Fashion and lifestyle journalism

Can you imagine this, what will happen, if you don’t know the things happening around you? And what’s going on in your region? It can be anything like a weather report, government policies, crimes etc. You will be isolated and outdated. There comes journalism for your aid. Journalism helps us to know what’s happening around us, it gives us information about everything going on in earth and even in the outer space. Without it, our life don’t operate properly. On considering journalism, there are enormous things to be covered. But now our concern is on fashion and lifestyle journalism.
Fashion journalism concentrate on the current trends and styles. It comprise of writing related to fashion trends and photojournalism which plays major role in this field. There are lot of people who love to dress up or to act accordingly to the current trends, fashion journalism is for them. It helps us to know the designs or styles which is on trend today, keep us updated day to day and educate people about the fashion shows, events and new trends.
Let’s look at the job of fashion journalists and what they are doing in this field. Fashion journalists write and edit articles related to fashion. They conduct interviews with the celebrities and fashion icons as celebrities rule the world of fashion, nowadays all the people want to look like a celebrity, so they try to impersonate celebrities by knowing the secret of their fashion from these interviews. Other than this, fashion journalists cover the fashion shows and events and research about the upcoming trends. They have to work along with photographers, designers and fashion specialists. Like any other journalists, fashion journalists should have good communication skills to conduct interviews and should have the pre acquired knowledge of fashion and trends.
Magazines are the main outcome of fashion journalism. There are enormous fashion magazine like Vogue, Elle, Cosmopolitan, Femina. Most of them got it’s digital portal as it is needed for today’s world. Apart from these magazines, YouTube became the next fashion promoting platform, it have these particular Youtubers who propagate the current trends and fashion in their videos.
Fashion is the part of life but not the life itself. Fashion and lifestyle journalism is similar but lifestyle journalism covers lot more than fashion. Lifestyle journalism concentrate on travel, fashion, food, well-being, health, fitness etc. The target of lifestyle journalism is consumers, so they give contents according to the needs of customers and also directed to audience of it’s own. Lifestyle journalism consists of the bloggers who write blogs about certain products or on topics which are in trend now.
Fashion and lifestyle journalism comes under soft journalism. The term soft journalism means the type of journalism which don’t affect the society directly and it is not the subject of human interest. Fashion and lifestyle is soft journalism because it don’t affect the public in general as not everyone is interested in fashion and it won’t disturb them in anyway like a crime news or a government policy which have greater effect in their life. It may not be the mainstream, but fashion and lifestyle journalism have it’s own audience who made it evolved this greatly.





Journalism

In simpler words, Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on current events based on facts and supported with proof or evidence. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as collaborative media who gather and publish information based on facts and supported with proof or evidence.  It is a long process that includes various tasks such as collecting the information from various sources, preparing it accordingly, and reporting it through different media platforms like newspapers, radio, blogs, social media, television, magazines etc-etc. Journalism is the product of modern history. It has been changed over time to time, from Medieval scribes recording war and taxes to paid pamphleteers at shop waging political battles to mass-market newspapers that use new tech like trains and telephones to gather and spread the news as well as the information’s to the people from door to door.

History of Journalism

The history of journalism spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis that has caused, as one history of journalism surmises, the steady increase of “the scope of news available to us and the speed with which it is transmitted. Before the printing press was invented, word of mouth was the primary source of news. Returning merchants, sailors and travelers brought news back to the mainland, and this was then picked up by peddlers and travelling players and spread from town to town. The first newspaper in India is credited to James Augustus Hickey, who launched The Bengal Gazette, also the Calcutta General Advertiser, in 1780. The paper lasted just two years before being seized by the British administration in 1782 for its outspoken criticism of the Raj. Over the years, journalism has evolved drastically and it changes over time with the latest technologies and innovations to reach a larger audience and meet their needs. To explain present-day Journalism in one word is ‘Handy’. Due to the rise of digitalization, people can easily access the news from various forms of print and electronic media like podcasts, televisions, newspapers, radio, social media, magazines, websites, blogs, and so on.

