IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE

The art and science of cultivating plants and raising livestock are known as Agriculture. It helps to provide food and fabrics. Over centuries, agriculture remarks the growth of civilization. Before knowing agriculture people spent most of their time for searching food. Agriculture enabled the surplus production of foods to the people. We all know that agriculture is the backbone of the economy of a country. In addition to providing food and raw materials, agriculture also helps in providing several job opportunities. Let’s see why agriculture is important

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

  1. SOURCE OF FOOD: About 70% of people rely on agriculture for their livelihood. It’s the source of food supply. No matter what we eat and where we eat. All ingredients in the foods must be from somewhere. All road leads to agriculture. If a country is suffering from food insecurity and malnourishment, then it means that the agricultural sector is suffering in that country. Not only food, but it also provides fodder for domestic animals.
  2. MAIN SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS: Agriculture is the major source of raw materials to the industries. Many raw materials like cotton, sugar, spices, wood, oil come from agriculture. These materials are essential in the industries to create a product. Agro-based industries contribute about 50% of income to the manufacturing sectors of the country.
  3. BOOSTS THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE: Both the raw materials and the products produced by using the raw materials are exported in each country. Countries with surplus growth of certain products export to the other countries. If a country’s agriculture sector suffers, the prices will go up and the trade will be affected. So, the effect on agriculture will directly affect the country’s trade.
  4. INCREASES NATIONAL REVENUE: Most of the developing countries depend on agriculture to increase their income. However, developed countries do not depend on agriculture for trade.
  5. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES: The agricultural sector still provides large employment opportunities for the people. Whether you can work as a farmer or harvester or technician for farm equipment or scientist or researcher there are several jobs available in this sector. The unemployment rate in developing countries can be reduced by agriculture. To eradicate poverty, focusing on agriculture is the most efficient way.
  6. FOR COUNTRY’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: The country’s agriculture sector is tied with the economic development of the country. When there is an increase in export and national revenue, the country enjoys reduced poverty and boosted economic growth. Focusing on agriculture is one of the best ways to speed up the development and standard of a country.
  7. INCREASES THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION: For the growing population, the country must possess enough food to reduce hunger. To fasten the growing of crops, several innovations have been made in the growth of crops. Through Blockchain software, artificial intelligence, and gene manipulation, scientists are working to increase production by using less water and avoiding leaving negative impacts on the environment. Agribusiness is the more fascinating field to work on.
  8. REFLECTS OUR FUTURE: When it comes to pollution and climatic changes, the agriculture sector will face the quickest consequences. If effective changes are not made, then the impact on agriculture will directly impact the country’s economy and vanish the food supply. The state of agriculture in a country is a good litmus paper to look at how the future will be.

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE AND THE MODERN PERIOD OF INDIA

The colonial influence in Indian architecture can be seen in office buildings. The British people from the 16th century have constructed several churches and other buildings. Basilica Bom Jesus and the church of Saint Francis are the most famous churches built by the Portuguese in Goa. Many administrative and residential buildings are built by the British in India. We can also see the influence of Greek and Roman in the colonnades and pillared buildings. Rashtrapati Bhavan, formerly the Viceroy’s residence was designed by the architect Lutyens. Writers’ Building in Calcutta, where several governmental officers worked in the British period is still the administrative center of Bengal after independence. The church buildings like St. Paul’s Cathedral in Calcutta are another design in the British period. They also left their impressions by building the railway terminals like Victoria Terminus in Mumbai. The French architect Corbusier had designed several buildings that are built on Chandigarh. The India International Centre in Delhi where conferences are held by leading intellectuals from all over the world is designed by the Austrian architect, Stein. In the past few decades, several Indian architects have emerged. Charles Correa and Raj Rewal are the architects of this generation.

CHENNAI:

Chennai, formerly known as Madras is one of the four metropolitan cities of India. The city has become the seat of Madras Presidency, the southern division of British Imperial India by the 19th century. The city had become the capital of Madras state in 1947. Later, the madras state was replaced by Tamil Nadu in 1968. Various cathedrals, buildings, and wide tree-lined avenues at Chennai influence the colonial period. The High Court Building, built in 1892, during the British period was said to be the largest judicial building in the world after the Courts of London. To store enormous blocks of ice cut from the Great Lakes in the northern USA in India, Icehouse was built during the colonial period. The Church of St. John that had wide Gothic arches and beautiful stained-glass windows is the beautiful structure of that period. The General post office in Chennai is built-in 1872. The General Post Office has a vast central hall with a high dome. The first English fortress in India, Fort St George is found in the coastal city of madras.

