-19 and financial difficulties, 127th Constitution Amendment Bill will actually want to connect the broadening bay of dejection and neediness. It will guarantee portrayal and strengthening to the networks that fall in the breaks of advancement talk in our country.

India’s First Indigenous COVID-19 Vaccine – COVAXIN

A vaccine based on whole inactivated coronavirus has an efficacy rate of 77.8% against symptomatic COVID-19 infections, phase 3 trial data suggest.

Covaxin, also known as BBV152, was authorised for emergency 

COVAXIN, Indias indigenous COVID-19 vaccine by Bharat Biotech is developed in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Virology (NIV).

The indigenous, inactivated vaccine is developed and manufactured in Bharat Biotech’s BSL-3 (Bio-Safety Level 3) high containment facility.

The vaccine is developed using Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell derived platform technology. Inactivated vaccines do not replicate and are therefore unlikely to revert and cause pathological effects. They contain dead virus, incapable of infecting people but still able to instruct the immune system to mount a defensive reaction against an infection

Covaxin COVID-19 Vaccine To Be Available In First Quarter Of Next Year,  Says Bharat Biotech

.

Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin has demonstrated 77.8 per cent effectiveness against symptomatic Covid and 65.2 per cent protection against the new Delta variant.

The company on Saturday said it concluded the final analysis of Covaxin efficacy from Phase 3 trials.

The efficacy analysis demonstrates Covaxin to be 93.4 per cent effective against severe symptomatic Covid cases while safety analysis shows adverse events reported were similar to placebo, with 12 per cent of subjects experiencing commonly known side-effects and less than 0.5 per cent feeling serious adverse events.

The efficacy data demonstrates 63.6 per cent protection against asymptomatic Covid, a release from the city-based vaccine maker said.

Phase 3 clinical trials of the vaccine was an event-driven analysis of 130 symptomatic Covid cases, reported at least two weeks after the second dose, conducted at 25 sites across India.

The whole virion inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV2, was developed in partnership with Indian Council of Medical Research and National Institute of Virology in Pune.

Krishna Ella, Chairman and Managing Director of Bharat Biotech, said, “The successful safety and efficacy readouts of Covaxin as a result of conducting the largest ever Covid vaccine’s trials in India establishes the ability of India and developing world countries to focus towards innovation and novel product development. We are proud to state that Innovation from India will now be available to protect global populations.”    

POSITIVE RESULTS

The Phase 3 trial involved 25,800 participants in India aged 18 to 98. Of these, 2,433 were over 60 years old, and 4,500 had pre-existing medical conditions (co-morbidities) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or obesity.

The study found that Covaxin had an efficacy of 93.4% against severe COVID-19 disease, and an overall vaccine efficacy of 77.8% against symptomatic infections confirmed by PCR tests. Against asymptomatic COVID-19, the efficacy was 63.6%. The vaccine also conferred 65.2% protection against symptomatic infection with the Delta variant, at least two weeks after the second dose.

As a rough comparison, recent figures from Public Health Scotland suggested that at least two weeks after the second dose, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 79% effective against the Delta variant, while the Oxford-AstraZeneca was 60% effective. However, different trial methodologies make it impossible to directly compare the relative efficacies of the various vaccines.

The main side effects from Covaxin were pain at the injection site, followed by headache, fatigue and fever. No severe or life-threatening adverse events were reported.

Mahatma Gandhi

When talking about India as the nation, the freedom, the existence, the history, the
independence, the very first thing that comes to our mind is Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi is the most recognized name around the world. Gandhi Ji, whose full name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a born-on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India. His Father’s name was Karamchand Gandhi who worked as a dewan in Rajkot. Mother, Putlibai was a religious lady who divided her time mostly between the temple and household work. Gandhi Ji got married at the age of thirteen to Kasturba Gandhi. He was a lawyer, a politician and an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Also known as Bapu in India and Gandhi Ji worldwide was a writer as well. Talking about Gandhi Ji’s Educational qualification, he was a very shy and mediocre student. Gandhi Ji was interested in becoming a doctor, but his father wanted him to follow the family legacy of working as a high official in the states of Gujrat.
Gandhi Ji who was not very happy with studying at Sambaldas College agreed to take the law as his profession. That would mean jumping from India to England. He too faced a lot of difficulties with language as the main barrier. From Gujarati to the English language was not an easy task, but his determination was what won. He had to struggle with the transition to Western Culture.

