Poverty is the state of not having enough material possessions or income for a person basic needs. Poverty may include social, economic, and political elements. Absolute poverty is the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs, such as food, clothing, and shelter. Poverty is linked with negative conditions such as substandard housing, homelessness, inadequate nutrition and food insecurity, inadequate child care, lack of access to health care, unsafe neighborhoods, and under resourced schools which adversely impact our nation’s children.
There are several definitions of poverty, and scholars disagree as to which definition is appropriate for India. Inside India, both income-based poverty definition and consumption-based poverty statistics are in use.Outside India, the World Bank and institutions of the United Nations use a broader definition to compare poverty among nations, including India, based on purchasing power parity (PPP), as well as a nominal relative basis. Each state in India has its poverty threshold to determine how many people are below its poverty line and to reflect regional economic conditions. These differences in definitions yield a complex and conflicting picture about poverty in India, both internally and when compared to other developing countries of the world.
More than 800 million people in India are considered poor. Most of them live in the countryside and keep afloat with odd jobs. The lack of employment which provides a livable wage in rural areas is driving many Indians into rapidly growing metropolitan areas such as Bombay, Delhi, Bangalore or Calcutta. There, most of them expect a life of poverty and despair in the mega-slums, made up of millions of corrugated ironworks, without sufficient drinking water supply, without garbage disposal and in many cases without electricity. Poor hygiene conditions cause diseases such as cholera, typhus and dysentery, which affects children more.
Poverty in India impacts children, families and individuals in a variety of different ways through:
High infant mortality
Lack of education
HIV / AIDS
Since the 1950s, the Indian government and non-governmental organisations have initiated several programs to alleviate poverty, including subsidising food and other necessities, increased access to loans, improving agricultural techniques and price supports, promoting education and family planning. These measures have helped eliminate famines, cut absolute poverty levels by more than half, and reduce illiteracy and malnutrition.
Around 75 million more people in India fell into poverty last year because of the pandemic-induced economic recession, compared with what it would have been without the outbreak, an analysis by Pew Research Center showed on Thursday. That number in India accounts for nearly 60% of the global increase in poverty in 2020, the analysis showed. It defined the poor as people who live on $2 or less daily.
India has achieved annual growth exceeding 7 per cent over the last 15 years and continues to pull millions of people out of poverty, according to the World Bank. The country has halved its poverty rate over the past three decades and has seen strong improvements in most human development outcomes, a report by the international financial institution has found. Growth is expected to continue and, the elimination of extreme poverty in the next decade is within reach, said the bank, which warned that the country’s development trajectory faces considerable challenges.
A country blessed with enormous species, spices, and reserves, popularly known as Incredible India is the only place holding the largest democracy. The opportunity to be the Prime Minister of such a vast country is nothing less than a blessing. I would have put in every effort to take the nation to the top.
Although it is gifted, no country is without flaws. The position which it holds today is due to all the accomplishments it acquired after conquering the obstacles posed by the foreign invaders.
The biggest problem nationwide is poverty. I would have taken the first step to eradicate it with the help of education. Promising infrastructure and equipment at government schools would have been capitalized for the needy. Without any discrimination, the students of government and private schools would have been taught by world-class teachers in a friendly environment. Therefore, following the saying, “education is the key to success” would have been applied for the bright future of Indians.
The next step would be taken for the graduates to aid them with suitable jobs based upon the skills rather than merits. Officials would be appointed to keep a check upon the data and ensure everyone is getting equal rights. The money earned through jobs would be in turn used in the economy as consumption of resources. And considering that the basic necessities like shelter, food, and clothes would be fulfilled at minimal costs and good quality. Hence, the cycle of economy will be balanced properly.
The nation depends upon assets, and ensuring the safety and health of the working class is essential. High taxes will be levied from the wealthy and accustomed to building techno-savvy devices for hospitals and the defense army. In all, it will lead to proportional distribution of resources.
Governing the region is not a one-time investment but a moving process that should be revised with time. All the hands would be joined, within the five years in which I will be employed.
It has been observed that India is a rich country inhabited by the poor. This paradoxical statement underlines the fact that India is very rich, both in material and human resources, which have not been properly used and exploited so far.
Poverty amidst plenty seems to be the main problem of India. The majority of our population lives in rural areas. But following the rapid growth in the number of large cities and towns, there has been migration from rural areas to these cities and urban industrial complexes on an unprecedented scale. It has not helped much in the alleviation of the rural poverty. Obviously, unless our efforts and planning are rural-oriented, nothing appreciable can be achieved. ‘Go rural’ should be our watchword.
