EFFECTS OF POVERTY IN INDIA

INRODUCTION:-
The situation in which a person remains underprivileged from the basic necessities of life is called poverty. The person does not have an adequate supply of food to eat, shelter to stay, and clothes to wear. Most of the people in India are suffering from poverty. They cannot afford to pay even for a single meal a day. They sleep on the roadside and wear dirty clothes. They do not get healthy and nutritious food. They don’t get any medicine and other necessary things either.

POVERTY IN INDIA:-
CAUSES OF POVERTY
The rate of poverty in India is increasing because urbanisation is increasing everyday. The people from rural areas are migrating to cities to find better employment. To provide the necessary needs of the family these people end up getting an underpaid job or an activity that pays only for their food. Most importantly, around crores of urban people are below the poverty line and many of the people are on the borderline of poverty.

Maximum people who are suffering in these poverty live in low-lying areas or slums. Most of the people are illiterate and for this reason in spite of efforts their condition remains the same and there is no satisfactory result.

There are many more reasons which can be said as the major causes of poverty in India. These causes include corruption, growing population, poor agriculture, the wide gap between rich and poor, old customs, illiteracy, unemployment and many more. Many people are engaged in an agricultural activity but in comparison to the earnings of other employees they get paid very less.

The more the population is, the more need of food ,houses and money. The deficiency in these needs results in the high growth of poverty. Thus as a result the difference and gaps between the extra rich and extra poor keeps on increasing.

The rich are growing richer and the poor are getting poorer resulting in the formation of an economic gap that is difficult to fill up.
EFFECTS Of POVERTY:-
Poverty affects the lives of people in many ways. It has various effects like illiteracy, reduced nutrition and diet, poor housing, child labor, unemployment, poor hygiene and lifestyle, and feminization of poverty, etc. These poor people are unable to afford a healthy and balanced diet, nice clothes, proper education, a stable and clean house, etc. because all these facilities require money and they don’t even have money to feed two meals a day.

EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON CHILDREN:-
Poverty in India impacts children, families and individuals in a variety of different ways through:

High infant mortality
Malnutrition
Child labour
Lack of education
High infant mortality
Every year at least 1.4 million children die in India before their fifth birthday. In addition to Nigeria, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and China, India is one of the countries with the highest child mortality rates. Most frequent causes of death of children are Pneumonia, malaria and diarrheal diseases as well as chronic malnutrition.

Malnutrition
India is one of the world’s top countries when it comes to malnutrition. In India most of the people cannot afford to pay for even one meal. More than 200 million people don’t get adequate quantities of food among which 61million are children. 7.8 million infants were found to have a birth weight of less than 2.5 kilograms.

Child labour – no time to play and learn
As we all know, in India child labour for children under the age of 14 is prohibited by law, 12.5 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are working. In reality, there are more than 65 million children between 6 and 14 years old who do not go to school. Instead, for the sake of their family and to secure survival it is believed that Indian children contribute to the livelihood of their families; they work in the field, in factories, in quarries, in private households and in prostitution.


Lack of education – no opportunities without education
According to UNICEF, about 25% of children in India cannot afford education. The number of children excluded from school is higher among girls than boys. Under Indian law, women and men are treated equally but in the lower social caste girls and women are considered inferior. They are dominated by their fathers, brothers and husbands. The chances of finding a living wage from employment in India is virtually hopeless without education.

Due to poverty, many parents encourage early marriages for their daughters in hopes of better lives for them.

THE SOLUTIONS FOR ENDING POVERTY:-
For solving the problem of poverty it is necessary for us to act quickly and correctly. Some of the ways of solving these problems are to provide proper facilities to farmers. So that they can make profit from agriculture and do not have to migrate to urban cities in search of employment.

Illiterate people can live a better life if they are provided with required training. Everyone should follow family planning to check the rise in population.
We should take measures to end corruption, so that we can deal with the gap between rich and poor.

CONCLUSION:-
Poverty is not the problem of a single person but also of the whole nation.. We should deal with it on an urgent basis by taking effective measures. Eradication of poverty has become necessary for the sustainable and inclusive growth of people, society, country, and economy.

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Educate The Underprivileged Children

“The main hope of a nation lies in the proper education of it’s youth.”

– Erasmus

Education is a necessary tool as it plays a vital role in one’s life. It provides us with the skillset to survive and thrive in this world. It shapes our ideas and brains so we can have critical thinking skills; and enables us to differentiate ourselves mindless sheep. Education is essential as it constitutes a means to eradicate the various social evils that prevail and plague our society like poverty, racism, gender discrimination, differentiation based on colour, caste, creed, religion. It’s quintessential in leading a good and healthy life, enabling us to learn and practice rules & regulations while making us responsible citizens of the nation. It is rightly said that education is the foundation upon which we build our future.

Children are inherently valuable as the pillars of the nation, and, therefore its extremely important that they’re encouraged and provided with resources to study & attain good education.

However, as unfortunate as it is, our global culture has stolen the rightful priority of children and placed it squarely on the wants of the adults. Our laws, our media, our investments; all favour the desires of adults first, second, third, and fourth, before ever considering youth. Our adult-centric society takes bets and loans against children, leveraging their future without consent. Thus, it’s essential that we realize that every child should be educated because each child is precious. Even though people have started realizing this gradually, the path of educating the underprivileged and enabling them a means to build a secure future still remains rocky nevertheless.

