Should plastic be banned?

Plastic bags are a significant source of plastic pollution. Plastic pollution significantly contributes to the deterioration of our environment.

There should be a plastic ban to decrease in plastic pollution. Plastic bags cause land, water and air pollution. Decomposing of plastic waste is also a significant challenge which leads to an increase in plastic pollution.

Using plastic has been banned in various countries because of the adverse effects. However, plastic products have been used in various parts of the world, thereby causing hazards to the environment.

Plastic bags are easily available in the market and are widely used. Plastic bags are usually available in grocery stores and are used to carry grocery items like rice, fruits, veggies, wheat flour and other grocery items. The plastic bags are available in various sizes; they are much more economical and easy to use.

However, bags harm the environment. The plastic items and bags that we use in our day-to-day life are hazardous for our environment. This is a major problem than it appears. Scientists say that plastic bags are a major cause of water pollution.

Plastic waste is also responsible for making agricultural land infertile and also many other problems. Many countries throughout the world, including India, have banned the use of plastic bags to ensure a greener environment.

History of Plastic Bags
The plastic products that we use today were originally acquainted with the world by Alexander Parkes at London’s Great International Exhibition in the year 1862.

Parkes’ used a natural subsidiary to f cellulose as the material, which was formed when warmed and was kept in shape after cooling it.

Coining the word “Plastic”
The word plastic was coined in the year 1909. The word was first used by Leo H. Baekeland to describe a type of material that constituted Bakelite,” a substance he made from coal tar, which was used to make many things like phone, camera and ashtrays.

Plastics were used as a critical segment in the production of all these things. Plastics turned out to be well known throughout the world only after World War 1 when oil becomes effortlessly accessible.

Plastic Bags – A Boon or A Curse?
‘Need to Encourage People for Plastic Ban’

Plastic bags are very lightweight and can be easily carried anywhere.

This may sound like a boon for people, but however, there is also another side if the use of plastic bags. Since it is lightweight in nature, it is easily carried away by wind and water.

This is the reason that it blows away anywhere like seas and oceans and pollutes it. They also destroy the beauty of landscapes. A material called polypropylene is used to make plastic bags. It makes them much durable to use.

Natural gas and petroleum are used to make polypropylene. Natural gas and petroleum are non-biodegradable in nature.

The production of various plastic products, including plastic bags releases greenhouse gases like methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, which is the major cause of global warming throughout the world.

People believe that recycling is an alternative to the misuse of plastic waste; however, it is a misconception. An average of only 5% of all the plastic waste can be recycled, and the remaining 95% find its way in soil, water and other landscapes.

According to the latest report, about 35 – 40 % of all the plastic waste is being recycled, and the location of the remaining 60 % is not even known. This makes the plastic producers produce even more number of plastics, and a minor change occurs in the number of recycled products.

Plastic bags considered to be one of the most convenient ways to carry loads of products. However, plastic ban is the solution as it is harmful to human health.

The plastic bag contains a few chemical and synthetic substances in them which can potentially disturb the typical working of the hormones of the human body.

Most of the plastic products that are discharged in the seas and oceans, like plastic bags contain contaminations like PCB’s (polychlorinated biphenyl) and PAHs (Polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons) which can affect the hormone structure.

When sea animals eat these substances, it travels through the food web and finally reaches to a human while consuming fish.

How can we minimize use of plastic?

Plastic ban has soared high in several countries.  The government of India has also made plastic ban in various states of the country. The use of plastic bags should be stopped throughout the country, and strict measures should be taken to implement this.

  • There must be a ban on the production of plastic bags also.
  • Retailers must be fined to sell plastic bags.
  • People who use and carry plastic bags should be fined.
  • Some amount must charge plastic bags of good quality which are easily available in the market; this will significantly reduce the use of plastic bags.
  • A good option should be available in the market, which can substitute plastic bags.

Plastic ban is a movement in the right direction. Most of the biggest economic countries of the world like China, USA and many European countries have banned the use of plastic bags.

There are many countries which have not implemented plastic bags, and they should do it soon. Some of the concerns arise on which people depend as a source of livelihood.

However, on the other side, the plastic ban is a sole need as these bags are destroying our environment. Innovators will eventually come up with an alternative for plastic ban everywhere. This will, in turn, create products and companies, and finally, people will get employment.

When it comes to production costs, plastic bags and cheaper and much easier to produce as compared to eco-friendly bags, however, the demerit is that the plastic bags undergo wear and tear easily. In fact, people discard them in the garbage bins as soon as they carry their products home.

Eco-friendly bags like that of cotton bags are much durable, and also it can be washed and reused again. Eco-friendly bags are cheaper for the long run because it doesn’t have government intervention to clear them from the street.

They are easily degradable and can be cleared from the face of the world. It is not wise to spend money on something that costs almost three times the amount to get rid of it.

10 Lines on Plastic Ban

  1. The world produces more than 6 billion metric tons of plastic waste annually.
  2. Plastic is dumped in lands and oceans, causing massive pollution and environmental problems.
  3. Plastic is a human-made material and hence cannot be degraded in nature.
  4. Scientists are working on a natural degradation of plastic through certain types of bacteria and enzymes.
  5. On average, a person consumes more than 100 kilograms of plastic each year.
  6. There are more than 12.7 million times of plastic in our oceans as of now.
  7. Irresponsible disposal of plastics will lead to disturbance in the natural ecosystems as well as our food chain.
  8. Banning plastic altogether is not possible because we are heavily dependent on plastic every day.
  9. From our Smartphone’s to computers to medical devices, plastic exist in every sphere of our lives.
  10. Plastic bags should be banned because the alternative for it exists like jute bag, gunny bag or paper bags.

Conclusion

There are many problems which are caused due to plastic waste, and it has often been overlooked and underestimated.

This is because people don’t think about the long term effect that plastic is causing to the environment. People look at the benefits that they are getting from it.

People do not consider plastic ban and keep using plastic bags owing to the convenience they offer and ignore the adverse effects that are caused to the environment.

APJ Abdul Kalam

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Regarded as an ideal Indian and a source of inspiration for the future generations president Dr. A.PJ Abdul Kalam was born on October 15 1931 in an ordinary Tamil family of Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu. His full name is Avul Pakir Jainulabdin Abdul Kalam His father Jainul aabedin and mother Aashiamma were a simple and religious-minded couple.

They held an honourable place in the society and were regarded as an ideal couple. They lived in a joint family Kalams father was a simple person. He never cared for luxuries and gave more importance to rational thoughts and human values. The senior-most priest of Rameshwaram temple, Pt. Lakshman Shastri was his dear friend.

They used to have long spiritual discussions and Kalam as a boy listened attentively to those discussionsAl though Kalam could not understand everything but his thinking has been largely influenced by it.

During his childhood, Abdul Kalam partook his meals with his mother sitting on the kitchen floor. His mother used to spread a banana leaf before him and serve him a simple meal of garnished rice-tasty sambhar, home made pickles and fresh coconut chutney.

Right from his childhood Dr. Kalam was honest, God fearing laborious and simple traits which he inherited from his parents. Dr. Kalams childhood was deeply influenced by his cousin Shamsuddic who was the sole distributor of newspapers in Rameshwaram During those days there was great demand for Di naming, a Tamil newspaper.

Though Kalam had not yet learnt to read yet he satisfied himself by looking at the pictures, when Shamsuddin used to bring the newspaper.

When 2 World War started in 1939 Kalam was only 8 years old. During those days there was a sudden increase in demand for tamarind seeds in the market. Although Kalam did not know the reason, he started collect ing tamarind seeds and selling them at grocery shops.

This way he earned one anna everyday During that time emergency was announced in India because of the Second World War. As a result, the trains did not stop at Rameshwaram station. In that situation bundles of newspapers were thrown from the moving train be tween Rameshwaram and Dhanushkodi station.

At that time Shamsuddin felt the need of an assistant who could assist him in picking up those bundles. Child Kalam was well prepared to help him and in this way he earned his first salary from his cousin Shamsuddin.

In his childhood, Kalam used to wear a skull cap, which is a symbol of being a Muslim. At that time Kalam was a student of class V in a primary school. Once a new teacher came to his class. Kalam was sitting in the front row with his friend Ramanand Shastri.

The new teacher did not like a Hindu boy sitting next to a Muslim boy So he ordered Kalam to sit at the last bench Child Kalam did not like this. Ramanand Shastri too was very much grieved by this behaviour of the teacher.

When Lakshman Shastri, Ramanand Shastri’s father came to know about it he called the teacher and reprimanded himYou should not sow the seeds of religious discrimination in the hearts of innocent children.”

The teacher apologised for his behaviour and eventually a great change came in his attitude Having completed the primary education, Kalam was admitted to Swartz High School in Ramanathapuram. He had to stay in the school hostel. While at Ramanathapuram he very often missed his parents, his home and especially the South Indian sweetmeat poli prepared by his mother.

In spite of his great love for home, Kalam was fully dedicated to his studies because his parents and teachers had high expectations from him He worked very hard to achieve his aim and nothing could deter him from his firm determination.

Once, during his school days, it so happened that the maths teacher Ramakrishna Aiyar was teaching in another class Unknowingly Kalam entered the class roomSeeing this the teacher immediately caught hold off him by his neck and hit him with a rod before the entire class.

Later, when Kalam secured the highest marks in mathematics, Ramakrishna Aiyar narrated the episode at the time of morning prayer before everyone. He announced, The boy whom I beat with a rod will become a great man one day Mark my words, this student is going to become the pride of his school and teachers.

Since childhood, Kalam developed a deep liking for the mysteries of the sky, and the flight of birds across the seas. He enjoyed the sight Of cranes flying over the sea and long flights of birdsHe decided that one day he too would go for long flights in the sky. Later he was the first person in Rameshwaram to fly in a plane .

When Kalam completed his schooling, he was brimming with enthusiasm and confidence Without a second thought he entered Saint Joseph College, Tiruchirapalli, in 1950. During his college days he worked hard. He was a very disciplined student.

When he was a final year student in the college he developed a great liking for English LiteratureHe read all the available books on English literature by great writers such as Tolstoy, Scott. Also when he was a student of the final year he developed a deep in Clinton towards Physics. He felt great pleasure in reading about the highest knowledge of as tronomy, particularly our solar system To fulfil his dream Kalam decided to study Engineering after his B.Sc. fro Saint Joseph College. For this he needed at least one thousand rupees, but his father did not have that much money.

It was his elder sister Johra who came to his rescue. She mortgaged her gold bangles and necklace and got Kalam admitted to Madras Institute of Technology (MIT). At that time Kalam had a single ambition – to be a pilot.

Modesty is a good quality but Kalam had to face many difficulties at MIT because of it. Be cause of his humble nature, he was quite hesitant to ask questions or reply to them in front of everyone in the class. That is why his fellow students used to make fun of himKalam was depressed about it.

He lost his self-confidence During those days, he used to remember his father’s teachings and inspirational advicesHis father often said: “One who understands others, learns but a person is called wise when he understands himself. Learning without wisdom is nothing but crammed knowledge, it is of no use. Knowing oneself is much important.” This thought brought self-confidence in him and he was recharged with enthusiasm for achieving his aim.