Over 80% of the income of the rural poor is spent on food and the expenditure on shelter is also very high. The urban poor also spend almost the same proportion of their income on these two items. The remainder is too meager to meet their demands of clothing, health, education, and entertainment, etc. The purchasing power of the Indian rural masses is miserably low. They are unable to afford even the basic needs of life. The problem of economic inequality and improper distribution of national income has been a chronic one. Consequently, the rich are becoming richer and the poor more poor. The growth in industry and agriculture in the past few years has further encouraged concentration of wealth and resources in the hands of a few. What is needed are radical changes in our planning and implementation of schemes to remove all these inequalities, distortions and imbalances in the distribution of national income and resources.
We must ensure land- reforms, self-reliance, quick redressal of the grievances of the weaker and vulnerable sections, like landless labourers, scheduled castes and tribes and the womenfolk. We should ensure that these weaker sections of the society are liberated from the vicious grip of the money-lenders, big farmers and landowners. Effective planning is the only way to eradicate poverty. There should be no faltering and hesitation in the implementation of our planning. Soon after our independence, we launched our Five Year Plans, which have yielded good dividends. Consequently, there has been self-sufficiency in food grains.
The Indian farmers are now ready to take risks because they are sure of speedier supply of agricultural inputs, modern irrigation facilities, quicker and easier loan and credit facilities by the government. And yet we cannot rest on our laurels. As far as pulses and oil-seeds are concerned, self-sufficiency is still to be achieved. Moreover, our population is growing very fast. The growth rate in food production has barely kept ahead of the growth of our population. The per capita availability of food grains in India has not risen appreciably. As far as fine and superior varieties of grains like wheat and rice are concerned, our achievement^ have been really laudable. But in coarse grains, like maize, barley, bajra, and jowar, etc., there have been no significant achievements; it only means that the interest of the poor masses has not been adequately served. They mostly consume coarse grains as their purchasing power is very low.
The Community Development Programme, started in 1952, should be further strengthened and expanded. This programme has helped significantly in development of villages. The scheme chiefly aims at providing more employment ,production by the application of latest methods of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, and fisheries, etc., and the establish-mend of subsidiary and cottage industries.
The whole country has been divided into a large number of community development blocks, with each one of these having about a 100 villages under it. Thousands of officials, administrators and gramsevaks have been engaged in the scheme. Consequently, there has been significant improvement but we still have a long way to go.
In a country like India, with a population of more than a billion people and a population growth rate of about 2.2%, the poverty eradication programme is bound to be arduous and long drawn. Over 35% of our population is estimated to be living below the poverty line, in spite of the fact that the main emphasis of our Five Year Plans has been on poverty eradication, modernisation of the economy and industry and self-reliance. For example, the main objectives of the Seventh Plan, beginning in 1985, were growth in food-grain production, increase in employment opportunities and rise in productivity. Obviously, our plans have to play a greater role as an instrument of growth and development in times to come. And this can be done only by greater and enlarged participation of the masses, especially in villages and small towns.
One of the main objectives of our Five Year Plans has been the expansion and creation of more employment opportunities in rural India. To achieve this objective, sufficient funds have been allocated under various employment schemes. For example, under the Jawahar Rozgar Yojna, the various states and Union Territories have been given funds in proportion to the number of people living below the line of poverty. Special consideration has been given to such areas as the hills, deserts and the islands under the scheme.
Further, the devolution of funds to village Panchayats is determined by the proportion of the scheduled castes and tribes and the backwardness of the region. The expenditure under this scheme is to be shared between the Centre and the states, in the ratio of 80: 20. With the involvement of village panchayats in the scheme, wider participation of the rural people is envisaged. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana is the biggest of its kind in the world and a sum of Rs. 2,600 crore was earmarked by the Centre to implement it. The utilization of funds is at the sole discretion of the gram and village panchayats and there will be no state intervention in the matter of selection of projects, etc. Based on decentralised planning, the scheme is bound to help thousands of families living below the poverty line in rural areas. It further shows that democracy is compatible with rural growth and development. In April 1999, a new scheme known as Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana was launched with a plan outlay of Rs. 1000 crore, to eradicate poverty and unemployment.
The economic reform process, now gathering momentum, will further help reduce poverty in villages and towns. The government’s liberalisation policy has helped in rural employment because of the various incentives granted to the industries established in the backward and rural areas of the country. With industrial growth picking up, the picture will be still better. In the long term, the economic and industrial growth will increase the income of the poor substantially. Initially, the results of liberalisation and opening of the Indian economy may not be as appreciable as desired, in terms of poverty eradication and increase in employment for rural people, but ultimately it will result in reduction of poverty. It also ensures reduction in inequalities, because it has been found that distribution of national income and assets under a more open economy is less unequal. Privatisation will also help the government to devote its resources in a better manner to its social obligations.