Gandhi Ji was not able to find work in India; he signed a one-year contract to perform legal
services in South Africa. Once he reached South Africa, he was welcomed by a world full of
racism and discrimination by the British. Gandhi Ji was asked to open his turban on the very
first day in the Durban Courtroom, which he refused to do and left instead.
Gandhiji’s life took a turn when a white man objected his presence in the first-class railway
compartment, in spite of Gandhi Ji having his ticket. When he did not agree to move back of
the train, he was forcibly thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
This incident provoked in him a sense of determination to fight against racism and
discrimination. From that time onwards, he stood up to fight for the civil rights. Gandhi Ji
formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight against discrimination.
When Gandhi Ji was planning to return to India, he got to know at his farewell that Indians
would be deprived of the right to vote. The immigrants then convinced Gandhi Ji to stay and
take up the issue and fight against the legislation. Gandhi Ji was not able to succeed in
preventing the law passage but definitely drew international attention to the injustice that
was being done. He also fought for the right to citizenship in the British Empire.
In the year 1906 the first mass civil disobedience campaign was organized which was called
“Satyagraha”. Since the South African Government was refusing to recognize Hindu
marriages its campaign was carried out. After years of protest, hundreds of Indians were
imprisoned, including Gandhi Ji in 1913. The South African government had to compromise,
they negotiated and accepted a compromise that gave recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of poll tax for Indians. Gandhi Ji then sailed from South Africa to London in the year 1914.

India was still under the British control in the year 1919, Gandhi Jihad called for a satyagraha
campaign of protest and strikes in a peaceful manner as the British authorities were
imprisoning people without trial of sedation. However, the reverse happened, and violence
broke out on April 13th, 1919 in Amritsar. Also known as “The Jallianwala Bagh”, where the
British fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed people and killed nearly four hundred of
them.

Gandhi Ji was not able to take it longer, so he returned all the medals he had received from
the military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians
to serve in World War 1. He had called in for a mass boycott. He urged people to stop
working for the British; he asked students not to attend a government school. Soldiers were
asked to leave their post and all citizens to stop paying taxes and refrain from purchasing
British goods. He made people realize the value of “Charkha” that is the spinning wheel. He
used the portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth, and soon the spinning wheel
became the symbol of Indian Independence. Gandhi Ji was the leader of the Indian National
Congress.  Gandhi Ji returned to active politics in the year 1930 to protest against the British Salt Act.

This Act prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt, but it imposed a heavy tax. A Dandi March was planned that entailed a 390-kilometer march to the Arabian Sea. There Gandhi Ji
would collect salt as a symbol of defense of the government’s monopoly. Wearing a white
shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, he set out from his religious retreat in
Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with some followers. He reached the coastal town of Dandi
after 24 days and broke the law by making salt from evaporated sea water. Gandhi Ji was
again imprisoned for the same.

In August 1934, Gandhi Ji left the Indian National Congress, and the leadership was passed
on to Jawaharlal Nehru. Gandhi Ji launched a Quit India movement in the year 1942, asking
the British to leave the country immediately. Again, he was arrested and put behind bars
along with his wife and other leaders. With his health going down Gandhi Ji was released
after nineteen months. The negotiations began for an independent India; however, it leads
to the partition on Hindus being India and Muslims being Pakistan. Violence had already
roared before the Independence. Finally, India became Independent on 15th August 1947.
Gandhi Ji still pleaded people to maintain peace and nonviolence.