During his studies in MIT, Kalam was inspired by three teachers – Prof Spander, Prof. K.A. B. Panadalaiin and Prof.

Nara Singha Rao to give his thoughts a concrete formKalam was able to construct his work field with the joint assistance of these teachers which laid the foundation of his life

After completing his third year from Madras Institute of Technology he joined as a technical instructor at the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. After becoming an aeronautical engineer from Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. he got two excel lent job opportunities and both of which were enough to fulfil his childhood dreams One was in the Indian Air Force and the other was in the Technical Development and Production Di rectorate Ministry of Defence. Kalam prepared well with full dedication and hard labour. He was very much assured of his selection in the Indian Air Force.

But he was deeply disappointed when he came to know that out of 25 candidates only 8 had been selected and he had stood ninth. It was a great setback. He was disappointed but he soon recovered from this. Another chance yet remained with himHere he achieved success and was appointed as Technical Assistant in the Technical Development and Production Directorate Ministry of DefenceGovt. of India.

In the 196Os Dr. Kalam joined the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Thumba (Kerala). There he played a key role in the development of the first indigenous satellite launcher. After that in 1982, he worked as Director of the Defence Research and the Development Organisation of India and was in charge of the Joint Controlled Launcher Development Programme.

After that he worked as a Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister and later as a Defence Advisor to the Prime Minister. He also played a major role in the 1998 nuclear experiments.

Dr. Kalam was quite cooperative with his colleagues in the work front. He paid attention to their ideasHe never made an attempt to impose his ideas upon them He tried to maintain discipline faith and mutual understanding in his teamHis behaviour was friendly with everyone. Because of these qualitiesKalam was a favourite among his col leagues. In spite of these, he has few friends in his private life. He has been totally dedicated to his work throughout his life and work has been his companion.

While serving the country in various ways Dr. Kalam not only fulfilled the dreams of his parents and teachers but also his own. He put India in an equal position with advanced countries and thereby enhanced its honour and pride After retirement, Dr. Kalam taught at the Annamalai University in Tamil Nadu. He has been conferred with various prestigious awards.

In 1981 he was awarded the Padma Bhushan) in 1990, ‘Padma Vibhushan, and in 1997, he was honoured with the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award. Besides this, he was awarded the Dr. Virender Roy Space Award, National Nehru Award and Arya Bhatt Award. 28 universities throughout the country awarded him the title of Doctor of Science

Undoubtedly we can assume Dr. Kalam as a fortunate person after having received so many awards and honours but he did not get any thing out of luck but as a result of sheer hard Work and strong determination.

He had to face obstacles throughout his life at every step There was problem of economic scarcity lack of will he worked as a Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister and later as a Defence Advisor to the Prime Minister. He also played a major role in the 1998 nuclear experiments. Dr. Kalam was quite cooperative with his colleagues in the work front.

He paid attention to their ideas He never made an attempt to impose his ideas upon them. He tried to maintain discipline faith and mutual understanding in his teamHis behaviour was friendly with everyone. Because of these qualitiesKalam was a favourite among his col leagues. In spite of these, he has few friends in his private life. He has been totally dedicated to his work throughout his life and work has been his companion.

Whether it was the assignment as a scientist or as a teacher, whatever work he was given, he accomplished it sincerely During his tenure as a teacher in Annamalai UniversityDr. Kalam was nominated as the President of India. On 25th July 2002, he was elected the 12th President of India. He took oath as a president under Chief Justice B.N. Kripal.

As President, Dr. Kalam replied strictly to the criticism of those people who were protesting strongly against a scientist being appointed as President, who had the image of a ‘missile man Dr. Kalams heart is as soft as a child’s although he has firm determination and will power in achieving his aim. He forgets himself in the company of children and becomes a part of themHe regards children as a seed in which the future tree is hidden He is of the view that children are the future of India.

He has not only hopes from the young generation, but also has full faith in themHe has the dream of educating each and every child of India and it is his mes sage that we should nurture high dreams and at the same time create confidence in our heart to transform those dreams into reality because this thought only can take our country towards path of progress.

Dr. Kalam believes that by 2020, our country will be able to become a developed country To transform his ideas into a solid form Dr. Kalam has many plans These programmes can turn to a reality but it is not possible only by the inspiration of a few selected Indians, for that every Indian has to work together. He accepts that the role of the younger generation is of utmost importance in the development of a nation Therefore he considers the Indian youth as the most powerful resource and inspires them to work unitedly.

He opines that if you are a good man then you can perform every job in the best manner. For example, if we take the instance of Dr. Kalams personality then he is a capable scientist, an ideal teacher besides being a wonderful colleague and an excellent writer. He has not only a good knowledge of Indian classical music, but he is a perfect violin player tooHe also has interest in gardening.

He feels unlimited peace of mind and pleasure in the company of nature He has a very busywork schedule, but even then he has kept a few regular habits such as morning walk, prayer, yoga, head massage with coconut oil before bath and drinking a glass of milk be fore retiring at night.

He always says that keep every moment busy and meaningful, but at the same time always take out time to feel the fragrance of flowers or to watch the myriad colours of butterties Dr. Kalam has this message for the young generation As a young citizen of India, armed with technology knowledge and love for my nation, I realise, small aim is a crime I will work and sweat for a great vision the vision of transforming India into a developed nation powered by economic strength with value system I am one of the citizens of a billion only the vision will ignite the billion souls.

It has entered into me , the ignited souls compared to any resource, is the most powerful resource on the earth, above the earth and under the earth.

I will keep the lamp of knowledge burning to achieve the vision Developed India. While delivering a lecture at the Indian

Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83 His death was mourned across the nation with thousands including national level dignitaries attending the funeral ceremony hold in his hometown of Rameshwaram where he buried with full state honours.

Unity In Diversity

India is a great country where people of different religions and cultures live in different regions. They live in harmony. It is known as Unity in Diversity. 

The Unity in diversity was coined by Late. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian national congress and Prime minister of India. Main 5 examples of unity in diversity have given.

How does unity in diversity represent India: Indian people can speak any language and can believe in any religion. Nobody is allowed to interfere in their affairs.

India does not have one but many great traditions. Although, the Hindu religion is the oldest religion. Yet, the other religions also enjoy full freedom and respect. 

People of all religions live united. Sometimes they take part in one another’s festivals. For example, Diwali, Holi, and Id have become common festivals that explain about what are the main reasons for unity in diversity in Indian society.

India has been ruled by the Mughals and the English for centuries.  But even the foreign rulers have not been able to destroy the Indian traditions and cultures. 

Indian culture is so old and vast that it can absorb the good things of any other culture. No doubt, some states of India have been carved out on the basis of language but it is only a political division. 

In the new states, people of all languages and religions are living normally as they used to live before. 

The English ruled over India with the policy of Divide and Rule’ but it could not completely change the mindset of thinking of the people. 

The unity of the country has been attacked many times but it is sound as ever.

There has been Unity in Diversity in India for hundreds of years. It is now for the younger generation to keep it intact.

Importance of Unity in Diversity in India points 

India is a land of different languages and different religions. The population of the country also lives in different states. 

People of every state speak their own language and the other languages also. They celebrate their local festivals along with the national festivals. 

(1) Customs and traditions: They do not interfere in the customs and traditions of others. Everyone is free to go to any place of worship. 

There is no restriction in the celebration of marriage rites, etc. Thus, there is Unity in Diversity in India. It is not a new concept but this tradition is in vogue since time immemorial.

People of many religions like Islam, Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Hinduism live in India. Every religion has its own principles. 

(2) All religions: Some religions are further divided into sects. In the past, sometimes religions have been a great dividing force of the Indian community. 

But on the whole, people of all sects had been living in unity and harmony. All the religions have enriched the civilization of India.

Indian society has seen many ups and downs in the ancient past. In those days, the missionaries of every religion tried to persuade the people of other religions to join their religion. 

This conversion of religion has not stopped even in the modern age. The Muslim invaders and the English also tried to make a dent in the Indian culture. 

(3) Different living styles in Indian culture: No doubt, some of the Indian people have adopted some customs and traditions of the Muslims and the English. But they have not totally given up on the Indian way of life and the Indian culture.

They still live with one another like human beings. Without interfering in the customs and traditions of the other sect, all are living in unity.

It is true that the problem of diversity in Indian traditions and cultures has a great impact on the process of unity of the civilization. 

This unity can be observed at several levels. Traveling mendicants, traders, storytellers, craftsmen, and artists in traditional India established cultural bridges of unity between regions and cultural traditions. 

The institution of pilgrimage, fairs, and festivals provided yet another nodal point for communication and for cultural unity in the framework of its diversity.

(4) Importance to secularism: However, we had to see the ugly face of religion when the partition of India took place. Later on, the Constitution of India gave paramount importance to secularism. 

The constitution guarantees each individual the freedom to profess, practice, and propagate any religion and assures strict impartiality towards all religions. 

It clearly shows that India is a secular state. The prime ministers and presidents of India have been persons belonging to different religions. 

In spite of this, certain anti-national forces and external forces try to disrupt the unity of the country by encouraging communal feelings. For some time, they do succeed in their mission but ultimately they fail.

(5) Civilization and Culture: The Indian Civilization and Culture are based on religious and moral values. These are the strength of India’s unity. Cultural unity and diversity of faiths go side by side in India. 

There may be some clashes off and on between the people of the two communities. But these unfortunate occurrences are forgotten like a bad dream. 

If you visit some parts of the country, you will find the people of all communities living in harmony. A common thread of unity binds them all. 

This is because that the Indian culture has preserved its fundamental character through the ages.

We have passed through many revolutionary changes in the economic and political field in recent times. But we have not discarded our past. 

(6) Rich cultural heritage: Our rich cultural heritage and its values have permanently remained with us. They pass from one generation to another. 

Indian civilization has evolved through many stages providing a network of ideologies and institutions which offer unity in plurality. 

These institutions and guiding principles reflect the cultural-religious traditions of Hinduism. But they also emerge as a composite system of values.

During the reign of the English in India, the British followed a contradictory policy in pursuit of their colonial objectives. 

With their policy of divide and rule’, they disintegrated India into various castes, creeds, tribes, religions, and language groups with no sense of unity. 

They propagated, esp. through their toadies, that we were never a nation. They further said that India was never a united nation. 

They did their utmost to make us fight with one another. But India and its people made it clear that they are one and will remain one.

In order to maintain our unity in diversity, we shall have to take some solid steps. 

(7) Constitution: The Constitution of India, which was framed after Independence, reflects and incorporates the dualism of territory, religion, language, caste, and tribe, etc. 

Then it also propounds the foundations of a civic society based on secularism, rationalism, freedom, and equality. 

At the same time, it also recognizes the special rights and privileges of those sections of the Indian society which were exploited for centuries. 

They still feel insecure due to their minority status in society. We should take along all the sections of the unprivileged classes to maintain unity in diversity. 