Therefore, the alleged contradiction between liberalisation, growth and social justice is unfounded. With liberalisation, India is bound to grow rapidly by virtue of its huge natural and human resources. The growth will be marked by improvement in standards of living, removal of poverty to a great extent and emergence of India as a great economic power. Thus, it is clear that eradication of poverty is intimately linked with the raising of productivity and employment, both in agricultural and industrial sectors. As removal of poverty, increase in employment and living standards of the people are our main priorities at this point of time, we shall have to strike a balance between the development of agriculture and industry.
We cannot think of India without villages and agriculture. At the same time, industries cannot be asked to wait. Sometimes it is asked, should we give priority to agriculture over industry, or should industries get priority over agriculture? Perhaps both should go hand in hand in order to make India poverty-free, and an industrial major in the world. Food and agriculture are like the same sides of the coin while industries are the reverse. In the Indian context, both are ultimately interrelated and important. Items produced in mills and factories will be purchased by the masses only when they have enough money to buy them. And our masses in villages depend on agriculture for their livelihood and improvement in their living standards. Consumerism pre-supposes a sound agriculture base and income.
As a general public, we assume thus, uncovering a “inauspicious twofold norm,” discovers an examination distributed for the current month, Inequality in Socially Permissible Consumption.It was composed by Kate Barasz, a Harvard Business School right hand teacher, and Serena F. Hagerty, a PhD up-and-comer in the Business Administration PhD program, an inter-faculty program between the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Harvard Business School. Hagerty and Barasz looked to show this marvel exactly and clarify its causes. In 11 investigations, they tracked down that—comparative with higher-pay workers—individuals with lower earnings were passed judgment on more brutally for what they decided to purchase, in any event, when the two gatherings made indistinguishable buyer choices.It’s an idea Hagerty and Barasz call “admissible utilization,” or what is considered socially satisfactory (or not) for others to buy. As they discover, lower-pay individuals manage the cost of a much smaller scope of “admissibility.”
Such a thought is now unavoidable in mainstream society. For example, Syrian outcasts were disgraced via web-based media subsequent to being shot with cell phones, and government organizations have criticized how lower-pay people spend help assets after catastrophic events. Indeed, even basic foods aren’t protected, Hagerty and Barasz note in the examination. As one model, they highlight an article in the parody distribution The Onion featured, “Lady A Leading Authority On What Shouldn’t Be In Poor People’s Grocery Carts.”
This present examination’s outcomes could have suggestions for everything from social and monetary policy-making to beneficent gifts and regular relational interactions.Such a thought is as of now unavoidable in mainstream society. For example, Syrian outcasts were disgraced via online media subsequent to being shot with cell phones, and government offices have censured how lower-pay people spend help assets after cataclysmic events. Indeed, even basic foods aren’t protected, Hagerty and Barasz note in the examination. As one model, they highlight an article in the parody distribution The Onion featured, “Lady A Leading Authority On What Shouldn’t Be In Poor People’s Grocery Carts.”
As well as showing contrasts in reason-ability, Hagerty and Barasz tried to research why this happens. They found that individuals structure mental pass-ability decisions dependent on how fundamental they think the thing is for the purchaser. The more vital they saw a thing, the more admissible it is deemed.However, even “need” is dependent upon a hazardous twofold norm, as per the analysts. In another examination, members read about the Jacksons, a speculative family searching for another home. Members appraised how vital they believed an assortment of lodging credits to be for the Jacksons including a carport, a free from any danger area, inside dividers in great condition, and regular light. Of the 20 ascribes tried, 17 of them were evaluated as essentially less important for the lower-pay family.
“The hole arose for things like a reasonable floor plan, open air space, and cooling,” Hagerty says. It shows individuals do this in all cases and even with apparently essential conveniences. We appear to accept the poor have more essential fundamental requirements. There’s been a great deal of press inclusion about how broadband web, or the deficiency in that department, has harmed a ton of provincial and lower-pay Americans since they can’t take part in an online school. They’re in a real sense cut off from the world now
We can characterize neediness as the condition where the essential necessities of a family, similar to food, sanctuary, dress, and training are not satisfied. It can prompt different issues like helpless literacy, unemployment, unhealthiness, and so on A needy individual can’t get schooling because of absence of cash and along these lines stays jobless. A jobless individual can’t sufficiently accepting and nutritious nourishment for his family and their wellbeing decrease. A frail individual does not have the energy needed for the work. A jobless individual remaining parts poor in particular. In this manner we can say that neediness is the main driver of different issues.
CAUSE OF POVERTY :
As per the Noble prize champ South African leader, Nelson Mandela –”Destitution isn’t regular, it is artificial”. The above assertion is valid as the reasons for destitution are for the most part man-made. There are different reasons for destitution however the most significant is populace. Rising populace is putting the weight on the assets and financial plan of nations. Governments are finding hard to give food, cover and work to the rising populace.
