Ecosystems

An Ecosystem is a geographic area where plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as weather and landscapes, work together to form a bubble of life. Ecosystems are dynamic entities—they are subject to periodic disturbances and are always in the process of recovering from some past disturbance. The tendency of an ecosystem to remain close to its equilibrium state, despite that disturbance, is termed its resistance. The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedback is termed its ecological resilience. Ecosystems can be studied through a variety of approaches—theoretical studies, studies monitoring specific ecosystems over long periods of time, those that look at differences between ecosystems to elucidate how they work and direct manipulative experimentation. Biomes are general classes or categories of ecosystems. Ecosystems are controlled by external and internal factors. External factors such as climate, parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overall structure of an ecosystem but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem. Internal factors are controlled, for example, by decomposition, root competition, shading, disturbance, succession, and the types of species present. While the resource inputs are generally controlled by external processes, the availability of these resources within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors. Therefore, internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them.

The structure of an ecosystem consists of two major components:

  • Biotic components
  • Abiotic components

Biotic Components – It can be described as any living component that affects another organism or shapes the ecosystem. This includes both animals that consume other organisms within their ecosystem, and the organism that is being consumed. Biotic factors also include human influence, pathogens, and disease outbreaks. Each biotic factor needs a proper amount of energy and nutrition to function healthily.

Biotic components are typically sorted into three main categories:

  • Producers, otherwise known as Autotrophs, convert energy (through the process of photosynthesis) into food.
  • Consumers, otherwise known as Heterotrophs, depend upon producers (and occasionally other consumers) for food.
  • Decomposers, otherwise known as Detritivores, break down chemicals from producers and consumers (usually antibiotic) into simpler form which can be reused.

Abiotic components – This are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems. Abiotic factors and the phenomena associated with them underpin biology as a whole. They effect a plethora of species, in all forms of environmental conditions such as marine or land animals. We humans can make or change abiotic factors in a species’ environment. For instance, fertilizers can effect a snail’s habitat, or the greenhouse gases which humans utilize can change marine pH levels.

Types of Ecosystems

The four types of ecosystems are Terrestrial, Freshwater, Marine, and Artificial ecosystems.

Terrestrial ecosystem – A terrestrial ecosystem is a land-based community of organisms and the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in a given area. Examples of terrestrial ecosystems include the tundra, taigas, temperate deciduous forests, tropical rainforests, grasslands, and deserts.

  • A Forest ecosystem is one that consists of various plants, particularly trees. Because of the abundance of plants that serve as producers, this ecosystem abounds in life. Not only plants but also animals are teeming in a forest. They are also a great source of fruits, wood, They also help maintain the earth’s temperature. They are also a major carbon sink.
  • Grassland ecosystems are typically found in tropical or temperate regions. They are dominated by grasses. As such, the animals commonly found in this type of ecosystem are grazing animals, such as cattle, goats, and deer.
  • Tundra ecosystems are characterized as being treeless and snow-covered. The snow melts briefly in spring and summer, producing shallow ponds. During this time, lichens and flowering plants typically grow. Because of the ice that covers the land in the tundra, this type of ecosystem is important in regulating the earth’s temperature. It also serves as a water reservoir (in the form of ice or frost).
  • Desert ecosystems are the ones occurring in desert habitats. Deserts are typically arid and windy. Some of them contain sand dunes, others, mostly rock. Organisms in the desert are not as diverse as those in forests but they possess adaptations that make them suited to their environment. Plants that are commonly found in the desert are CAM plants, such as cacti. Desert animals include insects, reptiles, and birds.
A Forest EcoSystem
A Grassland Ecosystem
Tundra Ecosystem
Desert Ecosystem

Freshwater ecosystems – Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth’s aquatic ecosystems. They include lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, springs, bogs, and wetlands.They can be contrasted with marine ecosystems, which have a larger salt content.

Freshwater Ecosystem
  • Lentic ecosystem – A lentic ecosystem refers to ecosystems in still waters. Examples include the following: ponds, puddles, and lakes. Lakes, in particular, may form zonation. That is when it becomes very well established that different zones are formed. These zones are as follows: littoral, limnetic, and profundal. The littoral zone is the part that is near the shore. Here, light can penetrate up to the bottom. The limnetic zone is the zone in which light does not completely penetrate through. The part of the limnetic zone that is penetrated by light is the photic zone whereas the zone in which light cannot penetrate through, and therefore is dark, is the benthic zone. The plants and animals vary in these zones. For instance, rooted plants are found in the littoral zone but not in the limnetic zone. Rather, freely-floating plants are the ones commonly seen on the surface of the limnetic zone.
  • Lotic ecosystem – A lotic ecosystem is an aquatic ecosystem characterized by a freshwater habitat that is freely flowing. That is as opposed to the lentic that is nearly stationary. Examples include rivers and streams. Many plants and animals in these ecosystems have adaptations to help them cope with the force and the different conditions that running water brings.

Marine ecosystem – Marine ecosystems are aquatic environments with high levels of dissolved salt. These include the open ocean, the deep-sea ocean, and coastal marine ecosystems, each of which have different physical and biological characteristics. The ocean ecosystems, in particular, are an important source of atmospheric oxygen due to the vast population of autotrophic algae that release oxygen through photosynthesis. Marine ecosystems are regarded as the most abundant type of ecosystem in the world.

Marine Ecosystem

Artificial ecosystem – An artificial ecosystem is not self-sustaining, and the ecosystem would perish without human assistance. For example, a farm is an artificial ecosystem that consists of plants and species outside their natural habitat. Many man-made ecosystems are built for conservation purposes, aesthetics, and for studying biology and ecology.

An Artificial Ecosystem

Ecosystems provides a variety of goods and services upon which people depend. Ecosystem goods include the “tangible, material products” of ecosystem processes such as water, food, fuel, construction material, and medicinal plants. Ecosystem services, on the other hand, are generally “improvements in the condition or location of things of value”. These include things like the maintenance of hydrological cycles, cleaning air and water, the maintenance of oxygen in the atmosphere, crop pollination and even things like beauty, inspiration and opportunities for research.Thus the ecosystems are the integral part of our Earth. They bind the fauna & flora all together in the same environment to co-exist and thus being one dependable to the other. Our purpose is to look after our Mother Earth and therefore to preserve her so that she can be as perennial as forever.

Importance of Exercises in Human Body

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, prevent aging, develop muscles and the cardiovascular system, hone athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improve health, or simply for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and improve well-being as well as mental health. In terms of health benefits, the amount of recommended exercise depends upon the goal, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even doing a small amount of exercise is healthier than doing none.

Classification of Exercises

Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting.

  • The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance.
  • Examples of aerobic exercise include running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, dancing, playing tennis, continuous training, and long distance running.

Aerobic exercise provides the following benefits:

  • Improves muscle strength in the lungs, heart, and whole body.
  • Lowers blood pressure.
  • Improves circulation and blood flow in the muscles.
  • Increases the red blood cell count to enhance oxygen transportation.
  • Reduces the risk of diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
  • Improves life expectancy and symptoms for people with coronary artery diseases.
  • Stimulates bone growth and reduces the risk of osteoporosis when at high intensity.
  • Improves sleep hygiene.
  • Enhances stamina by increasing the body’s ability to store energy molecules, such as fats and carbohydrates, within muscle.

Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and increase muscle mass, as well as improve bone density, balance, and coordination.

  • Examples of strength exercises are push-ups, pull-ups, lunges, squats, bench press.
  • Anaerobic exercise also includes weight training, functional training, eccentric training, interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training which increase short-term muscle strength.

Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles.

  • Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber.
  • The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury.

Benefits of Regular Exercising

  1. Exercise has been shown to improve your mood and decrease feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress. It produces changes in the parts of the brain that regulate stress and anxiety. It can also increase brain sensitivity for the hormones serotonin and norepinephrine, which relieve feelings of depression Additionally, exercise can increase the production of endorphins, which are known to help produce positive feelings and reduce the perception of pain. Furthermore, exercise has been shown to reduce stress and improve symptoms of anxiety.
  2. Your body spends energy in three ways: Digesting food, Exercising, Maintaining body functions like your heartbeat and breathing. While dieting, a reduced calorie intake will lower your metabolic rate, which can delay weight loss. On the contrary, regular exercise has been shown to increase your metabolic rate, which can burn more calories to help you lose weight. Additionally, studies have shown that combining aerobic exercise with resistance training can maximize fat loss and muscle mass maintenance, which is essential for keeping the weight off.
  3. Exercise plays a vital role in building and maintaining strong muscles and bones. Activities like weightlifting can stimulate muscle building when paired with adequate protein intake. This is because exercise helps release hormones that promote the ability of your muscles to absorb amino acids. This helps them grow and reduces their breakdown.
  4. Exercise can be a real energy booster for many people, including those with various medical conditions. One older study found that 6 weeks of regular exercise reduced feelings of fatigue for 36 people who had reported persistent fatigue. Furthermore, exercise can significantly increase energy levels for people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and other serious illnesses.
  5. Your skin can be affected by the amount of oxidative stress in your body. Oxidative stress occurs when the body’s antioxidant defenses cannot completely repair the cell damage caused by compounds known as free radicals. This can damage the structure of the cells and negatively impact your skin.

Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macro-nutrients while providing ample micro-nutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise. Active recovery is recommended after participating in physical exercise because it removes lactate from the blood more quickly than inactive recovery. Removing lactate from circulation allows for an easy decline in body temperature, which can also benefit the immune system, as an individual may be vulnerable to minor illnesses if the body temperature drops too abruptly after physical exercise. Exercise has an effect on appetite, but whether it increases or decreases appetite varies from individual to individual, and is affected by the intensity and duration of the exercise. Thus, Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute to maintaining a healthy weight, regulating the digestive system, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system that will lead to the increase of life expectancy and the overall quality of life.

Poverty

The state of being extremely poor is known as poverty. The most widely held and understood definition of absolute poverty measures poverty strictly in economic terms earning less than 142 Rupees a day. Poverty can have diverse social, economic, and political causes and effects. Social forces, such as a gender, disability or race or ethnicity, can exacerbate issues of poverty with women, children and minorities frequently bearing unequal burdens of poverty. Moreover, impoverished individuals are more vulnerable to the effects of other social issues, such as the environmental effects of industry or the impacts of climate change or other natural disasters or extreme weather events. Poverty can also make other social problems worse, economic pressures on impoverished communities frequently play a part in deforestation, biodiversity loss and ethnic conflicts.

Poverty Impacts children, families and individuals in a variety of different ways through:

  1. High infant mortality
  2. Malnutrition
  3. Child labour
  4. Lack of education
  5. Child marriage

The High Infant Mortality Rate – Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births.

  • Causes of infant mortality directly lead to the death.
  • Environmental and social barriers prevent access to basic medical resources and thus contribute to an increasing infant mortality rate; 99% of infant deaths occur in developing countries, and 86% of these deaths are due to infections, premature births, complications during delivery, and perinatal asphyxia and birth injuries.
  • Greatest percentage reduction of infant mortality occurs in countries that already have low rates of infant mortality.
  • Common causes are preventable with low-cost measures. Pneumonia, malaria and diarrheal diseases as well as chronic malnutrition are the most frequent causes of death.

Malnutrition – Malnutrition occurs when the body doesn’t get enough nutrients. Causes include a poor diet, digestive conditions or another disease. Symptoms are fatigue, dizziness and weight loss. Untreated malnutrition can cause physical or mental disability.

  • The term malnutrition covers two broad groups of conditions. One is ‘under-nutrition’ which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiency (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer).
  • Malnutrition affects people in every country. Around 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight, while 462 million are underweight. An estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years are overweight or obese, while some 159 million are stunted and 50 million are wasted.
  • Adding to this burden are the 528 million or 29% of women of reproductive age around the world affected by anaemia, for which approximately half would be amenable to iron supplementation.
  • Many families cannot afford or access enough nutritious foods like fresh fruit and vegetables, legumes, meat, and milk, while foods and drinks high in fat, sugar, and salt are cheaper and more readily available, leading to a rapid rise in the number of children and adults who are overweight and obese, in poor as well as rich countries.
Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2020

Child labour – Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.

  • For impoverished households, income from a child’s work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household. Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 and 40% of the household income.
  • Roughly 160 million children were subjected to child labour at the beginning of 2020, with 9 million additional children at risk due to the impact of COVID-19.
  • Child labour compounds social inequality and discrimination, and robs girls and boys of their childhood.
  • Unlike activities that help children develop, such as contributing to light housework or taking on a job during school holidays, child labour limits access to education and harms a child’s physical, mental and social growth.
  • Especially for girls, the “triple burden” of school, work and household chores heightens their risk of falling behind, making them even more vulnerable to poverty and exclusion.

Lack of Education – Children living in poverty face many barriers to accessing an education.

  • Increasing access to education can improve the overall health and longevity of a society, grow economies, and even combat climate change.
  • Yet in many developing countries, children’s access to education can be limited by numerous factors. Language barriers, gender roles, and reliance on child labor can all stall progress to provide quality education.
  • The world’s most vulnerable children from disadvantaged communities are more likely to miss out on school. This includes young girls and children with disabilities.
  • A child cannot learn without the right environment.
  • When girls don’t have access to safe toilets, they are often harassed or attacked when looking for a private place to go. Girls also miss or drop out of school when they begin menstruating if they don’t have the sanitation facilities or sanitary products to manage their periods with pride and dignity.
  • Students with disabilities have lower attendance rates and are more likely to be out of school or leave school before completing primary education. They are suspended or expelled at a rate more than double the rate of their non-special education peers.
  • The impact of hunger on education systems is gravely under-reported. Being severely malnourished, to the point it impacts on brain development, can be the same as losing four grades of schooling. It is estimated that around 155 million children under the age of five are estimated to be stunted.

Child marriage – A patriarchal mind-set is one of the main reasons for most child marriages in India: young girls, and women in general are perceived to be natural homemakers. Their lives are to be limited within the four walls, as they are unqualified to protect themselves from the dangerous world outside. They need not be educated, nor employed, as they are born to serve and care for the men in the family. The lack of basic awareness about family planning and budgeting, we have a blazing cause for the shocking rates of child marriages in the country. The married girls grow up illiterate and unskilled to earn their own livelihood, leading to a continuation of poverty.

World population living in extreme poverty, 1990-2015

“Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom.”

Hydrology

Hydrology is a branch of Earth Science. The importance of hydrology in the assessment, development, utilisation and management of the water resources, of any region is being increasingly realised at all levels. It was in view of this that the United Nations proclaimed the period of 1965-1974 as the International Hydrological Decade during which, intensive efforts in hydrologic education research, development of analytical techniques and collection of hydrological information on a global basis, were promoted in Universities, Research Institutions, and Government Organisations.

WORLD’S WATER RESOURCES

The World’s total water resources are estimated at 1.36 × 108 Μ ha-m. Of these global water resources, about 97.2% is salt water mainly in oceans, and only 2.8% is available as fresh water at any time on the planet earth. Out of this 2.8% of fresh water, about 2.2% is available as surface water and 0.6% as ground water. Even out of this 2.2% of surface water, 2.15% is fresh water in glaciers and icecaps and only of the order of 0.01% is available in lakes and streams, the remaining 0.04% being in other forms. Out of 0.6% of stored ground water, only about 0.25% can be economically extracted with the present drilling technology (the remaining being at greater depths).

WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA

The important rivers of India and their approximate water potentials are given below:

  1. West flowing rivers like Narmada and Tapti – 30.55 (M ha-m)
  2. East flowing rivers like Mahanadi, – Godavari, (M ha-m)
  3. Krishna, Cauvery and Pennar – 35.56 (M ha-m)
  4. The Ganges and its tributaries – 55.01 (M ha-m)
  5. Indus and its tributaries – 7.95 (M ha-m)
  6. The River Brahmaputra – 59.07 (M ha-m)

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Hydrologic cycle is the water transfer cycle, which occurs continuously in nature; the three important phases of the hydrologic cycle are: (a) Evaporation and evapotranspiration (b) precipitation and (c) runoff. The globe has one-third land and two-thirds ocean. Evaporation from the surfaces of ponds, lakes, reservoirs. ocean surfaces, etc. and transpiration from surface vegetation i.e., from plant leaves of cropped land and forests, etc. take place. These vapours rise to the sky and are condensed at higher altitudes by condensation nuclei and form clouds, resulting in droplet growth. The clouds melt and sometimes burst resulting in precipitation of different forms like rain, snow, hail, sleet, mist, dew and frost. A part of this precipitation flows over the land called runoff and part in-filters into the soil which builds up the ground water table. The surface runoff joins the streams and the
water is stored in reservoirs. A portion of surface runoff and ground water flows back to ocean. Again evaporation starts from the surfaces of lakes, reservoirs and ocean, and the cycle repeats.

FORMS OF PRECIPITATION

  1. Drizzle — a light steady rain in fine drops (0.5 mm) and intensity (<1 mm/hr) Rain the condensed water vapour of the atmosphere falling in drops (>0.5 mm, maximum size—6 mm) from the clouds.
  2. Glaze — Freezing of drizzle or rain when they come in contact with cold objects.
  3. Sleet — Frozen rain drops while falling through air at subfreezing temperature.
  4. Snow — Ice crystals resulting from sublimation (i.e., water vapour condenses to ice)
  5. Snow flakes — Ice crystals fused together.
  6. Hail — Small lumps of ice (>5 mm in diameter) formed by alternate freezing and melting, when they are carried up and down in highly turbulent air currents.
  7. Dew — Moisture condensed from the atmosphere in small drops upon cool
    surfaces.
  8. Frost — A feathery deposit of ice formed on the ground or on the surface of exposed objects by dew or water vapour that has frozen.
  9. Fog — A thin cloud of varying size formed at the surface of the earth by condensation of atmospheric vapour.
  10. Mist — Avery thin fog.

SCOPE OF HYDROLOGY

The study of hydrology helps us to know;

  • The maximum probable flood that may occur at a given site and its frequency; this is required for the safe design of drains and culverts, dams and reservoirs, channels and other flood control structures.
  • The water yield from a basin—its occurrence, quantity and frequency, etc; this is necessary for the design of dams, municipal water supply, water power, river navigation, etc.
  • The ground water development for which a knowledge of the hydro-geology of the area, i.e., of the formation soil, recharge facilities like streams and reservoirs, rainfall pattern, climate, cropping pattern, etc. are required.
  • The maximum intensity of storm and its frequency for the design of a drainage project in the area.

A hydrologist is often posed with lack of adequate data. The basic hydrological data required are:

  • Climatological Data.
  • Hydro meteorological data like temperature, wind velocity, humidity, etc.
  • Precipitation records and Stream-flow records.
  • Seasonal fluctuation of ground water table and evaporation data.
  • Cropping pattern, crops and their consumptive use water quality data of surface streams and ground water
  • Geomorphologic studies of the basin, like area, shape and slope of the basin, mean and median elevation, mean temperature (as well as highest and lowest temperature recorded) and other physiographic characteristics of the basin; stream density and drainage density; tanks and reservoirs

Hydro-meteorological characteristics of basin:

  • Depth-area-duration (DAD) curves for critical storms.
  • Isohyetal maps—Isohyets may be drawn for long-term average, annual and monthly precipitation for individual years and months.
  • Cropping pattern crops and their seasons.
  • Daily, monthly and annual evaporation from water surfaces in the basin.
  • Water balance studies of the basin
  • Soil conservation and methods of flood control

Hydrology means the science of water. It is the science of the water that deals with the occurrence , circulation and distribution of water of the earth and earth’s atmosphere. As a branch of earth science, it is concerned with the water in the streams and lakes, rainfall and snow fall, snow and ice on the land and water occurring below the earth’s surface in the pores of rocks ans soils.

Fish-Culture

The artificial reproduction, rearing and transplantation of fish is called pisciculture. It is also called fish farming. The term pisciculture is specific to aqua farming or the raising of fish inside of tanks or in house ponds. Pisciculture is a form of aquaculture as aquaculture is the scientific rearing and management of all aquatic animals. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species’ natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Global demand is increasing for dietary fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries, resulting in significant decrease in fish stocks and even complete depletion in some regions. Fish farming allows establishment of artificial fish colonies that are provided with sufficient feeding, protection from natural predators and competitive threats, access to veterinarian service, and easier harvesting when needed, while being separate from and thus do not usually impact the sustainable yields of wild fish populations.

Aquaculture vs Pisciculture

Intensive Aquaculture

An intensive fish farming system is the well-managed form of fish farming, in which all attempts are made to achieve maximum production of fish from a minimum quantity of water.

  • This system involves small ponds/tanks/raceways with very high stocking density (10-50 fish/m3 of water).
  • Although intensive aquaculture is completely mechanized and self-contained it can have a detrimental impact on the environment.
  • The biggest problem caused by intensive aquaculture is the difficulty in properly dealing with the nutrient rich effluent.
  • Effluent contains high levels of both organic and inorganic nutrients like ammonia, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus.
  • If not disposed of correctly the effluent could cause a number of problems including eutrophication, and hypernutrification
  • Ingenious solutions have been developed to reduce the negative effects to the environmental caused by this effluent. The most effective solution is the advent of aquaponics.
Aquaculture fish farming of salmon and mackerel in the Chilean fjords about 6 km south from Castro, on March 16, 2019. Fish pens and crew scow can be moved.

Aquaponics is the combination of Intensive aquaculture (fish farming) and hydroponics (growing plants without soil). Aquaponic systems use the nutrient rich effluent from fish tanks as fertilizers for produce. The advent of aquaponics has made the aquaculture industry into a sustainable and Eco-friendly business.

Extensive Aquaculture

Extensive aquaculture is the other form of fish farming. It is more basic than intensive aquaculture in that less effort is put into the husbandry of the fish.

  • Extensive aquaculture is done in the ocean, natural and man-made lakes, bays, rivers, and Fiords.
  • Fish are contained within these habitats by multiple mesh enclosures which also function as trapping nets during harvest.
  • Since fish are susceptible to the elements, site placement is essential to ensuring rapid growth of the targeted species.
  • The drawback of these facilities is that they depend on the surrounding area for good water quality in order to reduce mortality and increase the survivorship and growth rate of the fish.
  • Fish chosen for extensive aquaculture are very hardy and often do well in high densities.Seaweed, prawns, muscles, carp, talapia, tuna and salmon are the most prominent forms of extensive aquacultured seafood .

Extensive Aquaculture – Drawbacks

Extensive aquaculture facilities have negative impacts on the environment as well. Natural habitats are destroyed in the development of man made ponds used for extensive aquaculture. In the Philippines, shrimp aquaculture is responsible for the destruction of thousands of acres of mangrove fields which serve as nurseries and living habitats for many marine organisms. Benthic habitats are being depleted due to the high amount of organic waste produced by the fish which settles below their pens. Phytoplankton and algae breakdown fecal matter and residual fish meal reducing the amount of available oxygen in the water column,which chokes and kills the Benthic organisms. Another serious problem acquainted with extensive aquaculture is the introduction of invasive species into ecosystems. Escaped fish increase the competition between organisms for limited resources. Also, when foreign fish interbreed with wild species, they upset the genetic variability of the species, making them more prone to disease and infection. The high density of fish in these mesh tanks is very tempting for predators of the sea and air. To protect the harvest from predators protective netting is set up at a high cost. Often times predatorial fish and mammals like seals, sharks, and tuna get caught in these barrier nets and die. Some farmers protect their stocks from predatorial birds such as pelicans and albatross by shooting these sometimes endangered creatures.

Pisciculture Complex, outside Rio Branco, Brazil

Today, only industrialized nations have the funds to invest in intensive aquaculture. Mass produced aquacultured fish has lowered the wholesale price of fish, thus drawing customers away from the already poor fishermen. Today, the only form of aquaculture available to small time fishermen is in the form of grow out pens for juvenile fish. Research is being done to create more complex and affordable forms of extensive aquaculture for subsistence fishermen in order to increase their standard of living, and more importantly, act as an incentive to protect endangered species.

