Study of Tractors – Mostly Used Farm Machine


Tractor, an engineering vehicle, was specially designed to provide a high torque or tractive effort within the low speed, to haul machinery or trailer used in construction or agriculture. The tractor is a special farm machine that helps a wide array of agricultural equipment to complete many roles assign on the farm. Tractors are important tools for farmers in another world we can say that modern farm is incomplete without a tractor. Tractor helps the farmers to cut down extra costs for resources, which is the main purpose to use tractors by farmers. Farm tractor technology helped push up yields and producers get the rewards of higher fuel efficiency.


The word “TRACTOR” is derived from Latin word “TRAHERE” or “TRACT” which means something that pulls. The first powered farm implements in the early 19th century were portable engines – steam engines on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machinery by way of a flexible belt. Richard Trevithick designed the first ‘semi-portable’ stationary steam engine for agricultural use, known as a “barn engine” in 1812, and it was used to drive a corn threshing machine. The truly portable engine was invented in 1893 by William Tux ford of Boston, Lincolnshire who started manufacture of an engine built around a locomotive-style boiler with horizontal smoke tubes. In the 1850s, John Fowler used a Clayton & Shuttle worth portable engine to drive apparatus in the first public demonstrations of the application of cable haulage to cultivation.

“1882 Harrison Machine Works steam-powered traction engine”


  1. Utility Tractors
  2. Row Crop Tractors
  3. Orchard Type Tractors
  4. Industrial Tractors
  5. Garden Tractors
  6. Rotary Tillers
  7. Implement Carrier
  8. Earth Moving Tractors

Utility Tractors – A low- to medium-horsepower tractor; used primarily for pulling auxiliary equipment, but also used in construction with attachments for trenching, dozing, breaking, etc.

Row Crop Tractors – A general-purpose or row-crop tractor is tailored specifically to the growing of crops grown in rows, and most especially to cultivating these crops. These tractors are universal machines, capable of both primary tillage and cultivation of a crop.

Orchard Type Tractors – The orchard tractor is a type of tractor that is used in vineries and orchards. These tractors are built to navigate and manoeuvre in small areas or fields These are a special type of tractor used in orchards only. They are usually very high and tall so that the user can sit on the tractor and still pick the fruits or trim the trees. Outside of the surface of the tractor, it is clear, which means that you can get in and around all of the trees without a hassle. Best of all, they can be used in various types of orchards, regardless of what you’ve planted there, whether it is fruit trees or grapes.

Rotary Tillers – These are “walking type” tractors and are usually used in smaller fields and those that are at different height levels. These are places where ordinary equipment often doesn’t work efficiently, yet rotary tillers are small enough to get into small spaces and over hills with ease. A rotary tiller is essentially a motorized cultivator that works by the rotation of blades or tines in order to work the soil. It takes the soil, even hard, chunky soil, and creates a fine, clod-free bed of soil. After you use this equipment to “till” the soil, your garden bed is ready to be planted with any type of seeds you wish to plant.

Industrial tractors – Industrial tractors were once called Tuggers, and they are used to pull loads. In fact, most industrial tractors are not even made for agricultural use, but instead, they are used in factories while pulling things. They come in various models and horsepower strengths.

Garden tractors – Garden tractors tend to have a very small construction size. They are used more for grass-cutting tasks than anything else, or for creating new flower beds in your garden. Garden tractors have wheels that are roughly the size of a scooter’s wheels but are much thicker.

Earth-moving tractors – Earth-moving tractors have to be quite strong and extremely heavy, and they come in both tire and track types. If you’re working on a construction site, including work on dams and quarries, an earth-moving tractor can be a lifesaver.
They move earth to dig holes for basements and new construction, in addition to numerous other tasks, and even though they are expensive they are always built to last. They are used to move and relocate things such as dirt, debris, rocks, mud, or even lumber.

Implement Carrier Tractors – These types of tractors are meant to carry and mount many different types of implements, the chassis frame between the front and rear tires is extended. Therefore, they are able to mount implements that include drills, sprayers, seed drills, rotary sweepers, loaders, and dusters, among others. They come in many different sizes and designs, and the companies that sell them can provide you with the information that you need to make sure that you get the right one.


A tractor is made of following main units:

  1. Clutch
  2. Transmission Gears
  3. Differential Unit and Final Drive
  4. Steering System and Brake Steering System
  5. Hydraulic Control System
  6. Hitch and Control Board of Tractor
  7. Power Take-Off Unit
  8. Belt Pulley
  9. Control Board or Dash Board of a Tractor
  10. Tractor Tyre and Front Axle.