Different causes are-absence of instruction, war, cataclysmic event, absence of business, absence of framework, political precariousness, and so on For example absence of business openings makes an individual jobless and he can’t acquire enough to satisfy the fundamental necessities of his family and gets poor. Absence of instruction forces an individual for less paying positions and it makes him more unfortunate. Absence of framework implies there are no ventures, banks, and so forth in a nation bringing about absence of work openings. Cataclysmic events like flood, quake likewise add to neediness.
In certain nations, particularly African nations like Somalia, an extensive stretch of common conflict has made neediness far reaching. This is on the grounds that every one of the assets and cash is being spent in battle rather than public government assistance. Nations like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and so on are inclined to catastrophic events like tornado, and so forth These calamities happen each year making neediness rise.
GOVERMENT NORMS TO REMOVE POVERTY :
The public authority of India additionally took a few measures to annihilate neediness from India. Some of them are – creating employment openings, controlling populace, and so on In India, about 60% of the populace is as yet reliant upon agribusiness for its vocation. Government has taken certain actions to advance agribusiness in India. The public authority built certain dams and trenches in our nation to give simple accessibility of water to water system. Government has additionally made strides for the modest accessibility of seeds & farming equipment to advance horticulture. Government is additionally advancing cultivating of money crops like cotton, rather than food crops. In urban areas, the public authority is elevating industrialization to make more positions. Government has likewise opened ‘Apportion shops’. Different measures incorporate giving free and mandatory schooling to youngsters as long as 14 years old, grant to meriting understudies from a helpless foundation, giving financed houses to needy individuals, and so forth.
Destitution is a social insidiousness, we can likewise add to control it. For instance we can essentially give old garments to needy individuals, we can likewise support the instruction of a helpless youngster or we can use our available energy by showing helpless understudies. Recall prior to squandering food, someone is as yet resting hungry.
INRODUCTION:- The situation in which a person remains underprivileged from the basic necessities of life is called poverty. The person does not have an adequate supply of food to eat, shelter to stay, and clothes to wear. Most of the people in India are suffering from poverty. They cannot afford to pay even for a single meal a day. They sleep on the roadside and wear dirty clothes. They do not get healthy and nutritious food. They don’t get any medicine and other necessary things either.
POVERTY IN INDIA:- CAUSES OF POVERTY The rate of poverty in India is increasing because urbanisation is increasing everyday. The people from rural areas are migrating to cities to find better employment. To provide the necessary needs of the family these people end up getting an underpaid job or an activity that pays only for their food. Most importantly, around crores of urban people are below the poverty line and many of the people are on the borderline of poverty.
Maximum people who are suffering in these poverty live in low-lying areas or slums. Most of the people are illiterate and for this reason in spite of efforts their condition remains the same and there is no satisfactory result.
There are many more reasons which can be said as the major causes of poverty in India. These causes include corruption, growing population, poor agriculture, the wide gap between rich and poor, old customs, illiteracy, unemployment and many more. Many people are engaged in an agricultural activity but in comparison to the earnings of other employees they get paid very less.
The more the population is, the more need of food ,houses and money. The deficiency in these needs results in the high growth of poverty. Thus as a result the difference and gaps between the extra rich and extra poor keeps on increasing.
The rich are growing richer and the poor are getting poorer resulting in the formation of an economic gap that is difficult to fill up. EFFECTS Of POVERTY:- Poverty affects the lives of people in many ways. It has various effects like illiteracy, reduced nutrition and diet, poor housing, child labor, unemployment, poor hygiene and lifestyle, and feminization of poverty, etc. These poor people are unable to afford a healthy and balanced diet, nice clothes, proper education, a stable and clean house, etc. because all these facilities require money and they don’t even have money to feed two meals a day.
EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON CHILDREN:- Poverty in India impacts children, families and individuals in a variety of different ways through:
High infant mortality Malnutrition Child labour Lack of education High infant mortality Every year at least 1.4 million children die in India before their fifth birthday. In addition to Nigeria, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and China, India is one of the countries with the highest child mortality rates. Most frequent causes of death of children are Pneumonia, malaria and diarrheal diseases as well as chronic malnutrition.
Malnutrition India is one of the world’s top countries when it comes to malnutrition. In India most of the people cannot afford to pay for even one meal. More than 200 million people don’t get adequate quantities of food among which 61million are children. 7.8 million infants were found to have a birth weight of less than 2.5 kilograms.
Child labour – no time to play and learn As we all know, in India child labour for children under the age of 14 is prohibited by law, 12.5 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are working. In reality, there are more than 65 million children between 6 and 14 years old who do not go to school. Instead, for the sake of their family and to secure survival it is believed that Indian children contribute to the livelihood of their families; they work in the field, in factories, in quarries, in private households and in prostitution.
