Mahatma Gandhi

When talking about India as the nation, the freedom, the existence, the history, the
independence, the very first thing that comes to our mind is Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi is the most recognized name around the world. Gandhi Ji, whose full name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a born-on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India. His Father’s name was Karamchand Gandhi who worked as a dewan in Rajkot. Mother, Putlibai was a religious lady who divided her time mostly between the temple and household work. Gandhi Ji got married at the age of thirteen to Kasturba Gandhi. He was a lawyer, a politician and an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Also known as Bapu in India and Gandhi Ji worldwide was a writer as well. Talking about Gandhi Ji’s Educational qualification, he was a very shy and mediocre student. Gandhi Ji was interested in becoming a doctor, but his father wanted him to follow the family legacy of working as a high official in the states of Gujrat.
Gandhi Ji who was not very happy with studying at Sambaldas College agreed to take the law as his profession. That would mean jumping from India to England. He too faced a lot of difficulties with language as the main barrier. From Gujarati to the English language was not an easy task, but his determination was what won. He had to struggle with the transition to Western Culture.

Gandhi Ji was not able to find work in India; he signed a one-year contract to perform legal
services in South Africa. Once he reached South Africa, he was welcomed by a world full of
racism and discrimination by the British. Gandhi Ji was asked to open his turban on the very
first day in the Durban Courtroom, which he refused to do and left instead.
Gandhiji’s life took a turn when a white man objected his presence in the first-class railway
compartment, in spite of Gandhi Ji having his ticket. When he did not agree to move back of
the train, he was forcibly thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
This incident provoked in him a sense of determination to fight against racism and
discrimination. From that time onwards, he stood up to fight for the civil rights. Gandhi Ji
formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight against discrimination.
When Gandhi Ji was planning to return to India, he got to know at his farewell that Indians
would be deprived of the right to vote. The immigrants then convinced Gandhi Ji to stay and
take up the issue and fight against the legislation. Gandhi Ji was not able to succeed in
preventing the law passage but definitely drew international attention to the injustice that
was being done. He also fought for the right to citizenship in the British Empire.
In the year 1906 the first mass civil disobedience campaign was organized which was called
“Satyagraha”. Since the South African Government was refusing to recognize Hindu
marriages its campaign was carried out. After years of protest, hundreds of Indians were
imprisoned, including Gandhi Ji in 1913. The South African government had to compromise,
they negotiated and accepted a compromise that gave recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of poll tax for Indians. Gandhi Ji then sailed from South Africa to London in the year 1914.

India was still under the British control in the year 1919, Gandhi Jihad called for a satyagraha
campaign of protest and strikes in a peaceful manner as the British authorities were
imprisoning people without trial of sedation. However, the reverse happened, and violence
broke out on April 13th, 1919 in Amritsar. Also known as “The Jallianwala Bagh”, where the
British fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed people and killed nearly four hundred of
them.

Gandhi Ji was not able to take it longer, so he returned all the medals he had received from
the military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians
to serve in World War 1. He had called in for a mass boycott. He urged people to stop
working for the British; he asked students not to attend a government school. Soldiers were
asked to leave their post and all citizens to stop paying taxes and refrain from purchasing
British goods. He made people realize the value of “Charkha” that is the spinning wheel. He
used the portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth, and soon the spinning wheel
became the symbol of Indian Independence. Gandhi Ji was the leader of the Indian National
Congress.  Gandhi Ji returned to active politics in the year 1930 to protest against the British Salt Act.

This Act prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt, but it imposed a heavy tax. A Dandi March was planned that entailed a 390-kilometer march to the Arabian Sea. There Gandhi Ji
would collect salt as a symbol of defense of the government’s monopoly. Wearing a white
shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, he set out from his religious retreat in
Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with some followers. He reached the coastal town of Dandi
after 24 days and broke the law by making salt from evaporated sea water. Gandhi Ji was
again imprisoned for the same.

