The process of decolonization, which started in the late 18th century and lasted until the majority of the 20th century, is intricate and multifaceted. Decolonization is essentially the process by which former colonial powers handed over authority of their overseas possessions and conferred independence to the colonized populations. The roots of decolonization can be traced back to the late 18th century, when Enlightenment thinkers began to question the legitimacy of imperialism and colonialism. Philosophers such as Immanuel Kant argued that all human beings had the right to self-determination, and that no one group had the right to dominate another. This idea helped to lay the groundwork for later anti-colonial movements.

The first major wave of decolonization occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries, as European powers began to relinquish control over their colonies in the Americas. The United States gained independence from Britain in 1776, and many Latin American countries gained their independence in the early 19th century. However, these early decolonization efforts were often driven by elite, Western-educated intellectuals, rather than by popular movements.

The 20th century saw a much broader and more diverse wave of decolonization, as colonial powers began to lose control over their overseas territories in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. This process was driven by a variety of factors, including nationalist movements, anti-colonial struggles, and global geopolitical shifts.

One of the key factors driving decolonization was the rise of nationalism in colonized countries. As people in these countries began to develop a sense of national identity and pride, they also began to demand greater political autonomy and self-determination. This often took the form of protests, strikes, and other forms of mass mobilization. One of the most important early decolonization movements was the Indian independence movement, led by figures such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Beginning in the early 20th century, Indians began to demand greater autonomy from British rule, and the movement eventually culminated in India’s independence in 1947. This in turn inspired other anti-colonial movements across Asia and Africa.

Another key factor driving decolonization was the changing global balance of power. Following World War II, the United States emerged as a global superpower, and the Soviet Union emerged as a major rival. Both of these powers were opposed to colonialism, and they provided political and material support to anti-colonial movements around the world.

The process of decolonization was not without its challenges, however. In some cases, colonial powers were reluctant to grant independence to their former colonies, and they often resisted efforts to do so. This led to violent conflicts in many countries, as nationalist movements fought against colonial powers and their local allies. One of the most dramatic examples of this violence occurred in Algeria, where the Algerian National Liberation Front fought a long and bloody war against French colonial forces. The conflict, which lasted from 1954 to 1962, resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people and ultimately led to Algerian independence.

Other countries, such as Angola, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe, also experienced prolonged and violent struggles for independence. In some cases, such as in South Africa, decolonization was accompanied by intense social and political upheaval, as newly independent countries struggled to establish stable political systems and address long-standing social and economic inequalities.

Despite these challenges, however, the process of decolonization ultimately led to the creation of many new, independent nations around the world. Today, there are more than 190 sovereign states, many of which were formerly colonized territories.