Lack of education – no opportunities without education According to UNICEF, about 25% of children in India cannot afford education. The number of children excluded from school is higher among girls than boys. Under Indian law, women and men are treated equally but in the lower social caste girls and women are considered inferior. They are dominated by their fathers, brothers and husbands. The chances of finding a living wage from employment in India is virtually hopeless without education.
Due to poverty, many parents encourage early marriages for their daughters in hopes of better lives for them.
THE SOLUTIONS FOR ENDING POVERTY:- For solving the problem of poverty it is necessary for us to act quickly and correctly. Some of the ways of solving these problems are to provide proper facilities to farmers. So that they can make profit from agriculture and do not have to migrate to urban cities in search of employment.
Illiterate people can live a better life if they are provided with required training. Everyone should follow family planning to check the rise in population. We should take measures to end corruption, so that we can deal with the gap between rich and poor.
CONCLUSION:- Poverty is not the problem of a single person but also of the whole nation.. We should deal with it on an urgent basis by taking effective measures. Eradication of poverty has become necessary for the sustainable and inclusive growth of people, society, country, and economy.
The north koreans are starving but they have no choice but to face such starvation . They cannot fight , shout or do anything . They are brutalized every second by the cruel emperor of North Korea . No one is allowed to raise his or her voice against the cruel emperor . They can only suffer under his regime . The problem with this country is that their are so many trade restrictions imposed on this country that no external trade happens in North Korea . Now since China is not allowing any trade with this country so it has resulted in starvation of the people of North Korea . Now they have no choice but to suffer indefinitely .
India is a fast developing country fighting against social, political and economic evils but still there are some more devilry issues that might not be very much visible. Child marriage is one of the serious social concern that needs special attention. In ancient India child marriage was used as a weapon to protect girls from rapes and abduction by foreign rulers. Though it was ancient practice in India, it is still prevalent in many parts of the country. People must evolve to understand the problem and obliterate the outdated practice of child marriage. India stands second in the highest number of child marriages according to the United Nations. As per the Indian law, any girl married off below the age of 18 and any boy married below the age of 21 is termed as child marriage. But the rules are still violated in rural and backward areas of the country. Almost 45% of Indian girls are wedded even before they attain they age of 18. Marriage is a sacred union with the consent of two matured individuals to share all the responsibilities in life. But child marriage is a social evil and its eradication is a laborious task. Child marriage has an effect on other social issues such as quality education, gender equality, access to quality healthcare etc. Girls are most affected in child marriages because of poor socio-economic conditions.
CAUSES OF CHILD MARRIAGE
Low status of women in society.
Financial inability of the family to take care of members. Because of this, they force their girls into marriage.
Many families do not wish to invest on their girl’s education with poor finance. Thus, many girls are illiterate and are then married to adult men.
Child marriage is considered as a tradition and is thus carried on for generations.
PROBLEMS/EFFECTS OF CHILD MARRIAGE
Responsibility- Young children are given a load of responsibilities after marriage that they will not be able to manage. There will be no one to help them out or guide them in their chores.
Teenage life- They lose their fun and freedom that they are supposed to enjoy. This affects their overall growth and turn up to be irresponsible citizens.
Early pregnancy related complications- Child marriage can lead to early pregnancy which gives rise to a lot of complications. It is due to the incomplete development of the reproductive organs. These complications are not good for both mother and baby. Some girls even die after giving birth.
Inability to manage family- The young girls have less abilities to run a family, take of children, managing health and household.
Fall in high fertility age group- When a girl is married at an early age, she normally tends to have more children and unwanted pregnancy. Lack of access to modern medical facilities to avoid or postpone pregnancy, women are forced to have pregnancy and carry the child.
As per the reports of Child Rights and You (CRY), there has been a 40% increase in the child marriages in May 2020 in India during the COVID 19. The government has brought in a lot of schemes such as “Beti Bachao Beti Padhao” and “Balika Samriddhi Yojana” ensuring the survival and protection of girl child. Thus, empowering girl child and providing financial aid to them can provide a solution to child marriage.
Poverty refers to a situation in which a person remain underprivileged from the basic necessities of life. In addition, the person does not have an inadequate supply of food, shelter, and clothes. In India, most of the people who are suffering from poverty cannot afford to pay for a single meal a day. Also, they sleep on the roadside; wear dirty old clothes. In addition, they do not get proper healthy and nutritious food, neither medicine nor any other necessary thing.
The rate of poverty in India is increasing because of the increase in the urban population. The rural people are migrating to cities to find better employment. Most of these people find an underpaid job or an activity that pays only for their food. Most importantly, around crores of urban people are below the poverty line and many of the people are on the borderline of poverty.