In August 1934, Gandhi Ji left the Indian National Congress, and the leadership was passed
on to Jawaharlal Nehru. Gandhi Ji launched a Quit India movement in the year 1942, asking
the British to leave the country immediately. Again, he was arrested and put behind bars
along with his wife and other leaders. With his health going down Gandhi Ji was released
after nineteen months. The negotiations began for an independent India; however, it leads
to the partition on Hindus being India and Muslims being Pakistan. Violence had already
roared before the Independence. Finally, India became Independent on 15th August 1947.
Gandhi Ji still pleaded people to maintain peace and nonviolence.

Weakened from the continuous hunger strikes, the 78-year-old Gandhi with his two
grandnieces led from his living quarters in Delhi’s Birla House to a prayer meeting. Where an
Activist Named Nathuram Godse was upset with Gandhi Ji over his tolerance with the
Muslims shot him three times with a semiautomatic pistol. This act took the life of a
nonviolence preacher. Godse and his fellow co-Ordinator was hanged in the year 1949, and
the rest of the conspirators were sentenced to life imprisonment.

Gandhi Ji always believed in Simple living. Making his own clothes, to eating vegetarian
diets. Keeping fast for self-purification, all these facts show how great a man he was.
Satyagraha remains one of his most important philosophy.

INDEPENDENCE DAY OF INDIA

BACKGROUND

India’s struggle for independence started in 1857 with the Indian Mutiny in Meerut and it gained momentum when the first war . In twentieth century, below the leadership of Gandhi , the Indian National Congress (INC) and different political organisations launched a state independence movement and revolt against the oppressive British rule.During the Second war in 1942, the Bharatn Congress launched the Quit India Movement strict AN finish to British rule that prompted colonial rulers detaining several campaigners, nationalists, and ministers together with Gandhi.During the partition of Bharat in 1947, violent riots, mass casualties, and displacement of nearly fifteen million individuals happened amid non secular violence.

“Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high,where knowledge is free”-Rabindranath Tagore

HISTORY

India gained independence from British rule on Assumption , 1947. As India freed herself from the clutches of British Empire , the entire country roared in happiness, marking the reign of an independent and free land, faraway from the fear rule of the 200-year British rule.Fearless Patriots led the liberty struggle which went on to be written within the deep trenches of history. On the occasion of this patriotic day, let’s know more about the history, significance, facts, and therefore the way today is widely known in India and across the earth .Jawahar lal Nehru declared India’s independence on Assumption , 1947, and swore in because the 1st Indian Prime Minister. British House of Commons passed the Indian Independence Bill on Independence Day , 1947, and it had been passed within a fortnight. This was a significant a neighborhood of the tactic that led India to her victory. Freedom fighters and patriots like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Rani Lakshmi Bai, and far of more lead the parents with their belief and determination to win independence.

Mahatma Gandhi

SIGNIFICANCE

This day may be a remembrance and dedication to all or any those people that gave their lives, mind, body, and soul to free India. Countless lives were lost and lots of were tortured but with immense determination and faith, Indian rose as a free country. On today , India’s tricolour flag was hoisted above the Lahori Gate of Red Fort in Delhi on Assumption , 1947. to the present day, per annum the Prime Minister hoists the flag and commemorates the occasion by a standard ceremony in Delhi, India’s capital. After the Prime Minister addresses the state , a military parade is held that’s broadcasted everywhere the country. The President also delivers a speech.

Today India completed 74 years of independence and we are celebrating 75th independence which has brought real change in India in this so many years. At last I want to quote DR. B.R.Ambedkar’s famous quote;-

Freedom of mind is the real freedom. A person whose mind is not free though he may not be in chains, is a slave, not a free man. One whose mind is not free, though he may not be in prison, is a prisoner and not a free man. One whose mind is not free though alive, is no better than dead. Freedom of mind is the proof of one’s existence.”-B.R.AMBEDKAR

BR Ambedkar: Social Justice


The contribution of Dr B.R. Ambedkar in Indian Democracy is not to be forgotten. As a Chairman of the Constitutional Committee, he gave a shape to our country of a complete Sovereign, Democratic, Republic based on an adult franchise. In the Constitution of free India all the citizens have been guaranteed social, political and economic equalities.