Religion, regionalism, and language issues raise their ugly head at the time and people are divided into these lines. 

But these diversities are short-lived and good sense prevails on the people sooner or later. People again begin to live in unity. 

This unity has been witnessed during Chinese aggression and during wars with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971. 

During the undeclared war with Pakistan in the Kargil sector, the whole country rose up in unison and demonstrated the true national spirit of unity.

Conclusion of unity in diversity

How can we promote national unity in diversity: The Indian government has always made keen efforts to create cultural awakening among the people of all categories. 

It has tried to promote national integration and national unity by organizing big cultural events. It has also set up some regional cultural centers in different parts of the country. 

All these steps will promote strengthening the common bond of unity among the people. In spite of the diversity in the people’s beliefs and religions, there is no danger to India’s unity.

Education

Education is very important for the betterment of everyone’s life and as such, we all should understand the importance of education in our lives. It enables us and prepares us for all aspects of life.

Even after several educational awareness campaigns by the government in underdeveloped areas of the country, where the education system is still weak.

People living in these areas are very poor and spend their entire day just to meet some basic needs.

Therefore, extensive efforts of all are needed to create the possibilities of a proper education system in all corners of the country.

EQUALITY:

We need the active participation of all to promote the level of the education system in our country.

School and college authorities must set some main objectives for education, to raise interest and curiosity in their students for education.

The fee structure should also be discussed at a wider level because of the high fees, many students are not able to continue their education which leads people to inequality in every aspect of life.

Education is the major and compulsory right of man, so everyone must get equality in education.

WISDOM IS THE BEST WEALTH:

Knowledge is the best wealth. All happiness is attained by learning, by virtue, by mercy, by merit, by wealth and by religion.

Our intelligence is also sharpened by the knowledge gained from learning.

We have to balance the convenience of education for all, to bring equality between people and equal personal development across the country.

Education helps everyone in society to transform themselves into positive things by interfering with the things around them.

It promotes the necessary advancement in the technology of education besides maintaining balance in our body, mind and inner body.

IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION IN LIFE:

Home is the first place in our lives and parents are the first teachers of their children.

Every child learns to speak to his mother tongue first. Parents are the ones who teach us the right importance of education.

We study slowly and climb the steps one by one to complete our studies until the tenth. But to get more knowledge and technical knowledge in life, it is very important to get a higher education.

Educated girls have made a positive impact on Indian society by contributing to various fields like medicine, defence services, science and technology.

Today’s girls have also contributed well to the field of business and have handled both their home and office very well. Also, read an essay on education conclusion.

PRIVATE EFFORTS FOR EDUCATION IN BACKWARD AREAS:

People living in backward areas are not receiving the proper benefits of a good education because they lack funds and other means.

However, some new and effective strategies have been planned and implemented by the government to solve this problem in these areas.

Education has improved the mental state and changed the way people think. It brings confidence to transform and achieve success and experience and transforms thinking into action.

Without education, life becomes goalless and difficult. Therefore we should understand the importance of education and its necessity in daily life.

We should encourage it, by telling people about the importance of education in backward areas.

Disabled and poor persons also have the same need for education and equal rights to achieve global development like rich and ordinary people.

All of us should do our best to be educated at the highest level, as well as to make it possible for everyone to have access to education.

In which all poor and disabled persons can participate on a global basis.

Some people live very sad lives by remaining completely illiterate due to lack of knowledge and skills.

Specific people are educated but due to lack of a proper education system in backward areas, they are not skilled enough in earning for their daily work.

Thus, we should try to give equal opportunities for everyone to get a good education system, whether it is poor or rich.

CONCLUSION:

A country cannot develop without individual development and growth of citizens.

Thus, the comprehensive development of a country depends on the prevailing education system available to citizens in that country.

The common goal of providing a good and proper education system to the citizens in every region in the country should be set.

Effort should be made to make the path of education easy and accessible because only by this our country may lead to all-round development.

Mahatma Gandhi

When talking about India as the nation, the freedom, the existence, the history, the
independence, the very first thing that comes to our mind is Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi is the most recognized name around the world. Gandhi Ji, whose full name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a born-on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India. His Father’s name was Karamchand Gandhi who worked as a dewan in Rajkot. Mother, Putlibai was a religious lady who divided her time mostly between the temple and household work. Gandhi Ji got married at the age of thirteen to Kasturba Gandhi. He was a lawyer, a politician and an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Also known as Bapu in India and Gandhi Ji worldwide was a writer as well. Talking about Gandhi Ji’s Educational qualification, he was a very shy and mediocre student. Gandhi Ji was interested in becoming a doctor, but his father wanted him to follow the family legacy of working as a high official in the states of Gujrat.
Gandhi Ji who was not very happy with studying at Sambaldas College agreed to take the law as his profession. That would mean jumping from India to England. He too faced a lot of difficulties with language as the main barrier. From Gujarati to the English language was not an easy task, but his determination was what won. He had to struggle with the transition to Western Culture.

Gandhi Ji was not able to find work in India; he signed a one-year contract to perform legal
services in South Africa. Once he reached South Africa, he was welcomed by a world full of
racism and discrimination by the British. Gandhi Ji was asked to open his turban on the very
first day in the Durban Courtroom, which he refused to do and left instead.
Gandhiji’s life took a turn when a white man objected his presence in the first-class railway
compartment, in spite of Gandhi Ji having his ticket. When he did not agree to move back of
the train, he was forcibly thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
This incident provoked in him a sense of determination to fight against racism and
discrimination. From that time onwards, he stood up to fight for the civil rights. Gandhi Ji
formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight against discrimination.
When Gandhi Ji was planning to return to India, he got to know at his farewell that Indians
would be deprived of the right to vote. The immigrants then convinced Gandhi Ji to stay and
take up the issue and fight against the legislation. Gandhi Ji was not able to succeed in
preventing the law passage but definitely drew international attention to the injustice that
was being done. He also fought for the right to citizenship in the British Empire.
In the year 1906 the first mass civil disobedience campaign was organized which was called
“Satyagraha”. Since the South African Government was refusing to recognize Hindu
marriages its campaign was carried out. After years of protest, hundreds of Indians were
imprisoned, including Gandhi Ji in 1913. The South African government had to compromise,
they negotiated and accepted a compromise that gave recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of poll tax for Indians. Gandhi Ji then sailed from South Africa to London in the year 1914.

India was still under the British control in the year 1919, Gandhi Jihad called for a satyagraha
campaign of protest and strikes in a peaceful manner as the British authorities were
imprisoning people without trial of sedation. However, the reverse happened, and violence
broke out on April 13th, 1919 in Amritsar. Also known as “The Jallianwala Bagh”, where the
British fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed people and killed nearly four hundred of
them.

Gandhi Ji was not able to take it longer, so he returned all the medals he had received from
the military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians
to serve in World War 1. He had called in for a mass boycott. He urged people to stop
working for the British; he asked students not to attend a government school. Soldiers were
asked to leave their post and all citizens to stop paying taxes and refrain from purchasing
British goods. He made people realize the value of “Charkha” that is the spinning wheel. He
used the portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth, and soon the spinning wheel
became the symbol of Indian Independence. Gandhi Ji was the leader of the Indian National
Congress.  Gandhi Ji returned to active politics in the year 1930 to protest against the British Salt Act.

This Act prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt, but it imposed a heavy tax. A Dandi March was planned that entailed a 390-kilometer march to the Arabian Sea. There Gandhi Ji
would collect salt as a symbol of defense of the government’s monopoly. Wearing a white
shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, he set out from his religious retreat in
Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with some followers. He reached the coastal town of Dandi
after 24 days and broke the law by making salt from evaporated sea water. Gandhi Ji was
again imprisoned for the same.

In August 1934, Gandhi Ji left the Indian National Congress, and the leadership was passed
on to Jawaharlal Nehru. Gandhi Ji launched a Quit India movement in the year 1942, asking
the British to leave the country immediately. Again, he was arrested and put behind bars
along with his wife and other leaders. With his health going down Gandhi Ji was released
after nineteen months. The negotiations began for an independent India; however, it leads
to the partition on Hindus being India and Muslims being Pakistan. Violence had already
roared before the Independence. Finally, India became Independent on 15th August 1947.
Gandhi Ji still pleaded people to maintain peace and nonviolence.

Weakened from the continuous hunger strikes, the 78-year-old Gandhi with his two
grandnieces led from his living quarters in Delhi’s Birla House to a prayer meeting. Where an
Activist Named Nathuram Godse was upset with Gandhi Ji over his tolerance with the
Muslims shot him three times with a semiautomatic pistol. This act took the life of a
nonviolence preacher. Godse and his fellow co-Ordinator was hanged in the year 1949, and
the rest of the conspirators were sentenced to life imprisonment.

Gandhi Ji always believed in Simple living. Making his own clothes, to eating vegetarian
diets. Keeping fast for self-purification, all these facts show how great a man he was.
Satyagraha remains one of his most important philosophy.

Shree Krishna Janmashtami

Shree Krishna Janmashtami, mostly famous as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is a yearly festival of the Hindu, which is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

According to the Hindu Luni-Solar calendar, the dark day of Shravan or Bhadrapada (the dark side) is the eighth day (Ashtami) (depending on whether the calendar selects the new moon or full moon day as the last day), which overlaps with the August / September of the Gregorian calendar.

It is a famous festival for the Vaishnavism of Hinduism in particular. According to the Bhagavata Purana (such as Rasa-Lila of Krishna-Lila), Krishna’s dance-drama laws, devotional singing, fasting, night vigil (night Jagran) and a festival (Mahotsav) until the midnight of Shree Krishna’s birth are part of the Janmashtami celebrations.

This festival is celebrated in Mathura and Vrindavan, also with Major Vaishnava and sectarian groups found in other states of India. The festival of Nandotsav takes place after the birth of Krishna Janmashtami, a celebration of the birth of the Nanda Baba community.

Importance of Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna is the son of Devaki and Vasudeva, and Hindus celebrate his birthday as Janmashtami, most notably the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition as the supreme personality of his god.

According to the Hindu tradition in Mathura, Janmashtami is celebrated when it is believed that Krishna was born, which is the midnight of the eighth day of the Bhadrapada month (which overlaps with August and September 3 in the Gregorian calendar).Krishna was born in a confused region. It was a time when violence was rampant, denial of liberty, evil everywhere, and his life threatened by his uncle, King Kansa. Soon after his birth in Mathura, his father, Vasudeva, adopted Krishna as the father of the Yamuna and his parents in Gokul and named him Nanda and Yashoda.This myth is held fast by the people, singing devotional songs of love towards Lord Krishna and celebrating vigil at night. The devotees break their fast by sharing food and sweets. Women draw small footprints outside the door and kitchen of their home, walking towards their home, symbolising Krishna going into their homes. Celebration of Krishna JanmashtamiMaharashtra Janmashtami FestivalJanmashtami (popularly known as “Gokulashtami” in Maharashtra) is celebrated in cities like Mumbai, Latur, Nagpur, and Pune. Every August / September, the day after Shri Krishna’s birth, Janmashtami is celebrated as Dahi Handi. The word means “crockpot.”The festival derives its name from the legend of Baby Krishna. He would steal and steal dairy products such as yogurt and butter, and people would hide their supplies without making it available to the baby. Krishna tries all kinds of creative ideas, like making human pyramids with his friends to break these high hanging pots.