Furthermore, there are many reasons that we can say are the major cause of poverty in India. These causes include corruption, growing population, poor agriculture,the wide gap of rich and poor, old customs, illiteracy, unemployment and few more.
the rich are growing richer and the poor are getting poorer creating an economic gap that is difficult to fill up.
Poverty has various effects that include illiteracy, reduced nutrition and diet, poor housing, child labor, unemployment, poor hygiene and lifestyle, and feminization of poverty, etc. Besides, this poor people cannot afford a healthy and balanced diet, nice clothes, proper education, a stable and clean house, etc. because all these facilities require money and they don’t even have money to feed two meals a day then how can they afford to pay for these facilities.
illiterate people should be given the required training so that they can live a better life. To check the rising population, family planning should be followed, providing proper facilities to farmers.
Besides, measures should be taken to end corruption, so that we can deal with the gap between rich and poor.
it is necessary for us to act quickly and correctly. Poverty is a major problem in the World and it have to be solved on a serious note. Our government is taking a large number of steps to reduce poverty. Eradication of poverty would ensure a sustainable and inclusive growth of economy and society. We all should do our best to help alleviate poverty from our country.
The Covid-19 pandemic, which led to a wave of infections in March 2020, brought the whole country to a standstill. Nation-wide lockdown was imposed, and movement of public was restricted. Many of us were fortunate enough to be in the comfort of our own homes, away from harm and any form of risk. But for many unfortunate people of our country, this pandemic just made things a lot harder than they already were.
According to recent studies, the poverty rate of the country, during the first wave in 2020, almost doubled. Crores of people lost their jobs and livelihoods. The pandemic disrupted almost all the industries in the last year, leading to huge job losses across both, the formal and informal sector of the economy. For a nation that managed to reduce the poverty rate from 2011 to 2019, 2020 came as huge blow, and disrupted the progress that the country had achieved.
The number of individuals, that had incomes below the minimum wave threshold income (less than 375Rs), increased by 230 million during the pandemic. Incomes decreased all throughout the country, but the economically weaker section took a larger blow, with the poorest 20% losing their entire income.
During the lockdown, 61% of men remained employed, and 7% lost employment. This ratio was lower for women, where, only 19% remained employed and 47% suffered a permanent job loss during lockdown. Most of the women, who were unemployed, did not return to their work field even after restrictions were lifted.
The reports show that younger workers were much more impacted, they experienced higher losses and of a more permanent nature. Households have coped by reducing food intake, borrowing and selling assets and properties. People had to dig into their meager savings for survival. People have stopped the basics like lentil as food inflation has spiked.
Cut to 2021. Rural Indians which compose the informal workforce have lived with irregular jobs for over one year now. What exactly does one mean by ‘informal work force’? The informal sector consists of low-skilled laborers who are desperate enough to work for miserly wages in order to meet their daily requirements. Due to this constant need of jobs, the employers can control the pay and the work hours which, in some cases, are inhumane and brutal. These informal workers have no safety net to fall back on and hence are in a very dangerous situation.
As per June 1, 2021, India’s economy contracted 7.3 percent, its worst recession since independence. The government has faced growing criticism for focusing on loans to hard-hit businesses rather than direct cash handouts to vulnerable households. The focus, currently, should be to make sure that every citizen of this country is above the poverty line.
Social safety net transfers should be more prevalent, so that during an emergency, the family or individual has funds to fall back on. For employment of women, microfinance loans should be given, but it should be paired with extensive training and knowledge as to how it can help them learn new skills, and in turn help them start earning.
If we don’t make any changes, the second wave of pandemic will paralyze the economically weaker sections, who have just recovered from the first wave of the virus. These are all citizens of this country, and yet, they are being treated differently. Every job is important, and deserves respect and acknowledgement. How can we progress as a nation, if 28% of our population is below the poverty line?