Bengal’s Gazette

Forms of Journalism

Journalism is divided into different forms based on the medium such as –

  • Print Journalism – Delivering news in the form of printing such as magazines, newspapers, books, pamphlets, etc. is called print journalism. This is the oldest and widely spread journalism. People can easily access it at very low costs. The rise of other forms of journalism has a huge impact on print journalism. Newspapers, magazines, books, flyers, academic journals are the example of print journalism.
  • Online Journalism – Delivering news through internet platforms such as websites, apps, blogs, social media, etc. is called online journalism. This is the latest and advanced form of journalism. It can be accessed from the tip of your fingers. Due to its easy availability and accessibility, online journalism has became popular within a short span of time.
  • Broadcast Journalism – Delivering news through radio and television is called broadcast journalism. This is the most comfortable and popular form of journalism. The reason why it became more popular than print journalism is because of its visual-audio experience. It engages the audience and glues them to televisions and radios. It has higher budgets and resources compared to the other forms of journalism.

Types of Journalism

  • Opinion Journalism-Opinion journalism is journalism that makes no claim of objectivity. Although distinguished from advocacy journalism in several ways, both forms feature a subjective viewpoint, usually with some social or political purpose. Common examples include newspaper columns, editorials, op-eds, editorial cartoons.
  • Investigative Journalism– Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report.
  • Business Journalism– Business journalism is the part of journalism that tracks, records, analyzes and interprets the business, economic and financial activities and changes that take place in societies.
  • Entertainment Journalism-Entertainment journalism is any form of journalism that focuses on popular culture and the entertainment business and its products. Like fashion journalism, entertainment journalism covers industry-specific news while targeting general audiences beyond those working in the industry itself. Common forms include lifestyle, television and film, theater music, video game, and celebrity coverage.
  • Sports Journalism– Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on matters pertaining to sporting topics and competitions. Sports journalism started in the early 1800s when it was targeted to the social elite and transitioned into an integral part of the news business with newspapers having dedicated sports sections.
  • Watchdog Journalism– Watchdog journalism is a form of investigative journalism where journalists, authors or publishers of a news publication fact-check and interview public figures to increase accountability. Watchdog journalism usually takes on a form of beat reporting about specific aspects and issues.
  • Political Journalism– Political journalism is a broad branch of journalism that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science, although the term usually refers specifically to coverage of civil governments and political power.
  • Lifestyle Journalism– Lifestyle journalism is an umbrella term for more specialized beats of journalism such as travel journalism, fashion journalism, or food journalism
  • Arts Journalism– Arts journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of the arts including, but not limited to, the visual arts, film, literature, music, theater, and architecture.
Arts journalism
Lifestyle Journalism
Sports Journalism
Investigative Journalism

Who is a Journalist ?

A journalist is a person who investigates, collects, and presents information as a news story. This can be presented through newspapers, magazines, radio, television and the internet. Journalists are relied upon to present news in a well-rounded, objective manner. Journalists have distinct personalities. They tend to be artistic individuals, which means they’re creative, intuitive, sensitive, articulate, and expressive. They are unstructured, original, nonconforming, and innovative. Some of them are also enterprising, meaning they’re adventurous, ambitious, assertive, extroverted, energetic, enthusiastic, confident, and optimistic. The most important and the most needed skills to become a journalist are having alertness, command over language, good communication skill, can differentiate between facts and fiction and lastly working in a team. Therefore, A Good Journalist must provide good and accurate content to the people. Thus by providing accurate information will help people to understand the greater truths beyond the facts.

The trend towards media convergence in recent times means that media, technology and mobile communications have become increasingly intertwined. The future of journalism could see the emergence of more and more personalized content, intelligent algorithms and robot journalists – as well as the opportunity to ‘experience’ that news thanks to immersive VR and AR technologies

JOURNALISM IN INDIA

Media interview

Gathering, creating, preparation and distribution of reports of current events based on facts and information is journalism. The term journalism is used for the profession whereas a journalist is a person who is responsible for collecting and presenting the news. 

Journalism is mainly classified into two sections – Print Journalism and Electronic (Audio/Visual) Journalism. Print Journalism involves newspapers, magazines and journals. Different work profiles in Print Journalism includes reporters, editors, correspondents, columnists and many more. Meanwhile, Electronic Journalism is dissemination of news or information through electronic media like radio, television and web. Prominent work profiles in electronic media include anchor, reporter, editor, correspondent etc.