Component 1 – Clutch: Clutch is a device, used to connect and disconnect the tractor engine from the transmission gears and drive wheels.

Component 2 -Transmission Gears: A tractor engine runs at high speed, but the rear wheel of the tractor requires power at low speed and high torque. & Torque Converter: This is also called hydro-kinetic transmission. It is a device used on tractors for transmission of power and for multiplying the torque of the engine. It works as a torque multiplier.

Component 3 – Differential Unit: It is a special arrangement of gears to permit one of the rear wheels of the tractor to rotate slower or faster than the other. While turning the tractor on a curved path, the inner wheel has to travel lesser distance than the outer wheel & Final Drive: It is a gear reduction unit in the power trains between the Differential and the Drive wheels. Final drive transmits the power finally to the rear axle and the wheels.

Component 4 – Steering System: The system governing the angular movement of front wheels of a tractor is called Steering system. This system minimizes the efforts of the operator in turning the front wheel with the application of leverages. & Brake: Brake is used to stop or slow down the motion of a tractor.

Component 5 – Hydraulic Control System: It is a mechanism in a tractor to raise, hold or lower the mounted or semi-mounted equipments by hydraulic means. All tractors are equipped with hydraulic control system for operating three point hitch of the tractor.

Component 6 – Hitch: Implements are needed to be hitched properly for efficient and safe operation of the tractor. Implements can be: 1. Trailed 2. Semi-mounted and 3. Mounted.

Component 7 – Power Take-Off Unit (PTO): It is a part of tractor transmission system. It consists of a shaft, a shield and a cover.

Component 8 – Belt Pulley: All tractors are provided with a belt pulley. The function of the pulley is to transmit power from the tractor to stationary machinery by means of a belt. It is used to operate thresher, centrifugal pumps, silage cutter and several other machines

Component 9 – Control Board or Dash Board of a Tractor:

The control board of a tractor generally consists of:

  • Main Switch: When the main switch is on, the electric current flows in the electrical circuit.
  • Throttle Lever: This lever is for increasing or decreasing the speed of the engine.
  • Decompression Lever: This lever releases compression pressure from the combustion chamber of the engine and helps to start the engine.
  • Hour Meter: This meter indicates the engine hour as well as engine revolution per minute.
  • Light Switch: Light switch is for light points only.
  • Horn Hutton: This is for horn of the tractor
  • Battery Charging Indicator: This indicates the charge and discharge of the battery.
  • Oil Pressure Indicator: This indicates the lubricating oil pressure in the system.
  • Water Temperature Gauge: This indicates the temperature of water of the cooling system.

Component 10 – Tractor Tyre: The tyres are available in many sizes with the ply ratings as 4, 6 or 8. The ply rating of tyres indicates the comparative strength of tyres. The higher the rating, the stronger are the tyres. The inflation pressure in the rear wheels of the tractor varies between 0.8 to 1.5 kg/cm . The inflation pressure of the front wheel varies from 1.5 to 2.5kg/cm &
Front Axle: Front axle is the unit on which front wheel is mounted. This wheel is an idler wheel by which tractor is steered in various directions.


Farm tractor designs and styles differ greatly. Tractors are often used on a daily basis for the several agricultural and non agricultural tasks by attaching or operating the light, medium to heavy implements, equipments and machineries according to the requirement and HP of tractors.

The major application of farm tractors for Agricultural and Non Agricultural sectors are given below :-


Preparing the field by attaching different implements, equipments and machinery for tilling, disking, harrowing, levelling and forming of beds, bunds, furrow & ridges.

Application of organic manure in line or rows by attaching a trailer and organic manure applicator.

Spraying of pesticides in field crops and tress by operating different types of sprayers.

Pumping the ground, canal, river, open well, pond or stored water by operating pumps.

Crushing of sugarcane by operating sugarcane crusher


Removing the snow by attaching snow blower and grader.

Generating electricity by operating the Alternator/Generator.

Using for defence & airport applications to tow baggage.

Powering of building and road construction equipments.

Breaking of rock with tractor mounted pneumatic compressors.


A tractor can act as a best friend to a farmer. In a country like India where farming and agriculture is the leading occupation of the people, a tractor plays a vital role in the life of a farmer. It can deliver several advantages to the farmers and make the task of farming easier. As an efficient machine, it helps the farmer to comprehensively carry out the various works related to the farming. Therefore, with a tractor, you as a farmer in India can expect good profits in the case of farming.