India lifted 271 million people out of poverty in a decade. Poverty is a state of economic status where employment or financial resources of a person isn’t enough to meet the minimum standard of living and basic human needs aren’t met. A person needs basic shelter, food, access to health care and education as these are basic human needs to lead a life. But a poor person does not have access to most of these needs. Though India has pulled millions of people out of poverty but yet the distribution of wealth is extremely uneven across the population. In India, 1 per cent of the population holds 73 per cent of the wealth. Poverty is a problem that all countries are facing but India had done an exceptional job lifting people out of poverty. In India, most poor people who can’t afford food can’t also afford shelter. Over dependency on monsoon with no proper irrigation makes people come to cities which have much stable employment opportunities. Poor people in India depend upon subsidized food rates provided by the government and free food given by organizations and temples. They end up sleeping on the streets with zero access to proper and safe food and basic health care. Urban poverty is higher than in rural poverty. The rural population migrates to cities in search of better job opportunities. Because of the lack of education, most jobs that they find are labour intensive and underpaid. Large numbers of people who live below the poverty line live in slums where there isn’t proper sanitation, infrastructure and no safe access to drinking water. There are multiple causes of poverty is high employment levels. But the main causes of poverty are the lack of funds to invest in education and limited access to bank systems. Corruption, the growing population which means fewer job opportunities, clears dependency on irregular rains for agriculture and illiteracy. A large portion of the population is dependent on agriculture but agriculture doesn’t pay well low agriculture and many crop failure leads to farmers in debt traps some farmers go to banks or some go to other illegal methods. Historical causes are colonialism, slavery and frequent wars. Because the parents aren’t earning the children usually go get jobs. Children get jobs such as waitressing, mining and other such jobs. When the children are working their education is at pause thus the poverty circle continues. The government has incentives like Indira Awas Yojana which provides housing to the poor. The government has mid-day meal schemes to attract children to stay in schools and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act secures the citizens right to work. The state governments offer food, rations as a cheap and subsidized rate to people owning a below poverty line card. There are also government schemes which allow subsidized school rates for people who own a below poverty line card. Poverty is an issue for the entire country. India has an annual growth of 7 per cent for 15 years and has put more than 271 million people out of poverty. Elimination of poverty has been India’s priority and should continue to be.
Poverty is when someone cannot afford the basic necessities of life like food, clothing, shelter and education. It can lead to other problems like poor literacy, unemployment, malnutrition. Poor people are not able to get education due to lack of money and remains unemployed. Unemployed people cannot afford enough and nutritious food for their families and their health declines. A weak person lacks the energy required for the job. A jobless person remains poor only. We can say that Poverty is the root cause of other problems.
United Nations have devised 2 measures to measure Poverty – Absolute poverty and Relative poverty. Absolute Poverty is used to measure poverty in developing countries like India. Relative poverty is used to measure poverty in developed countries like U.S.A. In absolute poverty, a line based on the minimum level of income has been created & is called a poverty line. If per day income of a family is below this level, then it is poor or below the poverty line. If per day income of a family is above this level, then it is non-poor or above the poverty line. In India, the new poverty line is Rs 32 in rural areas and Rs 47 in urban areas.
The government of India also took several measures to eradicate poverty from India. Some of them are – creating employmentopportunities, controlling population, etc. In India, about 60% of the population is still dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. Government has taken certain measures to promote agriculture in India. The government constructed certain dams & canals in our country to provide easy availability of water for irrigation. Government has also taken steps for the cheap availability of seeds & farmingequipments to promote agriculture. Government is also promoting farming of cash crops like cotton, instead of food crops. In cities, the government is promoting industrialization to create more jobs. Government has also opened ‘Ration shops’. Other measures include providing free & compulsory education for children up to 14 years of age, scholarship to deserving students from a poor background, providing subsidized houses to poor people, etc.
Poverty is a social evil, we can also contribute to control it. For example- we can simply donate old clothes to poor people, we can also sponsor the education of a poor child or we can utilize our free time by teaching poor students. Remember before wasting food, somebody is still sleeping hungry.
An innocent child, whose age is to enjoy the best days of his childhood, He/she should see big dreams about his/her future, should be learning new things and grow freely and play carefreely, should be going to school everyday. Is going to work everyday whose shoulders should be carrying a School bag but instead of carrying school bag carrying heavy burden of responsibility. That burden is spoiling his mental and physical health and opportunity to build a better future.
Child labours are exploited, exposed to hazardous work conditions and paid a pittance for their long hours of work. Child labour is very common in many developing countries due to severe poverty and poor schooling. High rate of child labour is still more than 50 percent in which children of 5 to 14 years are working in developing countries. Child lobour are cheap and easily available in developing countries, that’s why they are preferable which is an offence, under Child labour (prohibition and regulation) Act 1986.
The Constitution says that :- a) No child below the age of 14 shall be employed to work in any hazardous employment (Article 24) b) Childhood and youth are to be protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment (Article 39 (f)) c) The State shall endeavour to provide within a period of 10 year from the commencement of Constitution free and compulsory education for all children until they have completed the age of 14 years (Article 45)
Child labour is becoming a big social issue in India which should be resolved on regular basis. This is not only the responsibility of the government, but it also be reconciled by all the social organizations, bosses and guardians. This issue is for everyone which needs to be sorted out personally because it can be with any child of anybody.
Our economy is being ruined between inefficient government and sluggish opposition, if the situation does not improve then we will become the new ‘Untouchables.’