MUMBAI:

Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra is located on the west coast of India. The city of Mumbai has come to light by the arrival of the British in the 17th century. It was known as Bombay. It is the first city in India to have railways. Also, it was the city where the newspaper came into existence. During the end of the 19th century, many buildings were constructed in Bombay in Victorian Gothic Style. The Secretariat, the Council Hall, and Elphinstone College were built in the above-mentioned style. The most impressive style was the massive railway construction in 1887, Victoria Terminus (modern Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus). It looks more like a cathedral than a railway station. To honor the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to India, the famous Gateway of India was built. Since independence, Mumbai has continued to be India’s leading commercial and industrial city. The stock exchange, business centers, film industry named Bollywood, and anything that comes under modernization and westernization is all started in Bombay.

DELHI:

Delhi was founded by Raju Dhilu and Ptolemy, the geographer who marked Delhi in his map as Daidala. Today, Delhi is one of the largest cities not only in India but in the whole world. After the period of Tomars, Chauhans built the city named Qila Rai Pithora in Lal Kot, Mehrauli. The famous Qutub Minar is finished by Iltutmish which was started by Qutb-ud-din. The Siri fort exists in Delhi and currently, this area in Delhi is known as Shahpur Jat. After some years, Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq constructed the city called Tughlaqabad. After the death of Ghiyasuddin, the earlier cities of Delhi into a single unit and were named Jahanpanah by Mohammed Bin Tughlaq. Firoz Shah constructed Firozabad, located near Firoz Shah Kotla. The Mughal ruler Humayun built the Dinpanah on the mound of ancient Indraprastha. Shah Jehan, the grandson of Humayun started building the Red Fort in 1639 and finished it in 1648. Nearly for 24 Sufis, Delhi is the hometown. After the Mughal rule in Delhi, the British occupied Delhi after defeating the Marathas in 1803. The Parliament House and the North and South Blocks, the India Gate, and the Viceroy house were all made to impress the Indian subjects of the British rule. Delhi has become an important commercial, cultural, and political center of India. Museums, beautiful parks, flyovers, the Metro, a beautiful airport, educational centers, massive buildings, big wholesale markets, large malls, major industries, etc. all contribute to male Delhi as an outstanding city.

TYPES OF MALWARE

WHAT IS MALWARE?

  Malware is malicious software that is designed to affect computer operations or gaining access to the computer system without the user’s knowledge or permission. Computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, scareware are some of the malware. Malware is simple to identify. Most cybercriminals target the user’s end devices through the installation of malware.

VIRUSES:

  A malicious executable code attached to another executable file is known as a virus. Most of the viruses need the end user’s initiation and can activate at a specific time or date. Computer viruses are spread through removable media, downloads from the internet, and email attachments. The virus can be simple or destructive. They may delete or modify the user’s data. Opening a file may trigger a virus. The USB flash drives are infected by the virus and then spread to the system’s hard disk. A virus will also be activated by executing a specific program. Once the programs get infected by a virus, it will affect the other programs on the computer network. The Melissa virus was an example of a virus that has spread through email and affected thousands of end-users.

WORMS:

  Worms are malicious code that exploiting vulnerabilities in networks. Unlike a virus, they replicate independently. Viruses require a host program to run whereas worms can run by themselves. Worms are used to slow down the networks. Other than the initial infection, worms no longer need the user’s participation. Worms share similar patterns and once they affect the host they can spread fast through the network. Worms propagate themselves by carrying a payload. The code red worm in 2001 has affected nearly 658 servers.

TROJAN HORSES:

  A Trojan horse is a malware that carries out malicious operations. It is disguised under the desired operation such as playing an online game. Once the user runs the files with Trojan horse, the malicious code exploits the privileges of the user. The Trojan horse binds to the non-executable files. Some of such files are image files, audio files, or games.