Journalism Courses:

Here is a list of mainstream journalism courses:

  • Bachelor of Mass Media and Journalism (UG, 3 years)
  • Bachelor of Communication and Journalism (UG, 3 years)
  • B.Sc. in Journalism and Mass Communication (UG, 3 years)
  • BA in Media and Communication (UG, 3 years)
  • BA in Journalism (UG, 3 years)
  • BBA in Mass Communication and Journalism (UG, 3 years)
  • MA in Journalism and Mass Communication (PG, 2 years)
  • M.Sc. in Mass Communication (PG, 2 years)

The Scope in Journalism

In the recent years, the communication channels have widened from radio, television to digital and social mediums. India has one of the biggest media industries in the world providing ample number of job opportunities to the suitable candidates. Currently, Journalism has become one of the most prestigious careers in India. Candidates can avail job as a journalist in English, Hindi and many other vernacular languages. Candidates can also avail jobs in different types in different types of journalism mentioned below:

Types of Journalism
Broadcast JournalismCommunications
Fashion JournalismForeign Correspondent
Freelance WritingInvestigative Journalism
Newspaper ReporterPhotojournalism
Social MediaSports Journalism

Print Media

Below are some important job profiles and their roles in print media.

  • Reporter:  The role of a reporter is to gather news and report with accuracy. News sense, objectivity and timeliness are few important qualities, which a reporter should possess.
  • Correspondent: Correspondents are also known as special reporters who are assigned for a particular purpose. Correspondents can be of any beat like politics, sports, crime etc.
  • Feature Writer: The responsibility of a feature writer is to write soft stories with deep research and observations on particular subject.
  • Proof Reader: The role of a proof reader is to assess the edited copy. A proof reader must have good grammatical and punctuation skills.
  • Leader Writer: The role of a leader writer is to write their views on the current topics through editorials.
  • Editor: Editor’s responsibility is to maintain a journal’s reputation. He also ensures that article corresponds with the media in-house style guides.
  • Columnist: The role of a columnist is to write for a specific column in detail in the newspaper or magazine. The column can be related to any topic highlighting his viewpoint on any subject like politics, fashion or films.

Photo Journalists, Cartoonists are some other profiles.

Electronic Media

Here are various job profiles included in electronic media.

  • Researchers: The role of researchers involves deep research on a particular topic. Significant qualities required for this job profile are creativity and excellent research skills.
  • Electronic Media Reporters: An electronic media or broadcast reporter should have good verbal and presentation skills. He should have a news sense.
  • Presenters/Anchors: A presenter should be confident. He must have excellent communication skills, ability to remain balanced in stressful conditions.
  • Freelancers: Apart from the above-mentioned job profiles, freelancers are informal employees who are assigned particular task and are paid according to it.

Areas of work for a journalist

Below are few areas where a journalist can work at different profiles.

Journalists and Their Work Areas
News AgenciesPress Information Bureau
Legal Affairs DepartmentTelevision Industry
NewspapersCirculation and Public Relations
All India RadioJournals
BlogsWebsites

Pay Scale in Journalism:

Most of the aspirants chose journalism due to interest and passion. Check out how well journalists are paid in India.

According to a report in Glassdoor, the annual salary of a journalist at The Times of India ranges from Rs 2.33-9.58 lakh. Meanwhile, the annual salary of a reporter at The Hindu is Rs7.30 lakh.

The pay-scale of a journalist in print, television and radio with similar experiences differ. For example, a senior journalist in electronic media is paid more than a journalist in radio and newspaper with similar experiences. The major difference is because of the higher advertising revenue in television.

Pros and Cons of Journalism:

Journalism is a profession for curious people and like every other profession; journalism too has both pros and cons.

Pros:

  • New opportunities and challenges
  • Opportunity to work with informed people
  • You learn for a living
  • Opportunity to meet people
  • Opportunity to travel
  • A strong sense of achievement
  • You get paid for writing
  • Benefits of a press card

Cons:

  • Not very lucrative
  • Challenging and demanding
  • Long workdays
  • Work pressure
  • Stressful
  • Risk to life

Career options in Journalism and Mass Communication

Mass communication and journalism is a rapidly growing field of study. The world is now connected through the media. The information we get daily is the hard work of the mass communication industry. They are constantly working to provide us with the latest happenings around the world every moment of the day. 

But this is not a job of just a handful of people. Thousands of people work day and night on-screen and off-screen.