World capture fisheries and aquaculture production by production mode, from FAO’s Statistical Yearbook 2020

National Unity Day – 31st October

National Unity Day is celebrated in India on 31 October. It was introduced by the Government of India in 2014. The day is celebrated to mark the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel who had a major role in the political integration of India.

Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31st October 1875 – 15th December 1950), endeared as Sardar, was an Indian statesman. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1950. He was an Indian barrister and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress who played a leading role in the country’s struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. He was one of the conservative members of the Indian National Congress. In India and elsewhere, he was often called Sardar, meaning “chief” in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. He acted as Home Minister during the political integration of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.

As the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel organised relief efforts for partition refugees fleeing to Punjab and Delhi from Pakistan and worked to restore peace. He led the task of forging a united India, successfully integrating into the newly independent nation those British colonial provinces that formed the Dominion of India. Besides those provinces that had been under direct British rule, approximately 565 self-governing princely states had been released from British suzerainty by the Indian Independence Act of 1947. Patel persuaded almost every princely state to accede to India.

  • His commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet “Iron Man of India”.
  • He is also remembered as the “Patron saint of India’s civil servants” for having established the modern All India Services system.
  • He is also called the “Unifier of India”.

Father of All India Services

He was also instrumental in the creation of the All India Services which he described as the country’s “Steel Frame”. In his address to the probationers of these services, he asked them to be guided by the spirit of service in day-to-day administration. He reminded them that the ICS was no-longer neither Imperial, nor civil, nor imbued with any spirit of service after Independence. His exhortation to the probationers to maintain utmost impartiality and incorruptibility of administration is as relevant today as it was then. “A civil servant cannot afford to, and must not, take part in politics. Nor must he involve himself in communal wrangles. To depart from the path of rectitude in either of these respects is to debase public service and to lower its dignity,” he had cautioned them on 21 April 1947. He, more than anyone else in post-independence India, realized the crucial role that civil services play in administering a country, in not merely maintaining law and order, but running the institutions that provide the binding cement to a society.The present-day all-India administrative services owe their origin to the man’s sagacity and thus he is regarded as Father of modern All India Services.

There is no alternative to this administrative system… The Union will go, you will not have a united India if you do not have good All-India Service which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has sense of security that you will standby your work… If you do not adopt this course, then do not follow the present Constitution. Substitute something else… these people are the instrument. Remove them and I see nothing but a picture of chaos all over the country.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

In his twilight years, Patel was honoured by members of Parliament. He was awarded honorary doctorates of law by Nagpur University, the University of Allahabad and Banaras Hindu University in November 1948, subsequently receiving honorary doctorates from Osmania University in February 1949 and from Punjab University in March 1949. Previously, Patel had been featured on the cover page of the January 1947 issue of Time magazine.

After suffering a massive heart attack (his second), Patel died on 15 December 1950 at Birla House in Bombay. In an unprecedented and unrepeated gesture, on the day after his death more than 1,500 officers of India’s civil and police services congregated to mourn at Patel’s residence in Delhi and pledged “complete loyalty and unremitting zeal” in India’s service. In homage to Patel, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru declared a week of national mourning. Patel’s cremation was planned at Girgaum Chowpatty, but this was changed to Sonapur (now Marine Lines) when his daughter conveyed that it was his wish to be cremated like a common man in the same place as his wife and brother were earlier cremated. His cremation in Sonapur in Bombay was attended by a crowd of one million including Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajagopalachari and President Rajendra Prasad.

Statue of Unity

The Statue of Unity is a colossal statue of Indian statesman and Independence activist Vallabhbhai Patel. Patel was highly respected for his leadership in uniting 562 princely states of India with a major part of the former British Raj to form the single Union of India. The Statue of Unity is the world’s tallest statue, with a height of 182 metres (597 feet). It is located in the state of Gujarat, India, on the Narmada River in the Kevadiya colony, facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the city of Vadodara and 150 kilometres (93 mi) from the city of Surat. Kevadia railway station is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the statue. The project was first announced in 2010, and construction of the statue started in October 2013 by Indian company Larsen & Toubro, with a total construction cost of 2700 crore (27 billion; US$422 million). It was designed by Indian sculptor Ram V. Sutar and was inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October 2018, the 143rd anniversary of Patel’s birth.

Patel was a selfless leader, who placed the country’s interests above everything else and shaped India’s destiny with single-minded devotion. The invaluable contribution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in building a modern and unified India needs to be remembered by every Indian as the country marches ahead as one of the largest economies in the world. His enduring fame rests on his achievement of the peaceful integration of the princely Indian states into the Indian Union and the Political unification of India.

Agricultural Machinery

Agricultural machinery relates to the mechanical structures and devices used in farming or other agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate. Agricultural machinery and equipment help farmers produce the goods that consumers want and need. Without the proper machinery and equipment, farmers would not be efficient enough to provide the food, clothing, and shelter that we need. Hundreds of years ago, the population was made up of primarily farmers and ranchers. Now, a very small percent of the population is responsible for producing the food and fiber used today. Machinery and equipment allow this to be possible. Because of the high technology with machinery and equipment, in some countries one farmer produces enough food to feed over 100 people.
Using power only from humans or horses would not produce nearly this amount. Machinery and equipment reduce the amount of hard labor needed for farmers to do their work. Jobs are easier and take less time when machinery and equipment are used. Machinery and equipment also help farmers produce larger amounts of higher quality livestock and grain products.

Different types Machinery and Equipments are used in every Sector of the Agricultural Industry. Some of them are in-

  1. Livestock production
  2. Horticulture
  3. Forestry
  4. Crop production

Livestock production

Machinery and equipment can be used to help producers care for and manage their livestock. Milking machines, automated feeding and watering systems, incubators, egg candlers, tractors, computers, and many other types of machinery and equipment can be used by the producer to improve efficiency and quality of products.

AUTOMATED FEEDING SYSTEM
INCUBATOR
MILKING MACHINES
LOADER ( HAULING MANURE)
EGG CANDLER
Automated Watering System

Horticulture

Machinery and equipment are very important in the horticulture industry. Lawnmowers, tillers, sprayers, spreaders, irrigation systems, wood chippers, lawn rollers, leaf blowers, computers, and tractors are all vital pieces of machinery and equipment used by horticulturalists.

Pesticide Sprayer
Lawnmower with Utility Cart
Greenhouse Irrigation System
Wood Chipper
Rotary Tiller
Rotary Spreader

Forestry

The forestry industry relies on machinery and equipment to function. Log trucks, skidders, loaders, cutters, harvesters, chainsaws, computers, and surveying equipment are all necessary for efficient forestry operations.

Log Truck
Harvester
Loader
Skidder
Chainsaw
GRASS CUTTER

Crop production

Without the proper machinery and equipment, large-scale crop production would be impossible. Tilling, planting, applying pesticides and fertilizers, and harvesting all require specialized machinery and equipment. Plows, planters, drills, sprayers, spreaders, combines, balers, computers, tractors, grain trucks, and many other types of machinery and equipment are necessary to produce crops effectively.

PLANTER
FERTILIZER SPREADER
COMBINER
PLOW

Some other Machineries and Equipments used in producing crops are-

  1. Tractor
  2. Tillage equipment
  3. Planting equipment
  4. Application equipment
  5. Harvesting equipment
  6. Global Positioning System
  7. Geographic Information System

Tractor – A tractor is a motorized vehicle that is used to pull heavy loads and to provide power to operate implements. There are two main types of tractors — wheeled and crawler.

  • A wheeled tractor is a tractor that usually has four or more wheels that turn and move the tractor.
  • A crawler tractor is a tractor that has steel or rubber tracks fitted around the wheels that make the tractor move.

Tillage equipment – It is a equipment used to plow or till the soil. It slices, breaks, or cuts the soil in order to prepare the ground, control weeds, or create mulch. The tillage equipment used depends on the type of soil and the crop that is to be grown. Tillage equipment includes plows, harrows, and cultivators.

  • A plow is an implement used to cut, lift, and turn over soil. It is commonly used to prepare the soil for planting. There are various types of plows and the one most commonly used in many countries is the moldboard plow.
  • A harrow is an implement with spikes or disks that is used to cultivate the soil by pulverizing and smoothing it.
  • A cultivator is an implement used to loosen the soil and control weeds between rows of growing crops..

Planting equipment – It is a equipment used to place seeds in the soil for germination. It must be properly adjusted so the right amount of seed is planted at the proper depth in the soil. Planting equipment includes planters and drills.

  • A planter is an implement used to place seeds in the soil at the proper rate, depth, and spacing.
  • A drill is an implement used to plant seeds for germination.

Application equipment – It is a equipment used to apply fertilizer, pesticides, growth regulators, and other materials to crops. It must be properly calibrated and operated so the right amount of material is delivered. The equipment may use dry or liquid materials. Application equipment includes sprayers and dusters.

  • A sprayer is a piece of equipment that uses tanks, pumps, and nozzles to apply liquid materials.
  • A duster is a piece of equipment used to apply dry powder materials..

Harvesting equipment – It is a equipment used to pick, reap, or otherwise gather crops. Different types of crops require different types of equipment. Harvesting equipment includes combines, pickers, balers, and mowers.

  • A combine is a machine used to harvest crops as it moves across a field
  • A picker is a machine used to harvest crops by picking. Cotton is the most common crop harvested with a picker.
  • A mower is a piece of equipment used to cut standing vegetation. Mowers are used to harvest forage crops, such as grass and alfalfa. After mowing, the crop may be left in rows to dry and be picked up by a baler.
  • A baler is a piece of equipment used to harvest forage crops that have been cut, dried, and placed in rows. The baler is pulled behind a tractor and picks the dried vegetation up off the ground.

Global Positioning System (GPS) – It is a system that uses satellites and computers to tell a farmer his or her exact location in a field. The earth is continually circled by 24 GPS satellites. At least four of these satellites are visible from any one point on Earth.
GPS uses three satellites that are connected by an electronic signal with a receiver on the ground. (A fourth satellite is used to verify that the information is accurate.) Distances from satellites to the receiver can be quickly measured. Computers calculate the exact location of the receiver. GPS receivers are generally located on equipment that moves over a field. GPS systems can precisely guide tractors and equipment through a field and program computers to deliver precise amounts of seed, fertilizer, or herbicide to plants in variable amounts.

Geographic Information System (GIS) – It is a system used with GPS to make maps or grids of a field. These maps give a farmer data about soil conditions, crop yield, and other information so he or she can make decisions needed to improve the crops in the field.

Maintenance of Farm Machinery

  1. During the repair of any machinery, appropriate protective clothing should be worn. This includes helmets, goggles, gloves, hearing protection, and safety shoes.
  2. Do not wear baggy clothing, and keep long hair tied back. Loose-fitting clothing and hair can easily catch in rotating machinery parts.
  3. All machinery should be maintained regularly. Any worn or broken parts should be replaced immediately, not fixed in a temporary manner. When repairs are made, the machine should be fixed according to manufacturers’ specifications.
  4. When repairs are made, any guard removed during repair must be replaced before the equipment is used.
  5. Check tire inflation and tread periodically to prevent flats and blowouts.
  6. Whenever preparing to work on a piece of equipment, block wheels to prevent movement. Any jacks used should be stable and in good condition.
  7. Inspect brakes, hitches, safety chains, springs, and shackles regularly for wear, broken or missing parts, and cracks in the welds.
  8. Inspect hydraulic and air lines regularly for wear and cracks. Replace lines that show any sign of damage.
  9. Caution should be taken when working on hydraulic systems. Make sure all pressure in the system is relieved and that the fluid is cool before loosening any fittings or removing lines. Wear leather or rubber gloves.

Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around 13,000 BC onward, predating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilizations such as ancient Egypt, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were being raised on farms. Most livestock are herbivores, except for pigs and chickens which are omnivores. Ruminants like cattle and sheep are adapted to feed on grass; they can forage outdoors, or may be fed entirely or in part on rations richer in energy and protein, such as pelleted cereals. Pigs and poultry cannot digest the cellulose in forage, and require other high-protein foods.

The domestication of livestock was driven by the need to have food on hand when hunting was unproductive. The desirable characteristics of a domestic animal are that it should be useful to the domestication, should be able to thrive in his or her company, should breed freely, and be easy to tend. In ancient Egypt, cattle were the most important livestock, and sheep, goats, and pigs were also kept; poultry including ducks, geese, and pigeons were captured in nets and bred on farms, where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them. In northern Europe, agriculture including animal husbandry went into decline when the Roman empire collapsed. Some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive. The improvements of animal husbandry in the medieval period in Europe went hand in hand with other developments. Improvements to the plough allowed the soil to be tilled to a greater depth. Horses took over from oxen as the main providers of traction, new ideas on crop rotation were developed and the growing of crops for winter fodder gained ground. Peas, beans and vetches became common; they increased soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, allowing more livestock to be kept.

Branches

Dairy Farming – Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for long-term production of milk, which is processed (either on the farm or at a dairy plant, either of which may be called a dairy) for eventual sale of a dairy product. Although any mammal can produce milk, commercial dairy farms are typically one-species enterprises. In developed countries, dairy farms typically consist of high producing dairy cows. Other species used in commercial dairy farming include goats, sheep, water buffaloes, and camels. In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants.

Meat industry – The meat industry are the people and companies engaged in modern industrialized livestock agriculture for the production, packing, preservation and marketing of meat (in contrast to dairy products, wool, etc.). In economics, the meat industry is a fusion of primary (agriculture) and secondary (industry) activity and hard to characterize strictly in terms of either one alone. The greater part of the meat industry is the meat packing industry – the segment that handles the slaughtering, processing, packaging, and distribution of animals such as poultry, cattle, pigs, sheep and other livestock. A great portion of the ever-growing meat branch in the food industry involves intensive animal farming in which livestock are kept almost entirely indoors or in restricted outdoor settings like pens. Many aspects of the raising of animals for meat have become industrialized, even many practices more associated with smaller family farms. The production of livestock is a heavily vertically integrated industry where the majority of supply chain stages are integrated and owned by one company.

Cattle – Cattle, taurine cattle, or European cattle (Bos taurus or Bos primigenius taurus) are large domesticated cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos. Depending on sex, they are referred to as cows (female) or bulls (male). Cattle are commonly raised as livestock for meat (beef or veal, see beef cattle), for milk (see dairy cattle), and for hides, which are used to make leather. They are used as riding animals and draft animals (oxen or bullocks, which pull carts, plows and other implements). Another product of cattle is their dung, which can be used to create manure or fuel.

Sheep farming – Sheep farming or sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep. It is a branch of animal husbandry. Sheep are raised principally for their meat (lamb and mutton), milk (sheep’s milk), and fiber (wool). They also yield sheepskin and parchment. Sheep can be raised in a range of temperate climates, including arid zones near the equator and other torrid zones. Farmers build fences, housing, shearing sheds, and other facilities on their property, such as for water, feed, transport, and pest control. Most farms are managed so sheep can graze pastures, sometimes under the control of a shepherd or sheep dog.

Pig farming – Pig farming or hog farming is the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock, and is a branch of animal husbandry. Pigs are farmed principally for food (e.g. pork, bacon, gammon) and skins. Pigs are amenable to many different styles of farming: intensive commercial units, commercial free range enterprises, or extensive farming (being allowed to wander around a village, town or city, or tethered in a simple shelter or kept in a pen outside the owner’s house). Historically, farm pigs were kept in small numbers and were closely associated with the residence of the owner, or in the same village or town.They were valued as a source of meat and fat, and for their ability to convert inedible food into meat and manure, and were often fed household food waste when kept on a homestead. Pigs have been farmed to dispose of municipal garbage on a large scale. All these forms of pig farm are in use today, though intensive farms are by far the most popular, due to their potential to raise a large amount of pigs in a very cost-efficient manner. In developed nations, commercial farms house thousands of pigs in climate-controlled buildings. Pigs are a popular form of livestock, with more than one billion pigs butchered each year worldwide, 100 million of them in the USA. The majority of pigs are used for human food but also supply skin, fat and other materials for use as clothing, ingredients for processed foods, cosmetics, and medical use.

Cuniculture – Cuniculture is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising domestic rabbits as livestock for their meat, fur, or wool. Cuniculture is also employed by rabbit fanciers and hobbyists in the development and betterment of rabbit breeds and the exhibition of those efforts. Scientists practice cuniculture in the use and management of rabbits as model organisms in research. Cuniculture has been practiced all over the world since at least the 5th century.

Poultry farming – Poultry farming is the form of animal husbandry which raises domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese to produce meat or eggs for food. It has originated from the agricultural era. Poultry – mostly chickens – are farmed in great numbers. More than 60 billion chickens are killed for consumption annually. Chickens raised for eggs are known as layers, while chickens raised for meat are called broilers.

Aquaculture – Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture , also known as aquafarming, is the controlled cultivation (“farming”) of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, algae and other organisms of value such as aquatic plants (e.g. lotus). Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled or semi-natural conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture, commonly known as marine farming, refers specifically to aquaculture practiced in seawater habitats, opposed to in freshwater aquaculture.

Beekeeping – Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus Apis, but other honey-producing bees such as Melipona stingless bees are also kept. A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produce (including beeswax, propolis, flower pollen, bee pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or “bee yard”.

Insect farming – Insect farming is the practice of raising and breeding insects as livestock, also referred to as minilivestock or micro stock. Insects may be farmed for the commodities they produce (like silk, honey, lac or insect tea), or for them themselves; to be used as food, as feed, as a dye, and otherwise.

Sericulture – Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk. Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx mori (the caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth) is the most widely used and intensively studied silkworm. Silk was believed to have first been produced in China as early as the Neolithic Period. Sericulture has become an important cottage industry in countries such as Brazil, China, France, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, and Russia. Today, China and India are the two main producers, with more than 60% of the world’s annual production.

Environmental Impact

Animal husbandry has a significant impact on the world environment. Being a part of the animal–industrial complex, animal agriculture is the primary driver of climate change, ocean acidification, biodiversity loss, and of the crossing of almost every other planetary boundary, in addition to killing more than 60 billion non-human land animals annually. It is responsible for somewhere between 20 and 33% of the fresh water usage in the world, and livestock, and the production of feed for them, occupy about a third of the earth’s ice-free land. Livestock production is a contributing factor in species extinction, desertification, and habitat destruction. Since the 18th century, people have become increasingly concerned about the welfare of farm animals. Possible measures of welfare include longevity, behavior, physiology, reproduction, freedom from disease, and freedom from immunosuppression. Standards and laws for animal welfare have been created worldwide, broadly in line with the most widely held position in the western world, a form of utilitarianism: that it is morally acceptable for humans to use non-human animals, provided that no unnecessary suffering is caused, and that the benefits to humans outweigh the costs to the livestock. An opposing view is that animals have rights, should not be regarded as property, are not necessary to use, and should never be used by humans.

Study of Tractors – Mostly Used Farm Machine

DESCRIPTION OF A TRACTOR

Tractor, an engineering vehicle, was specially designed to provide a high torque or tractive effort within the low speed, to haul machinery or trailer used in construction or agriculture. The tractor is a special farm machine that helps a wide array of agricultural equipment to complete many roles assign on the farm. Tractors are important tools for farmers in another world we can say that modern farm is incomplete without a tractor. Tractor helps the farmers to cut down extra costs for resources, which is the main purpose to use tractors by farmers. Farm tractor technology helped push up yields and producers get the rewards of higher fuel efficiency.

HISTORY OF TRACTOR ENGINES

The word “TRACTOR” is derived from Latin word “TRAHERE” or “TRACT” which means something that pulls. The first powered farm implements in the early 19th century were portable engines – steam engines on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machinery by way of a flexible belt. Richard Trevithick designed the first ‘semi-portable’ stationary steam engine for agricultural use, known as a “barn engine” in 1812, and it was used to drive a corn threshing machine. The truly portable engine was invented in 1893 by William Tux ford of Boston, Lincolnshire who started manufacture of an engine built around a locomotive-style boiler with horizontal smoke tubes. In the 1850s, John Fowler used a Clayton & Shuttle worth portable engine to drive apparatus in the first public demonstrations of the application of cable haulage to cultivation.

“1882 Harrison Machine Works steam-powered traction engine”

CLASSIFICATIONS OF TRACTOR ENGINES

  1. Utility Tractors
  2. Row Crop Tractors
  3. Orchard Type Tractors
  4. Industrial Tractors
  5. Garden Tractors
  6. Rotary Tillers
  7. Implement Carrier
  8. Earth Moving Tractors

Utility Tractors – A low- to medium-horsepower tractor; used primarily for pulling auxiliary equipment, but also used in construction with attachments for trenching, dozing, breaking, etc.

Row Crop Tractors – A general-purpose or row-crop tractor is tailored specifically to the growing of crops grown in rows, and most especially to cultivating these crops. These tractors are universal machines, capable of both primary tillage and cultivation of a crop.

Orchard Type Tractors – The orchard tractor is a type of tractor that is used in vineries and orchards. These tractors are built to navigate and manoeuvre in small areas or fields These are a special type of tractor used in orchards only. They are usually very high and tall so that the user can sit on the tractor and still pick the fruits or trim the trees. Outside of the surface of the tractor, it is clear, which means that you can get in and around all of the trees without a hassle. Best of all, they can be used in various types of orchards, regardless of what you’ve planted there, whether it is fruit trees or grapes.

Rotary Tillers – These are “walking type” tractors and are usually used in smaller fields and those that are at different height levels. These are places where ordinary equipment often doesn’t work efficiently, yet rotary tillers are small enough to get into small spaces and over hills with ease. A rotary tiller is essentially a motorized cultivator that works by the rotation of blades or tines in order to work the soil. It takes the soil, even hard, chunky soil, and creates a fine, clod-free bed of soil. After you use this equipment to “till” the soil, your garden bed is ready to be planted with any type of seeds you wish to plant.

Industrial tractors – Industrial tractors were once called Tuggers, and they are used to pull loads. In fact, most industrial tractors are not even made for agricultural use, but instead, they are used in factories while pulling things. They come in various models and horsepower strengths.

Garden tractors – Garden tractors tend to have a very small construction size. They are used more for grass-cutting tasks than anything else, or for creating new flower beds in your garden. Garden tractors have wheels that are roughly the size of a scooter’s wheels but are much thicker.

Earth-moving tractors – Earth-moving tractors have to be quite strong and extremely heavy, and they come in both tire and track types. If you’re working on a construction site, including work on dams and quarries, an earth-moving tractor can be a lifesaver.
They move earth to dig holes for basements and new construction, in addition to numerous other tasks, and even though they are expensive they are always built to last. They are used to move and relocate things such as dirt, debris, rocks, mud, or even lumber.

Implement Carrier Tractors – These types of tractors are meant to carry and mount many different types of implements, the chassis frame between the front and rear tires is extended. Therefore, they are able to mount implements that include drills, sprayers, seed drills, rotary sweepers, loaders, and dusters, among others. They come in many different sizes and designs, and the companies that sell them can provide you with the information that you need to make sure that you get the right one.

COMPONENTS OF A TRACTOR

A tractor is made of following main units:

  1. Clutch
  2. Transmission Gears
  3. Differential Unit and Final Drive
  4. Steering System and Brake Steering System
  5. Hydraulic Control System
  6. Hitch and Control Board of Tractor
  7. Power Take-Off Unit
  8. Belt Pulley
  9. Control Board or Dash Board of a Tractor
  10. Tractor Tyre and Front Axle.

Component 1 – Clutch: Clutch is a device, used to connect and disconnect the tractor engine from the transmission gears and drive wheels.

Component 2 -Transmission Gears: A tractor engine runs at high speed, but the rear wheel of the tractor requires power at low speed and high torque. & Torque Converter: This is also called hydro-kinetic transmission. It is a device used on tractors for transmission of power and for multiplying the torque of the engine. It works as a torque multiplier.

Component 3 – Differential Unit: It is a special arrangement of gears to permit one of the rear wheels of the tractor to rotate slower or faster than the other. While turning the tractor on a curved path, the inner wheel has to travel lesser distance than the outer wheel & Final Drive: It is a gear reduction unit in the power trains between the Differential and the Drive wheels. Final drive transmits the power finally to the rear axle and the wheels.