This story is the theme of many reliefs on Hindu temples across India, and a collection of literature and dance-drama, symbolising the joyful innocence of children, the manifestation of a god in love and life. 

In Maharashtra and other western states of India, this Krishna myth is practiced as a community tradition in Janmashtami, where yogurt pots are hung high, sometimes with tall pillars or ropes hanging from the second or third floor of a building.

According to an annual tradition, groups of young men and boys known as “Govindas” roam around these hanging pots; climb over each other to form a human pyramid and then break the pot.

The girls surrounded these boys, cheering and cheering them on while dancing and singing. Spilled things are considered Prasada (ceremony offering). It is welcomed as a public spectacle, enthusiastic, and social event. 

There are youth groups from Govinda Pathaks, which compete specifically for prize money on Janmashtami day. These groups are called mandalas, and they roam around the local area, trying to break as many pots as possible every August.

Social celebrities and media attend the celebrations, and corporations sponsor part of the event. Govinda teams are offering cash and gifts, and according to the Times of India, in Mumbai alone in 2014, there were over 4,000 handicap hangings, and many Govinda teams took part. 

Gujarat and Rajasthan Janmashtami Festival

The people of Dwarka in Gujarat – who are believed to have established their kingdom – celebrate the festival with a tradition similar to that of Dahi Handi, known as Makhan handi (pot with freshly boiled butter).

Others perform folk dances, sing bhajans, and visit Krishna temples such as the Dwarkadhish Temple. In the Kutch district, farmers decorate their bullock carts and play Krishna ions, with group singing and dancing.

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Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

June 7, 2020 by ReadingJunction

In this article, you will read Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children. This includes Its information, Importance, Celebration in India.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

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Shree Krishna Janmashtami, mostly famous as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is a yearly festival of the Hindu, which is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

According to the Hindu Luni-Solar calendar, the dark day of Shravan or Bhadrapada (the dark side) is the eighth day (Ashtami) (depending on whether the calendar selects the new moon or full moon day as the last day), which overlaps with the August / September of the Gregorian calendar.

It is a famous festival for the Vaishnavism of Hinduism in particular. According to the Bhagavata Purana (such as Rasa-Lila of Krishna-Lila), Krishna’s dance-drama laws, devotional singing, fasting, night vigil (night Jagran) and a festival (Mahotsav) until the midnight of Shree Krishna’s birth are part of the Janmashtami celebrations.

This festival is celebrated in Mathura and Vrindavan, also with Major Vaishnava and sectarian groups found in other states of India. The festival of Nandotsav takes place after the birth of Krishna Janmashtami, a celebration of the birth of the Nanda Baba community.

Importance of Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna is the son of Devaki and Vasudeva, and Hindus celebrate his birthday as Janmashtami, most notably the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition as the supreme personality of his god.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

According to the Hindu tradition in Mathura, Janmashtami is celebrated when it is believed that Krishna was born, which is the midnight of the eighth day of the Bhadrapada month (which overlaps with August and September 3 in the Gregorian calendar).

Krishna was born in a confused region. It was a time when violence was rampant, denial of liberty, evil everywhere, and his life threatened by his uncle, King Kansa. Soon after his birth in Mathura, his father, Vasudeva, adopted Krishna as the father of the Yamuna and his parents in Gokul and named him Nanda and Yashoda.

This myth is held fast by the people, singing devotional songs of love towards Lord Krishna and celebrating vigil at night. The devotees break their fast by sharing food and sweets. Women draw small footprints outside the door and kitchen of their home, walking towards their home, symbolising Krishna going into their homes. 

Celebration of Krishna Janmashtami

Maharashtra Janmashtami Festival

Janmashtami (popularly known as “Gokulashtami” in Maharashtra) is celebrated in cities like Mumbai, Latur, Nagpur, and Pune. Every August / September, the day after Shri Krishna’s birth, Janmashtami is celebrated as Dahi Handi. The word means “crockpot.”

The festival derives its name from the legend of Baby Krishna. He would steal and steal dairy products such as yogurt and butter, and people would hide their supplies without making it available to the baby. Krishna tries all kinds of creative ideas, like making human pyramids with his friends to break these high hanging pots.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

This story is the theme of many reliefs on Hindu temples across India, and a collection of literature and dance-drama, symbolising the joyful innocence of children, the manifestation of a god in love and life. 

In Maharashtra and other western states of India, this Krishna myth is practiced as a community tradition in Janmashtami, where yogurt pots are hung high, sometimes with tall pillars or ropes hanging from the second or third floor of a building.

According to an annual tradition, groups of young men and boys known as “Govindas” roam around these hanging pots; climb over each other to form a human pyramid and then break the pot.

The girls surrounded these boys, cheering and cheering them on while dancing and singing. Spilled things are considered Prasada (ceremony offering). It is welcomed as a public spectacle, enthusiastic, and social event. 

There are youth groups from Govinda Pathaks, which compete specifically for prize money on Janmashtami day. These groups are called mandalas, and they roam around the local area, trying to break as many pots as possible every August.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlSocial celebrities and media attend the celebrations, and corporations sponsor part of the event. Govinda teams are offering cash and gifts, and according to the Times of India, in Mumbai alone in 2014, there were over 4,000 handicap hangings, and many Govinda teams took part. 

Gujarat and Rajasthan Janmashtami Festival

The people of Dwarka in Gujarat – who are believed to have established their kingdom – celebrate the festival with a tradition similar to that of Dahi Handi, known as Makhan handi (pot with freshly boiled butter).

Others perform folk dances, sing bhajans, and visit Krishna temples such as the Dwarkadhish Temple. In the Kutch district, farmers decorate their bullock carts and play Krishna ions, with group singing and dancing. https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

The carnival-style and playful poems and writings of Dayaram, a scholar of Vaishnavism’s Puthiya Marg, became popular in Gujarat and Rajasthan. 

Celebration of Janmashtami festival in Northern India

Janmashtami is the biggest festival in the Braz region of northern India, in cities like Madura where Krishna was born, and in Vrindavan where he grew up. Janmashtami is celebrated in the northern areas of Uttar Pradesh along with the Vaishnavas and others in the state viz: Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, and the Himalayas. Krishna temples are decorated and lit. They attract many visitors during the day. Devotees of Krishna perform devotional ceremonies and watch the night. 

The festival usually comes as the rainy season in northern India is short, with time to play on crops and in rural areas. In the Northern states, this festival is celebrated with the tradition of Raslila, which means “happiness, essence (rasa) of play (Lila).”

It is expressed as a solo or group dance and drama event in Janmashtami, in which Shri Krishna compositions are sung, along with a musical performance, where actors and audiences share and celebrate the play.

Shri Krishna’s childhood pranks and Radha-Krishna’s love affairs are especially famous. As per the findings of Christian Roy and other scholars, the Radha-Krishna romances are Hindu symbolism of the desire and love of the human soul, which is called Brahman for Divine Principle and Reality. 

In Jammu, a part of the celebration of Krishna Janmashtami is flying kites from the rooftops. 

Odisha and West Bengal Janamashtami Festival

The festival is also known as Sri Krishna Jayanti or Sri Jayanthi in the eastern state of Odisha, especially around Puri and in Nabadwip in West Bengal. People celebrate birth by fasting and worshiping until midnight. People recite the Bhagavata Purana from the 10th chapter, devoting it to the life of Krishna.

The day after that is called “Nanda Utsav” as Krishna’s adoptive parents Nanda and Yashoda had a joyful celebration. Upon this day, people break their fast and serve different cooked sweets after midnight. 

South India Janmashtami Festival

In Tamil Nadu, people decorate the soil with kolam (decorative pattern drawn with rice batter). Gita Govindam and other devotional songs are sung in praise of Krishna. They then draw Krishna’s footprints from the entrance of the house to the pooja room, which depicts Krishna’s entry into the home.

Bhagavad Gita recitation is also a popular technique. The offerings to Krishna include fruits and butter. The delicacies that are considered being Krishna’s favourites are carefully prepared.

The most important of them are Varkadai, Sweet Seed, and Seedai. Janmashtami is celebrated in the evening as Krishna was born at midnight. Many people practice strict fasting this day and eat only after midnight pooja. Even the toddler dressed like Krishna. 

Andhra Pradesh

In Andhra Pradesh, recitation of devotional songs and hymns serve as the hallmarks of this festival. Apart from that, another unique feature of this festival is that young children dress like Shri Krishna, and they visit their neighbours and friends.

A variety of fruits and sweets are first served to Shree Krishna, and then they are distributed to the visitors. The people of Andhra Pradesh also fast. They prepare a variety of desserts to help Gokulnandan this day.

Milk and yogurt are edible and digestible for Krishna. Some temples of the state are celebrated with joy. The number of temples dedicated to Lord Krishna is minimal. The reason is that people have taken to worship him through images, not statues. 

The famous South Indian temples dedicated to Lord Krishna are devoted to the Rajagopalaswamy Temple in Mannargudi in Thiruvarur district, Pandavapura Temple in Kanchipuram, Sri Krishna Temple in Udupi and Krishna Temple in Guruvayur in memory of Lord Vishnu. It is believed that the idol of Sri Krishna erected in Guruvayur belongs to the Dwarka and is drowned in the sea. 

Social Media

The term Social Media refers to computer and mobile mediated technologies that are designed and developed to help people socialise and connect with one another. It is a platform which is used to share ideas, communicate about daily life, discuss work related topics and so on. Originally the term social media was coined to refer to a person getting socialised with his/her friends and relatives. However, seeing the vast popularity and effectiveness, it was incorporated by the business houses to create mass awareness about their company and products. 

Types of Social Media

The term social media is very huge. It can vary between two school friends to large broadcasting houses using to communicate with large public in general. So, I have tried to list down the basic types of social media generally seen – – –

  1. Social networks: this is the most widely used form of social media. The most commonly used platforms are Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp etc. these were used to send messages and upload pictures and videos. But in recent times, these sites are being used to actively promote businesses and din digital marketing.
  2. Blogs: these are articles and posts that cater to a particular idea/topic. Blogs can be in written form which describes about any topic or it may be in video form which tells us about any topic through the means of videos. Video blogs are called as vlogs.
  3. Forums: these are platforms where people come and brainstorm regarding any issue or trends. These forums are the active sites of social media which remains busy whenever there is any development regarding the socio-economic scenario of a country, or at times when people feel the need to discuss about a law passed.
  4. Enterprise social network: these are the platforms that cater to the image of a company in front of the public. This type of network is developed so that a customer may connect with the company and its products via internet. This type of network handles customer queries, pricing of items, any feedbacks and service complaints. 