LOGIC BOMBS:

   A logic bomb is a malicious program. It requires a trigger to work. It remains inactive until it is triggered by an external event. Once the bomb gets activated, it harms the user’s computer. A logic bomb can modify data records, or remove files or attack the operating system. The logic bomb overdrives the devices like cooling fans, CPU memory, hard drives until these devices get overheated or corrupts.

RANSOMWARE:

   Ransomware holds the files and devices until the target makes the payment. It works by encrypting the data with a key unknown to the user. To remove the restriction, the user may pay a ransom to the criminals. Some other versions of ransomware can take advantage of specific vulnerabilities to lock down the system. It may enter through the downloaded files or sometimes it may propagate as Trojan horses. Once the victims pay the ransom, the criminals will issue the key to unlock the code or the programs that decrypt the files. They receive the payment through the untraceable payment system.

BACKDOORS:

  A backdoor refers to the criminal introduces the malicious program or code by compromising the system. Netbus and Back office are some of the backdoors that allow remote access to unauthorized access. Even though the organization fixes the original vulnerability, the backdoor grants the cybercriminals future access to the system. Usually, criminals run a Trojan horse program to install the backdoor to the user’s system.

ROOTKITS:

  To introduce a backdoor in the system, the rootkits help to modify the operating system. The attackers use the backdoor to access the system. Most rootkits take advantage of software vulnerabilities to modify or delete the system files. Rootkits modify the system forensics and monitoring tools.

DEFENDING AGAINST MALWARE

  Some steps to follow that defends against all types of malware:

·        ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE: Most of the malware is caught by the antivirus suites. On the daily basis, cybercriminals develop and deploy new threats. Therefore the key to an effective antivirus solution is that keep the systems updated. A signature is like a fingerprint to identify malicious codes.

·        UP-TO-DATE SOFTWARE: Through the software vulnerabilities in software both in the OS and applications, malware can achieve its objectives. The application-level vulnerabilities also cause severe risks to the system. So always use the up-to-date software.

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IMPACTS OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC

HOW PANDEMIC AFFECTED THE LIVELIHOOD OF PEOPLE?

  The deadly coronavirus, which was first detected in Wuhan in China has almost affected every country in the world, infecting and killing millions of people everywhere around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused bought dramatic loss of lives worldwide. It created challenges to public health, food systems, and the economy of the country. The impact of this pandemic is very big: tens and millions of people are falling at the risk of falling into poverty.

IN ENTERPRISES:

  Millions of enterprises face drastic damage and nearly half of the world’s 3.3 billion people are at the risk of losing their livelihoods. Due to the lockdown around the world, many companies have experienced a severe loss in the business. Without the means of income, many are unable to feed their families or themselves. In further, no income means no food or less nutritious food. Due to the lockdown, the transport system has stopped which caused a major impact on businesses.

IN AGRICULTURE:

The pandemic has caused several problems to agriculture. Border closures, trade restrictions, and other measures have been a barrier for farmers for buying their inputs as well as selling their inputs. It also delayed the process of harvesting crops due to insufficient labor and thus affecting the food supply chain across the world. The food security and nutrition of women and men are at risk especially in the low-income countries which include small-scale farmers with a big population. The migrant agricultural workers are the ones who got affected mostly. They weren’t able to get proper shelter to live in. They are struggling to access support measures announced by governments.

EDUCATION:

Colleges, Schools, and Universities are closed with no certainty as to when they will be open. The sources that are strictly prohibited in schools are now the only medium through which teachers can interact with the students. The classroom education system is replaced with an online mode of teaching. Applications such as zoom meet, Google meet, Webex, Microsoft teams are used to attend the online classes. Students are facing a lot of problems with this online mode of teaching. Eye problems will occur frequently in students. They are not able to understand the concepts clearly as compared to classroom education. Not all students have proper resources to attend online education.