Component 4 – Steering System: The system governing the angular movement of front wheels of a tractor is called Steering system. This system minimizes the efforts of the operator in turning the front wheel with the application of leverages. & Brake: Brake is used to stop or slow down the motion of a tractor.

Component 5 – Hydraulic Control System: It is a mechanism in a tractor to raise, hold or lower the mounted or semi-mounted equipments by hydraulic means. All tractors are equipped with hydraulic control system for operating three point hitch of the tractor.

Component 6 – Hitch: Implements are needed to be hitched properly for efficient and safe operation of the tractor. Implements can be: 1. Trailed 2. Semi-mounted and 3. Mounted.

Component 7 – Power Take-Off Unit (PTO): It is a part of tractor transmission system. It consists of a shaft, a shield and a cover.

Component 8 – Belt Pulley: All tractors are provided with a belt pulley. The function of the pulley is to transmit power from the tractor to stationary machinery by means of a belt. It is used to operate thresher, centrifugal pumps, silage cutter and several other machines

Component 9 – Control Board or Dash Board of a Tractor:

The control board of a tractor generally consists of:

  • Main Switch: When the main switch is on, the electric current flows in the electrical circuit.
  • Throttle Lever: This lever is for increasing or decreasing the speed of the engine.
  • Decompression Lever: This lever releases compression pressure from the combustion chamber of the engine and helps to start the engine.
  • Hour Meter: This meter indicates the engine hour as well as engine revolution per minute.
  • Light Switch: Light switch is for light points only.
  • Horn Hutton: This is for horn of the tractor
  • Battery Charging Indicator: This indicates the charge and discharge of the battery.
  • Oil Pressure Indicator: This indicates the lubricating oil pressure in the system.
  • Water Temperature Gauge: This indicates the temperature of water of the cooling system.

Component 10 – Tractor Tyre: The tyres are available in many sizes with the ply ratings as 4, 6 or 8. The ply rating of tyres indicates the comparative strength of tyres. The higher the rating, the stronger are the tyres. The inflation pressure in the rear wheels of the tractor varies between 0.8 to 1.5 kg/cm . The inflation pressure of the front wheel varies from 1.5 to 2.5kg/cm &
Front Axle: Front axle is the unit on which front wheel is mounted. This wheel is an idler wheel by which tractor is steered in various directions.

APPLICATION OF TRACTORS

Farm tractor designs and styles differ greatly. Tractors are often used on a daily basis for the several agricultural and non agricultural tasks by attaching or operating the light, medium to heavy implements, equipments and machineries according to the requirement and HP of tractors.

The major application of farm tractors for Agricultural and Non Agricultural sectors are given below :-

AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES

Preparing the field by attaching different implements, equipments and machinery for tilling, disking, harrowing, levelling and forming of beds, bunds, furrow & ridges.

Application of organic manure in line or rows by attaching a trailer and organic manure applicator.

Spraying of pesticides in field crops and tress by operating different types of sprayers.

Pumping the ground, canal, river, open well, pond or stored water by operating pumps.

Crushing of sugarcane by operating sugarcane crusher

NON-AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES

Removing the snow by attaching snow blower and grader.

Generating electricity by operating the Alternator/Generator.

Using for defence & airport applications to tow baggage.

Powering of building and road construction equipments.

Breaking of rock with tractor mounted pneumatic compressors.

CONCLUSION

A tractor can act as a best friend to a farmer. In a country like India where farming and agriculture is the leading occupation of the people, a tractor plays a vital role in the life of a farmer. It can deliver several advantages to the farmers and make the task of farming easier. As an efficient machine, it helps the farmer to comprehensively carry out the various works related to the farming. Therefore, with a tractor, you as a farmer in India can expect good profits in the case of farming.

World Mental Health Day

The World Health Organisation recognizes World Mental Health Day on 10 October every year. October 10, 1992 was the first time the World Mental Health Day was observed in over 150+ countries. It was the Deputy Secretary General Richard Hunter whose relentless efforts led to the observance. The day used to be celebrated to educate, and remove the general problems arising from mental illness until 1993. It was only in 1994, that the event began to follow a theme-based approach. For the first time in that year, the event was commemorated on the theme of ‘Improving the Quality of Mental Health Services throughout the World’. It was suggested by the Secretary General Eugene .

Importance of World Mental Health Day

The day is important in the medical world as it aims at improving the mental health issues of people by using various medications and counselling and other important services. In many parts of the world, the preparation for this day is done beforehand and some countries even hold workshops and courses that run for a week or sometimes months. Moreover, this day allows people to speak up about mental health in general and breaks the stigma of society. It is important to know that anyone can face mental issues, but the right diagnosis and counselling can yield positive results in a short period of time.

What is Mental Health?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source:

“Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”

  • People sometimes use the term “mental health” to mean the absence of a mental disorder.
  • Mental health can affect daily living, relationships, and physical health. However, this link also works in the other direction.
  • Factors in people’s lives, interpersonal connections, and physical factors can all contribute to mental health disruptions. Looking after mental health can preserve a person’s ability to enjoy life.
  • Doing this involves reaching a balance between life activities, responsibilities, and efforts to achieve psychological resilience.
  • Conditions such as stress, depression, and anxiety can all affect mental health and disrupt a person’s routine. Although the term mental health is in common use, many conditions that doctors recognize as psychological disorders have physical roots.
  • The WHO stress that mental health is “more than just the absence of mental disorders or disabilities.” Peak mental health is about not only avoiding active conditions but also looking after ongoing wellness and happiness.
  • They also emphasize that preserving and restoring mental health is crucial on an individual basis, as well as throughout different communities and societies the world over.

Common Mental Health Disorders

Anxiety disorders – According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, Anxiety Disorders are the most common type of mental illness. People with these conditions have severe fear or anxiety, which relates to certain objects or situations. Most people with an anxiety disorder will try to avoid exposure to whatever triggers their anxiety.

Panic disorders – People with a panic disorder experience regular panic attacks, which involve sudden, overwhelming terror or a sense of imminent disaster and death.

Phobias – A phobia is a persistent, excessive, unrealistic fear of an object, person, animal, activity or situation. It is a type of anxiety disorder. A person with a phobia either tries to avoid the thing that triggers the fear, or endures it with great anxiety and distress.

There are Different types of Phobia:

  • Simple phobias: These might involve a disproportionate fear of specific objects, scenarios, or animals. A fear of spiders is a common example.
  • Social phobia: Sometimes known as social anxiety, this is a fear of being subject to the judgment of others. People with social phobia often restrict their exposure to social environments.
  • Agoraphobia: This term refers to a fear of situations in which getting away may be difficult, such as being in an elevator or moving train. Many people misunderstand this phobia as a fear of being outside.

Phobias are deeply personal, and doctors do not know every type. There could be thousands of phobias, and what might seem unusual to one person may be a severe problem that dominates daily life for another.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – People with OCD have obsessions and compulsions. In other words, they experience constant, stressful thoughts and a powerful urge to perform repetitive acts, such as hand washing.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – PTSD can occur after a person experiences or witnesses a deeply stressful or traumatic event. During this type of event, the person thinks that their life or other people’s lives are in danger. They may feel afraid or that they have no control over what is happening. These sensations of trauma and fear may then contribute to PTSD.

Mood disorders – People may also refer to mood disorders as affective disorders or depressive disorders. People with these conditions have significant changes in mood, generally involving either mania, which is a period of high energy and elation, or depression.

Examples of mood disorders include:

  • Major depression: An individual with major depression experiences a constant low mood and loses interest in activities and events that they previously enjoyed. They can feel prolonged periods of sadness or extreme sadness.
  • Bipolar disorder: A person with bipolar disorder experiences unusual changes.Trusted Source in their mood, energy levels, levels of activity, and ability to continue with daily life. Periods of high mood are known as manic phases, while depressive phases bring on low mood.
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – Reduced daylight triggers during the fall, winter, and early spring months trigger this type of major depression . It is most common in countries far from the equator.

Schizophrenia Disorders – Mental health authorities are still trying to determine whether schizophrenia is a single disorder or a group of related illnesses. It is a highly complex condition. Signs of schizophrenia typically develop between the ages of 16 and 30 years. The individual will have thoughts that appear fragmented, and they may also find it hard to process information. Schizophrenia has negative and positive symptoms. Positive symptoms include delusions, thought disorders, and hallucinations. Negative symptoms include withdrawal, lack of motivation, and a flat or inappropriate mood.

Mental Health Promotion and Protection

An environment that respects and protects basic civil, political, socio-economic and cultural rights is fundamental to mental health. Without the security and freedom provided by these rights, it is difficult to maintain a high level of mental health.

Specific ways to promote mental health include:

  • Early childhood interventions (e.g. providing a stable environment that is sensitive to children’s health and nutritional needs, with protection from threats, opportunities for early learning, and interactions that are responsive, emotionally supportive and developmentally stimulating).
  • Support to children (e.g. life skills programmes, child and youth development programmes); Socio-economic empowerment of women (e.g. improving access to education and microcredit schemes).
  • Social support for elderly populations (e.g. befriending initiatives, community and day centers for the aged); Programmes targeted at vulnerable people, including minorities, indigenous people, migrants and people affected by conflicts and disasters (e.g. psycho-social interventions after disasters).
  • Mental health promotional activities in schools (e.g. programmes involving supportive ecological changes in schools). Mental Health interventions at work (e.g. stress prevention programmes). Housing policies (e.g. housing improvement) Violence prevention programmes (e.g. reducing availability of alcohol and access to arms).
  • Community development programmes (e.g. integrated rural development). Poverty reduction and social protection for the poor.

Early Signs

  • Withdrawing from friends, family, and colleagues.
  • Avoiding activities that they would normally enjoy.
  • Sleeping too much or too little.
  • Eating too much or too little.
  • Feeling hopeless.
  • Having consistently low energy.
  • Using mood-altering substances, including alcohol and nicotine, more frequently.
  • Displaying negative emotions.
  • Being confused.
  • Being unable to complete daily tasks, such as getting to work or cooking a meal.
  • Having persistent thoughts or memories that reappear regularly.
  • Thinking of causing physical harm to themselves or others.
  • Hearing voices.
  • Experiencing delusions.

Treatment

In the context of national efforts to develop and implement mental health policy, It is vital to not only protect and promote the mental well-being of its citizens, but also address the needs of persons with defined mental disorders. Knowledge of what to do about the escalating burden of mental disorders has improved substantially over the past decade. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating both the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of key interventions for priority mental disorders in countries at different levels of economic development.

Examples of interventions that are cost-effective, feasible, and affordable include:

  • Treatment of depression with psychological treatment and, for moderate to severe cases, antidepressant medicines.
  • Treatment of psychosis with anti-psychotic medicines and psychosocial support.
  • Taxation of alcoholic beverages and restriction of their availability and marketing.
  • A range of effective measures also exists for the prevention of suicide, prevention and treatment of mental disorders in children, prevention and treatment of dementia, and treatment of substance-use disorders.
  • The mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) has produced evidence based guidance for non-specialists to enable them to better identify and manage a range of priority mental health conditions.

Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Life

Three hundred million years before human first stood upright, reptiles known as dinosaurs ruled supreme. Some evolved to become the largest land animals ever to walk on Earth. Other were savage predators. The dinosaurs reign ended about 65 million years ago, probably when a asteroid smashed into the earth and caused them to extinct. In the period that followed, mammals were the dominant species, evolving to produce some amazing creatures, including, eventually us.

The Beginning of life

The Beginning Life on earth began about 3,5600 million years ago. When Earth first formed, it was too hot for life to exist. The first living things were bacteria, which developed in deep-sea springs or muddy pools near volcanoes after the earth had cooled. The bacteria took their energy from chemicals in eater, and slowly developed into more complex life forms, a process known as evolution. Many new living things began to develop by 3,000 million years ago, after some early life forms found a way of getting energy from sunlight and using it to make food. This process is called photosynthesis. During Photosynthesis, Plants release the gas oxygen. The first animals probably looked a little like tiny tadpoles, They lived in the shallow seas that covered earth about 1,200 million years ago and thrived on the new supplies of oxygen in the atmosphere. Slowly, these tiny animals grew together in clusters and developed into the first sponges.

Stromatolites are layers of blue-green algae and rocks. These algae were among the earliest living things to make food by photosynthesis.

Giant Forest and Insects

Plants began to grow on land around 475 million years ago. These plants lived in swamps and on the muddy shores of rivers. They probably had a waxy coating to stop the salty waters and the sun from drying them out. Plant gradually developed roots to reach water underground. They soon spread beyond the shores and began to the land green. Early plants were able to grow so big because of the climate long ago. In many places the air was damp , rather like it in tropical jungles today. As plants crowded together, they grew taller and taller as they competed for the light. Plants in the great early forests included huge horsetails, club mosses and ferns up to 50 meters tall, That is as high as 10 double Decker buses stacked on top of each other. The first insects were probably the bristle tails, which were the size of the a large prawn.. they had no wings and scurried about the ancient swamps on little legs, They used their bristles to sense movements in the air that warned them a predator was about. They had claws on their mouth-parts that they used to feed on plants and waste.

Bristletails
These ferns were common in the Carboniferous and Permian periods between 300 and 270 million years ago. While they had fern-like leaves, they produced seeds rather than spores. This 300 million year old fern is in an ironstone concretion. Photographed at the State Museum, Pennsylvania, USA.
Fossil dragonfly. A fossilized dragonfly preserved in rock. Fossilization occurs when an organism is buried and its body structures are slowly replaced by minerals, leaving an impression in the rock. Dragonflies are large carnivorous insects which catch other insects in mid-flight. Insects made their first appearance in geological history in the Devonian period, between 395 and 345 million years ago. This dragonfly lived in the Upper Jurassic period, 140 million years ago. The fossil comes from Kimmeridge, Solnhofen, Germany.
This giant swampy forest is from about 300 million years ago.

Rise of the Reptiles

The first reptile was probably Hylonomus, which lived 315 million years ago. Hylonomus was 20 centimetres long and looked rather like a modern lizard. Reptiles like these evolved from a group of amphibian-like tetrapods that laid their eggs on land. Inside the eggs,the young fed on yolks,which made them strong and more likely to survive. Reptiles soon became the dominant species on land. Some early reptiles lived permanently in water. The plesiosaurs had large paddle-like legs for moving through the water and long necks for reaching out to catch fish. Ichthyosaurs looked more like large, toothy dolphins. they were swimming in the oceans at the same time as dinosaurs were living on the land.

Hylonomus used its small sharp teeth to eat millipedes and early insects.
The group of reptiles known as Pareiasaurs had plates of bony Armour over their bodies. They lived about 260 million years ago. One type of pareiasaurs was Scutosurus which means “shield lizard.”
Dimentrodon’s spiny sail probably helped it to warm up and cool down.
Ichthyosaurs were sleek, fast-swimming reptiles.

Dawn of the Dinosaurs

The first dinosaurs developed from other reptiles from other reptiles about 230 million years ago. At this time, the world looked very different. There were no birds or mammals, and, although there were ferns and trees, there were no grasses or flowering plants. Vast areas were desert, Dinosaurs dominated the world for 150 million years. Dinosaurs lived on land. Some reptiles did live live in the sea, including Plesiosaurus, which was not related to dinosaurs. This large carnivorous animal had along neck and sharp teeth to catch fish. Other reptiles, such as the Pterosaurs, could fly. They had wings made of skin, similar to those of bats. Some dinosaurs might have hunted in packs, working together in order to catch and bring down larger dinosaurs. Their are several theories about why dinosaurs died out about 65 million years ago. The main one is that a giant asteroid crashed into earth around this time. The impact would have created dust, fires, tsunamis, (giant waves) and volcanic eruptions that caused a huge change in planet”s climate. it seems likely that the wold became freezing cold, and the dinosaurs simply could not survive in the icy conditions.

Brachiosaurus was one of the largest sauropods-gigantic, slow-moving plant eaters. Sauropods included some of the biggest land animals of all time.
Compsognathus, which means “pretty Jaw” lived about 150 million years ago and was only about a metre long.
Plesiosaurus lived in the sea and could grow upto to 12 meter long.
Stegosaurus used its spiked tail for defense and beaked mouth to bite off plants to eat.
Gallimimus was upto 6 meters long and about 3.5 meters tall.
Argentinosaurus grew to over 35 meters long. Even so, it was prey to Giganotosaurus.
Giganotosaurs
Tyrannosaurus Rex’s teeth could be up to 30 centimetres long.
Triceratops used its horns for defense.

Early Birds

Scientists believe that birds developed from dinosaurs. They have discovered the fossil remains of feathered dinosaurs that many people believe are descended from dinosaurs. Archaeopteryx is the oldest known bird in the world. It flew in ancient skies about 150 million years ago. It was a meat – eating bird about the size of a cow that probably flew fairly short distances at a time. It had feathers like bird, but it also had teeth and clawed hand rather like a dinosaur.

A fossil of an Archaeopteryx
The largest of the prehistoric birds was Aepyornis, also called the Elephant bird.

The Rise of Mammals

The 1st mammals developed almost 200 million years ago. During the time of the dinosaurs, mammals were small, furry creatures. They looked rather like the rats and shrews of today, and they ate insects. They scurried around at night and probably lived in holes underground to hide from dinosaurs. After the dinosaurs died out, many new kind of mammals slowly developed.

The 1st mammal was probably Megazostrodon, a small rat like animal.

From Apes to Humans

Primates are a group of mammals that includes apes, monkeys and humans. The 1st primates lived on earth about 50 million years ago, but they looked rather like squirrels. Over million of years, different kinds of primates evolved. Between 20 and 10 million years ago, giant apes were common in Africa. The Neanderthals were an ancient human species that lived in Europe and Asia from about 300,000 to 30,000 years ago, when they became extinct. Long ago, there were other human species, but all of these died out. One was Homo erectus, perhaps our earliest human ancestor. Homo erectus first appeared almost 2 million years ago and died out 100,000 years ago. The 1st people depended on wild plants and animals for food. They used sharp sticks to spear animals or knock them from trees. Their uses of tools and their ability to work together were two of the things that made early humans so successful. Around 5,000 years ago, people began to write and read. This was the end of the prehistoric period because started to write down their history.

Genetic Disorders

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities formed in the genome. Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Genetic disorders may be hereditary, meaning that they are passed down from the parents’ genes. In other genetic disorders, defects may be caused by new mutations or changes to the DNA. In such cases, the defect will only be passed down if it occurs in the germ-line.

Gene related disorders Autosomal dominant disorders

Autosomal Dominant – A pattern of inheritance in which an affected individual has one copy of a mutant gene and one normal gene on a pair of autosomal chromosomes. (In contrast, autosomal recessive diseases require that the individual have two copies of the mutant gene.)

Types:-

Chondrodystropic dwarfism– A congenital dwarfism in which the disturbed development of the cartilage of the long bones arrests the growth of long bones, resulting in extremely shortened extremities. People with chondrodystrophy have a normal-sized trunk and abnormally short limbs and extremities (dwarfism). Those affected with the disorder often call themselves dwarfs, little people or short-statured persons. Over 100 specific skeletal dysplasias have been identified. Chondrodystrophy is found in all races and in both females and male and occurs in around one of every 25,000 children.

Myotonic muscular dystrophy– Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a form of muscular dystrophy that affects muscles and many other organs in the body. The term “muscular dystrophy” means progressive muscle degeneration, with weakness and shrinkage of the muscle tissue. DM is divided into two types;

  • Type 1 DM (DM1), long known as Steinert disease, occurs when a gene on chromosome 19 called DMPK contains an abnormally expanded section located close to the regulation region of another gene, SIX5.
  • Type 2 DM (DM2), recognized in 1994 as a milder version of DM1, is caused by an abnormally expanded section in a gene on chromosome 3 called ZNF9. DM2 was originally called PROMM, for proximal myotonic myopathy, a term that has remained in use but is somewhat less common than the term DM2.

Huntington’s disease– An inherited condition in which nerve cells in the brain break down over time.It typically starts in a person’s 30s or 40s. Usually, Huntington’s disease results in progressive movement, thinking (cognitive) and psychiatric symptoms.No cure exists, but drugs, physiotherapy and talk therapy can help manage some symptoms.

Neurofibromatosis– A condition that causes tumors to form in the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Neurofibromatosis is usually non-cancerous. There are three types of this condition.

  • Type 1 usually appears in childhood, while Types 2 and 3 appear in early adulthood.
  • Type 1 can cause bone deformities, learning disabilities and high blood pressure.
  • Type 2 can cause hearing loss, vision loss and difficulty with balance.
  • Type 3 can cause chronic pain throughout the body.
  • Some cases may not require treatment other than careful observation. Other cases may require chemotherapy, radiation therapy or surgery.

Hypercholesterolemia– High amounts of cholesterol in the blood. High cholesterol can limit blood flow, increasing the risk of a heart attack or stroke. It’s detected by a blood test. High cholesterol has no symptoms. Treatments include medication, a healthy diet and exercise.

Retinoblastoma- An eye cancer that begins in the back of the eye (retina), most commonly in children. It may occur in one or both eyes. It has few, if any, symptoms at first. It may be noticed if a pupil appears white when light is shone into the eye, sometimes with flash photography. Eyes may appear to be looking in different directions. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation and laser therapy.

Autosomal recessive disorders – To have an autosomal recessive disorder, you inherit two mutated genes, one from each parent. These disorders are usually passed on by two carriers. Their health is rarely affected, but they have one mutated gene (recessive gene) and one normal gene (dominant gene) for the condition.

Types:

Cystic Fibrosis – An inherited life-threatening disorder that damages the lungs and digestive system.It affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. It causes these fluids to become thick and sticky. They then plug up tubes, ducts and passageways. Symptoms vary and can include cough, repeated lung infections, inability to gain weight and fatty stools.
Treatments may ease symptoms and reduce complications. Newborn screening helps with early diagnosis.

Sickle cell disease – A group of disorders that cause red blood cells to become misshapen and break down. With sickle cell disease, an inherited group of disorders, red blood cells contort into a sickle shape. The cells die early, leaving a shortage of healthy red blood cells (sickle cell anaemia) and can block blood flow causing pain (sickle cell crisis). Infections, pain and fatigue are symptoms of sickle cell disease.Treatments include medication, blood transfusions and rarely a bone-marrow transplant.

Thalassaemia – A blood disorder involving lower-than-normal amounts of an oxygen-carrying protein. Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by less oxygen-carrying protein (haemoglobin) and fewer red blood cells in the body than normal.
Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, paleness and slow growth. Mild forms may not need treatment. Severe forms may require blood transfusions or a donor stem-cell transplant.

Alkaptonuria (black urine disease) – Alkaptonuria, or “black urine disease”, is a very rare inherited disorder that prevents the body fully breaking down two protein building blocks (amino acids) called tyrosine and phenylalanine. It results in a build-up of a chemical called homogentisic acid in the body.

Phenylketonuria – A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body. Newborns should be screened for PKU. Untreated phenylketonuria can lead to brain damage, intellectual disabilities, behavioral symptoms or seizures. Treatment includes a strict diet with limited protein.

Albinism – Albinism is a rare group of genetic disorders that cause the skin, hair, or eyes to have little or no color. Albinism is also associated with vision problems. According to the National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation, about 1 in 18,000 to 20,000 people in the United States have a form of albinism.

Tay-Sachs Disease – A rare, inherited disorder that destroys nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Tay-Sachs disease is typically found in people with certain ancestry, such as Eastern European Jews. A fatty substance in the brain destroys nerve cells. Symptoms of slowed development usually appear around six months of age. Symptoms progress until they lead to death, often around age four. There is no cure for Tay-Sachs disease, but research is ongoing.

Gaucher,s disease – Gaucher disease is an inherited condition (passed down through families). It is a lysosomal storage disorder, a type of disease that causes fatty substances to build up in the bone marrow, liver and spleen. The fatty substances (sphingolipids) weaken bones and enlarge the organs, so they can’t work like they should.

Galactosemia – Galactosemia is a rare, hereditary disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that affects the body’s ability to convert galactose (a sugar contained in milk, including human mother’s milk) to glucose (a different type of sugar).