Importance of Social Media

Social media plays a very vital role in the lives of current generation of people. Everyone from the old to the young can relate to this term. Let’s see how important it is – – –

  1. It serves as a source of great number of information and news. Its now possible to know about even the smallest of details in any nook and corner of the world thanks to the social media. It spreads like wildfire. It truly has made the world global village. 
  2. It helps to keep in touch with people and relatives who are far away from us. For officials it’s a great help as they can’t go to their homes every now and then and meet their parents or children. Thus, it helps to bring people closer.
  3. For companies it helps to create a brand name for themselves. They can use the platform to connect with the customers and make their marketing strategy even more profound. Attractive campaigns on social media tend to bring in a lot of people in the shopping outlets and can be seen as beneficial for the company.
  4. Many a times the government is seen using social media to create public awareness regarding sensitive issues prevalent in the society. It helps to find the target audience with much larger ease since there is at least one person from every family who uses social media in the 21st century.

Controversy in using social media

  1. Social media is the site for maximum number of fake news. Once spread, it’s impossible to stop it since everyone is now connected with each other. This fake news has resulted in serious consequences for the victim including death. Innocent people are seen being destroyed with just a stroke of a key in the media.
  2. Many young children have become the victim of cyber bullying. There have been reported cases of threats and kidnaps for the children of famous personalities. Also, many cases of body shaming take place on the internet. These incidents make the person down and makes him/her mentally unstable.
  3. Honey trapping and scandals are common in social media. People with high power and connections are usually targeted to gain an unfair advantage over them. Their competitors may then blackmail them and try to force undue advantages. Many a times girls are used in this business who in turn put the blame of assault and molestation on the victim if their demands are not fulfilled. 
  4. Hacking and fishing often takes place on the net. The bank details are stolen and the person is looted. This can be termed as digital robbery. Also, many people may hack the media accounts and upload vulgar/ obscene pictures and videos.
  5. However, the greatest problem of social media is the addiction. Young children are seen getting glued on their mobiles and computers most of the times. These kids forget the interaction with people physically and stop doing physical activities like playing, walking etc. this in turn creates health issues.

Conclusion

Like any scientific invention social media has both good as well as bad effects on the people who uses them. Its like the two sides of the same coins. However, the most important part is the awareness through which a person can utilise it for his/her benefits. Ultimately, it’s up to the social media user who can make or break his image on the platforms. Like I said before people from small areas are connecting towards the people from metro all thanks to the social media. In this way people no longer feel alienated or homesick even though they are far way. Social media has also given rise to many beautiful love stories across countries. So, make the most of it to develop as a much better person and let the world know.

Poverty in India

It has been observed that India is a rich country inhabited by the poor. This paradoxical statement underlines the fact that India is very rich, both in material and human resources, which have not been properly used and exploited so far.

Poverty amidst plenty seems to be the main problem of India. The majority of our population lives in rural areas. But following the rapid growth in the number of large cities and towns, there has been migration from rural areas to these cities and urban industrial complexes on an unprecedented scale. It has not helped much in the alleviation of the rural poverty. Obviously, unless our efforts and planning are rural-oriented, nothing appreciable can be achieved. ‘Go rural’ should be our watch­word.

Over 80% of the income of the rural poor is spent on food and the expenditure on shelter is also very high. The urban poor also spend almost the same proportion of their income on these two items. The remainder is too meager to meet their demands of clothing, health, education, and entertainment, etc. The purchasing power of the Indian rural masses is miserably low. They are unable to afford even the basic needs of life. The problem of economic inequality and improper distribution of national income has been a chronic one. Consequently, the rich are becoming richer and the poor more poor. The growth in industry and agriculture in the past few years has further encouraged concentration of wealth and resources in the hands of a few. What is needed are radical changes in our planning and implementation of schemes to remove all these inequalities, distortions and imbalances in the distribution of national income and resources.

We must ensure land- reforms, self-reliance, quick redressal of the grievances of the weaker and vulnerable sections, like landless labourers, scheduled castes and tribes and the womenfolk. We should ensure that these weaker sections of the society are liberated from the vicious grip of the money-lenders, big farmers and landowners. Effective planning is the only way to eradicate poverty. There should be no faltering and hesitation in the implementation of our planning. Soon after our independence, we launched our Five Year Plans, which have yielded good dividends. Consequently, there has been self-sufficiency in food grains.

The Indian farmers are now ready to take risks because they are sure of speedier supply of agricultural inputs, modern irrigation facilities, quicker and easier loan and credit facilities by the government. And yet we cannot rest on our laurels. As far as pulses and oil-seeds are concerned, self-sufficiency is still to be achieved. Moreover, our population is growing very fast. The growth rate in food production has barely kept ahead of the growth of our population. The per capita availability of food grains in India has not risen appreciably. As far as fine and superior varieties of grains like wheat and rice are concerned, our achievement^ have been really laudable. But in coarse grains, like maize, barley, bajra, and jowar, etc., there have been no significant achievements; it only means that the interest of the poor masses has not been adequately served. They mostly consume coarse grains as their purchasing power is very low.

The Community Development Programme, started in 1952, should be further strengthened and expanded. This programme has helped significantly in development of villages. The scheme chiefly aims at providing more employment ,production by the application of latest methods of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, and fisheries, etc., and the establish-mend of subsidiary and cottage industries.

The whole country has been divided into a large number of community development blocks, with each one of these having about a 100 villages under it. Thousands of officials, administrators and gramsevaks have been engaged in the scheme. Consequently, there has been significant improvement but we still have a long way to go.

In a country like India, with a population of more than a billion people and a population growth rate of about 2.2%, the poverty eradication programme is bound to be arduous and long drawn. Over 35% of our population is estimated to be living below the poverty line, in spite of the fact that the main emphasis of our Five Year Plans has been on poverty eradication, modernisation of the economy and industry and self-reliance. For example, the main objectives of the Seventh Plan, beginning in 1985, were growth in food-grain production, increase in employment opportunities and rise in productivity. Obviously, our plans have to play a greater role as an instrument of growth and development in times to come. And this can be done only by greater and enlarged participation of the masses, especially in villages and small towns.

One of the main objectives of our Five Year Plans has been the expansion and creation of more employment opportunities in rural India. To achieve this objective, sufficient funds have been allocated under various employment schemes. For example, under the Jawahar Rozgar Yojna, the various states and Union Territories have been given funds in proportion to the number of people living below the line of poverty. Special consideration has been given to such areas as the hills, deserts and the islands under the scheme.

Further, the devolution of funds to village Panchayats is determined by the proportion of the scheduled castes and tribes and the backwardness of the region. The expenditure under this scheme is to be shared between the Centre and the states, in the ratio of 80: 20. With the involvement of village panchayats in the scheme, wider participation of the rural people is envisaged. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana is the biggest of its kind in the world and a sum of Rs. 2,600 crore was earmarked by the Centre to implement it. The utilization of funds is at the sole discretion of the gram and village panchayats and there will be no state intervention in the matter of selection of projects, etc. Based on decentralised planning, the scheme is bound to help thousands of families living below the poverty line in rural areas. It further shows that democracy is compatible with rural growth and development. In April 1999, a new scheme known as Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana was launched with a plan outlay of Rs. 1000 crore, to eradicate poverty and unemployment.

The economic reform process, now gathering momentum, will further help reduce poverty in villages and towns. The government’s liberalisation policy has helped in rural employment because of the various incentives granted to the industries established in the backward and rural areas of the country. With industrial growth picking up, the picture will be still better. In the long term, the economic and industrial growth will increase the income of the poor substantially. Initially, the results of liberalisation and opening of the Indian economy may not be as appreciable as desired, in terms of poverty eradication and increase in employment for rural people, but ultimately it will result in reduction of poverty. It also ensures reduction in inequalities, because it has been found that distribution of national income and assets under a more open economy is less unequal. Privatisation will also help the government to devote its resources in a better manner to its social obligations.

Therefore, the alleged contradiction between liberalisation, growth and social justice is unfounded. With liberalisation, India is bound to grow rapidly by virtue of its huge natural and human resources. The growth will be marked by improvement in standards of living, removal of poverty to a great extent and emergence of India as a great economic power. Thus, it is clear that eradication of poverty is intimately linked with the raising of productivity and employment, both in agricultural and industrial sectors. As removal of poverty, increase in employment and living standards of the people are our main priorities at this point of time, we shall have to strike a balance between the development of agriculture and industry.

We cannot think of India without villages and agriculture. At the same time, industries cannot be asked to wait. Sometimes it is asked, should we give priority to agriculture over industry, or should industries get priority over agriculture? Perhaps both should go hand in hand in order to make India poverty-free, and an industrial major in the world. Food and agriculture are like the same sides of the coin while industries are the reverse. In the Indian context, both are ultimately interrelated and important. Items produced in mills and factories will be purchased by the masses only when they have enough money to buy them. And our masses in villages depend on agriculture for their livelihood and improvement in their living standards. Consumerism pre-supposes a sound agriculture base and income.

Racism

When a class is based entirely on heredity, it is called caste. A caste is a group that considers itself different from others. Which has its specialty? In their periphery, they do marital relations, which is a traditional business. 

Origin of Racism

It is difficult to tell when casteism originated in Indian society because in ancient times, humans used to do life by forming small groups. Then when this group changed to a caste in that order, it is not possible to find that time. The caste system was based on four varnas – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra.

It was a karma based system; where the caste was determined by the karma of the person. Just like if the child of a Kshatriya were interested in the work of a Vaishya, then the child would get the character of Vaishya, but in the transfer, all this changed and the caste was determined genetically as the children of Kshatriya would be called Kshatriya. Similarly, Children of other varnas will also follow their father’s caste and his deeds.

Racism at Social Level

Due to racism or casteism, it is not enough to divide the society into two parts, but its effectiveness started to be ensured when one of these two classes gained power, while the influence of exploitation on the other course started increasing.

Racism in Politics

As long as casteism was at the social level, the problems related to it were fixed and limited, but the impact of casteism in politics started dividing the country. The counting of caste-determined votes further split society.

Racism Signs

The idea of ​​casteism shows the importance of honesty and dedication of castes and sub-castes. It either does not care or does not care about the interests of other castes. 

Casteism can only give justice to one side, which is beneficial to its caste, even if it violates any limits of humanity. Racism is a significant obstacle to the creation and progress of any country. Further, it is also contrary to the constitution.

In racism, the chances of exploitation are greatly increased, in which one caste becomes higher, and one caste becomes lower, and in this way, the caste with less power starts to be exploited.

For the caste-based classification such as money, lore and karma have been the main reasons till now. In which Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas automatically came to the upper caste and all other castes they started being exploited.

Reasons for Casteism

1. Protecting the honor of his caste

Every person is proud of their caste from birth, so they become so self-absorbed in the devotion to his caste. Here, all the dignity of humanity is forgotten and this class becomes the class of the exploiters while the exploited class wants to stay suppressed forever by living with their given deeds.

2. Inter-caste marriage

In any community, this tradition is not to be married out of its group; it gives further strength to casteism. Due to this, it is not only at the social level, but also the gene pool of any caste remains confined, and there is no variation in the genes.