Weakened from the continuous hunger strikes, the 78-year-old Gandhi with his two
grandnieces led from his living quarters in Delhi’s Birla House to a prayer meeting. Where an
Activist Named Nathuram Godse was upset with Gandhi Ji over his tolerance with the
Muslims shot him three times with a semiautomatic pistol. This act took the life of a
nonviolence preacher. Godse and his fellow co-Ordinator was hanged in the year 1949, and
the rest of the conspirators were sentenced to life imprisonment.

Gandhi Ji always believed in Simple living. Making his own clothes, to eating vegetarian
diets. Keeping fast for self-purification, all these facts show how great a man he was.
Satyagraha remains one of his most important philosophy.

Shree Krishna Janmashtami

Shree Krishna Janmashtami, mostly famous as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is a yearly festival of the Hindu, which is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

According to the Hindu Luni-Solar calendar, the dark day of Shravan or Bhadrapada (the dark side) is the eighth day (Ashtami) (depending on whether the calendar selects the new moon or full moon day as the last day), which overlaps with the August / September of the Gregorian calendar.

It is a famous festival for the Vaishnavism of Hinduism in particular. According to the Bhagavata Purana (such as Rasa-Lila of Krishna-Lila), Krishna’s dance-drama laws, devotional singing, fasting, night vigil (night Jagran) and a festival (Mahotsav) until the midnight of Shree Krishna’s birth are part of the Janmashtami celebrations.

This festival is celebrated in Mathura and Vrindavan, also with Major Vaishnava and sectarian groups found in other states of India. The festival of Nandotsav takes place after the birth of Krishna Janmashtami, a celebration of the birth of the Nanda Baba community.

Importance of Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna is the son of Devaki and Vasudeva, and Hindus celebrate his birthday as Janmashtami, most notably the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition as the supreme personality of his god.

According to the Hindu tradition in Mathura, Janmashtami is celebrated when it is believed that Krishna was born, which is the midnight of the eighth day of the Bhadrapada month (which overlaps with August and September 3 in the Gregorian calendar).Krishna was born in a confused region. It was a time when violence was rampant, denial of liberty, evil everywhere, and his life threatened by his uncle, King Kansa. Soon after his birth in Mathura, his father, Vasudeva, adopted Krishna as the father of the Yamuna and his parents in Gokul and named him Nanda and Yashoda.This myth is held fast by the people, singing devotional songs of love towards Lord Krishna and celebrating vigil at night. The devotees break their fast by sharing food and sweets. Women draw small footprints outside the door and kitchen of their home, walking towards their home, symbolising Krishna going into their homes. Celebration of Krishna JanmashtamiMaharashtra Janmashtami FestivalJanmashtami (popularly known as “Gokulashtami” in Maharashtra) is celebrated in cities like Mumbai, Latur, Nagpur, and Pune. Every August / September, the day after Shri Krishna’s birth, Janmashtami is celebrated as Dahi Handi. The word means “crockpot.”The festival derives its name from the legend of Baby Krishna. He would steal and steal dairy products such as yogurt and butter, and people would hide their supplies without making it available to the baby. Krishna tries all kinds of creative ideas, like making human pyramids with his friends to break these high hanging pots.

This story is the theme of many reliefs on Hindu temples across India, and a collection of literature and dance-drama, symbolising the joyful innocence of children, the manifestation of a god in love and life. 

In Maharashtra and other western states of India, this Krishna myth is practiced as a community tradition in Janmashtami, where yogurt pots are hung high, sometimes with tall pillars or ropes hanging from the second or third floor of a building.

According to an annual tradition, groups of young men and boys known as “Govindas” roam around these hanging pots; climb over each other to form a human pyramid and then break the pot.

The girls surrounded these boys, cheering and cheering them on while dancing and singing. Spilled things are considered Prasada (ceremony offering). It is welcomed as a public spectacle, enthusiastic, and social event. 

There are youth groups from Govinda Pathaks, which compete specifically for prize money on Janmashtami day. These groups are called mandalas, and they roam around the local area, trying to break as many pots as possible every August.