Sex linked dominant disorders – Sex-linked dominant is a rare way that a trait or disorder can be passed down through families. One abnormal gene on the X chromosome can cause a sex-linked dominant disease.

Types:

Fragile X-syndrome – A genetic condition causing intellectual disability. Fragile X syndrome causes mild to severe intellectual disability. It affects both males and females, but females usually have milder symptoms. Symptoms include delays in talking, anxiety and hyperactive behaviour. Some people have seizures. Physical features might include large ears, a long face, a prominent jaw and forehead and flat feet. Therapy can be used to treat learning disabilities. Medication may be used to treat anxiety and mood disorders.

Vitamin-D resistant rickets – Hypophosphatemic rickets (previously called vitamin D-resistant rickets) is a disorder in which the bones become painfully soft and bend easily, due to low levels of phosphate in the blood. Symptoms usually begin in early childhood and can range in severity

Sex linked recessive disorders

Types:

Haemophilia (Bleeder’s Disease) – Hemophilia is usually an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. This can lead to spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding following injuries or surgery. Blood contains many proteins called clotting factors that can help to stop bleeding.

Red green Colour blindness – Red-green color blindness is the most common type of color deficiency. Also known as deuteranopia, this is most likely a congenital condition, meaning that you’re born with it. If you have this type of color blindness, you may have difficulty seeing different shades of red, green, and yellow.

X linked Ichthyosis (XLI) – X-linked ichthyosis (abbreviated XLI) is a skin condition caused by the hereditary deficiency of the steroid sulfatase (STS) enzyme that affects 1 in 2000 to 1 in 6000 males. XLI manifests with dry, scaly skin and is due to deletions or mutations in the STS gene.

Chromosome disorder – An abnormal condition due to something unusual in an individual’s chromosomes. For example, Down syndrome is a chromosome disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21, and Turner syndrome is most often due to the presence of only a single sex chromosome: one X chromosome.

Autosomal Trisomy in Human beings

Types:-

Down syndrome (trisomy of 21st chromosomes) – A genetic chromosome 21 disorder causing developmental and intellectual delays. Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in extra genetic material from chromosome 21. Down’s syndrome causes a distinct facial appearance, intellectual disability and developmental delays. It may be associated with thyroid or heart disease. Early intervention programmes with a team of therapists and special educators who can treat each child’s specific situation are helpful in managing Down’s syndrome.

Edward Syndrome (trisomy of 18th chromosomes) – A condition that causes severe developmental delays due to an extra chromosome 18. A first-trimester screening that includes a blood test and ultrasound offers early information about a baby’s risk of having it. A second trimester blood test called a quad screen can also detect it. Symptoms include low birth weight, small abnormally shaped head and birth defects in organs that are often life threatening. Edwards’ syndrome has no treatment and is usually fatal before birth or within the first year of life.

Patau syndrome (trisomy of 13th chromosomes) – A condition in which a person has an extra chromosome 13. Prenatal testing can detect Patau syndrome during pregnancy. Patau syndrome causes severe intellectual disability and physical defects. Most infants with this condition don’t live past their first week of life. Treatment varies from child to child and focuses on relieving symptoms and managing complications.

Deletion in Chromosomes – In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication. Any number of nucleotides can be deleted, from a single base to an entire piece of chromosome.

Types:-

Cri-Du-chat Syndrome Cri du chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder due to a partial chromosome deletion on chromosome 5. Its name is a French term (“cat-cry” or “call of the cat”) referring to the characteristic cat-like cry of affected children.

Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome(WHS) – Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a genetic disorder that affects many parts of the body. The major features include a characteristic facial appearance, delayed growth and development, intellectual disability , low muscle tone ( hypotonia ), and seizures.

Translocation in chromosomes – In genetics, chromosome translocation is a phenomenon that results in unusual rearrangement of chromosomes. This includes balanced and unbalanced translocation, with two main types: reciprocal-, and Robertson Ian translocation.

Types:-

Chronic myelogenous Leukemia (CML Ttanslocation between 9th and 22nd chromosomes) – A slowly progressing and uncommon type of blood-cell cancer that begins in the bone marrow. Chronic myeloid leukaemia typically affects older adults. It’s caused by a chromosome mutation that occurs spontaneously. Doctors aren’t sure what causes the mutation.Many people don’t develop symptoms until later stages and the diagnosis is only made through routine blood work. When symptoms do occur, they include bleeding easily, feeling run down or tired, weight loss, pale skin and night sweats. Treatments include targeted drugs, stem-cell transplant, chemotherapy and biological therapy.

Burkitt’s Lymphoma (Translocation between 8th and 14th chromosomes) – Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very fast-growing type of cancer. It is a form of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Signs and symptoms may differ depending on the form of BL and the organs or body systems involved. When it spreads, weakness and fatigue often develop. Lymphoma cells may build up in the lymph nodes and other organs, causing swelling.

Sex chromosomes linked Disorders – It can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. Sex-linked diseases are inherited through one of the sex chromosomes, which are the X and Y chromosomes. Dominant inheritance occurs when an abnormal gene from one parent can cause a disease, even though a matching gene from the other parent is normal.

Types:-

Turner syndrome( X – monosomy = 44+ XO) – A chromosomal disorder in which a female is born with only one X chromosome
Turner syndrome results from a missing or incomplete sex chromosome. Symptoms include short stature, delayed puberty, infertility, heart defects and certain learning disabilities. Treatment involves hormone therapy. Fertility treatment may be necessary for women who want to become pregnant.

Klinefelter Syndrome (extra X- chromosomes along with Y- chromosomes) – Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal condition in boys and men that can affect physical and intellectual development. Most commonly, affected individuals are taller than average are unable to father biological children (infertile); however the signs and symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome vary among boys and men with this condition. In some cases, the features of the condition are so mild that the condition is not diagnosed until puberty or adulthood, and researchers believe that up to 75 percent of affected men and boys are never diagnosed.

Jacobs syndrome ( XYY- with Extra Y- chromosomes) – Males with XYY syndrome have 47 chromosomes because of the extra Y chromosome. This condition is also sometimes called Jacob’s syndrome, XYY karyotype, or YY syndrome. According to the National Institutes of Health, XYY syndrome occurs in 1 out of every 1,000 boys.

Poly X females or Triplo X (with Extra X- chromosomes) – An abnormality resulting in an extra X chromosome in some females.Triple X syndrome is usually caused by malformation of an egg or sperm cell or by an error early in embryo development.
Many women have few or no symptoms. In most cases, no treatment is required. Those who experience developmental delays and learning disabilities may require intervention, such as counselling.

Diagnosis

Due to the wide range of genetic disorders that are known, diagnosis is widely varied and dependent of the disorder. The basic aspects of a genetic disorder rests on the inheritance of genetic material. With an in depth family history, it is possible to anticipate possible disorders in children which direct medical professionals to specific tests depending on the disorder and allow parents the chance to prepare for potential lifestyle changes, anticipate the possibility of stillbirth, or contemplate termination Prenatal diagnosis can detect the presence of characteristic abnormalities in foetal development through ultrasound, or detect the presence of characteristic substances via invasive procedures which involve inserting probes or needles into the uterus such as in amniocentesis.

Prognosis

Not all genetic disorders directly result in death; however, there are no known cures for genetic disorders. Many genetic disorders affect stages of development, such as Down syndrome, while others result in purely physical symptoms such as muscular dystrophy. Other disorders, such as Huntington’s disease, show no signs until adulthood. During the active time of a genetic disorder, patients mostly rely on maintaining or slowing the degradation of quality of life and maintain patient autonomy. This includes physical therapy, pain management, and may include a selection of alternative medicine programs.

Treatment

The treatment of genetic disorders is an ongoing battle with over 1800 gene therapy clinical trials having been completed, are ongoing, or have been approved worldwide. Despite this, most treatment options revolve around treating the symptoms of the disorders in an attempt to improve patient quality of life. Gene therapy refers to a form of treatment where a healthy gene is introduced to a patient. This should alleviate the defect caused by a faulty gene or slow the progression of disease. A major obstacle has been the delivery of genes to the appropriate cell, tissue, and organ affected by the disorder. How does one introduce a gene into the potentially trillions of cells which carry the defective copy? This question has been the roadblock between understanding the genetic disorder and correcting the genetic disorder.

Conclusion

Genetic disorders are a topic in biology that cannot be avoided. The fact is that genetic disorders can happen in humans, plants or animal. No one and nothing is safe from a genetic disorder. A genetic disorder can appear in the first years off life, or can appear much later in life when least expected. A basic principal of biology states that the behaviour of chromosomes during the meiosis process can account for genetic inheritance patterns.

Interesting Physiological Facts

The Body of man is made up of many tissues and organs. They number in millions. The cells are organised uniquely and function dynamically together. Their complexities can be better understood when it is closely scanned. Here are some bits of information that are quite interesting.

  1. The stomach takes 20 minutes to tell the brain that is is full and that one should stop eating.
  2. The thickness of the skin varies from 1/2 to 6 mm, depending on the area of your body.
  3. The four taste zones on your tongue are bitter (back), sour (back sides), salty (front sides), and sweet (front)
  4. One uses 14 muscles to smile and 43 to frown.
  5. It takes the interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.
  6. The strongest muscle of the body is the masseter muscle, which is located in the jaw.
  7. The small intestine is about 750 cm long.
  8. The large intestine is 150 cm long and 3 times wider than the small intestine.
  9. Most people shed 20 kg of skin in their lifetime.
  10. When you sneeze, air rushes through your nose at the rate of 156 kmph.
  11. An eye lash lives about 150 days before it falls out.
  12. Our brain sends messages at the rate of 375 kmph.
  13. About 5-6 litres of blood is filtered by 2 million nephrons 37 times a day.
  14. Each of our eyes has 120 M rods, which helps us to see in black & white.
  15. Each eye has 6 M cones, which helps us to see colour.
  16. We blink our eyes about 20,000 times a day.
  17. Our heart beats about 100,000 times day.
  18. Placed end-to-end all our body”s blood vessels would measure about 90,000 kms.
  19. The average human brain has about 100 billion nerve cells.
  20. The thyroid cartilage is more commonly known as the Adam’s Apple.
  21. It is impossible to sneeze with open eyes.
  22. When you sneeze, all your bodily functions stop even your heart.
  23. Babies are born without knee cap. They don’t appear till they are 2-6 years of age.
  24. Children grow faster in spring season.
  25. Women blink twice as much as men.
  26. If one is blind in one eye, he/she only loses about 1/5 vision and the sense of depth.
  27. Our eyes are always the same size from the birth, but our nose and years never stop growing.
  28. The length of the finger shows how fast the fingernail grows. the nail on the middle finger grows fastest. On an average our toenails grow twice as slow as our fingernails.
  29. Hair is made of the same substance as fingernails.
  30. The nose can remember 50,000 scents.
  31. A finger nail takes 6 months to grow from base to tip.
  32. The energy used by the brain is enough to light a 25 watt bulb.
  33. The heart produces enough pressure to squirt blood 900 cm.
  34. We get a new stomach lining every 3-4 days. If we didn’t,the strong acids our stomach uses to digest foods would also digest our stomach.
  35. A pair of feet has 500,000 sweat glands.
  36. Each square inch of human skin consists of 600 cm of blood vessels.
  37. The liver is the only major organ in the human body that can regenerate itself if part of it is removed.

Things to know about Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer affects a life-sustaining system of the body, the respiratory system. It is one of the commonest malignancies in the world. Lung Cancer develops when normal lungs cells sustain genetic damage that eventually leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation. like all cancers, lung cancers cells have the ability to invade neighboring tissues and spread or metastasize to distant parts of the body. Left untreated, lung cancer eventually causes death.

With increasing prevalence of smoking, lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in India. While there are more cases of lung cancer diagnosed in men, the numbers of woman being diagnosed has increased. Lung cancer is rarely diagnosed in younger than 40, but incidence rises steeply thereafter peaking in people aged 75-84 years. Most cases occur in people over the age of 60.

The lungs are highly vascularized organs, meaning they have many blood vessels running through them. This vascularization is needed for the quick exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that takes place with each breath. Among people with lung cancer, these blood vessels provide many convenient routes for lung cancer cells to travel to other pats of the body. Most cancer cells that enter the bloodstream die. However, if lung cancer cells survive and begin to grow in a site distant from the lungs, they produce metastatic tumors. Lung Cancer tends to spread or metastasize very early; therefore it is a very life threatening cancer and one of the most difficult cancers to treat. While lung cancer can spread to any organ in the body, certain organs – particularly the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone – are the most common sites for lung cancer metastasis.

The lung also is a very common site for metastasis from tumors in other parts of the body. Tumor metastasis are made up of the same types of the cells as the original (primary) tumor. For Example- If Lung cancers can arise in any part of the lung, but 90%-95% of cancers of the lung are thought to arise from the epithelial-cells, the cells lining the larger and the smaller airways (bronchi & bronchioles); for this reasons, lung cancers are sometime called bronchogenic cancers. Lung cancer development is a multi-factorial process. The majority of lung cancers occur in people who are either current or former smokers. While the relationship between smoking and lung cancer is well established, other factors also come to play

There are two main types of lung cancer- non-small-cell (NSCLS) and small-cell (SCLC), which develop and are treated in different ways. .

.

Environment Issues

Earth is the only planet in the solar system with life. It is home to numerous species. It is home to numerous species. but today, our planet is afflicted with environmental issues that are life threatening. Now water, air, and soil is polluted. Because of the increasing population and the irresponsible human behaviour, the environment conditions are becoming worse and perhaps uninhabitable. Some of the major environment problems faced by the world looming large are listed below.

Global Warming & Climate Change

  • “Global warming” refers to the rise in global temperatures due mainly to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  • “Climate change” refers to the increasing changes in the measures of climate over a long period of time – including precipitation, temperature, and wind patterns.
  • Earth’s climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 11,700 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era — and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earth’s orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives.
  • The current warming trend is of particular significance because it is unequivocally the result of human activity since the mid-20th century and proceeding at a rate that is unprecedented over millennia. It is undeniable that human activities have warmed the atmosphere, ocean, and land and that widespread and rapid changes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and biosphere have occurred.
  • The planet’s average surface temperature has risen about 2.12 degrees Fahrenheit (1.18 degrees Celsius) since the late 19th century, a change driven largely by increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and other human activities.4 Most of the warming occurred in the past 40 years, with the seven most recent years being the warmest. The years 2016 and 2020 are tied for the warmest year on record.
  • The ocean has absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 100 meters (about 328 feet) of ocean showing warming of more than 0.6 degrees Fahrenheit (0.33 degrees Celsius) since 1969.6 Earth stores 90% of the extra energy in the ocean.
  • The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. Data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost an average of 279 billion tons of ice per year between 1993 and 2019, while Antarctica lost about 148 billion tons of ice per year.
  • Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world — including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska, and Africa.
  • Satellite observations reveal that the amount of spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased over the past five decades and the snow is melting earlier.
  • Global sea level rose about 8 inches (20 centimeters) in the last century. The rate in the last two decades, however, is nearly double that of the last century and accelerating slightly every year.

Deforestation

  • The clearing or thinning of forests by humans is known as Deforestation.
  • Forests cover 31% of the land area on our planet. They help people thrive and survive by, for example, purifying water and air and providing people with jobs; some 13.2 million people across the world have a job in the forest sector and another 41 million have a job that is related to the sector. Many animals also rely on forests. Eighty percent of the world’s land-based species, such as elephants and rhinos, live in forests.
  • Forests also play a critical role in mitigating climate change because they act as a carbon sink soaking up carbon dioxide that would otherwise be free in the atmosphere and contribute to ongoing changes in climate patterns.
  • But forests around the world are under threat, jeopardizing these benefits. The threats manifest themselves in the form of deforestation and forest degradation.
  • The main cause of deforestation is agriculture (poorly planned infrastructure is emerging as a big threat too) and the main cause of forest degradation is illegal logging. In 2019, the tropics lost close to 30 soccer fields’ worth of trees every single minute.
Illegal deforestation found in the indigenous Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau territory. This area of ​​deforestation was discovered on December 15th 2019 during the first surveillance made by the Uru-eu-wau-wau after the drone course funded by WWF’s Amazon Emergency Appeal. Drones are to be used to monitor deforestation, invasion and land grabbing. The Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau people received drone piloting training in a partnership between Kanindé Ethno-Environmental Defense Association and WWF. From the funds raised from WWF’s Amazon Emergency Appeal WWF donated 14 drones and trained 55 people to operate them during a training course in December 2019 held in Rondônia. The Indigenous Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau territory in Rondônia measures 1,867,117 hectares and is home to the springs of the 17 largest rivers, it is known as “the state water tank”. This Indigenous Land is the most important of Rondônia because of its biodiversity and the economic value of the water available. There are also caves with rock scriptures, endangered animals, flora and fauna that have never been studied. In the history of the Indigenous Land there have been successive invasions by loggers, rubber tappers, farmers, and land grabbers but it suffers in particular from land grabbing and illegal livestock. The invasions intensified from the 1980s and persist to this day. A new wave of invasions has intensified threats to the people of the Uru-eu-wau-wau Indigenous Land since the 2018 election campaign.

Energy Crisis

Our energy sources such as petroleum, biofuel, coal, etc. are ,mostly non-renewable resources. The energy crisis due to the excess usage of these energy sources, are not depleting the sources fast, but are also adding the green the greenhouse gases which in turn are adding to the green house gases which in turn are adding to the global warming condition. So, most countries are looking for alternative energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy, nuclear energy etc, which will be helpful in the future.

Ozone Layer Depletion

  • Ozone layer depletion is the gradual thinning of the earth’s ozone layer in the upper atmosphere caused due to the release of chemical compounds containing gaseous bromine or chlorine from industries or other human activities.
  • This happens when the chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere come in contact with ozone and destroy the ozone molecules. One chlorine can destroy 100,000 molecules of ozone. It is destroyed more quickly than it is created.
  • Some compounds release chlorine and bromine on exposure to high ultraviolet light, which then contributes to the ozone layer depletion. Such compounds are known as Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).
  • The ozone-depleting substances that contain chlorine include chlorofluorocarbon, carbon tetra-chloride, hydro-chlorofluorocarbons, and methyl chloroform. Whereas, the ozone-depleting substances that contain bromine are halons, methyl bromide, and hydro bromofluorocarbons.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are the most abundant ozone-depleting substance. It is only when the chlorine atom reacts with some other molecule, it does not react with ozone.
  • Montreal Protocol was proposed in 1987 to stop the use, production and import of ozone-depleting substances and minimise their concentration in the atmosphere to protect the ozone layer of the earth.
  • If the emission of these gases and other harmful gases are not checked, the ozone layer will disappear very soon. This may expose the living beings to harmful radiations which cause life-threatening diseases like skin cancer.
Forming a Ozone-hole

Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. All these pollution are very harmful and can seriously affect the living being. Air pollution is related to the emission of harmful gases in the earth’s atmosphere causing health problems. Water Pollution on the other hand, is related to the dumping of waste materials in the water which causes harm to the aquatic as well as terrestrial life. Soil pollution is also related to dumping of waste material, fertilizer run-offs, pesticides and in the sol which degrades the soil. Now comes noise pollution, radio waves from mobile towers and mobile phones, smell pollution, which is related to the high frequency sound ways and pungent smell which are harmful for the ears, brains, nose and lungs.

Waste

  • Waste are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use.
  • A by-product by contrast is a joint product of relatively minor economic value. A waste product may become a by-product, joint product or resource through an invention that raises a waste product’s value above zero.
  • Examples include municipal solid waste (household trash/refuse), hazardous waste, wastewater (such as sewage, which contains bodily wastes (feces and urine) and surface runoff), radioactive waste, and others.
  • Inappropriately managed waste can attract rodents and insects, which can harbor gastrointestinal parasites, yellow fever, worms, the plague and other conditions for humans, and exposure to hazardous wastes, particularly when they are burned, can cause various other diseases including cancers.
  • Toxic waste materials can contaminate surface water, groundwater, soil, and air which causes more problems for humans, other species, and ecosystems.
  • Waste treatment and disposal produces significant green house gas (GHG) emissions, notably methane, which are contributing significantly to global warming.
  • As global warming and carbon-dioxide emission increase, soil begins to become a larger carbon sink and will become increasingly volatile for our plant life.
  • Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources.
  • Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of “green house” gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations.
Recycling

Oil Spills

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. It has become a major cause for the extinction of many marine species. The biggest oil spill in the world history was a result of Gulf War and it took place in the Persian Gulf where more than 420 million gallons of oil was spilled by the Iraqi forces just to stop the American soldiers from landing.

Depletion of Resources

  • Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished.
  • Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources . Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion.
  • The value of a resource is a direct result of its availability in nature and the cost of extracting the resource, the more a resource is depleted the more the value of the resource increases.
  • There are several types of resource depletion, the most known being – Aquifer depletion, deforestation, mining for fossil fuels and minerals, pollution or contamination of resources, slash-and-burn agricultural practices, soil erosion, and over consumption, excessive or unnecessary use of resources.

The 1760 industrial revolution saw large-scale mineral and oil exploration and the practice has been gradually growing, leading to more and more natural oil and mineral depletion. And together with the advancements in technology, development, and research in the contemporary era; exploitation of minerals has become easier and humans are digging deeper to access different ore. The increased exploitation of different minerals has led to some of them entering into a production decline.

For example, minerals such as Gasoline, Copper, and Zinc production are estimated to decline in the next 20 years. Plus, oil mining continues to rise due to the upsurge in the number of engines that use petroleum thereby magnifying its depletion. The peak oil theory supports this fact by putting forward that it will come a time when the globe will experience uncertainties on alternative means of fuels owing to the over-harvesting of petroleum.

Overpopulation

The total global population is more than seven billion people. Still, there is a consistent increase in the overall earth populace and this has been a critical factor in accelerating the depletion of natural resources. An increase in the populace expands the need for resources and conditions necessary to sustain it. In addition, It contributes to increased ecological contamination. Research further indicates that developing countries are using more and more resources to industrialize and support their ever-increasing population. Hence, the depletion of natural resources will continue as long as the world population increases.

Nuclear Issues

Nations long to have nuclear weapons. But the fact is, nuclear weapons have become one of the most dangerous environmental issues today. The amount of nuclear weapons we have can destroy the entire earth in a few seconds. There are many disadvantages of nuclear of nuclear power. Water is used to cool the reactors which then mixes up with he other water bodies and by this, it ads to the problem of global warming. The waste which is produced is so dangerous that even a a small amount of nuclear waste can harm, a big area and effect the living beings. The misuse of nuclear power has become a threat to the survival of life on earth.

Nuclear Power Plants

Go Green to Save Earth

In order to save the planet, the only way is to go green. We need to save energy to reduce the energy crisis and to save nature. Switch off all electrical appliances when not in use. Try to avoid non-renewable energy resources and concentrate on renewable energy like solar energy. Save water. preserve rainwater and stop water pollution. Use recycled things. Stop using plastic bags and bottles. Use Eco-friendly things. Control over-population. save trees avoid using paper bags. Plant tress.

Optical Instruments

Optical instruments are the devices which process light wave to enhance an image for more clear view.

Use of optical instruments, such as a magnifying lens or any complicated device like microscope or telescope usually makes things bigger and helps us to see in a more detailed manner. The use of converging lenses makes things appear larger and on the other hand, diverging lenses always gets you smaller images. While using a converging lens, it’s important to remember that, if an object is at a larger distance then the image is diminished and will be very nearer to the focal point. While the object keeps on moving in the direction of the lens, the image moves beyond the focal point and enlarges. When object is placed at 2F, which is two times the focal distance from the lens, the image and object becomes of the same size. When the object moves from 2F towards the focal point (F), it’s image keeps moving out of the lens and enlarges till it goes to infinity when the object reaches the focal point, F. As the object moves closer to the lens, the image moves in the direction of the lens from negative infinity and gets smaller when the object gets closer to lens.