3. Urbanization

Due to the lack of employment in the villages, a lot of population started settling in the cities, but due to caste diversity, living and communication started becoming difficult. 

4. Social distance

Those castes which considered themselves better than others started to keep a range from other castes, due to which touching and untouchability and social inequality started increasing, and casteism began to prevail not only among these castes but also in that class were hunting.

5. Illiteracy and lack of opportunities

The castes who gained power continued to be educated, but the upper castes also persecuted those who lacked resources, they also began to understand the importance of their caste and casteism.

6. Consequences of Racism

Racism or Casteism is based on inequality and injustice. It would be wrong to call casteism a part of the system. These are the demons who are swallowing the society. Due to this, democracy has also become a joke. In recent times, there is a strong possibility of enmity in the organization of every caste in India.

Here, humiliation by one caste to another or looking at it with respect and thus seeing the distance in both communities remain very common. And if we look at the social level, due to casteist ideology, cases of honor-killing have also increased.

Here couples are killed for marrying outside the caste. If it survives, then the family would face social disdain. 

How to End Racism?

When a class is based entirely on heredity, it is called caste. A caste is a group that considers itself different from others. Which has its specialty? In their periphery, they do marital relations, which is a traditional business. 

Origin of Racism

It is difficult to tell when casteism originated in Indian society because in ancient times, humans used to do life by forming small groups. Then when this group changed to a caste in that order, it is not possible to find that time. The caste system was based on four varnas – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra.

It was a karma based system; where the caste was determined by the karma of the person. Just like if the child of a Kshatriya were interested in the work of a Vaishya, then the child would get the character of Vaishya, but in the transfer, all this changed and the caste was determined genetically as the children of Kshatriya would be called Kshatriya. Similarly, Children of other varnas will also follow their father’s caste and his deeds

Racism at Social Level

Due to racism or casteism, it is not enough to divide the society into two parts, but its effectiveness started to be ensured when one of these two classes gained power, while the influence of exploitation on the other course started increasing. 

As long as casteism was at the social level, the problems related to it were fixed and limited, but the impact of casteism in politics started dividing the country. The counting of caste-determined votes further split society. 

Racism Signs

The idea of ​​casteism shows the importance of honesty and dedication of castes and sub-castes. It either does not care or does not care about the interests of other castes. 

Casteism can only give justice to one side, which is beneficial to its caste, even if it violates any limits of humanity. Racism is a significant obstacle to the creation and progress of any country. Further, it is also contrary to the constitution.

In racism, the chances of exploitation are greatly increased, in which one caste becomes higher, and one caste becomes lower, and in this way, the caste with less power starts to be exploited.

For the caste-based classification such as money, lore and karma have been the main reasons till now. In which Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas automatically came to the upper caste and all other castes they started being exploited.

Reasons for Casteism

1. Protecting the honor of his caste

Every person is proud of their caste from birth, so they become so self-absorbed in the devotion to his caste. Here, all the dignity of humanity is forgotten and this class becomes the class of the exploiters while the exploited class wants to stay suppressed forever by living with their given deeds.

2. Inter-caste marriage

In any community, this tradition is not to be married out of its group; it gives further strength to casteism. Due to this, it is not only at the social level, but also the gene pool of any caste remains confined, and there is no variation in the genes.

3. Urbanization

Due to the lack of employment in the villages, a lot of population started settling in the cities, but due to caste diversity, living and communication started becoming difficult. 

4. Social distance

Those castes which considered themselves better than others started to keep a range from other castes, due to which touching and untouchability and social inequality started increasing, and casteism began to prevail not only among these castes but also in that class were hunting.

5. Illiteracy and lack of opportunities

The castes who gained power continued to be educated, but the upper castes also persecuted those who lacked resources, they also began to understand the importance of their caste and casteism.

6. Consequences of Racism

Here, humiliation by one caste to another or looking at it with respect and thus seeing the distance in both communities remain very common. And if we look at the social level, due to casteist ideology, cases of honor-killing have also increased.

Here couples are killed for marrying outside the caste. If it survives, then the family would face social disdain. 

How to End Racism?

Given how casteism has disintegrated, destroyed and hindered progress since ancient times, many social reformers and organizations have made various efforts to end casteism from time to time and continue to do so even today. 

Inter-caste marriages should be encouraged. Organize food function of different castes collectively. Organizations like national volunteers also organize ‘group meals’ in their programs.

Similarly, there are organizations that also conduct inter-caste marriages. These may be reasonable efforts, but despite them, the mindset of casteism is enshrined in the same people, these efforts do not seem to have any effect in the society, it has all become a mere show-off.

10 golden lines on Racism

  1. Racism has three pillars – the fame quo, work-based division, and inter-caste marriages.
  2.  The caste gadget is a curse in society. It has divided the community into many parts.
  3. Racism or Casteism is primarily based on inequality and injustice.
  4. The historical caste gadget was once essentially mainly based on four varnas – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra.
  5. The caste machine needs to quit, and future India needs to be tasteless and classless.
  6. Article 15 of the charter states that the nation has to now not discriminate on the foundation of religion, race, caste, sex, vicinity of birth.
  7.  Due to the conceit of caste superiority, one human stays separate from any other human.
  8. Racism is the most crucial impediment to the improvement of the nation.
  9. The robust will and honesty of political management are indispensable for the removal of racism.
  10.  Inter-caste marriages can assist in removing of racism.

Conclusion

In conclusion, one can derive some facts that entirely removing racism is necessary to make India a happy and powerful nation. For this, it is required to do anti-caste propaganda through publicity tools like film, literature, press, newspaper, television, etc. Inter-caste marriages should be encouraged.

Only by erasing this can you imagine this unbroken and powerful India. At this time, there is a huge obstacle and hindrance in the path of all kinds of progress. We should uproot it and do our social work in another way. I hope you liked this Essay on Racism.

Unemployment

Unemployment is a serious issue. There are many factors which are responsible for this. Some of these include lack of proper education, lack of good skills and skills, inability to perform, lack of good employment opportunities and rapidly growing population. A look at unemployment stability, unemployment consequences and measures taken by the government to control it further.

Unemployment related statistics in India

The Ministry of Labor and Employment in India maintains unemployment records in the country. Unemployment figures are calculated based on the number of people who had no work for a substantial period of time during the 365 days prior to the date the figures were matched and are still seeking employment.

From 1983 to 2013, the unemployment rate in India was the highest at 9.40% with an average of 7.32 percent and in 2013 it was a record of 4.90%. In the year 2015-16, the unemployment rate was 8.7% for women and 4.3 percent for men.

Result of unemployment

There are serious socio-economic issues due to unemployment. This affects not only one person but the whole society. Some of the major consequences of unemployment are explained below:

  • Rise in poverty

This statement is absolutely true that the increase in the unemployment rate has increased the poverty rate in the country. Unemployment is mainly responsible for inhibiting the economic development of the country.

  • Crime rate increase

Unemployed unable to find a suitable job usually takes the path of crime as it is an easy way to make money. Unemployment is one of the main causes of the rapidly increasing cases of theft, robbery and other heinous crimes.

  • Exploitation of labour

Employees generally take advantage of the lack of jobs in the market by offering lower wages. People unable to find a job linked to their skills usually settle for a low-paid job. Employees are also forced to work for a specified number of hours each day.

  • political instability

Lack of employment opportunities results in a lack of trust in the government and this situation often leads to political instability.

  • mental health

The level of dissatisfaction increases among unemployed people, which gradually leads to anxiety, depression and other mental health problems.

  • Loss of skill

Staying out of a job for a long period of time leads to dull life and loss of skills. This reduces a person’s confidence to a great extent.

Government initiative to reduce unemployment

The Government of India has started several programs to reduce the problem of unemployment as well as to help the unemployed in the country. Some of these include Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Drought Prone Areas Program (DPAP), Training for Self-Employment, Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY), Employment Assurance Scheme, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Alleviation Program (PMIUPEP), employment offices, employment in foreign countries, development of small and cottage industries, employment guarantee scheme and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana etc. Not.

Apart from providing employment opportunities through these programs, the government is also sensing the importance of education and providing skill training to unemployed people.

  • Self-employment training

The program, started in 1979, was called the National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). It aims to reduce unemployment among youth in rural areas.

  • Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)

To ensure full employment opportunities in rural areas in the year 1978-79, the Government of India launched the Integrated Rural Development Program. 312 crores were spent on this program and 182 lakh families benefited from it.

  • Employment in foreign countries

The government helps people in getting employment in foreign companies. Special agencies have been set up in other countries to hire people.

  • Small and cottage industries

In an effort to reduce the issue of unemployment, the government has also developed small and cottage industries. Many people are earning their living with this initiative.

  • Golden jubilee employment scheme

The program aims to provide self-employment and wage-employment opportunities to the urban population. It consists of two schemes:

  • Urban self-employment program
  • Urban wage employment program
  • Employment assurance scheme

This program was started in 1994 for 1752 backward classes in the country. Poor unemployed people living in rural areas were provided unskilled manual work for 100 days under this scheme.

  • Drought prone area program (DPAP)

The program was launched in 13 states and covered 70 drought-prone districts with the aim of eliminating seasonal unemployment. The government spent Rs 474 crore in its seventh plan.

  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

The program, launched in April 1989, was intended to provide at least one member in each poor rural family with the employment of fifty to one hundred days for a year. Employment opportunities are provided in the vicinity of the individual and 30% of these opportunities are reserved for women.

  • Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)

There are a total of three schemes under this program. Under the first scheme, the urban poor is subsidized to set up micro-enterprises. Under the second scheme, wage-employment is arranged for labourers in cities with a population of less than 10 lakh. Under the third scheme, the urban poor in cities is given employment opportunities matching their skills.

  • Employment guarantee scheme

The unemployed people are provided financial assistance under this scheme. It has been started in many states including Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan etc.

Apart from this, several other programs have been launched by the government to reduce unemployment.

Unemployment in India can be divided into several categories:

Hidden unemployment

When people more than required is hired for a job. This condition is called as the hidden unemployment as removing these people will not affect the work. 

sessional Unemployment

As the name suggests this type of Unemployment is only in a specific season of the year. Usually works related to agriculture, Ice factory, resorts and sports industries are affected by this.

Open Unemployment

This means when labour in large number is not able to get a job which provides them with regular income. This situation arises when physical labour increases more as compared to the economy

Technical Unemployment

This situation arises due to the increasing technical machines and instrument to replace human work.

Structural Unemployment

This type of unemployment occurs due to a major change in the economic structure of the country. It is the result of technological advancement and economic development.

cyclical unemployment

A decrease in the overall level of business activity leads to cyclical unemployment. However, this incident is only for a short time.

Educated unemployment

Inability to find a suitable job, lack of employable skills and faulty education system are some of the reasons that educated unemployed remain.

Contract unemployment

In this type of unemployment, people either work on a part-time basis or do the kind of work for which they are more qualified.

Preventive unemployment

This occurs when the demand for the labour force and its supply are not properly coordinated.

Long term unemployment

Long term unemployment is one that continues in the country due to rapid growth in population and low level of economic growth.