Earlier it was assumed that the only career option after a degree in mass communication and journalism would land you a job as a reporter or an anchor. And it was not considered a cup of tea for everyone.
But today, people are becoming well aware of the different roles people in this industry play and choosing to opt them as a career. 

If you are confused as to what are the many job options in this industry, below is a list of some of the jobs other than the commonly known ones. 

  1. Public relations:

These are the people who serve as a representative for businesses, institutions, persons and government bodies. PR executives launch campaigns through print, electronic, and online media. Their main role is to create and develop a brand and help them build a positive image and communication in public. You also have to make sure that correct information about your client is being conveyed to the people at the right time.

To become a PR executive you need to have good communication skills, creative, reliable and tech-savvy. Moreover, you need good written and oral skills, strong command over language and good organising skills.

  1. Photography:

As a professional photographer, you will be responsible to manage artists/products, set lights, manage time and create quality content. Your job is not limited to clicking photos only. You can pick one or more than one genre of photography. The genres include candid, food photography, photojournalism, wildlife, fashion or interior. 

If you have a passion for photography and make a career in it, this is the job for you. You must be tech-savvy and willing to learn on the go. The main aspect of this job is to capture emotions and moments.

  1. News Editor:

The job of news editor involves deciding which news stories need to be printed. He manages and produces news to present information with flow, accuracy and within a time frame. They work as a coordinator with other team members and other departments. 

  1. Sound engineer:

They work in films, music, television and radio. They can also work for live performances and shows. They handle tasks like adding sound effects to recordings, resolving technical problems, performing duties assigned by directors and producers. Qualities you must have are, editing techniques and different audio recordings to perform well with the various tasks appointed.

  1. Art director:

The look after the creation of visual material for print, advertisement, film production and other related things. The see how to present the concept visually and which photographs or design elements in the best way possible. Their role is to develop the overall style of publication, television and advertising campaign. They understand the designs elements of projects and keep the projects on budget within the given time frame. 

There are other job opportunities as well. The list is long and this is a field that people are not ready to explore completely. 

But as people are becoming aware, they are seeking jobs in this field. Some other jobs you can try in mass communication and journalism are:

News reporter 

TV correspondent 

Producer 

Radio jockey 

Content writer 

Sound mixer 

Screenwriter 

Film writer 

And the list goes on. Some qualities are specifically important in people working in the mass communication industry. They should be inquisitive, alert, confident, patient and enthusiastic. 

If you are looking to pursue a career in mass communication and journalism, these are some of the options out of the many that you can opt for. The jobs are well paying and you get to learn something new every day. 

New Media And Reporting Gender Based Violence

Trigger Warning: Mention of Rape and Sexual Assault

New Media has also changed the style of journalism, such as the rise of online journalism, where facts, information, and reports are produced and distributed through the internet. News in the New Media era is enabled to spread more widely and rapidly. News content is now enriched by lots of digital elements such as images, embed videos, comment box. These elements make the information presented becomes more attractive. One of the salient characters of online journalism is its dependency on speed in delivering information. When we talk about the emerging trends in media, we cannot afford to overlook the role of online media in changing the scenario in the context of women’s issues. The content that the online media produces reflects the pattern of value the society. The prevailing attitude of society gets revealed through the way subjects dealing with women are treated by the media (Arpita Sharma, 2012). 

Media has the choice of acting as both, a protagonist and as a perpetrator-it can either reinforce the gender-based discrimination by portraying sensational and stereotypical images of women or it can provide balanced reportage that empowers women and not degrades them while exposing acts of gender-based violence. Rape cases and sexual assault cases are not a recent trend in the society but sensitive reportage and wide coverage by media while also bringing these issues forefront are relatively very new. 

Gender-based violence or GBV is violence that is directed against a person because of their gender. Both women and men experience GBV but the majority of victims are women and girls. GBV and violence against women are terms that are synonymous as it is widely acknowledged that most gender-based violence is inflicted on women and girls, by men. The issue of GBV reaches every corner of the world. The numbers of women and girls affected by this problem are shocking. According to the World Health Organization’s data from 2013, one in every three women has been beaten, compelled into sex or are abused. One in five women is sexually abused as a child, according to a 2014 report.