Social celebrities and media attend the celebrations, and corporations sponsor part of the event. Govinda teams are offering cash and gifts, and according to the Times of India, in Mumbai alone in 2014, there were over 4,000 handicap hangings, and many Govinda teams took part. 

Gujarat and Rajasthan Janmashtami Festival

The people of Dwarka in Gujarat – who are believed to have established their kingdom – celebrate the festival with a tradition similar to that of Dahi Handi, known as Makhan handi (pot with freshly boiled butter).

Others perform folk dances, sing bhajans, and visit Krishna temples such as the Dwarkadhish Temple. In the Kutch district, farmers decorate their bullock carts and play Krishna ions, with group singing and dancing.

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Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

June 7, 2020 by ReadingJunction

In this article, you will read Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children. This includes Its information, Importance, Celebration in India.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

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Shree Krishna Janmashtami, mostly famous as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is a yearly festival of the Hindu, which is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

According to the Hindu Luni-Solar calendar, the dark day of Shravan or Bhadrapada (the dark side) is the eighth day (Ashtami) (depending on whether the calendar selects the new moon or full moon day as the last day), which overlaps with the August / September of the Gregorian calendar.

It is a famous festival for the Vaishnavism of Hinduism in particular. According to the Bhagavata Purana (such as Rasa-Lila of Krishna-Lila), Krishna’s dance-drama laws, devotional singing, fasting, night vigil (night Jagran) and a festival (Mahotsav) until the midnight of Shree Krishna’s birth are part of the Janmashtami celebrations.

This festival is celebrated in Mathura and Vrindavan, also with Major Vaishnava and sectarian groups found in other states of India. The festival of Nandotsav takes place after the birth of Krishna Janmashtami, a celebration of the birth of the Nanda Baba community.

Importance of Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna is the son of Devaki and Vasudeva, and Hindus celebrate his birthday as Janmashtami, most notably the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition as the supreme personality of his god.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

According to the Hindu tradition in Mathura, Janmashtami is celebrated when it is believed that Krishna was born, which is the midnight of the eighth day of the Bhadrapada month (which overlaps with August and September 3 in the Gregorian calendar).

Krishna was born in a confused region. It was a time when violence was rampant, denial of liberty, evil everywhere, and his life threatened by his uncle, King Kansa. Soon after his birth in Mathura, his father, Vasudeva, adopted Krishna as the father of the Yamuna and his parents in Gokul and named him Nanda and Yashoda.

This myth is held fast by the people, singing devotional songs of love towards Lord Krishna and celebrating vigil at night. The devotees break their fast by sharing food and sweets. Women draw small footprints outside the door and kitchen of their home, walking towards their home, symbolising Krishna going into their homes. 

Celebration of Krishna Janmashtami

Maharashtra Janmashtami Festival

Janmashtami (popularly known as “Gokulashtami” in Maharashtra) is celebrated in cities like Mumbai, Latur, Nagpur, and Pune. Every August / September, the day after Shri Krishna’s birth, Janmashtami is celebrated as Dahi Handi. The word means “crockpot.”

The festival derives its name from the legend of Baby Krishna. He would steal and steal dairy products such as yogurt and butter, and people would hide their supplies without making it available to the baby. Krishna tries all kinds of creative ideas, like making human pyramids with his friends to break these high hanging pots.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

This story is the theme of many reliefs on Hindu temples across India, and a collection of literature and dance-drama, symbolising the joyful innocence of children, the manifestation of a god in love and life. 

In Maharashtra and other western states of India, this Krishna myth is practiced as a community tradition in Janmashtami, where yogurt pots are hung high, sometimes with tall pillars or ropes hanging from the second or third floor of a building.

According to an annual tradition, groups of young men and boys known as “Govindas” roam around these hanging pots; climb over each other to form a human pyramid and then break the pot.

The girls surrounded these boys, cheering and cheering them on while dancing and singing. Spilled things are considered Prasada (ceremony offering). It is welcomed as a public spectacle, enthusiastic, and social event. 