Sudden unemployment

Such unemployment occurs due to a sudden drop in demand, short term contracts or shortage of raw materials.

Factors that can increase unemployment in India

  • Increase in population

The rapid increase in the country’s population is one of the major causes of unemployment.

  • Manda Economic Development

The slow economic growth of the country results in fewer employment opportunities for people, leading to unemployment.

  • Seasonal business

A large part of the country’s population is involved in agriculture. Being a seasonal business it only provides work opportunities for a certain time of the year.

  • The slow growth of the industrial sector

The growth of the industrial sector in the country is very slow. Thus employment opportunities in this sector are limited.

  • The decline in cottage industry

Production in the cottage industry has fallen drastically and due to this many artisans have become unemployed.

Possible solutions to end unemployment

  • Population control

This is the right time when the Indian government takes drastic steps to control the population of the country.

  • Education system

The education system in India focuses on theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system has to be improved to generate skilled manpower.

  • Industrialization

The government should take steps to promote the industrial sector to create more employment opportunities for people.

  • foreign companies

The government should encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to create more employment opportunities.

  • Job opportunities

Employment opportunities should be created in rural areas for those who remain unemployed for the rest of the time by working at a certain time.

Conclusion

Unemployment is the root cause of various problems in society. Although the government has taken the initiative to reduce this problem, the measures taken are not effective enough. Due to this problem, various factors need to be studied thoroughly to see effective and integrated solutions. It is time that the government should recognize the sensitivity of the matter and take some serious steps to reduce it.

Child Labour

Childhood is considered the most enjoyable period of life. The is period is free from any time worry or responsibility. 

This period is the formative period of life. Parents do everything to fulfill the needs of their children. 

They are brought up with the utmost care, love, and affection. But it is sad to see that the innocent have to work to earn money. This is known as child labour.

The system of child labour is also prevalent in India. It is the worst type of child exploitation. No child likes to work in the budding periods of life of his life. 

It is the poverty of their parents that forces them to do labour. Some parents cannot earn enough to feed their family members. So they compel their children to do some job and earn money.

What are the pros and cons of child labour?

Problems of Child Labour in India

The problem of child labour has become a serious problem. Children have to work in homes or shops or factories where they are paid very low wages. 

They have to do every type of dirty work without any rest or interval. Some children do not return home at night. 

They sleep at the bus stands or in the railway waiting hall or on the footpath. Even their parents have never felt worried about them.

The Indian law prevents the employment of children in factories but not in cottage industries, family households, dhabas, and restaurants, or in fields. 

Most of the children are school drop-outs. Our system of education and economic policies needs a rethinking. Children should be provided job-oriented education right from primary classes. 

Poor and illiterate parents should be made aware of the disadvantage of child labor. Population control is also very necessary.

Child Labour is in India and the world

Child labour is one of the biggest problems. It is not only prevalent in India but also a world problem. This problem is not a new problem. 

It was also present in ancient times. Children were required to do some work either at home or in the field with their parents.

The most important causes of child labor are poverty, large family, ignorance, and lack of education. 

In poor families, children have to work to support their families. The poor parents are ignorant about the value of education. 

They are concerned only with earning two square meals a day. In this job, their children have also to work. 

Thus poverty compels them to work to keep the wolf away from their doors. But in spite of child labor, the poor lead a miserable life.

Exploitation of children

Child labour is the worst type of child exploitation. The Indians look upon children as the gifts of God. But poverty snatches their childhood from them. 

Sometimes poverty forces the poor parents to take loans from the zamindars or their master. This loan is never paid by them and they become bonded laborers’. 

Sometimes they have to pawn or pledge their children to get money. Thus the vicious circle of bandha mazdoor’ goes on from one generation to the other. 

Munshi Prem Chand’s famous novel ‘Godan’ and a serial ‘Udaan’ on Colors channel beautifully present the condition of bonded labour and child labour.

The economic condition of Poor families

Economic condition is the main reason for child labour. The economically bad classes believe that more hands bring in more resources. 

Thus they go on producing children. They feel that their children will become their supporters when they are six or seven years old. 

They never think of sending them to schools. According to a report, child labour is employed mainly in 20 products. 

These products include bidis, bricks, fireworks, glass bangles, matches, and carpets, etc. Some children work in homes and tea-shops where they have to clean the utensils and do sweeping.

Indian Law for Child labour

In India, there is a law against child labour. The Indian Constitution provides that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any workplace. 

The ban on child labor has been extended to the domestic and hospitality sectors. Because of this law, child labour is almost absent in the organized sector. 

But the situation is not good in the unorganized sector. There the anti-child labor law is thrown to the winds.

We can find a great number of child laborers in the rural areas, in farms, fisheries, and cottage industries. 

In England, when the Industrial Revolution took place, child labor was required to clean the factory chimneys. 

The miserable condition of the children has been presented in William Blake’s poem ‘Chimney Sweepers’. Child labour deprives children of attending school. 

Besides, working for long hours in unhygienic conditions, and eating unhealthy food, the health of the children is adversely affected. 

However, a great benefit to employers is that child labor does not form trade unions. Besides, it is available at low wages.

So far as the exploitation of child laborers is concerned, it is a naked truth.

A Survey report about Child labour

 According to a survey, children, for the same type of work, are paid less than the adult laborers. Poverty has an intimate relationship with child labor. 

Poor families need money to survive. and children are a source of additional income. Thus poverty and lack of social security are mainly responsible for child labour and bonded labour.

In The Tribune, the Chief Editor has expressed his views on child labour. He has said, “Make employers responsible.” 

According to him, a few months ago, hundreds of children were found working as labourers in one of the farms in Punjab. 

During the Prevention of Child Labor Week, 281 children were rescued from across the state. Of these, 116 were pursuing dangerous occupations. 

It is not that the country lacks legal protection to protect children from exploitation. Their numbers continue to grow. U.S. agencies estimate that the number of child laborers in India could be between four and six million.

The law stipulates only one-year imprisonment and a maximum of Rs. 20,000 fine; In fact, a small amount of Rs.200 is a penalty in most cases. 

The government has passed a number of laws

The government has passed a number of laws such as the Child and Adolescent Labor Prohibition Act, the Right to Education Act, 2010 and implemented schemes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which encourage the enrollment of children in schools.

It also claims that the number of child laborers has come down from 1.25 crore (Census 2001) to the current figure of 49.6 lakh (National Sample Survey).

Not surprisingly, these figures were arrived at on the basis of a sample size of approximately 70,000 across the nation. 

The government needs to conduct a genuine survey to gauge the magnitude of the problem and make the enforcement machinery accountable. 

Unless employers are made accountable under stringent laws, child labour will continue to shame the nation.

It has become a challenging job to deal with the child labor problem. Efforts are being made to lessen some of the evils of child exploitation. 

The world has set an aim to eliminate the practice of child labour by 20

16. In fact, the problem of child labour has three faces-social, economic and political. The most important factor of the three is poverty. 

Child labour can be checked by reducing poverty in rural areas. If child labour is banned all of a sudden, it will not bear fruitful results. In many poor families, it is necessary for children to work.

To some extent, child labour contributes to development. Most of the children belong to those families where the family’s survival depends on their labor. 

A distinction must be made between forced labour and employment. Children should be allowed to work in their family-based cottage industry like pottery, poultry, or knitting and weaving. Here the children can work in their spare time after school.

Conclusion of child labour essay

On the whole, the issue is how to root out the problem of child labour from India. Besides removing poverty, vocational and technical education should be introduced from the primary stage.

 It is true that this problem cannot be eliminated overnight but in a phased manner. At least, anti-child labour law should be enforced with an iron hand and the defaulters are put behind the bars.

Women Empowerment

Nowadays Women Empowerment is one of the most important topic to discuss. In this modern era womens needs to become empower. Todays women can do every job which a men can do.

Definition of Women Empowerment

Women empowerment is often defined in some ways; it means accepting and allowing womens to take their decision, giving them education, and empower them to fly them as much as they can fly towards success.

It is the process that makes power in individuals womens. over their own lives, society, and in their communities. People are empowered once they are ready to access the opportunities available to them without limitations and restrictions like in education, profession, and lifestyle.

Feeling entitled to form your own decisions creates a way of empowerment. Women empowerment includes the action of raising the status of girls through education, raising awareness, literacy, and training.

Women empowerment is all about equipping and allowing women to form life-determining decisions through the various problems in society.

Economic Women Empowerment

Economic women empowerment increases women’s agency, access to formal government programs, mobility outside the house, financial independence, and buying power. Policymakers are suggested to support job training to assist in entrance within the legal markets.

One recommendation is to supply more formal education opportunities for ladies that might leave higher bargaining power within the home. They might have more access to higher wages outside the house; and, as a result, make it easier for ladies to urge employment within the market.

Strengthening women’s access to property inheritance and land rights is another method wont to empower women economically. This can allow them better means of asset accumulation, capital, and bargaining power needed to deal with gender inequalities.

Often, women in developing and underdeveloped countries are legally restricted from their land on the only basis of gender.

Having a right to their property gives women a kind of bargaining power that they would not usually have; successively, they gain more opportunities for economic independence and formal financial institutions.

Microfinance institutions aim for women empowerment in their community by giving them access to loans that have low-interest rates without the need for collateral. More specifically, the microfinance institutions aim to offer micro-credit to women who want to be entrepreneurs.

Some critiques claim that microcredit alone doesn’t guarantee women have control over the way the loan is employed. Microfinance doesn’t relieve women of household obligations, and albeit women have credit, they do not have the time to be as active within the market as men.

Political Women Empowerment

Political empowerment supports creating policies that might best support gender equality and agency for ladies in both the general public and personal spheres.

Popular methods that are suggested are to make social action policies that have a quota for the number of girls in politics and parliament positions.

As of 2017, the worldwide average of girls who hold lower and single house parliament positions is 23.6 percent. Further recommendations are to extend women’s rights to vote, voice opinions, and, therefore, the ability to run an office with a good chance of being elected.

 

Nowadays Women Empowerment is one of the most important topic to discuss. In this modern era womens needs to become empower. Todays women can do every job which a men can do.

Definition of Women Empowerment

Women empowerment is often defined in some ways; it means accepting and allowing womens to take their decision, giving them education, and empower them to fly them as much as they can fly towards success.

It is the process that makes power in individuals womens. over their own lives, society, and in their communities. People are empowered once they are ready to access the opportunities available to them without limitations and restrictions like in education, profession, and lifestyle.

Feeling entitled to form your own decisions creates a way of empowerment. Women empowerment includes the action of raising the status of girls through education, raising awareness, literacy, and training.

Women empowerment is all about equipping and allowing women to form life-determining decisions through the various problems in society.

Economic Women Empowerment

Economic women empowerment increases women’s agency, access to formal government programs, mobility outside the house, financial independence, and buying power. Policymakers are suggested to support job training to assist in entrance within the legal markets.

One recommendation is to supply more formal education opportunities for ladies that might leave higher bargaining power within the home. They might have more access to higher wages outside the house; and, as a result, make it easier for ladies to urge employment within the market.