Untouchability has been a stigma for our country for centuries. Ambedkar, who fought for his whole life, claimed that there is enough evidence to suggest that it has been going on since 400 BC and it has always been the way of Indians to live. This is the reason why devout Hindus on one hand and committed inclusionist Gandhi, on the other hand, believed that it is good for us to end this deadly practice. And Nehru, who relied on social justice, had said that India will never reach its true height until we end the caste system and ensure equality for all Indians.
This is the motive that our constitution made untouchability illicit and considered it a punishable offence. But is it over? No. Untouchability is deeply ingrained in our thinking and is seen openly. Its ugliness has recently increased, which has been promoted by some political parties, who want to keep it alive to achieve ruthless majoritarianism.
Now only the lower castes, Dalits, are not suffering. In some parts of India, indigent people belonging to a particular community have become new untouchables. So in some parts, some tribes are the new untouchables, who have been left marginalized by governments to grab their land, forest and mineral wealth.
And now, after this pandemic in the country, we see a new class of untouchables is emerging. These are sick, migrant labourers, unemployed and extremely impoverished people. Their connection with the cities is broken and their villages do not want to take them back because they are unemployed and miserable and additionally there is a risk of health issues.
Today the suffering/affected people are being boycotted openly. Their wives and children are not allowed to be home quarantined as per the regulations. People are getting them out of the village, throwing them along with their family members from trains, refusing to burn in the crematorium when one dies. Dead bodies are being collected in hospital corridors. Nobody wants to accept them, not even own family. The corpses are placed next to the patients being treated. It is like a return to the fierce plague.
But, today who is the frustrated-indigent? No, not the farmers who commit suicide every year due to poverty. Now, these dispirited poor are those who were working in our factories, offices and our homes till back in the days. It also includes small traders, food carts, autorickshaw drivers, small restaurant workers, multiplexes and security guards standing outside malls.
Viruses and lockdowns left them unemployed, homeless and nearly devastated. And now about 14 crores middle-class families have also been associated with them. According to research, their savings will end by the end of July. That is, they will be poverty-stricken.
A recent survey shows that 84 per cent of the households have suffered severe loss of income after lockdown. They are living on their savings right now. By the end of this month, with the increase in rains, many middle-class families will fall into the category of destitute.
They will also be unable to spend on treatment or meet basic family needs. They will have to leave the rented house, sell their goods and borrow money at such a rate, which will become impossible for them to repay later. They are also worried pensioners who relied on interest from the bank, as banks have reduced interest rates.
Those who counted on their children working abroad are also trapped because their children have lost their jobs or lost wages. Meanwhile, the prices of petrol and diesel are continuously increasing, while the prices should have been reduced based on the global trend. This is going to make everything expensive.
Overall, the pace of the wave is not stopping and more and more people will continue to drown. The government is refusing to provide cash in their hands, as some other countries are doing. These are the new untouchables. Nobody has time for these and the government has the least interest in their future or prospect. Instead, govt is making hefty policies of millions for billions, which will never reach out to these people.
An economy that was ready for a better future, is being wrecked.
Education is the best investment one can ever make in life. For a developing nation like India, every child should receive a quality education. It can not only change the health and livelihood of people, but also contribute to long term economic growth and social stability.
However, despite great progress in last few years, lakhs of children are still denied education. The lack of education is a big reason that transmits poverty from generation to generation. The society still doesn’t realize that right to education is a vital human right granted to every citizen.
Although it is true that not every individual without an education is living in extreme poverty, but most of the poor lack education. The ones living below poverty line keep their children out of school, which means their children will also have a greater chance to live in poverty.
Education is considered as a great equalizer which can open door to jobs, skills and resources that a family needs to thrive and survive. Access to good quality education and supporting child well being has been recognized as a solution to poverty. Not just this, it helps the communities to solve other issues that keeps them vulnerable. Not just this, it helps these communities to solve other issues as well that can keep them vulnerable.
Education is directly related to may solutions in terms of poverty, like:
Reduce income inequality
Reduce infant and maternal deaths
Reduce vulnerability to HIV & AIDS
Reduce violence at home and society
According to UNESCO, if all children in low-income nation just get basic reading skills, an estimated 171 million people could come out of poverty. And if all adults receive secondary education, the global poverty could be cut by more than half.
Children are the future of any nation.The children who receive quality education are empowered to grow into mature and skilled adults who are capable of picking employment. Education is the key under which several issues related to health, unemployment, population control and human rights can be solved.
Educated individuals are more likely to escape all troubles of life like ecconomic and social despair. On a larger scale, the rewards of individuals getting education also flow into the society, motivating other, thus can have an impact on the entire country. An educated country always flourishes and always progress far better as they can achieve better healthcare and economic independence. It will make people more independent.
There are many solutions to improve the situation between poverty and education. Teachers should be provided incentives for teaching in low-income zones. Better resources and funding should be provided in school for poor.
All this sums up enabling communities to come out from the state of poverty.