There are youth groups from Govinda Pathaks, which compete specifically for prize money on Janmashtami day. These groups are called mandalas, and they roam around the local area, trying to break as many pots as possible every August.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlSocial celebrities and media attend the celebrations, and corporations sponsor part of the event. Govinda teams are offering cash and gifts, and according to the Times of India, in Mumbai alone in 2014, there were over 4,000 handicap hangings, and many Govinda teams took part. 

Gujarat and Rajasthan Janmashtami Festival

The people of Dwarka in Gujarat – who are believed to have established their kingdom – celebrate the festival with a tradition similar to that of Dahi Handi, known as Makhan handi (pot with freshly boiled butter).

Others perform folk dances, sing bhajans, and visit Krishna temples such as the Dwarkadhish Temple. In the Kutch district, farmers decorate their bullock carts and play Krishna ions, with group singing and dancing. https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

The carnival-style and playful poems and writings of Dayaram, a scholar of Vaishnavism’s Puthiya Marg, became popular in Gujarat and Rajasthan. 

Celebration of Janmashtami festival in Northern India

Janmashtami is the biggest festival in the Braz region of northern India, in cities like Madura where Krishna was born, and in Vrindavan where he grew up. Janmashtami is celebrated in the northern areas of Uttar Pradesh along with the Vaishnavas and others in the state viz: Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, and the Himalayas. Krishna temples are decorated and lit. They attract many visitors during the day. Devotees of Krishna perform devotional ceremonies and watch the night. 

The festival usually comes as the rainy season in northern India is short, with time to play on crops and in rural areas. In the Northern states, this festival is celebrated with the tradition of Raslila, which means “happiness, essence (rasa) of play (Lila).”

It is expressed as a solo or group dance and drama event in Janmashtami, in which Shri Krishna compositions are sung, along with a musical performance, where actors and audiences share and celebrate the play.

Shri Krishna’s childhood pranks and Radha-Krishna’s love affairs are especially famous. As per the findings of Christian Roy and other scholars, the Radha-Krishna romances are Hindu symbolism of the desire and love of the human soul, which is called Brahman for Divine Principle and Reality. 

In Jammu, a part of the celebration of Krishna Janmashtami is flying kites from the rooftops. 

Odisha and West Bengal Janamashtami Festival

The festival is also known as Sri Krishna Jayanti or Sri Jayanthi in the eastern state of Odisha, especially around Puri and in Nabadwip in West Bengal. People celebrate birth by fasting and worshiping until midnight. People recite the Bhagavata Purana from the 10th chapter, devoting it to the life of Krishna.

The day after that is called “Nanda Utsav” as Krishna’s adoptive parents Nanda and Yashoda had a joyful celebration. Upon this day, people break their fast and serve different cooked sweets after midnight. 

South India Janmashtami Festival

In Tamil Nadu, people decorate the soil with kolam (decorative pattern drawn with rice batter). Gita Govindam and other devotional songs are sung in praise of Krishna. They then draw Krishna’s footprints from the entrance of the house to the pooja room, which depicts Krishna’s entry into the home.

Bhagavad Gita recitation is also a popular technique. The offerings to Krishna include fruits and butter. The delicacies that are considered being Krishna’s favourites are carefully prepared.

The most important of them are Varkadai, Sweet Seed, and Seedai. Janmashtami is celebrated in the evening as Krishna was born at midnight. Many people practice strict fasting this day and eat only after midnight pooja. Even the toddler dressed like Krishna. 

Andhra Pradesh

In Andhra Pradesh, recitation of devotional songs and hymns serve as the hallmarks of this festival. Apart from that, another unique feature of this festival is that young children dress like Shri Krishna, and they visit their neighbours and friends.

A variety of fruits and sweets are first served to Shree Krishna, and then they are distributed to the visitors. The people of Andhra Pradesh also fast. They prepare a variety of desserts to help Gokulnandan this day.

