Universe or Multiverse

A number of scientific enquirers suggest our universe may be one in a collection of other universes, possibly an infinite number of universes spreading through other dimensions of time and space. Although these ideas are speculative at the moment, the large Hadron Collider in Switzerland is searching for evidence of multiple dimensions. And ESA’s Planck satellite will be looking for the evidence of inflation. if either finds it is looking for, the possibility of multiple universes will become stronger. The new theory postulates that, just after the creation of the universe, space expanded hugely, driven by fluctuations in energy that once they began were rather had to stop. Not only did our universe grow, but so did countless others in a chain reaction that continues to this day. These other universes would bud off from our own and be completely observable to us. they would bud new ones, creating an endless cascade. The idea of multiple universes crops us again in theoretical efforts to understand why we exist. It also points to how the forces of nature are related to one another, suggesting that reality may consists of 11 dimensions, not just the three that are familiar.

How old is the Universe?

According to the best measurements ever taken of the radiation left over from just after the Big Bang, the universe is a little older and perhaps a bit stronger than previously thought.the data from the Planck satellite combined a map of the remnant glow that largely affirms scientists theories about the universe’s early history. but the results also reveal a few quirks. Launched by the European Space Agency in 2009, the Planck satellite scans the sky for the cosmic microwave background, radiation that dates back to about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. That radiation was originally about 2,700 degree Celsius but has cooled to a mere 2.7 degrees above absolute zero. Planck is essentially a supersentitive thermometer that can probe the temperature of this radiation to millionths of a degree. that extraordinary precision allowed researchers to map tiny temperature fluctuations in the radiations across the entire sky. Now, that cosmologists do have access to the map, they can make many conclusions about how the universe has evolved

The yellow spots in the map are about one part in 100,000 hotter than the average temperature, while the blue spots are slightly colder. These subtle perturbations in the early universe eventually grew into stars and galaxies.

Dark Matter Mystery

Most of the universe is made up of dark energy, a mysterious force that drives the accelerating expansion of he universe. the next largest ingredient is dark matter, which only interacts with the rest of the universe through its gravity. normal matter, including all the visible stars, planets and galaxies, makes up less than 5% of the total mass of the universe. Astronomers cannot see dark mater directly, but can study its effects. They cans see lights bent from the gravity of invisible objects (called gravitational lensing). they can also measure that stars are orbiting around in their galaxies faster than they should be. This can all be accounted for if there were a large amount of invisible matter tied upon each galaxy, contributing to its overall mass and rotation rate.

The Make-up of the Universe

What Exactly it is ?

Astronomers know more about what dark matter is not than what is is. Dark matter is dark: It emits no light and cannot be seen directly, so it cannot be stars or planets. Dark matter is not clouds of normal matter , normal matter particles are called baryon. If dark matter were composed of baryons. it would be detectable through reflected light. Dark matter is not antimatter: Antimatter annihilates matter on contact, producing gamma rays. Astronomers do not detect them. Dark matter is not black holes : Black holes are gravity lenses that bend light. Astronomers do not see enough lensing events to accounts of dark matter that must exist. Particle colliders such as the large Hadron Collider. Cosmology instruments such as WMAP and Planck. Direct detection experiments including CDMS, XENON, Zeplin, WARP, ArDM and others. Indirect detection experiments including; Gama ray detectors (Fermi from space and Cherenkov telescopes from the ground ); neutrino telescopes (IceCubes, Antares); antimatter detectors( Pamela, AMS-02) and X-ray and radio facilities.



Parallel universe… Science fiction or scientific fact, I don’t know the answer for that, but certainly, the very idea of parallel universes sparks our wildest imaginations. If there is another universe with different outcomes of every decision ever made by us in this universe, might there be a way to access that world? A better life each one hopes for, and with the possibility of multiverses, this hope strengthens, that one day we would be able to transport ourselves there. Movies like “Star Trek”, “Dark”, “Avengers: Infinity wars” “Stranger Things” have bolstered such ideas.There are some shreds of evidence that advocate the existence of multiverses. We all know how we emerged from Big bang, an unknown force caused it to expand and as the expansion settled somewhat light began to emerge, the smaller pieces coalesced into bigger particles like Galaxies, stars, and planets. But the question arises, are we the only universe out there? Since the universe is curved, it looks like we are sitting in a fishbowl the only difference is that our universe is constantly expanding, and therefore we aren’t able to look beyond the bowl, if there is something beyond the bowl.
Some theories that advocate the existence of multiverse are-

  • Infinite universes- We don’t know what the shape of space-time is exactly. One prominent theory is that it is flat and goes on forever, and therefore it is possible that universes can start repeating themselves since particles can only be put together in so many ways. This would present the possibility of many universes being out there.
  • Mathematical universes- Another possible avenue is exploring mathematical universes, which, simply put, explain that the structure of mathematics may change depending on which universe you reside in. A mathematical structure is something that you can describe in a way that’s completely independent of human baggage, thus there could be a universe out there that can exist independently of me that would continue to exist even if there were no humans.
  • Parallel universes- And last but not least as the idea of parallel universes. Going back to the idea that space-time is flat, the number of possible particle configurations in multiple universes would be limited to 10^10^122 distinct possibilities, to be exact. So, with an infinite number of cosmic patches, the particle arrangements within them must repeat — infinitely many times over. This means there are infinitely many “parallel universes”: cosmic patches the same as ours (containing someone exactly like you), as well as patches that differ by just one particle’s position, patches that differ by two particles’ positions, and so on down to patches that are different from ours.
  • Daughter universes- Or perhaps multiple universes can follow the theory of quantum mechanics (how subatomic particles behave), as part of the “daughter universe” theory. If you follow the laws of probability, it suggests that for every outcome that could come from one of your decisions, there would be a range of universes – each of which saw one outcome come to be. Like in Schrodinger’s cat experiment, in one universe, the cat would be alive and in other, it won’t. 
  • Bubble universes- Another theory for multiple universes comes from “eternal inflation.” Based on research from Tufts University cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin, when looking at space-time as a whole, some areas of space stop inflating like the Big Bang inflated our universe. Others, however, will keep getting larger. So if we picture our universe as a bubble, it is sitting in a network of bubble universes of space. What’s interesting about this theory is the other universes could have very different laws of physics than our own, since they are not linked.

These are still hypotheses, and we are a long way before we can conclude anything about the presence of multiverses. But ignoring the possibilities would make us kind and we don’t do that in science. Researchers are working still to prove any of the hypotheses, Antarctica has got a station to look for evidence, as in theory already many noble minds have predicted multiverses.

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