Image enhancement

The first optical instruments were telescopes used for magnification of distant images, and microscopes used for magnifying very tiny images. Since the days of Galileo and Van Leeuwenhoek, these instruments have been greatly improved and extended into other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. he binocular device is a generally compact instrument for both eyes designed for mobile use. A camera could be considered a type of optical instrument, with the pinhole camera and camera obscura being very simple examples of such devices.

Another class of Optical Instrument is used to analyze the properties of light or optical materials. They include:

  • Interferometer for measuring the interference properties of light waves.
  • Photometer for measuring light intensity.
  • Polarimeter for measuring dispersion or rotation of polarized light.
  • Reflectometer for measuring the reflectivity of a surface or object.
  • Refractometer for measuring refractive index of various materials, invented by Ernst Abbe.
  • Spectrometer or monochromator for generating or measuring a portion of the optical spectrum, for the purpose of chemical or material analysis.
  • Autocollimator which is used to measure angular deflections.
  • Vertometer which is used to determine refractive power of lenses such as glasses, contact lenses and magnifier lens.
  • DNA sequencers can be considered optical instruments as they analyse the color and intensity of the light emitted by a fluorochrome attached to a specific nucleotide of a DNA strand.

Applications of Optical Instruments

Multiple Lenses – There are many devices like telescopes and microscopes which uses multiple lenses to create images. Analyzing any system having multiple lenses shows that it works in stages where each lens forms an image of the object. The original object will work as the object for the first lens and creates an image. This new image will be the object for the second lens and so on..

Microscope

A microscope has two converging lens. This is because it is easier to get higher magnification with two lenses rather than just one. Use of one lens can magnify 5 times more and using a second will magnify 7 times, and you will get an overall magnification of 35 which is not possible in one lens. It’s an easy procedure than to get magnification by a factor of 35 with a single lens. A ray diagram of microscope arrangement is given below. Here you can see the image is the object for the second lens and the image formed by the second lens is the image that you would see when you looked through the microscope.

Types of Microscopes

Simple Microscope

A simple microscope is an optical instrument, we use for the magnification of small objects to get a clear image or vision. It is a convex lens having a short focal length. This microscope is at a small distance from the object for the magnification and hence this forms a virtual image. The simple microscope enables us to view very small letters and figures

Compound Microscope

With a compound microscope, we get very large values of magnification. We use this microscope to see microscopic objects like microorganisms. It comprises of two convex lenses and magnification occurs in both of these lenses. the components of a compound microscope are eyepiece, objective lens, fine and rough adjustment screw.

Telescopes

As we use telescope to view a object that is at very distant place, therefore, a telescope needs at least two lenses. The first lens forms a diminished image which is nearer to its focal point. This device is designed in a way so that real and inverted image formed by the first lens is just nearer to the second lens than its focal length. With the help of a magnifying glass, we gets a enlarged image which is virtual. The final image then inverted with respect to the object. This doesn’t really matter with the astronomical telescope. While observing an object which is on earth, we usually prefer a straight image which is obtained using a third lens.

Types of Telescopes

Refracting Telescopes

All refracting telescopes use the same principles. The combination of an objective lens 1 and some type of eyepiece 2 is used to gather more light than the human eye is able to collect on its own, focus it 5, and present the viewer with a brighter, clearer, and magnified virtual image 6. The figure above is a diagram of a refracting telescope. The objective lens (at point 1) and the eyepiece (point 2) gather more light than a human eye can collect by itself. The image is focused at point 5, and the observer is shown a brighter, magnified virtual image at point 6. The objective lens refracts, or bends, light. This causes the parallel rays to converge at a focal point, and those that are not parallel converge on a focal plane.

Reflecting Telescopes

Reflecting telescopes, such as the one shown in, use either one or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light to form an image. They allow an observer to view objects that have very large diameters and are the primary type of telescope used in astronomy. The object being observed is reflected by a curved primary mirror onto the focal plane. (The distance from the mirror to the focal plane is called the focal length. ) A sensor could be located here to record the image, or a secondary mirror could be added to redirect the light to an eyepiece.

Catadioptric Telescopes

Catadioptric telescopes, such as the one shown in, combine mirrors and lenses to form an image. This system has a greater degree of error correction than other types of telescopes. The combination of reflective and refractive elements allows for each element to correct the errors made by the other.

X-Ray Diffraction

X-ray diffraction was discovered by Max von Laue, who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1914 for his mathematical evaluation of observed x-ray diffraction patterns. Diffraction is the irregularities caused when waves encounter an object. You have most likely observed the effects of diffraction when looking at the bottom of a CD or DVD. The rainbow pattern that appears is a result of the light being interfered by the pits and lands on the disc that hold the data. Shows this effect. Diffraction can happen to any type of wave, not just visible light waves
.

X-ray Imaging

X-ray radio-graphs are produced by projecting a beam of X-rays toward an object, in medical cases, a part of the human body. Depending on the physical properties of the object (density and composition), some of the X-rays can be partially absorbed.
The portion of the rays that are not absorbed then pass through the object and are recorded by either film or a detector, like in a camera. This provides the observer with a 2 dimensional representation of all the components of that object superimposed on each other.
.

Tomography

  • Tomography refers to imaging by sections, or sectioning. demonstrates this concept.
  • The three-dimensional image is broken down into sections.
  • (S1) shows a section from the left and (S2) shows a section from the right.

CT Scans

  • CT scans, or computed tomography scans use a combination of X-ray radiography and tomography to produce slices of areas of the human body.
  • Doctors can analyze the area, and based on the ability of the material to block the X-ray beam, understand more about the material. shows a CT Scan of a human brain.
  • Doctors can cross reference the images with known properties of the same material and determine if there are any inconsistencies or problems.
  • Although generally these scans are shown as in, the information recorded can be used to create a 3 dimensional image of the area. shows a three dimensional image of a brain that was made by compiling CT Scans.

Lasers

  • A laser is a device that produces a very focused beam of visible light of just one wavelength and color.
  • Waves of laser light are synchronized so the crests and troughs of the waves line up.
  • Electrons in a material such as a ruby crystal are stimulated to radiate photons of light of one wavelength.
  • At each end of the tube is a concave mirror. The photons of light reflect back and forth in the tube off these mirrors.
  • This focuses the light. The mirror at one end of the tube is partly transparent.
  • A constant stream of photons passes through the transparent part, forming the laser beam.

Optical fibres

  • One use is carrying communication signals in optical fibres.
  • Sounds or pictures are encoded in pulses of laser light, which are then sent through an optical fiber.
  • All of the light reflects off the inside of the fiber, so none of it escapes. As a result, the signal remains strong even over long distances.
  • More than one signal can travel through an optical fiber at the same time, Optical fibers are used to carry telephone, cable TV, and Internet signals.

Camera

A camera is an optical instrument that forms and records an image of an object. The image may be recorded on film or it may be detected by an electronic sensor that stores the image digitally. Regardless of how the image is recorded, all cameras form images in the same basic way.

  • Light passes through the lens at the front of the camera and enters the camera through an opening called the aperture.
  • As light passes through the lens, it forms a reduced real image. The image focuses on film (or a sensor) at the back of the camera. The lens may be moved back and forth to bring the image into focus.
  • The shutter controls the amount of light that actually strikes the film (or sensor). It stays open longer in dim light to let more light in.

Human EyeAn Optical Instrument

  • The human eye is an optical instrument that enables us to view all the objects around us is a very complex organ.
  • The white protective membrane seen when looked into the eye directly is a Sclera. It is tuff, opaque and fibrous outer layer of the eyeball.
  • The circular part is the Iris. The color of the eye is determined by the color of the Iris. The iris works like the shutter of the camera. It absorbs most of the light falling on it and allows it to pass through the pupil.
  • The center transparent area of the iris is the Pupil. The amount of light that enters the inner part of the eye depends on the size of the pupil.
  • In bright light, the iris contracts the pupil to restrict the light, whereas in low light it widens the pupil to emit more light into the eye. The eyeball is spherical in shape.
  • The retina of the eye is able to detect the light and its color because of the presence of senses known as rods and cones.
  • Light entering the human eye is first refracted by the cornea. The refracted light is then incident on an iris. The lens is just behind the iris and light after refracted through the pupil falls on it and forms a sharp image. Image formation exactly on the retina enables us to see the object clearly.

Defects Of Human Eye

Myopia – A condition in which close objects appear clearly, but far ones don’t.

Hypermetropia – A vision condition in which nearby objects are blurry.

Presbyopia – It is the gradual loss of your eyes’ ability to focus on nearby objects. It’s a natural, often annoying part of aging. Presbyopia usually becomes noticeable in your early to mid-40s and continues to worsen until around age 65.

Astigmatism – A common imperfection in the eye’s curvature. With astigmatism, the front surface of the eye or the lens inside the eye is curved differently in one direction than the other. A common symptom is blurry vision.

Conclusion

Based on the property of reflection and refraction many optical instruments have been designed to understand the behaviour of light more better. Based on the total internal reflection, the phenomenon like Mirage, Transmission through optical fibre, and property of Diamonds could be well understood. Likewise other optical instruments like microscope, telescope etc has been designed to help in the advancement of technology and research studies.

Chemicals in Medicine

Chemistry plays a very significant role in our everyday life. There is hardly any aspect of life where the chemistry does not play a role. We are indebted to chemists for most of the life saving drugs such as sulpha drugs, penicillin, and streptomycin etc-etc.
Medicinal chemistry is an interdisciplinary field of combining aspects of organic chemistry, physical chemistry, pharmacology, microbiology, biochemistry as well as computational chemistry .It is concerned with the discovery, design, synthesis and interaction of pharmaceutical agent (DRUG) with the body. Medicinal chemistry is mainly concerned with small organic molecules both natural and synthetic. Compounds in clinical use are primarily small organic compounds.

Drugs, Medicines and Chemotherapy

In all systems of treatment of disease viz. Ayurvedic, Unani and Allopathic systems, chemical compounds of natural or synthetic origin are used for the treatment of diseases.
Drugs– They r chemical compounds of low molecular weights which interacts with macro-molecular targets and produce a biological response.
Medicines– When the biological response of a drug is therapeutic (curative) and useful, it is called medicine and is used for the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of diseases.

Distinction between the terms Drugs and Medicines

  • From chemistry point of view, there is no distinction between the two terms, i.e. all drugs are medicines and all medicines are drugs. However, according to our society and law, these two terms have different meaning as follows-
  • Medicines are the chemical compounds used to treat diseases, are safe to use, cause no addiction and have minimum toxicity.
  • On the other hand, drugs are the chemical substances which cure the diseases but are habit forming, cause addiction, and have serious side effects.
  • For Example, both Penicillin and Heroin are used to cure disease. However, only Penicillin is called Medicine since it does have side effects. On the other hand, Heroin is called a drug because of its pronounced habit forming and addictive properties.

Classification of drugs

Drugs can be categorized in a number of ways. In the world of medicine and pharmacology, a drug can be classified by its chemical activity or by the condition that it treats. Anticonvulsant medications, For example, are used to prevent seizures, while Mucolytic drugs break down mucus and relieve congestion. Each of the regulated drugs that act on the central nervous system or alter your feelings and perceptions can be classified according to their physical and psychological effects.

The different drug types include the following

  • Depressants – Drugs that suppress or slow the activity of the brain and nerves, acting directly on the central nervous system to create a calming or sedating effect. This category includes barbiturates (phenobarbital, thiopental, butalbital), benzodiazepines (alprazolam, diazepam, clonazepam, lorazepam, midazolam), alcohol, and gamma hydrogenate (GHB). Depressants are taken to relieve anxiety, promote sleep and manage seizure activity.
  • Stimulants – Drugs that accelerate the activity of the central nervous system. Stimulants can make you feel energetic, focused, and alert. This class of drugs can also make you feel edgy, angry, or paranoid. Stimulants include drugs such as cocaine, crack cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. According to the recent World Drug Report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, amphetamine-derived stimulants like ecstasy and methamphetamine are the most commonly abused drugs around the world after marijuana.
  • Hallucinogens – Also known as psychedelics, these drugs act on the central nervous system to alter your perception of reality, time, and space. Hallucinogens may cause you to hear or see things that don’t exist or imagine situations that aren’t real. Hallucinogenic drugs include psilocybin (found in magic mushrooms), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), peyote, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT).
  • Opioids – These are the drugs that act through the opioid receptors. Opioids are one of the most commonly prescribed medicines worldwide and are commonly used to treat pain and cough. These include drugs such as heroin, codeine, morphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, oxycodone, buprenorphine, and methadone.
  • Inhalants – These are a broad class of drugs with the shared trait of being primarily consumed through inhalation. Most of the substances in this class can exist in vapor form at room temperature. As many of these substances can be found as household items, inhalants are frequently abused by children and adolescents. These include substances such as paint, glue, paint thinners, gasoline, marker or pen ink, and others. Though ultimately all of these substances cross through the lungs into the bloodstream, their precise method of abuse may vary but can include sniffing, spraying, huffing, bagging, and inhaling, among other delivery routes.
  • Cannabis Cannabis is a plant-derived drug that is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. It acts through the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. Cannabis is abused in various forms including bhang, ganja, charas, and hashish oil.

Therapeutic actions of Different Classes of drugs

Neurologically active drugs -They affect the message transfer mechanism from nerve to receptor.

Tranquilizer

  • A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.  
  • Tranquilizers fall into two main classes, major and minor. Major tranquilizers, which are also known as anti-psychotic agents, or neuroleptics, because they are used to treat major states of mental disturbance in schizophrenics and other psychotic patients.
  • By contrast, minor tranquilizers, which are also known as anti-anxiety agents, or anxiolytics, are used to treat milder states of anxiety and tension in healthy individuals or people with less serious mental disorders.
  • The major and minor tranquilizers bear only a superficial resemblance to each other, and the trend has been to drop the use of the word tranquilizer altogether in reference to such drugs, though the term persists in popular usage.

Analgesic

  • Any drug that relieves pain selectively without blocking the conduction of nerve impulses, markedly altering sensory perception, or affecting consciousness is called an Analgesic.
  • This selectivity is an important distinction between an analgesic and an anesthetic.
  • Analgesics may be classified into two types: anti-inflammatory drugs, which alleviate pain by reducing local inflammatory responses; and the opioids, which act on the brain.
  • The opioid analgesics were once called narcotic drugs because they can induce sleep. The opioid analgesics can be used for either short-term or long-term relief of severe pain. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory compounds are used for short-term pain relief and for modest pain, such as that of headache, muscle strain, bruising, or arthritis.

Aspirin and its medicinal effect-

  • Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation. Specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.
  • Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death. Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk. It may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.
  • For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes. Aspirin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and works similarly to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets.
  • One common adverse effect is an upset stomach.More significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, and worsening asthma. Bleeding risk is greater among those who are older, drink alcohol, take other NSAIDs, or are on other blood thinners.
  • Aspirin is not recommended in the last part of pregnancy.It is not generally recommended in children with infections because of the risk of Reye syndrome.High doses may result in ringing in the ears.
Structure of Aspirin

Antipyretics

  • Antipyretics are substances that reduce fever.
  • Antipyretics cause the body then works to lower the temperature, which results in a reduction in fever. hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin-induced increase in temperature.

Paracetamol and its medicinal effect-

  • Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen and APAP, is a medication used to treat pain and fever.
  • It is typically used for mild to moderate pain relief. There is mixed evidence for its use to relieve fever in children. It is often sold in combination with other medications, such as in many cold medications.
  • Paracetamol is also used for severe pain, such as cancer pain and pain after surgery, in combination with opioid pain medication. It is typically used either by mouth or rectally, but is also available by injection into a vein.
  • Effects last between 2 to 4 hours Paracetamol is generally safe at recommended doses. Recommended maximum daily dose for an adult is 3 or 4 grams.
  • Higher doses may lead to toxicity, including liver failure. Serious skin rashes may rarely occur. It appears to be safe during pregnancy and when breastfeeding.
  • In those with liver disease, it may still be used, but in lower doses.It is classified as a mild analgesic. It does not have significant anti-inflammatory activity.
Structure of Paracetamol

Antimicrobials

  • Antimicrobial agent, any of a large variety of chemical compounds and physical agents that are used to destroy microorganisms or to prevent their development.
  • The production and use of the antibiotic penicillin in the early 1940s became the basis for the era of modern antimicrobial therapy.
  • Streptomycin was discovered in 1944, and since then many other antibiotics and other types of antimicrobials have been found and put into use.
  • A major discovery following the introduction of these agents into medicine was the finding that their basic structure could be modified chemically to improve their characteristics.
  • Thus, antimicrobial agents that are used in the treatment of disease include synthetic chemicals as well as chemical substances or metabolic products made by microorganisms and chemical substances derived from plants.

Antibiotics

  • Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight certain infections and can save lives when used properly.
  • They either stop bacteria from reproducing or destroy them. Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, the immune system can typically kill them.
  • White blood cells (WBCs) attack harmful bacteria and, even if symptoms do occur, the immune system can usually cope and fight off the infection. Sometimes, however, the number of harmful bacteria is excessive, and the immune system cannot fight them all. Antibiotics are useful in this scenario.
  • The first antibiotic was penicillin. Penicillin-based antibiotics, such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, and penicillin G, are still available to treat a variety of infections and have been around for a long time.
  • Several types of modern antibiotics are available, and they are usually only available with a prescription in most countries.
  • Topical antibiotics are available in over-the-counter (OTC) creams and ointments.
Structure of Penicillin

Antiseptics

  • An antiseptic is a substance that inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms.
  • For practical purposes, antiseptics are routinely thought of as topical agents, for application to skin, mucous membranes, and inanimate objects, although a formal definition includes agents that are used internally, such as the urinary tract antiseptics.
  • Antiseptics are a diverse class of drugs that are applied to skin surfaces or mucous membranes for their anti-infective effects.
  • This may be either bactericidal (kills bacteria) or bacteriostatic (stops the growth of bacteria).
  • Their uses include cleansing of skin and wound surfaces after injury, preparation of skin surfaces prior to injections or surgical procedures, and routine disinfection of the oral cavity as part of a program of oral hygiene.
  • Examples such as chlorine, Iodine Dettol, Savlon, Hexachlorophene, Hydrogen peroxide, Boric acid etc-etc.
For Example, Dettol is an Antiseptic Liquid

Disinfectants

  • Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
  • Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life.
  • Disinfectants are different from other antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics, which destroy microorganisms within the body, and antiseptics, which destroy microorganisms on living tissue. Disinfectants are also different from biocides — the latter are intended to destroy all forms of life, not just microorganisms.
  • Disinfectants work by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.
  • Sanitizers are substances that simultaneously clean and disinfect.
  • Disinfectants kill more germs than sanitizers. Disinfectants are frequently used in hospitals, dental surgeries, kitchens, and bathrooms to kill infectious organisms.
Foe Example, Lizol is a Disinfectant

Anti-Fertility Drugs

  • Anti-Fertility drugs are chemical substances which suppress the action of hormones that promote pregnancy.
  • These drugs actually reduce the chances of pregnancy and act as a protection.
  • Anti-Fertility drugs are made up of derivatives of synthetic progesterone or a combination of derivatives of oestrogen and progesterone. they drugs are actually synthetic hormones.
  • The synthetic progesterone derivatives are more potent as compared to natural progesterone.
  • Norethindrone is an example of synthetic progesterone which is one of the most commonly used anti-fertility drugs.
  • Ethynylestradiol is a combination of derivatives of oestrogen and progesterone. These drugs should not be taken without the consultation of a doctor.

Antihistamines

  • Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
  • Typically people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, generic, over-the-counter drug that can provide relief from nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives caused by pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy with few side effects.
    Antihistamines are usually for short-term treatment.Although people typically use the word “antihistamine” to describe drugs for treating allergies, doctors and scientists use the term to describe a class of drug that opposes the activity of histamine receptors in the body.
  • In this sense of the word, antihistamines are sub classified according to the histamine receptor that they act upon.
  • Histamine receptors exhibit constitutive activity, so antihistamines can function as either a neutral receptor antagonist or an inverse agonist at histamine receptors.

The two largest classes of antihistamines are H1-antihistamines and H2-antihistamines.

  • H1-antihistamines work by binding to histamine H1 receptors in mast cells, smooth muscle, and endothelium in the body as well as in the tuber mammillary nucleus in the brain. Antihistamines that target the histamine H1-receptor are used to treat allergic reactions in the nose (e.g., itching, runny nose, and sneezing). In addition, they may be used to treat insomnia, motion sickness, or vertigo caused by problems with the inner ear.
  • H2-antihistamines bind to histamine H2 receptors in the upper gastrointestinal tract, primarily in the stomach. Antihistamines that target the histamine H2-receptor are used to treat gastric acid conditions (e.g., peptic ulcers and acid reflux).Histamine receptors exhibit constitutive activity, so antihistamines can function as either a neutral receptor antagonist or an inverse agonist at histamine receptors. Only a few currently marketed H1-antihistamines are known to function as inverse agonists.
Structure of a Histamine

Antacids

  • An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
  • Medical uses:- Antacids are available over the counter and are taken by mouth to quickly relieve occasional heartburn, the major symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease and also indigestion.
  • Treatment with antacids alone is symptomatic and only justified for minor symptoms.
  • Antacids are distinct from acid-reducing drugs like H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors and they do not kill the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which causes most ulcers.
  • Side effects:- Versions with magnesium may cause diarrhoea, and brands with calcium or aluminium may cause constipation and rarely, long-term use may cause kidney stones.
  • Long-term use of versions with aluminium may increase the risk for getting osteoporosis.
  • Mechanism of action:-When excessive amounts of acids are produced in the stomach the natural mucous barrier that protects the lining of the stomach can damage the oesophagus in people with acid reflux. Antacids contain alkaline ions that chemically neutralize stomach gastric acid, reducing damage and relieving pain.
  • Examples such as magnesium salts (MgC03,Mg0),Aluminium Salts, Baking soda etc.

Conclusion

Medicinal chemistry is the discipline concerned with the determination of the influence of chemical structure on biological activity. As such, it is therefore necessary for the medicinal chemist to understand not only the mechanism by which a drug exerts its effects but also the physico-chemical properties of the molecules.The primary objective of medicinal chemistry is the design and discovery of new compounds that are suitable for use as drugs. This process requires a team effort. It not only involves chemists but also workers from a wide range of disciplines such as Biology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Mathematics, Computing and Medicine amongst others. It has and it will continue to play an important role in today’s society as it deals with Development, synthesis and designs of Pharmatical drugs. These results are then use to give us a better understanding of diseases as well as giving us ways of preventing and curing them.

Agriculture

Agriculture is an applied science which encompasses all aspects of crop production including horticulture, livestock rearing, fisheries, forestry, etc. The term Agriculture is derived from two Latin words “ager” or “agri” meaning soil and “cultura” meaning cultivation. Agriculture is defined in the Agriculture act (1947), as including ‘horticulture, fruit growing, seed growing, dairy farming and livestock breeding and keeping, the use of land as grazing land, meadow land, osier land, market gardens and nursery grounds, and the use of land for woodlands where that use ancillary to the farming of land for Agricultural purposes”.

Agriculture is defined as an Art, Science and Business of producing crops and livestock for economic purposes.

  • As an Art it embraces knowledge of the way to perform the operations of the farm in a skillful manner, but does not necessarily include an understanding of the principles underlying the farm practices.
  • As a Science: utilizes all technologies developed on scientific principles such as crop breeding, production techniques, crop protection, economics etc. to maximize the yield and profit. For example, new crops and varieties developed by hybridization, Transgenic crop varieties resistant to pests and diseases, hybrids in each crop, high fertilizer responsive varieties, water management, herbicides to control weeds, use of bio-control agents to combat pest and diseases etc.
  • As the Business: As long as agriculture is the way of life of the rural population production is ultimately bound to consumption. But agriculture as a business aims at maximum net return through the management of land labour, water and capital, employing the knowledge of various sciences for production of food, feed, fibre and fuel. In recent years, Agriculture is commercialized to run as a business through mechanization.

Branches of Agriculture;

1) Agronomy – Deals with the production of various crops which includes food crops, fodder crops, fibre crops, sugar, oil seeds, etc. The aim is to have better food production and how to control the diseases.