Strengthening women’s access to property inheritance and land rights is another method wont to empower women economically. This can allow them better means of asset accumulation, capital, and bargaining power needed to deal with gender inequalities.

Often, women in developing and underdeveloped countries are legally restricted from their land on the only basis of gender.

Having a right to their property gives women a kind of bargaining power that they would not usually have; successively, they gain more opportunities for economic independence and formal financial institutions.

Microfinance institutions aim for women empowerment in their community by giving them access to loans that have low-interest rates without the need for collateral. More specifically, the microfinance institutions aim to offer micro-credit to women who want to be entrepreneurs.

Some critiques claim that microcredit alone doesn’t guarantee women have control over the way the loan is employed. Microfinance doesn’t relieve women of household obligations, and albeit women have credit, they do not have the time to be as active within the market as men.

Political Women Empowerment

Political empowerment supports creating policies that might best support gender equality and agency for ladies in both the general public and personal spheres.

Popular methods that are suggested are to make social action policies that have a quota for the number of girls in politics and parliament positions.

As of 2017, the worldwide average of girls who hold lower and single house parliament positions is 23.6 percent. Further recommendations are to extend women’s rights to vote, voice opinions, and, therefore, the ability to run an office with a good chance of being elected.Because women are typically related to child care and domestic responsibilities within the home, they need less time dedicated to entering the labor market and running their business.

Policies that increase their bargaining power within the household would come with policies that account for cases of divorce, policies for better welfare for ladies, and policies that give women control over resources (such as property rights).

However, participation isn’t limited to the realm of politics. It can include participation within the household, in schools, and, therefore, the ability to form choices for oneself.

Some theorists believe that bargaining power and agency within the home must be achieved before one can move onto broader political participation.

Barriers of Women Empowerment

Many ladies feel these pressures, while others became familiar with being treated inferior to men. Albeit legislators, NGOs, etc. are conscious of the Women empowerment.

Participation can have, many are frightened of disrupting the status of the ladies and still let societal norms get within the way of development.

Research shows that increasing access to the web also can end in the increased exploitation of girls. Releasing personal information on websites has put some women’s safety in danger.

In 2010, Working to Halt Online Abuse stated that 73% of girls were victimized through such sites. Sorts of victimization include cyber stalking, harassment, online pornography, and flaming. Harassment especially can be a significant barrier for ladies within the workplace.

It appears in most industries but is most notable within the following: business, trade, banking and finance, sales and marketing, hospitality, government officials, and education, lecturing, and teaching. This is a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and ladies.

Furthermore, the UN Convention on the Elimination of All sorts of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is urging for increased measures of protection for ladies against harassment and violence within the workplace. 54% (272) had experienced some sort of workplace harassment. Recent studies also show that ladies face more barriers within the workplace than do men.

When taking the median earnings of men and ladies who worked full-time, year-round, government data from 2014 showed that ladies made $0.79 for each dollar a person earned. The typical earnings for working mothers came bent even less—$0.71 for each dollar a father made, consistent with a 2014 study conducted by the National Partnership for ladies and youngsters.

While much of the general public discussion of the “wage gap” has focused around women getting equal buy an equivalent work as their male peers, many ladies struggle with what’s called the “pregnancy penalty.”

The most problem is that it’s challenging to live, but some experts say that the likelihood of getting a baby is often enough for employers to push women back from their line. Therefore, women are put during a position where they have to form the choice of whether to take care of within the workforce or have children. This problem has sparked the talk over maternity leave within us and lots of other countries within the world.

Role of Education in Empowering Women

It is said that education increases “people’s self confidence and also enable them to seek out better jobs and that they can work shoulder to shoulder with men.” They engage in debate and demand for social security, health care, and other entitlements to the government. Especially, education empowers women to form choices that improve their children’s health, their well-being, and their chances of survival. Education informs others of preventing and containing the disease, and it’s an essential element of efforts to scale back malnutrition. Furthermore, it empowers women to form choices that will improve their welfare, including marrying beyond childhood and having fewer children. Crucially, education can increase women’s awareness of their rights, boost their self-esteem, and supply them the chance to say their rights.

Despite significant improvements in recent decades, education isn’t universally available, and gender inequalities persist. A serious concern in many countries isn’t only the limited numbers of women getting to school but also the limited educational pathways for people who step into the classroom.

More specifically, there should be more efforts to deal with the lower participation and learning achievement of women in science, technology, engineering, and arithmetic (STEM) education.

Internet and Women Empowerment


The growing access of the online within the late 20th century has allowed women to empower themselves by using various tools on the web.

With the introduction of the planet Wide Web, women have begun to use social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter for online activism. In recent years, blogging has also become a strong tool for the tutorial empowerment of girls.

Consistent with a study done by the University of California, l. a. , medical patients who read and write on their disease are often during a much happier mood and more knowledgeable than those that don’t.

With the straightforward accessibility and affordability of e-learning (electronic learning), women can now study from the comfort of their homes. By learning to educate themselves through new technologies like e-learning, women also are learning new skills that will be handy in today’s advancing globalized world.

Ongoing Projects for Empowering Women

The UN came out with a group of goals called the Sustainable Development Goals, or SDGs, to assist make the planet a far better place. Of the 17, the fourth goal works to permit access to education for all people alike. An outsized effort has been made to incorporate women in schools to raise their education.

Similarly, the fifth goal focuses on empowering women and girls to realize gender equality through equal access to varied sorts of opportunities (health care, education, work, etc.).

Conclusion

After reading this article we can conclude that without women empowerment no nation can become succesful and development. Also it is the right of every women to live their life in their own way.

Women empowerment also helps womens to learn more and more things from society and to become strong in her life. It helps here in every steps of her life like study, career, marriage, as a mother and more.

Independence Day (15 August)

Independence day is the most valuable day for all persons in our country. It is celebrated as a national holiday by the people of India, To mark the 15th August 1947, as the anniversary of India’s national independence from the British.

15th August has a very significant day in Indian history and it is celebrated by persons of all religions, traditions, and cultures with great joy and happiness.

On this day, the Indian people are paying healthy tribute to the great leaders for whom India is becoming independent forever. our leaders such as Bhagat Singh, P.t Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Valla Bhai Patel, and many others sacrifice their lives to let people enjoy being independent in our nation

To Commemorates this day, people listen to music in schools, watch patriotic movies, many children take part in a competition and contest, and go to view various live performances about the meaning of the Day.

After the freedom of India, Jawahar Lal Nehru was the first P.M of our nation. on 15th August 1947, he raised the flag at Red Fort (Delhi) and given a speech. This marveled is trailed by the other resulting P.M of India.

Where banner lifting functions, parades, marches, salutes by the 21 guns, and many more other cultural events are organized.

Our Prime Minister P.t Nehru hoisted the national flag at Red Fort and after it reciting the national anthem. At 12 pm on the 15th of August 1947, P.t Nehru declared the freedom of India by pursuing out his speech on “Truth With Destiny”.

He said that it is time to pledge after long years of slavery and let our nation succeed.

India is a country where a large number of persons live together whether they have a place with different religions, traditions, or societies.

Similar to an Indian on this day, we will make a promise to be steadfast and energetic in saving our motherland.

Why We Celebrate Our Independence Day On The 15th of August?

India was colonized for over 200 years and the people of India demanded complete Independence. the proposed date for independence was 26th January 1930. On, July 18, 1947, the law was passed, stating that India would become an independent country on 15th Aug 1947.

The last viceroy and India’s first governor-general select the day since August 15th also commemorates Japan’s second anniversary of surrender to the Allied forces. Thus, 15th August is celebrated as Independence day in India.Independence day is celebrated in remembrance of the sacrifices our leaders made so that we could live as free citizens.

What is the History of India’s Journey Towards Independence?

In the 1600s, the British came to India basically for trading and were granted trading rights by the Indian emperor, Jahangir.

At the time, India was ruled by the Mughal who was too powerful for the British. when the Mughal empire disintegrated, the British begun to conquer small parts of India.

Starting with the battle of Plassey in 1857, the British began expanding rapidly throughout India till 1857.

In 1857, there was a massive uprising throughout northern India, where Indian leaders fought against the British.

The freedom struggle led by Mahatma Gandhi was so successful that the British were forced to grants Indians numerous rights.

It means It included voting rights, with several Indian-led governments in 1937, though they were externally controlled by the British, In 1945, the British economy was destroyed due to world war 2nd.

So, Mainly they decided to leave India peacefully. However, this day also marks the tragic partition of India.

Historical Background For Independent of India

Many incidents take place for the Independent of India. From (1885 – 1947) the journey of Independence of India is given, which helps to understand our historical background deeply for Independence.

How India got Independent

  • In 1885 Congress was formed
  • In 1905 Partition of Bengal
  • In 1907 Surat split
  • In 1909 ‘Minto Morley Reform’

 The journey of Mahatma Gandhi in India

  • In 1916, Congress Lucknow Session
  • In 1917, Champaran Satyagrah
  • In 1919, Montague Chelmsford Reforms
  • In 1919, the Rowlatt Act
  • In 1919, Jalianwala Bagh Massacre
  • In 1920, the Non-Cooperation Movement

Revolutionary Phase in Indian History

  • In 1922, Chauri Chaura Incident
  • In 1925, Kakori Incident
  • In 1924, the Swaraj Party
  • In 1927, the Simon Commission
  • In 1928, the Nehru Report
  • In 1929, Lahore Session (Poorna Swaraj)
  • In 1930, Civil Disobedience Movement
  • In 1930, Dandi March
  • In 1930, First Round Table Conference

Formation Of Government

  • In 1931, Gandhi Irwin Pact
  • In 1931, Second Round Table Conference
  • In 1932, Communal Award
  • In 1932, Third Round Table Conference
  • In 1935, the Government of India Act
  • In 1940, Pakistan Resolution

Azadi

  • In 1939, World War 2
  • In 1942, Cripps Mission
  • In 1942, the Quit India Movement
  • In 1946, Cabinet Mission Plan
  • In 1947, Mountbatten Plan
    • On 15th Aug 1947, India became Independent

7+ Interesting Facts About Indian Independence Day

  1. At the time of Independent, the value of Indian 1 rupees = 1 $ (U.S) but at now 2020, 1 $ (U.S) = Approx 77 rupees.
  2. Mahatma Gandhi is the Chief Architect of Independence.
  3. In India, only Karnataka (Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha) KKGSS have licensed for flag production.
  4. Indian flag is made from khadi, the making of the flag from other material is a punishable offense. so, that according to the law they were imprisoned for 3 years and a fine.
  5. In 1950, National Anthem (Jana Gana Mana, written by Rabindranath Tagore, 1911) was officially adopted.
  6. Britishers declared Independent of India with 565 princely states as an independent state. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel our first home minister has united the Princely states with India and so, he was known as “Iron Man of India”.
  7. Bahrain, North Korea, Congo, Liechtenstein, and South Korea also share the same date for Independence on the 15th of August.
  8. Our official Independence day celebrated by the Indian Government at Red Fort (New Delhi).