Milk and yogurt are edible and digestible for Krishna. Some temples of the state are celebrated with joy. The number of temples dedicated to Lord Krishna is minimal. The reason is that people have taken to worship him through images, not statues. 

The famous South Indian temples dedicated to Lord Krishna are devoted to the Rajagopalaswamy Temple in Mannargudi in Thiruvarur district, Pandavapura Temple in Kanchipuram, Sri Krishna Temple in Udupi and Krishna Temple in Guruvayur in memory of Lord Vishnu. It is believed that the idol of Sri Krishna erected in Guruvayur belongs to the Dwarka and is drowned in the sea. 

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Labanya Prabha Ghosh

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Labanya Prabha Ghosh

Not much is known about Ghosh’s early life, but available records do state that she was born in 1987 in Purulia district, West Bengal to Nibaran Chandra Dasgupta, a freedom fighter.

District government records show that she was elected as the representative of the District Congress Committee from Manbhum district in 1926. Purulia was then a part of the Manbhum district.

When Gandhi launched the salt satyagraha in March 1930, Ghosh helped organize similar marches locally, including a flag satyagraha in 1945 in Konapara in Purulia.

She was an active member of “Shilpashram”, an important center of freedom struggle movement of Manbhum region.

Between 1941 and 1947, Ghosh was arrested several times for her revolutionary work, including for organizing protests during the Quit India movement of 1942.

Post independence

Ghosh’s revolutionary work did not stop with India’s independence. She was also prominent in the Bhasha Andolan that emerged following partition and the creation of separate states.

Between 1949 and 1956, Ghosh participated in several protests, including the Tusu Satyagraha, and led marches from Puluria to Calcutta, for which she was arrested.

The protests became impossible for the government authorities to ignore and in November 1956, Puluria was broken away from Bihar and acceded to West Bengal.

Attraction

Ever thought why do we get attract to someone? Well everyone has different answer to it. For some it can be the way one look, smiled, walk or may be their was an unusual aura around that one.

What is attraction?

Attraction, especially in a romantic way, is a complex process that take place in our brains, and has had it’s roots since it’s beginning of the humankind. It’s our minds way of telling us who has the potential to be our partner, our friend, or even our soulmate, and is based on a complex blend of our interest, values, experience, and desire. Physical and romantic attraction, which are often focused on, are only small facets of a much larger equation.

Psychologist look at the ingredients of attraction is in a form of pyramid, split into 4 different sections.

The base of the pyramid is made up of health and status:-

  • Status – 1. internal (confidence, self set, beliefs) 2. External (person’s job, possession and appearance.
  • Health – Physical attributes, smell, basic level of intelligence.

If the potential partners passes these initial requirements then we move to the center of the pyramid, which are the emotional factors:- includes

  • trust comfort someone wants,
  • their emotions intelligence, and
  • unique characteristics.

The final portion of the pyramid is “Logic”.This is the part that differentiate us from other animals, and is the part where our brains seriously

  • considers whether we are totally compatible for that person.
  • It ensure that the other person is aligned with us in term of what they want – things such as marriage, children, even the city they want to live.

According to this model, the more alignment there is, the more attraction there is, but it doesn’t always have to follow from bottom to top – like online dating.

What makes someone Attractive?

The answer to this questions make come to our mind is physical traits. Due to the influence of media, we tend to favor women who is younger, and more feminine features, in men on the other side, qualities such as broad shoulders, a deep voice, and strong jawline are highly upon.

Scientists suggest that, these also have an evolutionary origin because these traits are associated with a higher chance of producing health offspring and passing of good genes. Also, values, culture, and the environment, that we grow in also plays an important role.

Hence, attractiveness is complex, there’s a number of different perspective to consider, and at the end of the day, there’s very little we can choosing who we are attracted to. As each person looks for unique set of traits and, while physical traits are often focused there are far more factors that come into play. A person’s upbringing, behavior and even lifestyle have major influence. The most important thing to remember is to be happy and make the most of it.