2) Horticulture – Deals with the production of fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamental plants, spices, condiments and beverages

.
3) Forestry – Deals with production of large scale cultivation of perennial trees for supplying wood, timber, rubber, etc. and also raw materials for industries.


4) Animal husbandry – Deals with agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock in order to provide food for humans and to provide power and manure for crops.


5) Fishery science – Deals with practice of breeding and rearing fishes including marine and inland fishes, shrimps, prawns etc. in order to provide food, feed and manure.


6) Agricultural Engineering – Deals with farm machinery for filed preparation, inter-cultivation, harvesting and post harvest processing including soil and water conservation engineering and bio-energy.


7) Home Science – Deals with application and utilization of agricultural produces in a better manner in order to provide nutritional security, including value addition and food preparation.


On integration, all the Seven branches, first three is grouped as for crop production group and next two animal management and last two allied Agriculture branches.

Importance of Agriculture;

  • Many raw materials, whether it’s cotton, sugar, wood, or palm oil, come from agriculture. These materials are essential to major industries in ways many people aren’t even aware of, such as the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, diesel fuel, plastic, and more. In fact, raw materials are so important in production that the economic health of a country strongly depends on how many raw materials it possesses.
  • Raw materials from agriculture make up a huge portion of what’s traded internationally. Countries with plenty of those supplies export them and trade for materials they don’t have. If a country’s agriculture suffers for some reason, prices can go up and it disrupts the flow of trade. Currently, the EU is the first trader of agricultural products in the world, both for imports and exports.
  • Speaking of trade, developing countries still get most of their national income from agricultural exports. While developed countries don’t depend on agriculture as much as they used to, their economies would definitely take a hit if all exports suddenly stopped.
  • The agricultural industry is still one of the biggest sources of employment and in many areas, it’s actually booming. Whether it’s working as a farmer, harvester, technician for farm equipment, scientist, and so on, there are plenty of jobs available in this field. In developing countries, agricultural jobs help reduce high rates of unemployment. When it comes to reducing poverty, evidence shows that focusing on agriculture is significantly more effective than investing in other areas.
  • Economic development is tied to a country’s agriculture sector. When trade, national revenue, and employment are combined in a positive way, a country enjoys reduced poverty and boosted economic growth. Because strong agriculture results in benefits fairly quickly, focusing on it is one of the best ways to speed up development and improve a country’s standing in the world.
  • Agriculture possesses the power to harm or heal. When farmers prioritize biodiversity on their land, it benefits the earth. Having more biodiversity results in healthier soil, less erosion, better water conservation, and healthier pollinators. This is all good news for the environment as a whole, making agriculture an important part of the cycle of life.
  • Agriculture is such an important part of a country’s infrastructure, it makes sense it would impact conflicts and war. Throughout history, the need for land to grow food fueled many conflicts. In more modern times, specifically WWI,
  • Arguably the most important aspect of agriculture is that it’s the source of the world’s food supply. No matter where or what you are eating, the ingredients in your meals came from somewhere. All roads lead to agriculture. In countries dealing with food insecurity and severe malnourishment, it’s because their agriculture sectors are suffering. When agriculture thrives, fewer people go hungry.
  • Because healthy agriculture is so essential to a country’s well-being, It’s been the setting of some of the most exciting innovations in technology. Through artificial intelligence, blockchain software, gene manipulation, and more, scientists and farmers have been figuring out ways to increase crop productivity, use less water, and reduce negative impacts on the environment. For scientists and tech companies, agribusiness is one of the most fascinating and productive fields to work in.
  • When it comes to pollution and climate change, the environment and agriculture suffer the quickest and with the most clear consequences. If effective changes aren’t made, climate change’s impact on agriculture will decimate a country’s economy and eventually wipe out the food supply. The state of agriculture is a good litmus test of what we can expect the future to look like.

Revolutions in Agriculture;

  • Through white revolution, milk production quadrupled from 17 million tonnes at independence to 108.5 million tonnes.
  • Through blue revolution, fish production rose from 0.75 million tonnes to nearly 7.6 million tonnes during the last five decades.
  • Through yellow revolution oil seed production increased 5 times (from 5 million tonnes to 25 million tonnes) since independence.
  • Similarly, the egg production increased from 2 billion at independence to 28 billion, sugarcane production from 57 million tonnes to 282 million tonnes, cotton production from 3 million bales to 32 million bales which shows our sign of progress.
  • India is the largest producer of fruits in the world. India is the second largest producer of milk and vegetable.

Indian Agriculture & Economy

  • Indian Agriculture is one of the most significant contributors to the Indian economy. Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58% of India’s population. Gross Value Added by agriculture, forestry, and fishing was estimated at Rs. 19.48 lakh crore (US$ 276.37 billion) in FY20.
  • Share of agriculture and allied sectors in gross value added (GVA) of India at current prices stood at 17.8 % in FY20. Consumer spending in India will return to growth in 2021 post the pandemic-led contraction, expanding by as much as 6.6%.The Indian food industry is poised for huge growth, increasing its contribution to world food trade every year due to its immense potential for value addition, particularly within the food processing industry. Indian food and grocery market is the world’s sixth largest, with retail contributing 70% of the sales.
  • The Indian food processing industry accounts for 32% of the country’s total food market, one of the largest industries in India and is ranked fifth in terms of production, consumption, export and expected growth.Principal agricultural commodities export for April 2020 – January 2021 was US$ 32.12 billion.
  • India is expected to achieve the ambitious goal of doubling farm income by 2022. The agriculture sector in India is expected to generate better momentum in the next few years due to increased investment in agricultural infrastructure such as irrigation facilities, warehousing and cold storage. Furthermore, the growing use of genetically modified crops will likely improve the yield for Indian farmers. India is expected to be self-sufficient in pulses in the coming few years due to concerted effort of scientists to get early maturing varieties of pulses and the increase in minimum support price.

Agriculture Heritage in India;

Agriculture in India is not of recent origin, but has a long history dating back to Neolithic age of 7500-6500 B.C. It changed the life style of early man from ‘nomadic hunter of wild berries and roots’ to ‘cultivator of land’. Agriculture is benefited from the wisdom and teachings of great saints. The wisdom gained and practices adopted have been passed down through generations. The traditional farmers have developed the nature friendly farming systems and practices such as mixed farming, mixed cropping, crop
rotation etc. The great epics of ancient India convey the depth of knowledge possessed by the older generations of the farmers of India. The modern society has lost sight of the importance of the traditional knowledge which had been subjected to a process of
refinement through generations of experience. The ecological considerations shown by the traditional farmers in their farming activities are now-a-days is reflected in the resurgence of organic agriculture.

Scope of Agriculture;

  • With a 16% contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP), agriculture still provides livelihood support to about two-thirds of country’s population.
  • The sector provides employment to 58% of country’s work force and is the single largest private sector occupation.
    Agriculture accounts for about 15% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to a large number of Industries (textiles, silk, sugar, rice, flour mills, milk products).
  • Rural areas are the biggest markets for low-priced and middle-priced consumer goods, including consumer durables and rural domestic savings are an important source of resource mobilization.
  • The agriculture sector acts as a wall in maintaining food security and in the process, national security as well.
    The allied sectors like horticulture, animal husbandry, dairy and fisheries, have an important role in improving the overall economic conditions and health and nutrition of the rural masses.
  • To maintain the ecological balance, there is need for sustainable and balanced development of agriculture and allied sectors.
  • Agriculture’s eyes and minds are soothed by dynamic changes from brown (bare soil) to green (growing crop) to golden (mature crop) and bumper harvests.

Thus , Agriculture helps to elevate the community consisting of different castes and communities to a better social, cultural, political and economical life. Agriculture maintains a biological equilibrium in nature. Satisfactory agricultural production brings peace, prosperity, harmony, health and wealth to individuals of a nation by driving away distrust, discord and anarchy.

Journalism

In simpler words, Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on current events based on facts and supported with proof or evidence. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as collaborative media who gather and publish information based on facts and supported with proof or evidence.  It is a long process that includes various tasks such as collecting the information from various sources, preparing it accordingly, and reporting it through different media platforms like newspapers, radio, blogs, social media, television, magazines etc-etc. Journalism is the product of modern history. It has been changed over time to time, from Medieval scribes recording war and taxes to paid pamphleteers at shop waging political battles to mass-market newspapers that use new tech like trains and telephones to gather and spread the news as well as the information’s to the people from door to door.

History of Journalism

The history of journalism spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis that has caused, as one history of journalism surmises, the steady increase of “the scope of news available to us and the speed with which it is transmitted. Before the printing press was invented, word of mouth was the primary source of news. Returning merchants, sailors and travelers brought news back to the mainland, and this was then picked up by peddlers and travelling players and spread from town to town. The first newspaper in India is credited to James Augustus Hickey, who launched The Bengal Gazette, also the Calcutta General Advertiser, in 1780. The paper lasted just two years before being seized by the British administration in 1782 for its outspoken criticism of the Raj. Over the years, journalism has evolved drastically and it changes over time with the latest technologies and innovations to reach a larger audience and meet their needs. To explain present-day Journalism in one word is ‘Handy’. Due to the rise of digitalization, people can easily access the news from various forms of print and electronic media like podcasts, televisions, newspapers, radio, social media, magazines, websites, blogs, and so on.

Bengal’s Gazette

Forms of Journalism

Journalism is divided into different forms based on the medium such as –

  • Print Journalism – Delivering news in the form of printing such as magazines, newspapers, books, pamphlets, etc. is called print journalism. This is the oldest and widely spread journalism. People can easily access it at very low costs. The rise of other forms of journalism has a huge impact on print journalism. Newspapers, magazines, books, flyers, academic journals are the example of print journalism.
  • Online Journalism – Delivering news through internet platforms such as websites, apps, blogs, social media, etc. is called online journalism. This is the latest and advanced form of journalism. It can be accessed from the tip of your fingers. Due to its easy availability and accessibility, online journalism has became popular within a short span of time.
  • Broadcast Journalism – Delivering news through radio and television is called broadcast journalism. This is the most comfortable and popular form of journalism. The reason why it became more popular than print journalism is because of its visual-audio experience. It engages the audience and glues them to televisions and radios. It has higher budgets and resources compared to the other forms of journalism.

Types of Journalism

  • Opinion Journalism-Opinion journalism is journalism that makes no claim of objectivity. Although distinguished from advocacy journalism in several ways, both forms feature a subjective viewpoint, usually with some social or political purpose. Common examples include newspaper columns, editorials, op-eds, editorial cartoons.
  • Investigative Journalism– Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report.
  • Business Journalism– Business journalism is the part of journalism that tracks, records, analyzes and interprets the business, economic and financial activities and changes that take place in societies.
  • Entertainment Journalism-Entertainment journalism is any form of journalism that focuses on popular culture and the entertainment business and its products. Like fashion journalism, entertainment journalism covers industry-specific news while targeting general audiences beyond those working in the industry itself. Common forms include lifestyle, television and film, theater music, video game, and celebrity coverage.
  • Sports Journalism– Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on matters pertaining to sporting topics and competitions. Sports journalism started in the early 1800s when it was targeted to the social elite and transitioned into an integral part of the news business with newspapers having dedicated sports sections.
  • Watchdog Journalism– Watchdog journalism is a form of investigative journalism where journalists, authors or publishers of a news publication fact-check and interview public figures to increase accountability. Watchdog journalism usually takes on a form of beat reporting about specific aspects and issues.
  • Political Journalism– Political journalism is a broad branch of journalism that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science, although the term usually refers specifically to coverage of civil governments and political power.
  • Lifestyle Journalism– Lifestyle journalism is an umbrella term for more specialized beats of journalism such as travel journalism, fashion journalism, or food journalism
  • Arts Journalism– Arts journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of the arts including, but not limited to, the visual arts, film, literature, music, theater, and architecture.
Arts journalism
Lifestyle Journalism
Sports Journalism
Investigative Journalism

Who is a Journalist ?

A journalist is a person who investigates, collects, and presents information as a news story. This can be presented through newspapers, magazines, radio, television and the internet. Journalists are relied upon to present news in a well-rounded, objective manner. Journalists have distinct personalities. They tend to be artistic individuals, which means they’re creative, intuitive, sensitive, articulate, and expressive. They are unstructured, original, nonconforming, and innovative. Some of them are also enterprising, meaning they’re adventurous, ambitious, assertive, extroverted, energetic, enthusiastic, confident, and optimistic. The most important and the most needed skills to become a journalist are having alertness, command over language, good communication skill, can differentiate between facts and fiction and lastly working in a team. Therefore, A Good Journalist must provide good and accurate content to the people. Thus by providing accurate information will help people to understand the greater truths beyond the facts.

The trend towards media convergence in recent times means that media, technology and mobile communications have become increasingly intertwined. The future of journalism could see the emergence of more and more personalized content, intelligent algorithms and robot journalists – as well as the opportunity to ‘experience’ that news thanks to immersive VR and AR technologies

Digital Marketing

Digital Marketing is any and all marketing efforts that rely on electronic devices, and in extension, the internet.

It’s the group of activities that a company (or individual) performs online to attract new business opportunities, creating relationships and developing a brand identity. It is very diverse and versatile.The sheer amount of tools, data and channels available on the internet creates opportunities for marketers to deliver effective content to specific people, through personalization.

Modern day digital marketing is an enormous system of channels to which marketers simply must onboard their brands, advertising online is much more complex than the channels alone. In order to achieve the true potential of digital marketing, marketers have to dig deep into today’s vast and intricate cross-channel world to discover strategies that make an impact through engagement marketing. .

“Digital is at the core of everything in marketing today—it has gone from ‘one of the things marketing does’ to ‘THE thing that marketing does.” – Sanjay Dholakia, Former Chief Marketing Officer, Marketo

The online world allows brands to communicate with all of their clients and possible clients. You don’t even need to be in the same country to find and engage your public. And the technology turned simple phones, designed to make calls, in true computers with all the access the user needs to connect with other people. Apps, emails and websites are literally in the palm of their hands. Smartphones are incredibly popular, especially among Millennials and Generation Z.

With applications like Instagram, Facebook, and Snap-chat taking up hours in their days, companies have very much found a direct link to their lives. Facebook is a very famous social media site that has over 2 billion users and is a popular choice among companies to market their products. Ads play before videos on Facebook, and it also has sponsored posts that appear on everyone’s news feed. Instagram is another incredibly famous and popular social media site that companies use to market to a wide age group. Although Instagram is mostly a photo and video sharing platform, companies are still able to make use and take advantage of it. The best part about websites like Instagram and Facebook is that they all have a very wide and massive age demographic.

Benefits of Digital Marketing

1. The most measurable form of marketing – Digital Marketing analytics takes away the guessing games related to traditional forms of marketing. Through these analytics, you can measure in real-time how many people are looking at your posts or ads, as well as how many users have opened your posts, along with all of the people that have replied, liked, or shared your post.

2. The most cost-effective marketing technique While there was once a paywall between major companies and smaller ones in terms of advertising and exposure, that is no longer the case. Nowadays, smaller companies can get the attention of people that they otherwise could not. This is something that they can cover with the help of Digital Marketing, as they can reach an audience of their choice with minimal effort.

3. Allows you to choose any audience – Speaking of choosing your audience, another great benefit of Digital Marketing is that it can be as specific or broad as you want. You can find specific groups or forums on social media websites like Instagram or Reddit to market to a very niche audience.Moreover, getting a respected figure in the community you are tapping into can grow trust for your brand.

4. Everyone is already there – With billions of people using the internet and social media daily, the question is no longer will anyone see it, but rather when. No matter how big the network might be, there is a cap on just how many people a traditional marketing strategy can connect to. On the other hand, Digital Marketing strategies have no peak of exposure and can grow along with the company itself.

5. Customers start their buying journey from the internet – Customers depend on the internet for everything, including their buying options and choices. The term “Google it” has become such a common part of our language, the first instinct of most people is to search for something on the internet.

6. The message can be customized – Another big advantage of Digital Marketing is that this strategy allows you to customize your message to the public. Advertising today is different from the old days. Back then, when you wanted to talk to you public, you needed a generic message, that could be used in mass medias such as billboards, TV broadcast, flyers etc. Now, you can target groups by their similarities, customizing the message and making it more real and directed to them. Email marketing, online advertising, niche marketing: all of these strategies can be customized to reach the audience that you want.

Components of Digital Marketing

Paid search, or pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, typically refers to the sponsored result on the top or side of a search engine results page (SERP). These ads charge you for every click and they can be tailored to appear when certain search terms are entered, so your ads are being targeted to audiences seeking something in particular. These ads can be extremely effective, as they rely on data gleaned from individuals’ online behavior and are used to boost website traffic by delivering relevant ads to the right people at the right time.

Search engine optimization (SEO) – SEO is the process of optimizing the content, technical setup, and reach of your website, so that your pages appear at the top of a search engine result for a specific set of keyword terms. By using keywords and phrases, you can use SEO to massively increase visibility and begin a lasting customer relationship. SEO is defined as increasing a website’s rank in online search results, and thus its organic site traffic, by using popular keywords and phrases. Strong SEO strategies are hugely influential in digital marketing campaigns since visibility is the first step to a lasting customer relationship.

Content marketing – When you offer content that is relevant to your audience, it can secure you as a thought leader and a trustworthy source of information, making it less likely that your other marketing efforts will be lost in the static. In the age of the self-directed buyer, content marketing gets three times more leads than paid search advertising, so it’s well worth the additional effort.

Social media marketing – The key to effective social media marketing goes far beyond simply having active social media accounts. The more your audience is inspired to engage with your content, the more likely they are to share it, potentially inspiring their peers to become customers as well.

Email marketing – After more than two decades, email is still the quickest and most direct way to reach customers with critical information.To succeed, your marketing emails should satisfy five core attributes. They must be trustworthy, relevant, conversational, coordinated across channels, and strategic.

Mobile marketing – Mobile devices are kept in our pockets, sit next to our beds, and are checked constantly throughout the day. SMS, MMS, and in-app marketing are all options to reach your customers on their devices.

Marketing automation – Marketing automation is an integral platform that ties all of your digital marketing together. Without it, your campaigns will look like an unfinished puzzle with a crucial missing piece Marketing automation can help you gain valuable insight into which programs are working and which aren’t, and it will provide metrics to allow you to speak to digital marketing’s efforts on your company’s bottom line.

A key digital marketing objective is engaging customers and allowing them to interact with the brand through servicing and delivery of digital media. This is achieved by designing digital media in such a way that it requires some type of end user action to view or receive the motive behind that media’s creation.

Digital marketing campaign

A digital marketing campaign involves the execution of a marketing strategy across all the digital channels where consumers engage with a brand, usually for the purpose of improving a company’s conversion rate. To start a campaign, marketers need to understand who their customer is and where to reach them and anticipate what action the customer will take next.

Customers approach brands though an omnichannel lens. So to effectively reach a customer, marketers should connect digital marketing campaigns across all channels.Digital marketing campaigns can be less expensive than other marketing campaigns and can engage with customer behavior in real time. Companies can use a digital campaign for a variety of uses, from raising brand awareness to telling loyal customers about a new product.

How will digital marketing campaigns change in the future?

There’s great promise with artificial intelligence and machine learning, which take out some of the guesswork and can streamline operations. Something, like figuring out the best offer to send to a consumer, that once took weeks to do might take minutes or even seconds. But as technology improves, there should always be an element of human interaction to make course corrections, to make informed decisions and to avoid losing sight of that human element in experiences. Other opportunities could arise where companies get better at using the context of an engagement. That could look like delivering the right offer at the right time because a brand knows exactly where somebody is and they know exactly the time and day of the week in which they’re engaging because they’re on their mobile device. This concept of location-based marketing has existed for a while, but it’s starting to mature and become more incorporated in larger omnichannel strategies.

The Menace of Radicals

We all know that we need oxygen to live. But research has now established an astounding fact. The very thing which promotes life is killing us. Shocked? Relax.. research has now proved that oxidation in the body cells ( the process by which we are continuously burning our calories to get energy) releases dangerous, very active molecules known as free radicals. These damaging fellows attack other (neighborhood) cells, the cells walls, and the genetic material (DNA) within the cells and over a long time period, such damage can become irreversible (like mutation) and cause disease (e.g. cancer). Even if it doesn’t lead to cancer, the old age symptoms (lack of energy, poor memory, loss of hearing, falling hair) are definitely associated with damaged or weak cells. In addition, free radicals contribute to alcohal-induced liver damage, perhaps more than alcohal itself. Radicals in cigarette smoke have been implicated in inactivation of alpha 1 trypsin in the lung, which promotes the development of emphysema and it is now proved that these free radicals are the main culprit. While nature has created this problem, it has provided the solution as well.

What happens in oxidation (burning)?

Burning is quite aptly associated with loss. Things loose their colour, taste or odour when they are burnt. How does an apple retain its fresh red colour even when there’s so much oxygen and sunlight in the nature? It’s the antioxidant. But if it is cut open, it turns brown after a while. That’s oxidation. the presence of every easily oxidisable compounds, called Antioxidants,in the system can “mop up” free radicals before they damage other essential molecules. Therefore, Antioxidants play a key role in these defense mechanisms. An Antioxidants is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. Consuming more antioxidants helps provide the body with tools to neutralise harmful free radicals. It’s estimated that there are more than 4,000 compounds in foods that acts as antioxidants. The most studied include Vitamin C & E, beta-carotene and the mineral selenium. Besides antioxidants, there are several enzyme systems within the body that scavenge free radicals, the principal micronutrient (vitamin) antioxidants are Vitamin E, beta carotene, & Vitamin C. Additionally, selenium, a trace metal that is required for proper function of one of the body’s antioxidant enzyme systems, is sometimes included in this category. The body cannot manufacture these micronutrient so they must be supplied in the diet.

The following vitamins have shown positive antioxidants effects:

Vitamin A or Retinol,or beta-carotene. It has been discovered that beta-carotene protects dark green, yellow and orange vegetables and fruits from solar radiation damage and it is thought that it plays a similar role in human body. Carrots, Squash, Sweet Potatoes, Tomatoes,Peaches and apricots are particularly rich sources of beta-carotene. (NOTE: Vitamin A has no antioxidant properties and can be quite toxic when taken in excess).

Vitamin C: also called Ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin found in all body fluids, so it may be one of our first lines of defense. This powerful antioxidant cannot be stored by the body, so it’s important to get some regularly-not a difficult task if fruits and vegetable are regularly consumed. Important sources include Citrus Fruits (like Oranges, sweet lime,etc.), green peppers, green leafy vegetables, strawberries, raw cabbage, tomatoes and potatoes.

Vitamin E: A fat soluble vitamin that can be stored with fat in the liver and other tissues, vitamin E is promoted for a range of purposes- from delaying aging to healing sunburn. While it’s not a miracle worker, it’s another powerful antioxidant. Important sources include wheat germ, nuts, seeds, whole grains, green leafy vegetable, vegetable oil and fish-liver oil.

Beta-Carotene: the most studied of more than 600 different carotenoids that have been discovered, beta-carotene protects dark green, yellow and orange vegetables and fruits from solar radiation damage. It is thought that it plays a similar role in the body. Carrots, Squash, Sweet potatoes, peaches and apricots are particularly rich sources of beta-carotene.

Beta Carotene rich foods

Selenium: This mineral is thought to help fight cell damage by oxygen-derived compounds and thus may help protect against cancer. It is best to get selenium through foods foods, as large doses of the supplement from can be toxic. Good food sources include fish, shellfish,red meat, grains, eggs chicken and garlic. Vegetables can also be a good source if grown in selenium rich soils.

Natural Sources of Antioxidants

The colorful stuff: carrots, apples, oranges, tomatoes (cooked), beetroot, brinjal, dark green vegetables, olives, strawberries, honey (the darker the better) and so on. The tasty stuff: garlic, ginger, onion, nutmeg. The smelly stuff: tea,green tea, spinach, tulsi and other herbs etc. Research says multi vitamin pills may slow the advance of HIV, as it appears to cut the levels of the virus and boost the number of immune cells.