Awareness still remains an issue as the underprivileged communities are not well aware about education or importance of it, thus, they don’t understand or realize the need to send their children to schools. There’s a severe lack of role models modelling good learning practices and sharing the understanding that schools are indispensable in providing a space where skills are obtained and that the more skills obtained the greater chance at future successes. The next major hindrance is the accessibility to the education institutions. For some, obtaining the inexpensive education resources such as books, copies, pens, etc. too might appear a distant dream. The next impediment lies in the feedback received from those who are educated, yet unemployed or under-employed. This is partly because many educated are, in fact unemployable and others struggle to get a job even when they are employable. In the eyes of parents, therefore, education is either luxury or a palliative. The poor parents cannot afford luxury. The expected value of education, at least from their perspective, remains low.

And thus, due to the aforementioned reasons, the underprivileged communities remain perpetuated in the vicious cycles of poverty and misery for generations altogether. The only way for them to escape from repeating the cycle is acquiring an education and building a safe, secure and stable future on the basis of it.

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“If we nurture the dreams of children, the world will be blessed. If we destroy them, the world is doomed!”

Street children in India

Intoduction

Firstly, the street life is that persons are directly depended on Street or vacant place for the livelihood. Street life is very challenging to the survival to children or even for youth,men,or any other living creatures. They live in cities but they are unable to take those advantage and comfort of urban lifestyle. According to WHO it defines the “street children “as boys and girls aged under 18 years old, for whom “The Street” including unoccupied places and wasteland has become home or their source of livelihood and are inadequately protected or supervised. It is also important to note that the term “Street Children’ also include individual girls and boys of all ages are found living and working in public places and are visible in the great majority of the world’s urban centers. A “Child of street” having no home but the streets. The family may have abandoned him or her or may have no family members alive. It is a common to find the street children at the Bus Stands, Railway Stations, and Traffic Signals etc. women carrying infants and begging. Nowadays, the under passages of the flyovers, metro corridors have become their dwelling places. Not any of the cities or metropolitan areas are exceptions to it. They found in every part of the world. Street children are among the most physically visible of all children, living and working on the roads and public squares of cities. The exact number street children is impossible to quantify, but it is likely to number in the tens of millions or higher, some estimates place in the figure as high as 100 millions. It is likely that the numbers are increasing as the global population grows and as urbanization continues at a pace. In practice, every city in the world has some street children including the biggest and the richest cities by 2015.
Most of the street children are not orphans. Many are still in contact with their families and work on the streets to augment the household income due to poverty. Many others have run away from their homes because of sexual or physical abuse, domestic violence, homelessness etc.The main reason behind this Are :-
1) Neglected children :- Sec.2 (2) of the Children Act 1960 of India defines a “neglected child” as a child who
(i) is found begging
(ii) or is found without having any home or settled place of abode or any ostensible means of subsistence or is found destitute, whether he is an orphan or not
(iii) or has a parent or guardian who is unfit to exercise or does not exercise proper care and control over the child
(iv) or lives in brothel or with a prostitute.
Thus the neglected children are the example of socio-legal issue, which need to be examined.

2) Unwanted children :- who are born outside the wedlock and who are the products of broken homes or relationship.
3) Poverty :- Poverty is also a main reason behind this. When they have not any fundamental object, so they lived as a street boys. According to a study shows that, for most of the children (83%) and their parents are on street due to poverty.


Constitutional provision for safeguard of street children :-
The street children, who form considerable proportion of the world population, are also human beings so need to be cared and protected by all means.
The Constitution of India guarantees several rights to all children. The Special and Guaranteed Articles are:
Article 21.A : The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six (6) to fourteen (14) years. Article 21 A has been inserted in the Constitution by the constitutes (86th Amendment / Act 2002 with effect from 01-04-2010. The Indian Parliament enacted the Rights of Children to free and Education Act 2009
Article 24 : No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any hazardous employment.
Article 39(e) : The state shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing that the health and strength of workers, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.
Article 39(f) : The state shall in, particular, direct its policy towards securing that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.
Article 45 : Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six (6) years. Article 45 was substituted by the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act 2002 with effect from 01-04-2010.
Article 51A (K): Fundamental Duties :- It shall be the duty of every citizen of India (k) “who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be ward between the age of six (6) and fourteen (14) years”.
Article 51 A (K) was inserted by the Constitution (86th Amendment/ Act 2002 with effect from 01-04-2010.
Besides the above said articles, some of the Articles of the Constitution provide and guarantee the Rights of the children equally with the citizens of India just as any other adult male or female.

Suggestion to overcome this problem

Street children in India is a socio-legal issue which needs to be tackled carefully. When we met those children we must inform the police, local NGOs, children care homes etc. We must try to make their rights fulfilled. There are some suggestions to minimize this problem:-

  1. Monitoring, review and reform of policies, programs and laws to ensure protection of children’s interests and rights.
  2. Complete abolition of child labour with the aim of progressively eliminating all the forms of economic exploitation of children.
  3. Securing for children all legal and social protection from all kinds of abuse, exploitation and neglect.
  4. Childhood care development and quality education for all children.
  5. Separate vigilance Agency for look out children exploitation, begging, chid physical and sexual abuse etc. Conclusion

The children must be saved because children are most important asset of the country. So it is duty of citizens and society to protect them. Society should come forward against this social evil. We should must create awareness about it and help in ensuring basic rights. Nations should starting at the Mandal or Taluk level and awareness programmes need to be conducted giving , wide publicity holding public meetings, street level group discussion with village elders, conducting film shows, dramas, audio-visual programs etc; highlighting the importance, need to provide, care and protection of the street children. The government should also allocate proper fund for children development and for elementary education. There is need to be start new programmes, scheme and the amendment in law where it needed.