Baba Saheb BR Ambedkar’s name is written in gold letters throughout Indian history as the creator of social justice. Not only was he the creator of the constitution, but also the creator of social justice and the messiah of the oppressed. If Mahatma Gandhi gave us the direction and lesson of morality, then Baba Saheb shaped the social aspect without exploitation. It had, in the truest sense of the word, a democratic and antiquated goal. He spent his whole life promoting the poor, exploited untouchables. and classes with problems.
It has been a gloomy historic fact of Indian society that lower castes have been exploited and subjugated upon by the upper castes and for that reason the lower castes have mostly also been the lower classes economically and vice versa.

During the freedom movement there were many leaders and movements throughout India. The most protruding voice of and for the lower castes bad emerged in the person of B.R. Ambedkar who came from the untouchable Mahar caste in what is today Maharashtra. Even today Ambedkar is a hugely influential symbol who is followed by many political forces throughout the length and breadth of India. Ambedkar’s aim in his own words was to get justice for the ‘last, the lost and the least and he emerged as a sort of revolutionary leader of India’s Hindu untouchable and other castes. His intention was to fight for their equality and seek better-quality living conditions for them and reach education among them and get suitable representation for them in elected bodies and in government services.


During the freedom struggle. Ambedkar’s emphasis on issues related to social justice forced the leaders of the national movement to take these up as part of the agenda associated with the main demand for unshackling the country from the chains of colonialism. Ambedkar was a highly educated person with great academic accomplishments and a lawyer by training. His views on social justice are to be found in his books and speeches.
His most important works are Annihilation of Caste (1936). Who were the Shudras (1946) and The Untouchables (1948). Also, his writings like What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables. He put forward vivid well researched attacks on the exploitative Hindu caste system chiefly with respect to how untouchables were treated and struggled all his life to secure legal and constitutional safeguards for their rights. It is stimulating in spite of the fact that he had attacked Gandhi’s Congress Party’s views and attitudes on the caste system quite harshly and in a scathing manner in
his writings, despite of that Gandhiji suggested Ambedkar’s name to head the committee to draft the Constitution.


Ambedkar in his work “Who Were the Shudras?” questioned the whole Hindu social order and tried to create a theory that the Shudras were not a separate varna or caste but were originally Kshatriyas who in a struggle with Brahmins were manipulated out of the kshatriya caste by the Brahmins and were deprived of the sacred thread.
He proposed a hypothesis that the untouchables were originally disciples of Buddha and were Buddhists but the Hindus led by the Brahmins to try to undermine Buddhist influence and stop its spread put the untouchables in a corner and started branding them untouchables. He believed the root of all lack of social justice in India was the caste system that created the environment for exploitation of man by man- of the Shudras and untouchables by
the brahmins and other higher castes. He believed that democracy cannot be achieved in India without first establishing social justice through the annihilation of the caste. Hence, he took a position that contradicted both the position of Congress and Gandhiji, who first wanted political reform and independence from the British colonial government, and the socialists and Marxists who wanted economic equality also established themselves first.

Theory of Trusteeship

Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation who fought for our independence of our country. His doctrines and views in society, education, economy, peace, women, Dalit etc may still prove the guiding to the present day world.He proposed a theory of trusteeship where he said that the money you earn should cover your necessary expenses and remaining money should be used for the welfare of the society. You are just a trustee not a owner.According to gandhiji everything belonged to god and was given by God. Therefore it is for the the whole not for a particular individual.

According to this theory the wealthy people should act like trustee that would benefit for the society. When an individual has more proportionate of money, he should become the trustee of that portion for the God’s people. Any business sector they should set up trust of certain amount of profit and that trust should be work in terms of health, charity, education etc to serve the society.
The corporates when reaching the highest position of wealth should understand the responsibility of poor section of society. This would reduce the indifference between them.

Gandhiji said that when the business are done the resources are being used by the society only. So they should also do something to serve the society. They should not think of their own profit. Gandhiji wanted the egalitarian order of society that means equal distribution of wealth. He wanted the wealthy people to share the surplus amount of money by becoming a trustee for the society.

This will reduce the difference among the rich and the poor. The wealth legally belong to the owner but morally and ethically it belongs to the society. Ganghiji ideas have to be given economic consideration for solving depressing socio-economic problems in an underdeveloped country.