Even though a tomato is rich in antioxidants, most of them can’t be absorbed by humans because they are too complex. Slow cooking brakes them down into simpler compounds that are easily observed. This antioxidant value of a tomato is said to be increase 5 times when it is cooked.

Preventing Cancer and Heart disease – Do Antioxidants help?

Epidemiologic observations shows lower cancer rates in people whose diets are rich in fruits & vegetables. This has led to the theory that these diets contain substances, possibly antioxidants, which protect against the development of cancer. There is currently intense scientific investigation into this topic. thus far, none of the large, well designed studies have shown dietary supplementation with extra antioxidants reduces the risk of development of cancer. in fact one study demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer in male smokers who took antioxidants vs,. male smokers who did not supplement. Whether this effect was from the antioxidants is unknown but it does raise the issue that antioxidants may be harmful under certain conditions.

Recommendations

Follow a balanced training program that emphasize regular exercise and eat 5 servings of fruits & Vegetables per day. This will ensure that you are developing your inherent antioxidant systems and that your diet is providing the necessary components.

Telemedicine

Telemedicine is an emerging field of convergence of medicine, technology and communication. It promises the best of medicinal facilities to people in rural or far flung areas. Telemedicine provides local medical staff the guidance of an expert physician far from the site of emergency. Such timely diagnosis and treatment increases the chances of patient survival. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are expanding the availability and affordability of healthcare services. These technologies integrate electronic electronic medical information, clinical assessment tools and laboratory data to bring state of the art medical expertise to undeserved areas. Seamless sharing of information between healthcare providers has enabled the concept of hospitals without walls.

Patient data,both clinical and non-clinical, is crucial for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Clinical information includes history of illness, associated signs and symptoms, clinical observations and interventions, diagnosis and treatment, etc non-clinical information includes information about the patients’s environment , demographic information, lifestyle and occupation and any other relevant information for providing daycare. In most of the situations, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment can save patients’s life. For hard-pressed local medical staff with a serious or unusual medical condition, the ability to consult specialists elsewhere can mean the difference between life and death of the patient. With advances in telecommunication in formation processing capability and miniaturization of health diagnostic equipment, it has become possible to deliver immediate and effective healthcare to the masses.

Teleconsultation

Voice, video and data are electronically communicated for consultation between geographically separated clinicians. This involves:

a) Telemonitoring: Use of Audio-visuals, electronic signal/information processing and telecommunication technologies to monitor the patient’s such details as measurements taken from devices such as blood pressure cuff, blood oxygen, thermometer, stethoscope, weigh scale, blood glucose, meter, etc.

b) Telediagnosis: Detection of a disease by observation and evaluation of the patient data acquired and transmitted from the equipment/devices monitoring the remote patient.

c) Telementoring: Using telemonitoring an expert consultant guides a distant clinician in a new medical procedure.

Data acquisition and transfer

Data can be transferred in two ways: store-and-forward and real-time interactive video. The choice depends on the clinical setting, purpose of the consultation, infrastructure and economic considerations. Emerging rends in remote monitoring and diagnosis Electronic patient record. An Electronic patient record (EPR) are the electronically stored health information about any individual uniquely identified by an identifier which entails capturing, storing, retrieving, transmitting and manipulating patient specific healthcare data (including clinical, administrative and biographical data).

Home Telecare: The home telecare solution allows visual assessment of the patient, tracking of vital signs and review of the medications remotely,eliminating the need for the physician to be the physically present or the patients who may otherwise be unable to receive them due to geographic distance barriers. thus it holds a great promise in managing the health needs of individuals living in rural and remote areas. The home telecare system comprises a home care unit serving as the video interface, a camera and a gateway.

Emergency care: These devices have the ability to telematically “bring in” an expert emergency, allowing him to review the vital signs and issue directions on patient managements and treatment procedures to the emergency personnel until the patient is administered first aid and the hospital. This results in effective patient management, as the patient and initiate the treatment immediately. Medical Images and waveform can even be downloaded, stored, displayed and exchanged on personnel digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones, so these can be accessed at any time, anywhere to aid remote diagnosis and referrals.

Smart cards: Smart cards act as a portable, comprehensive and accurate source of up-to-date patient information. These can provide basic medical information about the patients, such as lists of drug sensitivities, current conditions being treated, name and phone number of the patients’s doctor and other information vital in an emergency. These can also carry vital medical history and details about insurance coverage. Remote diagnostics and related decision-making process can be integrated efficiently as the patients could carry the repository of information wherever he/she goes to receive treatment.

Telesurgery: Telesurgery is the provision of surgical care over a distance, with direct, real-time visualization of the operative field. it may be categorized into telepresence surgery and telerobotics. telepresence surgery uses a computerized interface to transmit a surgeon’s actions at the surgical workstations to the operative site at the remote surgical unit, with haptic feedback about the tactic environment of the operative fields to the surgeon. Telerobotics is remote control with a robotic arm, usually in conjunction with a laparoscope, without haptic feedback. In the future, though telemedicine will take some time to be available to ordinary people, it will have the greatest impact in the area of home healthcare, since the efficiencies realized are unimaginable.

The Solar System

Solar System means system of the sun. All bodies under the gravitational influence of our local star, the Sun, together with the Sun, forms the solar system. The largest bodies, including Earth revolving around the sun are called planets. Often smaller cool bodies, called satellites and moons, orbit a planet. Bodies smaller than planets that orbit the sun are classifieds as Asteroids if they are rocky or metallic from the region between Mars & Jupiter, Comets if they are mostly ice & dust, and Meteoroids if they are very small.

Our Solar System

How Big is Our Solar system ?

To think about the large distances, we use a cosmic ruler based on the astronomical unit(AU). 1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun, which is about 150 million kilometres. the area of the Sun’s influence stretches far beyond the the planets, forming a giant bubble called the heliosphere. The enormous bubble of the heliosphere is created by the solar wind, a stream of charged gas blowing outward from the Sun. As the Sun orbits the center of the milky way, the bubble of heliosphere also moves ahead of itself in interstellar space through the interstellar gases. The area where the solar wind is abruptly slowed by pressure from gas between the stars is called the termination shock. That was observed when Voyager 1 began sending unusual data to Earth in late 2003. In December 2004, thats how scientists confirmed that Voyager 1 had crossed the termination shock at about 94 AU, approximately 13 billion kms from the sun,venturing into the vast, turbulent expanse where the Sun’s influence diminishes. Voyager 2, 16 billion kilometres from Voyager 1, crossed the termination shock in August 2007. Voyager 1 may reach in interstellar space sometime between 2014 & 2017; when voyagers exit the enormous Oort Cloud, a vast spherical shell of icy bodies surrounding the solar system.

Galaxies

Solar System: As we know it

A Solar system refers to a star and all the objects that travel in orbit around it. Our Solar system consists of the sun – our Star – Eight planets and their natural satellites (such as our moon); dwarf planets; asteroids and comets. Our solar system is locally in an outward spiral of the Milky Way galaxy.

Like early explorers mapping the continents of our globe, astronomers are busy charting the spiral structure of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Using infrared images from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists have discovered that the Milky Way’s elegant spiral structure is dominated by just two arms wrapping off the ends of a central bar of stars. Previously, our galaxy was thought to possess four major arms. This annotated artist’s concept illustrates the new view of the Milky Way, along with other findings presented at the 212th American Astronomical Society meeting in St. Louis, Mo. The galaxy’s two major arms (Scutum-Centaurus and Perseus) can be seen attached to the ends of a thick central bar, while the two now-demoted minor arms (Norma and Sagittarius) are less distinct and located between the major arms. The major arms consist of the highest densities of both young and old stars; the minor arms are primarily filled with gas and pockets of star-forming activity. The artist’s concept also includes a new spiral arm, called the “Far-3 kilo-parsec arm,” discovered via a radio-telescope survey of gas in the Milky Way. This arm is shorter than the two major arms and lies along the bar of the galaxy. Our sun lies near a small, partial arm called the Orion Arm, or Orion Spur, located between the Sagittarius and Perseus arms.

Our Solar System Consists of-

  • Planets:8 – The planet count in our solar system has gone as high as 15 before new discoveries prompted a fine tuning of the definition of a planet.
  • Dwarf planets:6 – This new class of worlds helps us categorize objects that orbit the Sun but aren’t quite the same as the rocky planets and gas giants of our solar system. There could be hundreds more of these small worlds far out there waiting to be discovered.
  • Moons:173 – This Counts includes only the moons orbiting the eight planets in our solar system. it is likely there are more moons orbiting the giant planets of our solar system and there are moons orbiting around dwarf planets and asteroids.
  • Asteroids:645,118 – New asteroids are discovered on an almost daily basis. it is estimated that the mineral wealth of the asteroid in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter is about $100,000,000 for every person on Earth.
  • Comets:3,279 – orbiting spacecraft such as SOHO have raised this tally in recent years by catching the comets as they plunge towards the Sun – and sometimes vaporize. Scientists estimated there could be as many as 1,000,000,000 comets held in the gravitational grip of the Sun.

Universe or Multiverse

A number of scientific enquirers suggest our universe may be one in a collection of other universes, possibly an infinite number of universes spreading through other dimensions of time and space. Although these ideas are speculative at the moment, the large Hadron Collider in Switzerland is searching for evidence of multiple dimensions. And ESA’s Planck satellite will be looking for the evidence of inflation. if either finds it is looking for, the possibility of multiple universes will become stronger. The new theory postulates that, just after the creation of the universe, space expanded hugely, driven by fluctuations in energy that once they began were rather had to stop. Not only did our universe grow, but so did countless others in a chain reaction that continues to this day. These other universes would bud off from our own and be completely observable to us. they would bud new ones, creating an endless cascade. The idea of multiple universes crops us again in theoretical efforts to understand why we exist. It also points to how the forces of nature are related to one another, suggesting that reality may consists of 11 dimensions, not just the three that are familiar.

How old is the Universe?

According to the best measurements ever taken of the radiation left over from just after the Big Bang, the universe is a little older and perhaps a bit stronger than previously thought.the data from the Planck satellite combined a map of the remnant glow that largely affirms scientists theories about the universe’s early history. but the results also reveal a few quirks. Launched by the European Space Agency in 2009, the Planck satellite scans the sky for the cosmic microwave background, radiation that dates back to about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. That radiation was originally about 2,700 degree Celsius but has cooled to a mere 2.7 degrees above absolute zero. Planck is essentially a supersentitive thermometer that can probe the temperature of this radiation to millionths of a degree. that extraordinary precision allowed researchers to map tiny temperature fluctuations in the radiations across the entire sky. Now, that cosmologists do have access to the map, they can make many conclusions about how the universe has evolved

The yellow spots in the map are about one part in 100,000 hotter than the average temperature, while the blue spots are slightly colder. These subtle perturbations in the early universe eventually grew into stars and galaxies.

Dark Matter Mystery

Most of the universe is made up of dark energy, a mysterious force that drives the accelerating expansion of he universe. the next largest ingredient is dark matter, which only interacts with the rest of the universe through its gravity. normal matter, including all the visible stars, planets and galaxies, makes up less than 5% of the total mass of the universe. Astronomers cannot see dark mater directly, but can study its effects. They cans see lights bent from the gravity of invisible objects (called gravitational lensing). they can also measure that stars are orbiting around in their galaxies faster than they should be. This can all be accounted for if there were a large amount of invisible matter tied upon each galaxy, contributing to its overall mass and rotation rate.

The Make-up of the Universe

What Exactly it is ?

Astronomers know more about what dark matter is not than what is is. Dark matter is dark: It emits no light and cannot be seen directly, so it cannot be stars or planets. Dark matter is not clouds of normal matter , normal matter particles are called baryon. If dark matter were composed of baryons. it would be detectable through reflected light. Dark matter is not antimatter: Antimatter annihilates matter on contact, producing gamma rays. Astronomers do not detect them. Dark matter is not black holes : Black holes are gravity lenses that bend light. Astronomers do not see enough lensing events to accounts of dark matter that must exist. Particle colliders such as the large Hadron Collider. Cosmology instruments such as WMAP and Planck. Direct detection experiments including CDMS, XENON, Zeplin, WARP, ArDM and others. Indirect detection experiments including; Gama ray detectors (Fermi from space and Cherenkov telescopes from the ground ); neutrino telescopes (IceCubes, Antares); antimatter detectors( Pamela, AMS-02) and X-ray and radio facilities.

.

India – The National Insignia

India measures 3214 km from north to south and 2933 from east to west with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq. km. It has a land frontier of 15.200 km and a coastline of 7516.5 km. Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and lakshadweep in the Arabian sea are parts of India. the Country shares its political borders with Pakistan & Afghanistan on the west and Bangladesh and Burma on the east. the Northern boundary is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. India is separated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

National Emblem

The state emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath lion, at the capital of Ashoka the Emperor, as preserved in the Sarnath Museum. The Government of India adopted the emblem on 26th January 1950, the day when India became a republic. In the State emblem adopted by the government, only three lions are visible, the fourth been hidden from the view. The wheel appears in the relief in the center of the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the left and the outlines of the other wheel on the extreme right and left.the bell shaped lotus has been omitted. the words “Satyameva Jayate” from the Mundaka Upanishads meaning “Truth alone triumphs” inscribed below,the abacus of the emblem in Devanagari script is also referred to as the National Motto.

National Emblem of India

The National Flag

The National Flag is a horizontal tri-colour of deep saffron (Kesari) (Representing Courage and Sacrifice) at the top, White (peace and truth) in the middle and Dark green (Faith and Chivalry) at the bottom at equal proportion. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 2:3. In the center of white band is a wheel, in navy blue. Its design is that of the wheel (Chakra) which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka. Its Diameter approximates the width of the white band, it has 24 spokes. The Design of the national flag was adopted by the constituent assembly of India on 22nd July, 1947. Its use and display are regulated by a code.

National Anthem

Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India. It was originally composed as Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata in Bengali by polymath Rabindranath Tagore. The first stanza of the song Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India as the National Anthem on 24 January 1950. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes approximately 52 seconds. It was first publicly sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta (now Kolkata) Session of the Indian National Congress. The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in the information sheet issued by the government of India for general information and guidance. The approximate duration of the Full Version of National Anthem of India is 52 seconds and 20 seconds for shorter version.

National Anthem of India

National Song

The song Vande Mataram composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee has an equal status with Jana Gana Mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the INC.

National Song of India

National Calendar

At the time of Independence , the govt, of the India followed the Gregorian calendar based on the christian era. The National Government adopted the recommendation of the Calendar Reform Committee that the Saka era be adopted as the basis of the National Calendar. The Saka year has the normal 365 days and begins with Chaitra as its first month. The days of the Saka Calendar have a permanent correspondence with the dates of the Gregorian Calender, Chaitra 1 falling on March 22 in a normal year and on March 21 in a leap year. The national Calender commenced on Chaitra 1 Saka, 1879 corresponding to to March 22, 1957 AD.

National Flower

Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn) is the national Flower of India. It is sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian Culture since time immemorial. India is rich in Flora. Currently available data places India in the 10th position in the world and 4th in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70% geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plant have been described by the Botanical Survey of India(BSI).

Lotus – National Flower of India

National Animal

The Combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned Tiger, (Panthera tigris), its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight species known, The Royal Bengal Tiger, is rare.

Royal Bengal Tiger

National River

the Ganga or Ganges is the longest river of India flowing over 2510 kms of mountains Valleys and plains. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalaya as the Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by Alakananda, Yamuna, Son, Gomti, Kosi and Ghagra. The Ganga river basin is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of the world and covers an entire area of 1.000.000 sq.km The Ganga is revered by Hindu as the most sacred river on earth.

River Ganga

National Tree

Indian fig tree, (Ficus bengalensis) whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large areas. The roots then gives rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristics and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is a n integral part of the myths and legends of India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and thevillage counil meets under the shade of this tree.

Banyan Tree

National Fruit

Magnifera indica, The mango tree is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruit trees pf the tropical world. its juicy fruit is the rich source of Vitamin A, C & D. In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial.

Mango

National Bird

The Indian Peacock, (Pavo cristatus), the national bird of India, is a colorful bird, with beautiful velvet feathers and slender neck. The male of the species more colorful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and spectacular bronze-green tail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish and slightly smaller than the male and lacks the tail, The dance of the male fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight.

Peacock

National Sport

Hockey is India’s national game. India won the first Olympic history gold in 1928, in Amsterdam, beating the Netherlands 3-0 India’s hockey team is the most successful team ever in the Olympics, having won eight gold medals in 1928, 1932, 1936, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1964 and 1980. India also has the best overall performance in Olympic history with 83 victories out of the 134 matches played.

Hockey

Indian Standard Time (IST)

India has only one standard time, India is 5.5 hours ahead of GMT/UTC, 4.5 hours behind Australian eastern Standard time and 10.5 hours of American Eastern Standard time.

National Monument

India gate, one of the largest war memorials, situated in the heart of New Delhi, is the national monument of India. It was erected in memory of 90,000 soldiers who lost their lives fighting in the world war 1 and Afghan war for the British army. It was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyebs. Earlier it was called All India War Memorial.

India Gate

National Aquatic animal

River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered species in India. River Dolphin is critically endangered species in India. It has been put in Schedule 1 of the Wildlife protection Act, 1972. Poaching., degradation of its habitat, siltation, pollution and reduced flow of river water are said to be the reasons for its depletion.

River Dolphins

National Currency

The symbol is a combination of both Devanagari letter ”Ra” and Roan letter “R” with a stripe cutting at the middle to represent the tricolor. it also means equality.

National Heritage Animal

In order to enhance the population of this mammalian species the Ministry of the Environment has declared Asiatic Elephants as the National heritage Animal.

Elephants
India

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose – A Born Leader

It is the story of a young dreamer that tells the saga of consciousness, struggle and success in every eye; one who has the power to rip the ground with his arms; one who talks about making a hole in the sky; one who is anxious to achieve his goals; one who does not accept anything for free; and if he wants freedom, he is ready to spill his blood.

 

Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as “Netaji”, a great militant, freedom fighter and patriot was born at Cuttack, Orissa on January 23, 1897 to Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. Janakinath was a well- known lawyer. Prabhavati Devi was a religious and God-fearing woman.He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda’s teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. Subhash Chandra was a brilliant student from the very beginning and was first in the merit list of successful students in the matriculation examination.Bose did his graduation from Presidency College, Kolkata. He went to England in September 1919 for higher studies. He was selected for the Indian Civil Service but returned to India without completing his training to take part in the freedom struggle.

Bose’s selfless contribution to India’s Independence Movement and organizing and leading the Indian National Army is indispensable. His struggle of Independence was highlighted during the Civil Disobedience Movement for which he had even been arrested. In fact, he was imprisoned 11 times for his ideologies and the use of force against the British. Bose was elected the president of the Indian National Congress twice but he resigned from the post as he was against the congress internal and foreign policy.  Subhash Chandra favored complete freedom of India at the earliest while the Congress was in favor of freedom in phases in the beginning. He was also against India’s joining the Second World War as an ally of the British. This led to differences with Gandhiji, and so he resigned from the President-ship of the Congress and set up the Forward Block.Soon, he left the party and went out of the country seeking an alliance with other countries to fight against British forces. He earned the support of the Japanese and they agreed to help him in forming the Indian national army in Southeast Asia. Later on, he became the commander of the INA. The Indian National Army attacked the North-eastern parts of India. This attack took place under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose and he was even successful in acquiring a few portions of the north-eastern parts of India. Unfortunately, the surrender of the Japanese forced him to withdraw and call off the war.

Subhash Chandra launched an all-India anti-British Campaign in September, 1939. He was arrested in July, 1940. Later he was put under house-arrest, but then he disappeared in the guise of a Pa than and reached Berlin, Germany in November, 1941.He reached Malaya and established Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauz by recruiting Indian prisoners of war. In June, 1943, he visited Japan to have support of the Japanese government in the freedom struggle of India. On October 21, 1943, he became the commander of the Indian National Army in Singapore and began his military struggle against the British. He also established the Provisional Government of Free India there. In December, 1943 he occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In December 1944 the Indian National Army crossed the Burma-India Border and reached Kohima and then Imphal. But the surrender of the Japanese forced him to withdraw and call off the war. It is believed that he lost his life in a plane-crash on August 18, 1945 at the Taihoku airport, Formosa. Subhash Chandra was one of the greatest freedom-fighters and patriots and the Pride of Bengal. He became a legend in his life-time as a great leader, fiery orator and organizer. He was sent to prison eleven times during 1920-1941.

After his mysterious disappearance from his house, where he was under arrest, he appeared in Kabul and again disappeared until he surfaced in Germany. From there he started publishing and broadcasting on air to help the struggle for freedom.He was promised help in his armed struggle by Germany. Then he traveled to Japan facing all the dangers posed by the Second World War. He became the commander of the Indian National Army and freed the islands of Andaman and Nicobar and renamed them as Swaraj and Saheed Islands.”Delhi Chalo” (March Delhi) becomes the battle cry of the Indian National Army and they were soon across the Indian border in Manipur but then the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the surrender of the Japanese army changed the whole course of events. Therefore, he decided to return to Tokyo to decide his further course of action, but unfortunately, his plane crashed near Taipei and he achieved martyrdom at the young age of 48 years. But the country took the news of his death with disbelief and still there are thousands and thousands of Indians who believe that he is alive.

In popular Media,

  • In 2004, Shyam Benegal directed the biographical film, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero depicting his life in Nazi Germany (1941–1943), in Japanese-occupied Asia (1943–1945) and the events leading to the formation of Azad Hind Fauj. The film received critical acclaim at the BFI London Film Festival, and has garnered the National Film Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration, and the National Film Award for Best Production Design for that year .
  • In 2017, ALTBalaji and BIG Synergy Media, released a 9-episode web series, Bose: Dead/Alive, created by Ekta Kapoor, a dramatized version of the book India’s Biggest Cover-up written by Anuj Dhar, which starred Bollywood actor Rajkummar Rao as Subhas Chandra Bose and Anna Ador as Emilie Schenkl. The series was praised by both audience and critics, for its plot, performance and production design.
  • Gumnaami is an 2019 Indian Bengali mystery film directed by Srijit Mukherji, which deals with Netaji’s death mystery, based on the Mukherjee Commission.

The Ministry of railways of India renamed one of the oldest running trains of India, Kalka Mail as Netaji Express from 23 January 2021.

Netaji was a great adventurer as well. His military exploits, unmatched patriotism and exemplary bravery have made him a role model for the young men and women of India. He still lives within our hearts and minds and works as a leading light and source of inspiration.

“By freedom I mean all-round freedom, i.e. freedom for the individual as well as for the society; freedom for the rich as well as for the poor; freedom for men as well as for women; freedom for all individuals and for all classes.” -Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

“We should have but one desire today – the desire to die so that India may live – the desire to face a martyr’s death, so that the path to freedom may be paved with the martyr’s blood”. -Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Netaji was a true Inspiration and has enlighten our world with his Ideologies & Beliefs. He is a Forever Legend and we all are eternally in debt to him for his sacrifice towards our motherland. He will remain in our hearts and thus will lead an immortal life forever.

Swami Vivekananda – An Eternal Youth

A western admirer once described Swami Vivekananda as being ‘young in years but eternal in wisdom’. if you accept this ecstatic statement at this face value, it establishes the relevance of Swami Vivekananda’s philosophy today.

Vivekananda, original name Narendranath Datta, Datta also spelled Dutt, (born January 12, 1863, Calcutta (now Kolkata) died July 4, 1902, near Calcutta), is a Hindu spiritual leader and reformer in India who attempted to combine Indian spirituality with Western material progress, maintaining that the two supplemented and complemented one another. At the age of eight in 1871, Vivekananda was enrolled at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s Institution and later at the Presidency College in Calcutta. He was exposed to Western philosophy, Christianity, and science. He had an interest in music both instrumental as well as vocal. He was active in sports, gymnastics, wrestling, and bodybuilding. He was also fond of reading and till the time he had completed his graduation from the college he had acquired a vast knowledge of various subjects

Swami Vivekananda’s inspiring personality was well known both in India and in America during the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth. The unknown monk of India suddenly leapt into fame at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago in 1893, at which he represented Hinduism. His vast knowledge of Eastern and Western culture as well as his deep spiritual insight, fervid eloquence, brilliant conversation, broad human sympathy, colorful personality, and handsome figure made an irresistible appeal to the many types of Americans who came in contact with him. People who saw or heard Vivekananda even once still cherish his memory after a lapse of more than half a century.