In coverage of GVB, several stereotypes are often perpetuated by the new media. These include that rape is similar to sex, that the assailant is motivated by female lust, that the assailant is perverted, crazy or a monster, that the woman provokes rape or assault, and that only women are only victims. Scholars have found that these stereotypes and myths are pervasive in media coverage of rape and assault cases. Not only the language and the framing of the headlines but also the visuals used in the articles regarding GVB play an important role in the general perception of these issues.

In Gender-Sensitive Indicators for Media (UNESCO, 2012), under Category B- Gender Portrayal In Media Content, B1.5- Strategic Objective 5 states the indicators for the coverage of gender-based violence. Three of them are-

  1. Use of non-judgmental language, distinguishing between consensual sexual activity and criminal acts, and taking care not to blame the victim/survivor for the crime 

2. Use of the term ‘survivor’ rather than ‘victim’ unless the violence-affected person uses the latter term or has not survived 

3. Use of background information and statistics to present gender-based violence as a societal problem rather than as an individual, personal tragedy 

Terms such as ‘victim’ or ‘survivor’ are often used to describe individuals who undergo these experiences. The term ‘victim’ reiterates feelings of helplessness and lack of female agency, while the term survivor connotes a sense of strength and resilience. However, the affected person should have a say in what to refer them as. The ‘victim’ terminology limits individual self-agency and identity. It is important to note that experiences of violence do not define the individual, but rather are a piece of a larger self-identity. Such labels focus on experiences of violence and presuppose an individual’s inability to change or undergo any personal development to transform their identity into a peaceful, empowered personality. 

Images of sexual violence in the media often depicts women as covering their face, being silenced by looming hands, teary faces, large shadows near the woman, are some of the visual examples. These images not only fuel the stereotypes of women as helpless and weak, but also these images are also extremely triggering for the survivors of sexual assault and rape. 

When media reports women who have been assaulted or raped as nothing but victims, society can disengage and fail to take the issue as a broader societal issue and fail to take responsibility for any individual or group action to change it. It is crucial then for journalists to report on GBV in an informed way and to have a good theoretical understanding of the roots of these gender based violence’s and what needs to change in society. Otherwise, they can do harm by perpetuating patriarchal stereotypes and falsehoods. 

The New Watchdog

Mainstream media to new media- how has the shift affected political reporting

Politics is undoubtedly a game for supremacy solely played in the name of the people for evoking national interest. Fred Fedler was right then he said “journalism is built on reporting government”. The idea of ‘the watchdog’ means that the journalist, as an independent observer without any vested interest in any side of the controversy, can inform the public about what is going on, particularly if the government is corrupt or even incompetent. However, the political journalists do not play this role flawlessly. 

There is a paucity of good political reporting in India- reporting with an insight, reporting that captures in action the trouper of the political field, reporting that exposes the petty politics and the never ending hypocrisies of political parties and the conspiracies of those in power.

The grave situation that the Indian democracy is in, is that it is they who guide and shape the destiny of some 135 crore people. Lacking ideas, bereft of intelligence and character, they exploit religion and caste to stay in power. 

Most political commentators and reporters on traditional medias like mainstream news channels and newspapers have glorified politicians and never truthfully presented their failures as much as their achievements. Programmes of political parties are rarely critically evaluated by reporters of most traditional media and their flaws are never commented upon so that the people are carried away by their rhetoric or patriotic postures. The Inadequate political coverage, not judged by the quantity of the news brought in or reported but by the quality of it, brings down the credibility of the traditional media. 

The mediatization of the political news necessitates that media content is governed by media logic rather than political logic, and can be indicated by media interventionism where the journalists are in control of news making. (Esser, 2008, Strömbäck and Dimitrova, 2011, Zeh and Hopmann, 2013). 

The way we use social media today impacts what we read and how we read or listen to news. Consider politics for that matter- Political parties bank on news channels, such as ZEE News or NDTV to get their updates on how the election campaign is going. Unbeknownst to many, both of these news outlets are on opposite sides of the political spectrum. If you tune into Zee News, you will get a completely different view of any candidate than you would on NDTV and viseversa. This type of controlling what people read and hear causes a lot of misinterpretation. This is where political reporting in new media comes into, where you not just read what the journalist has to say but also what others think about it and more importantly why they think the way they do. Unlike the traditional media, you don’t hear one side of the story, on new media platforms you can view multitude versions of the same story. With the advent of political reporting via social media and news portals, journalists who act like the watchdogs are now backed up, not only by their organisation, but also by their viewers, readers and followers who make an informed choice. 