Man-making — His mission

Swami Vivekananda’s relevance depends not on the nature of the problems we face but on the spirit with those problems have to be tackled. his stress on man himself, for, given the right kind of man, no problem need be daunting. ‘Man-making is my mission’, he used to say. Indeed, a country’s future depends upon its people-how good, intelligent and capable they are.

Character-building through Education

Character building is one of the main and fundamental objectives of education. In ancient times, education was for the formation of character.He considered character building to be the most important objective of education. He believed that religious, character and moral qualities should be inculcated in the students through education. It was his academic opinion and plan to develop the characteristic qualities in the students from the Upanayan Adi Sanskars at the beginning of the education and to reach the full
level through the entire code of conduct of Brahmacharyashram. To him, Man Acharya means a Guru whose conduct remains to be followed by all the disciples. Acharya means a living embodiment of the code of ethics. The Acharya teaches the children the rituals of Sandhya, Upasana, Snan, Achaman, Pranayama etc. The life and thoughts of the Acharya in the Gurukul remain a great source of character building of the disciples. The working people, who had long been neglected and had no access to education, should now receive special attention so that they could quickly overcome their initial drawbacks. He wanted education to reach out to them rather than they come to education. Swamiji believes that the contribution of parents in shaping the character of a child is
especially important. The work of the Acharya proceeds on its foundation. Parents as well as principals have a major role to play in the character building of the disciple – in the training of body, mind and soul.

The natural tendency of Vivekananda’s mind, like that of his Master, Ramakrishna, was to soar above the world and forget itself in contemplation of the Absolute. But another part of his personality bled at the sight of human suffering in East and West alike. It might appear that his mind seldom found a point of rest in its oscillation between contemplation of God and service to man. Be that as it may, he chose, in obedience to a higher call, service to man as his mission on earth; and this choice has endeared him to people in the West, Americans in particular.

In the course of a short life of thirty-nine years (1863-1902), of which only ten were devoted to public activities-and those, too, in the midst of acute physical suffering-he left for posterity his four classics: Jnana-Yoga, Bhaji-Yoga, Karma-Yoga, and Raja-Yoga, all of which are outstanding treatises on Hindu philosophy. Swami Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna Mission on 1 May 1897 for one’s own salvation and for the welfare of the world. In addition, he delivered innumerable lectures, wrote inspired letters in his own hand to his many friends and disciples, composed numerous poems, and acted as spiritual guide to the many seekers, who came to him for instruction. He also organized the Ramakrishna Order of monks, which is the most outstanding religious organization of modern India. It is devoted to the propagation of the Hindu spiritual culture not only in the Swami’s native land, but also in America and in other parts of the world.

Swami Vivekananda thus gave a spiritual basis to Indian nationalism. Vivekananda was an avatara , a divinely inspired and God-appointed leader, not only for Man in India, but also for the whole of humanity in the present age. In conclusion, Vivekananda was the most eminent figure among the democratic patriots of India.

Rabi & Kharif Crops

Definition of Rabi Crop

Rabi crops are also referred to as Winter crops. They grow during the winter season which is between October and March. The term ‘Rabi’ means spring. Thus, as you know, the harvesting time for Rabi crops happens during the spring season. Unlike Kharif crops, Rabi crops do not need a lot of water. Thus, they make do with routine water irrigation in order to flourish.

 For instance, they include Wheat, Barley, Pulses, Gram, and more. In addition, farmers also sow seeds of Mustard, Cumin, Sunflower, Rapeseed, and more during this season.

Rabi Crops

Definition of Kharif Crop

Kharif Crops grow during the rainy season which is between June and October. Thus, we also refer to them as Monsoon crops. Unlike Rabi crops, these crops require water in abundance in order to grow. That is why the farmers sow them during the onset of monsoon. Consequently, they harvest them at the end of September or in October. However, these crops are totally dependent on the rainfall’s pattern and timing. Thus, some states sow them a bit early than other states depending on the arrival of monsoon.

For instance, Rice, Sugarcane, Cotton, Pulses, Bajra, and more are examples of these crops.

Kharif Crop

Water Requirements of Rabi & Kharif crops in Different Seasons of India

Water is one of the most important inputs essential for the production of crops. Hence crop planning should be done considering as per (Water requirement and Availability of water).

Water Requirements – The water requirement of crops is that quantity of water required by the crops within a given period of time for their maturity and it includes losses due to evapotranspiration plus the unavoidable losses during the application of water and water required for special operations such as land preparation, and leaching. The quantity of water needed for irrigation on different soil types per meter depth of soil profile at 50% of soil moisture availability is as follows – Sandy soils (25-50 mm), Sandy-loam (45-80 mm), Loam (70-110 mm), Clay-loam (80-120 mm) and Heavy clay (100-140 mm).

The water requirement of different crops is given below-

Rice – The amount of water required for growing rice is varies widely under different conditions:-

[1000 – 1500 mm – Heavy soils high water table, Short duration variety, Kharif season].

[1500 – 2000 mm – Medium soils, Kharif or early spring season].

[2000 – 2500 mm – Light soils, Long duration varieties during Kharif, Medium duration varieties during summer].

Rice

Wheat – It requires about 4-5 times irrigation. The dwarf wheat needs more wetness and the optimum moisture range is from 100-60% of availability. For tall wheat the optimum-moisture range is from the field capacity to 50% of availability.

Wheat

Barley – About 2-3 times irrigation are adequate and the optimum soil moisture ranges from the field capacity to 40% of availability.

Barley

Maize – The optimum soil moisture range is from 100-60% of availability in the maximum root-zone, which extends from 40-60 cm on different soil types. In the northern parts 2-3 times irrigation are required before the onset of the monsoon. In Karnataka 2-5 times irrigation are necessary during Kharif and Rabi respectively. At Rajasthan 4 times irrigation (500 mm of water) are required during Kharif.

Maize

Sorghum and Other Millets – The optimum moisture range is from the field capacity to 40% of the availability. At boot stage and grain development, the water requirement is very important.

Sorghum
Types Of Millets

Pulses or Grain Legumes – When grown alone, 1 or 2 times irrigation would be beneficial. The grain legumes (gram, lentil, pea and Indian bean) are irrigated for 2 or 3 times during their growth.

Pulses

Oilseeds – The crops are generally grown under rain fed conditions. Groundnut – 8 to 10 times irrigation of about 50mm each are applied at 10-15 days interval during its growth period. Sunflower, Mustard and Linseeds are grown alone are mixed with cereals should receive 3 or 4 times irrigation during their growth.

Cotton – The optimum moisture range of soil moisture for the crop is from the field capacity to 20% of availability in 0-75 cm of the root-zone. Water requirements varied from 400-800 mm under different conditions and about 4-7 irrigation are required for cotton.

Cotton Plant

Jute – The optimum moisture regime is from the field capacity to 70% of availability in the maximum root-zone of the crop which can extend to about 45 cm of soil depth.

Carpets made of Jute

Sugarcane – The optimum soil moisture for sugarcane has been found to be 100-50% range of availability in the maximum root-zone, extending upto 50-75 cm in depth. In the north, the crop is planted during February-March and irrigated till the commencement of the monsoon.

Fresh sugarcane in garden.

Tobacco – For cigar, hookah and bidi, tobacco the optimum moisture regimes are from the field capacity to 70, 60 and 50% of the availability respectively. Cigar tobacco needs light and frequent irrigation during 4 months. For hookah tobacco, 12-13 times irrigation of 50 mm of water is required.

Tobacco Plants

Forage Crops – The optimum moisture range is from field capacity to about 75% of availability. Berseem requires about 20 times irrigation during its growth at intervals of about 20 days (December-January), 15 days (November-February-March) & 10 days (September-October-April). For Lucerne 1800 to 2000 mm of water require during the first year of growth.

Vegetables – The soil moisture should range between 70-80% of availability in the maximum root-zone. Potato needs water at intervals of 10-12 days. Onion and Garlic need very frequent irrigation about 3 weeks before maturity the irrigation is delayed to enhance the keeping quality of the bulb. Tomato needs irrigation at intervals of 10-12 days during summer and 15-20 days during winter. The optimum moisture regime is from 100-50% of the availability in case of cabbage and cauliflower. Water-melon and musk-melon need water at intervals of 8-10 days. Other crop of cucurbitaceae family needs irrigation at intervals of 10-12 days during summer.

Different types of Vegetables

Spices and Condiments – Important crops are turmeric, ginger, chillies, ajwan, cumin and coriander. Turmeric and ginger should be irrigated to maintain 100-60% of the available moisture in the maximum root-zone, the top 50 cm of the soil. Chillies should be irrigated to maintain 100-50% of the available moisture to about 60 cm in the soil. Coriander, cumin and ajwan need irrigation at intervals of 10-12 days on light soil and 15-20 days on heavy soils

Different types of Spices

Fruit-trees – For fruit trees soil moisture should be maintain in the range of 100-75% of availability. On the full development of the root-zone down to 75-90 cm, the crops may be irrigated when 2/3 times of the available moisture is depleted during blossoming, fruit settings are fruit enlargement. Papaya and banana needs irrigation at intervals of 8-10 days in a tropical climate. The date palm needs regular irrigation during flowering and fruiting to produce good yields.

Different Types of Fruits

Coffee – To irrigate coffee after the cessation of the monsoon rains during flowering to avoid flower shedding is of profitable.

Coffee & Coffee Beans

When the land does not receive any irrigation, the cultivator takes single crop in Kharif season on the available moisture in the soil. If the soil is heavy, a second crop in Rabi season after a short duration crop in Kharif season, but two seasonal or perennial crops is not beneficial. When irrigation becomes available the cropping plan can include heavy perennials like sugarcane and banana, light perennials like guava or orange, two seasonal crops like long staple cotton, chillies, turmeric etc. besides Kharif and Rabi seasonal crops and also follow double cropping such as groundnut green gram, black gram etc. Followed by wheat or rabbi Jowar, Kharif Jowar or cotton followed by wheat, gram or some vegetable to seasonal crop followed by summer groundnut or some vegetable crop.

Rivers of India

The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, as well as provide livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country.

Seven major rivers (Indus, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi) along with their numerous tributaries make up the river system of India.

All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds;

  • The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges
  • Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India
  • Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India

Based on the topography, the river systems of India can be classified into four groups.

  • Himalayan Rivers
  • Deccan Rivers
  • Coastal Rivers
  • Rivers of the Inland Drainage Basin

The Himalayan Rivers – The Himalayan Rivers receive input from rain as well as snowmelt and glacier melt and, therefore, have continuous flow throughout the year. The main river systems in Himalayas are those of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna. The Indus rises near Mansarovar in Tibet. Flowing through Kashmir, it enters Pakistan and finally falls in the Arabian Sea near Karachi. Bhagirathi and Alakhnanda are two important rivers that originate in Garhwal Himalayas. . These join at Devprayag to form Ganga which is the most sacred river of India. This river traverses through Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal and thereafter enters Bangladesh. Yamuna River is an important tributary of Ganga and its own important tributaries are Chambal and Betwa. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet where it is known by the name Tsangpo. It enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and after traversing through Assam, enters Bangladesh. The combined Ganga-Brahmaputra River meets Meghna in Bangladesh and their huge volume of water flows into the Bay of Bengal.

The Deccan Rivers – The Rivers of Deccan can be further classified in two groups: west flowing rivers and east flowing rivers. The Narmada and the Tapi rivers flow westwards into Arabian Sea. The important east flowing rivers are the Brahmani, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Pennar, and the Cauvery. These rivers fall into the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi, rising in the state of Madhya Pradesh, is an important river in the state of Orissa. The Krishna rises in the Western Ghats and flows east into the Bay of Bengal. The Krishna is the third longest river in India. The source of the Cauvery is in the state of Karnataka and the river flows south eastward. The Narmada and the Tapi are the only major rivers that flow eastward into the Arabian Sea.

The Narmada rises in Madhya Pradesh and crosses the state, passing swiftly through a narrow valley between the Vindhya Range and spurs of the Satpura Range. It flows into the Gulf of Khambhat (or Cambay).

The Coastal RiversThere are numerous coastal rivers which are comparatively small. While only handful of such rivers drains into the sea near the deltas of east coast, there are as many as 600 such rivers on the west coast. The West Coast Rivers are important as they contain as much as 14% of the country’s water resources while draining only 3% of the land.

Rivers of the Inland Drainage Basin – The Rivers of the inland system, centred in western Rajasthan state, are few and frequently disappear in years of scant rainfall. A few rivers in Rajasthan do not drain into the sea. They drain into salt lakes or get lost in sands with no outlet to sea.

The rivers of India can be classified on the basis of origin and on the type of basin that they form.

On the basis of Origin: Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular Rivers.

Himalayan Rivers -The main Himalayan river systems are the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river systems. The Himalayan Rivers form large basins. Many rivers pass through the Himalayas. These deep valleys with steep rock sides were formed by the down – cutting of the river during the period of the Himalayan uplift. They perform intense erosional activity up the streams and carry huge load of sand and silt. In the plains, they form large meanders and a variety of depositional features like flood plains, river cliffs and levees. These rivers are perennial as they get water from the rainfall as well as the melting of ice. Nearly all of them create huge plains and are navigable over long distances of their course. These rivers are also harnessed in their upstream catchment area to generate hydroelectricity.

Peninsular Rivers – The main peninsular river systems include the Narmada, the Tapi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Mahanadi river systems. The Peninsular Rivers flow through shallow valleys. A large number of them are seasonal as their flow is dependent on rainfall. The intensity of erosional activities is also comparatively low because of the gentler slope. The hard rock bed and lack of silt and sand does not allow any significant meandering. Many rivers therefore have straight and linear courses. These rivers provide huge opportunities for hydro-electric power.

The Indus River System – The Indus originates in the northern slopes of the Kailas range in Tibet near Lake Mansarovar. It follows a north-westerly course through Tibet. It enters Indian Territory in Jammu and Kashmir.

The main tributaries of the Indus in India are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej

  • Jhelum – The Jhelum originates in the south-eastern part of Kashmir, in a spring at Verinag.. It follows the Indo-Pakistan border flowing into the plains of Punjab, finally joining the Chenab at Trimmu.
  • Chenab – The Chenab originates from the confluence of two rivers, the Chandra and the Bhaga, which themselves originate from either side of the Bara Lacha Pass in Lahul. It is also known as the Chandrabhaga in Himachal Pradesh. It is further joined by the Ravi and the Sutlej in Pakistan.
  • Ravi – The Ravi originates near the Rohtang pass in the Kangra Himalayas and follows a north-westerly course. It flows as a part of the Indo-Pakistan border for some distance before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab River. The total length of the river is about 720 km.
  • Beas – The Beas originates in Beas Kund, lying near the Rohtang pass. It runs past Manali and Kulu, where its beautiful valley is known as the Kulu valley. It joins the Sutlej river near Harika, after being joined by a few tributaries. The total length of the river is 615 km.
  • Sutlej – The Sutlej originates from the Rakas Lake, which is connected to the Mansarovar Lake by a stream, in Tibet. Its flows in a north-westerly direction and enters Himachal Pradesh at the Shipki Pass, where it is joined by the Spiti river.  It turns west below Rupar and is later joined by the Beas. It enters Pakistan near Sulemanki, and is later joined by the Chenab. It has a total length of almost 1500 km.

The Narmada River SystemThe Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India, and is a total of 1,289 km long. Its total length through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat amounts to 1312 kilometres (815 miles), and it empties into the Arabian Sea in the Bharuch district of Gujarat.

The Tapi River System – The Tapi is a river of central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with the length of around 724 km, and only the Tapi River along with the Narmada River, and the Mahi River run from east to west. It rises in the eastern Satpura Range of southern Madhya Pradesh state emptying into the Gulf of Cambay of the Arabian Sea, in the State of Gujarat.

The Godavari River System – The river with second longest course within India, Godavari is often referred to as the Vriddh (Old) Ganga or the Dakshin (South) Ganga. The river is about 1,450 km (900 miles) long. It rises at Trimbakeshwar, near Nasik and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) in Maharashtra around 380 km distance from the Arabian Sea and empties into the Bay of Bengal. It is a seasonal river, widened during the monsoons and dried during the summers

The Krishna River System – The Krishna is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). It originates at Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, passes through Sangli and meets the sea in the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh. The Krishna River flows through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Its most important tributary is the Tungabhadra River, which itself is formed by the Tunga and Bhadra rivers that originate in the Western Ghats.

The Kaveri River System – The Kaveri (also spelled Cauvery or Kaveri) is one of the great rivers of India and is considered sacred by the Hindus. This river is also called Dakshin Ganga. It flows generally south and east for around 765 km, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths. Its basin is estimated to be 27,700 square miles (71,700 km²), and it has many tributaries including Shimsha, Hemavati, Arkavathy, Kapila, Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani, Noyyal and famous Amaravati.

The Mahanadi River System – The Mahanadi is a river of eastern India. The Mahanadi rises in the Satpura Range of central India, and flows east to the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi drains most of the state of Chhattisgarh and much of Orissa and also Jharkhand and Maharashtra. It has a length of about 860 km. Near the city of Sambalpur; a large dam – the Hirakud Dam – is built on the river.

RIVERS OF INDIA

Science & Technology

Developments and their Applications and effects in everyday life

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of explanations and predictions about nature and the universe. It is the study of nature and behavior of the physical and natural world through the scientific method. It is also defined as the observation, identification, description, experimental, investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. Whereas, Technology is the collection of techniques and processes used in the production of goods or services or the accomplishment of objectives such as scientific investigation. It includes methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. The world around us behaves according to scientific laws. Scientists have discovered many of these laws, and are making new discoveries all the time. We develop technology using our understanding of science and the forces, such as magnetism, gravity and electricity, which shape our lives. Whenever we turn on a light, log on to internet or speak with our friends or relatives on a mobile phone, it has all been made possible by science.
Technology for Mankind

The World Around us

Everything, from water or air to a whale or a mobile phone, is made of tiny particles called atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms, which are in turn made of smaller parts called subatomic particles. Two or more atoms join together to make a molecule. The things around us are solids, liquids or gases depending on the arrangement of the atoms and molecules inside them.

Structure of an atom

Forces and movement

Things move only when a force is applied to them. Forces are pushes or pulls in a particular direction. A flag blows when the wind pushes it. A door opens when you pull it. Animals move when their feet push against the ground, their wings push against the air or their fins push against the water around them. Forces always work in pairs. They push and pull in opposite directions. When pairs of forces are equal they are said to be balanced. Tug of war teams remains still when each pulls with the same strength. A team falls when one side is stronger and the forces are unbalanced. Forces are also balanced when things move at one speed in the same direction. Things slow down and stop because of an opposing force. One of these forces is friction. Friction happens when tiny bumps on two surfaces rub against each other. Rough surfaces, such as concrete, create more friction than smooth surfaces, such as glass. People use high-friction materials like rubber on shoe soles to stop people slipping when they walk.
A rocket takes off when the force from the engine pushing it up is greater than the force of gravity pulling it down.
Boy kicking a football
A bicycles’ brakes use high-friction rubber to slow the wheels down

Light and Dark

The earth’s biggest source of light is the sun. Heat and light energy created by the sun travels through space in straight lines called rays at almost 300,000 kilometres per second. The Earth spins right around once a day, changing which parts of globe get sunlight. This creates day & night. Other things that radiate, or give off, light include electric light bulbs, candles and television series. Shadows happen in places where an object stops light from getting through. Materials that light shines through fully are said to be transparent. Translucent materials let only a little light through. Opaque materials do not let any light through at all.  The shape of a shadow depends on the shape of the object blocking the light. If an object is moved closer to light source, its shadow gets bigger because it blocks more light rays. All surfaces reflect light but, if they are bumpy, the light rays are reflected in all directions.Mirrors are made from very smooth surfaces that reflect the rays back in the same pattern as they hit it, creating a clear image of object. Words reflected in a mirror appear back to front, as if they were facing away from us and we were looking through the page.
Mirrors reflecting images
We make our own light in cities when the Sun goes down at night.
Shadow

Colours

There are seven colours in a rainbow and they always come in the same order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Light from the sun may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colours. When tiny drops of water in the air split white sunlight into its different colours, we see a rainbow. Gases and dust in the atmosphere make the different colours in sunlight scatter so the sky changes colour. By day, the atmosphere scatters blue light towards earth so the sky looks blue. At sunset, when sunlight has more atmospheres to travel through before it reaches the surface of the earth, red light is scattered so the sky looks orangey red. People print colour images and words on paper using just four coloured inks: yellow, cyan (blue), magenta (red) and black. Paper is printed with tiny dots of different amounts of each ink. Our brain cannot distinguish that dots we see separately, but instead, blends them together to make different blocks of different colours

A glass prism splits bright sunlight into all the colours of a rainbow
Orange Skies

Sound

Sound is a disturbance of the air made when something, such as a string, vibrates, or moves back and forwards quickly. The vibration makes the air moves in waves. Our ears detect the moving air and our brains distinguish it as a sound. High sounds, such as notes from a flute, are made by short sound waves. Low sounds, such as a tuba’s notes, are made by long ones. Sound vibrations travel way from the thing that makes them. The vibrations spread out in all directions like the ripples in a pond after you throw in pebble. The wider the vibrations spread, the smaller they become and the quieter the sound. Big vibrations, on the other hand, makes lots of energy that pushes lots of air, creating loud sounds. Sounds are measured in units called decibels. The quietest sounds, such as a leaf falling, are around 0-10 decibels. The loudest sounds, such as a rocket launch, are just less than 200 decibels. Noises above 90 decibels are dangerous to listen to because the strong waves of air can damage the sensitive insides of your ears. Echoes are the repeated noise we hear when sound waves bounce off solid objects, such as a cliff or the inside of a tunnel. If the object is close by, the waves reflect so quickly we cannot hear the echo as a separate sound. Bats use echoes to get around in the dark. They make squeaks and listen to the echoes to work out how far away things are and how big they are.

Bats use echoes to find their prey in the dark
The skin on a drum vibrates when it is banged, producing a sound
We can only just hear leaves falling, but an aeroplane taking off makes a sound that is so loud it can damage our ears.

Electricity

Electricity is a type of energy formed from tiny particles inside atoms called electrons. These electrons can move from one atom to another and this movement is electrical energy. Electricity powers many machines, from torches and mobile phones to television and computers. It moves, or flows, into machines through materials called conductors, which include metal wires. Mains electricity is produced in power stations by machines called generators. Fuel, such as coal, is burned in the power station to turn water into steam. The steam turns a turbine (a set of large circular blades), which rotates magnets inside the generator, producing electricity. The electricity flows through wires to sockets in our homes. Batteries are useful for supplying small amounts of power to portable or mobile machines without the need to plug into wall sockets. Batteries are stores of chemicals that create a flow of electrical energy. Some batteries run out when the chemicals are used up, but rechargeable batteries regain their stored electrical when plugged into a socket. Switches work by controlling the flow, or current, of electricity through machines.Electricity can only flow through a circuit, which is a continues loop of wire. A switch is rather a gate that can open or close to break or complete the circuit.

Digital Technology

It includes computer, digital cameras, MP3 players and mobiles. These records, store, send and process electronic signals as digital information. Digital means that the electrical signals are either ‘on’, ‘1’, or ‘off’, ‘0’. The 1s and 0s form a code that can represent any type of information. Microchips work using tiny electrical circuits. The circuits are built on paper-thin chips of silicon, a material that is very good at conducting electricity (allowing electricity to pass through it). A single microchip a contain thousands of circuits, allowing it to process lots of digital information. Microchips mean that computers and other digital devices can be small and light.