At the same time, the new media has initiated trends time and again. exposed how the traditional political reporters undercut the ideal aims of a free democratic press. The watchdog role is now played by the new media which had previously only been performed by trained political journalists who even under the worst of circumstances focused on uncovering the facts surrounding serious political wrongdoings.

Knock knock. Who’s there? Democracy. Democracy who?

Democracy in layman terms is the government of the people, by the people and for the people. Media is being considered as the fourth pillar of democratic society after executive, legislature, and judiciary. One of the crowning glories of the democratic system is the freedom of expression and the space that is provided to views from different sections of the society. The last few years witnessed an enhanced interface between the media and the common man, thanks to social media

The role of Social Networking Sites in Indian politics has risen tremendously in recent years. Different Indian political parties have their websites and some of them also use other social mediums to interact with people. With every party having its website and leaders being active on different media it makes the citizens feel that they are within their reach. It feels like the leaders are a touch away. Mr. Shashi Tharoor of Congress Party was one of the first politicians to start tweeting and has a separate fan base for his tweets now. Through social media, politicians now constantly display their message through endless campaigns, see direct responses to their actions via Facebook or Twitter, and connect with the public. One of the most recent example is Bharatiya Janata Party’s ‘Main Bhi Chowkidar’ campaign with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and other BJP leaders, where an auto-generated response was sent to all those who tweeted to the PM, giving the illusion that they were contributing to something large.

It is important to note that political engagement through social media is not limited to adults, but young potential voters increasingly use social media for online political participation. Especially younger people are using social networking platforms such as Twitter to develop an individualised form of activism that they connect to most. Unlike Mainstream media where narratives are indirectly controlled, influenced and favoured by the business houses and political parties that are funding the channel, Social media is comparatively a less regulated space.

Ravish Kumar on his Prime Time show on NDTV urged everyone to stop watching television back in March 2019. Why would someone who earns his living through mainstream television media tell you to do that? This shows how grave the situation was and still is. Public issues have disappeared from the channels, when Indian states were reeling under floods, the channels were still flooded by anti- Pakistan narratives, tukde-tukde gang narratives and the never-ending glorification of the honourable PM. Is TRP more important than highlighting important issues? Is selling news more important than upholding the fourth pillar? If we see the current media scenario then the answer to the latter question seems too easy.

Wouldn’t you agree if I said that the watchdog, or in other words the press and the media have a significant influence on society? Then is it fair to have corporate houses and political parties with vested interests invest in the media?

India News is owned by Karthikeya Sharma, son of a Congress leader. News 24 is controlled by Rajeev Shukla, a Congress leader and his wife Anuradha Prasad who is the sister of BJP leader, Ravi Shankar Prasad. Times Group is owned by Bennet & Coleman. The Italian, Robertio Mindo who has a share in the group is a close relative of Sonia Gandhi. CNN- News 18 is owned by Mukesh Ambani. Republic TV is owned by ARG Outlier Media Pvt Ltd and one of its biggest investors is Rajeev Chandrasekhar, a BJP leader- These are just a few examples out of the many news channels.

Editors are pulled up for putting their opinion, journalists are asked to toe the line, and media houses align themselves with different political ideologies and the interests of the owners and sponsors. Is it really possible to have a free and a fair media with this direct hold?

‘Freedom of the press is not just important to democracy, it is democracy.’

Walter Cronkite

India is the world’s largest democracy, and the media mustn’t be controlled by any political party, big corporate houses or any other sector. The Press and the media is the voice of the voiceless and should promote the rights of not just the majority but also the minority; it is the duty of the press of any country to ensure that the government is functioning properly and no section of the society is left behind.

Sources-

  1. Role of media in Indian democracy https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/203650/11/11_chapter5.pdf
  2. https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/critic-inside-ravish-kumar-speaks-tnm-state-indian-journalism-109378
  3. Participatory Politics: New Media and Youth Political Action- University of Chicago
  4. Who owns your media?- https://www.newslaundry.com/2014/02/05/who-owns-your-media-4https://cablequest.org/index.php/news/channels-owned-by-polticians