ECONOMY:

  An individual’s savings account gets affected when there are big shifts in stock markets. The FTSE dropped 14.3% in 2020 which is the worst performance since 2008. The unemployment rate has increased across major economies. If the economy is good, that means that more wealth and more job opportunities. It is calculated by looking at the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimated that the global economy is shrunk by 4.4 % in 2020. The organization has announced the decline as the worst since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

HEALTH CARE SYSTEM:

COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every country in the world. Thousands of people are dying each day. Social distancing and lockdowns have reduced the impact slightly. People with other diseases are not able to treat properly due to the immediate threat of COVID-19 consuming health systems. Scientific researches around the world also now focusing only on the COVID 19 which delays the research on other diseases. Due to the pandemic, the number of people seeking health care has increased. Health care systems have to become more accessible and prepared for future pandemic-like situations.

  In conclusion, the impact of the pandemic is more than we imagined. Many people across the world have lost their relatives, friends, and families. We are not able to do anything when our dearest one dies. The impact is high. To overcome this pandemic, we have to work together and follow the guidelines issued by the respective governments and be aware of the pandemic’s effects.

TIPS TO MANAGE YOUR TIME

TIME MANAGEMENT:

  The process of organizing and planning over the amount of time spent on specific activities is known as time management. Good time management will be useful for decreasing work pressure. Time is a special resource because you cannot store or save it for later use. Wise time management helps you to find time for what you desire to do. You can schedule your priorities by managing time. Time management will help you to make conscious choices so that you can spend your valuable time on important work. It keeps you healthy and free from stress. One has to maintain the right balance wheel of life. He/she should balance health, family, finance, and work to balance your life. So, time plays an important role in achieving this. It is a fact that time is a non-renewable resource. Once it is gone, we cannot get it back. You will never be able to see this moment again. Every second is important. We have to spend every second effectively and productively. 

TIME-SAVING TECHNIQUES:

  1. Write things down: Write down your important schedules and prioritize the events according to their importance. This will be more helpful than using your memory to keep track of too many things.
  2. Prioritize your lists: Prioritizing your to-do list will help you to spend more time on the important task. Rate your tasks according to their priority.
  3. Plan your week: Spend some time at the beginning of each week to plan the schedule for that week. This will help balance the time taken for long-term projects and urgent tasks. All you have to do is spend 15 to 30 minutes planning the week.
  4. Continuously improve yourself: While doing these tasks, try to improve your natural skills and abilities. For example, reading books. Continuously improving yourself will be a key factor to achieve financial independence.
  5. Use a time management system: By using a time management system, one can keep track of every work, organize them and efficiently complete the work.
  6. Identify bad habits: List the bad habits that are stealing your time, breaking your goals, and success. After doing this, try to eliminate these habits from your lifestyle. For eliminating bad habits, you can replace them with better habits.
  7. Don’t do other people’s work: Don’t try to do other’s work. This will take your precious time. Instead, you can teach them how to the work.
  8. Utilize productive procrastination: Procrastinating the less important tasks is not a bad thing. (Sometimes, there is no need for work). Wait until for the tasks to become important enough to deserve your attention.
  9. Ask yourself: Whenever you are confused about what to do next, just ask yourself by doing which things will be more useful in managing the time.
  10. Clean your desk: When you have so many things on your desk, you may get distracted. So, always clean the desk and only the necessary things.
  11. Learn to relax: Working hard is important but you also need time to enjoy and relax. This will help eliminate stress.
  12. Don’t overschedule: Scheduling too many things to complete is not a good way. Because, while seeing this, you may feel burdened. So, always schedule the things that you can be complete in time.

DBMS-AN OVERVIEW

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

   The collection of inter-related data and several programs that are used to handle the data is known as Database Management System (DBMS). The main aim of DBMS is to store and efficiently retrieve the data from the database. To manage the data in the database, define the structure for storage of information and provide a proper mechanism for manipulation of information. The database system must also ensure the safety of the information that is stored.

DATABASE SYSTEM APPLICATIONS

    Several applications use a database system. Some of the applications are listed below:

  • Accounting: To maintain the data of employees, salaries, and payroll taxes in the company, students in schools, patients in hospitals, database systems are used.
  • Manufacturing: In factories, database systems are used to manage the supply chain and tracking the production of items.
  • In shopping marts: For maintaining customer, product, and purchase information of items, databases are used.
  • Banking: The database systems are useful in maintaining the customer’s account information, loan details and for maintaining the transactions of credit card history.
  • Universities: DBMS is quite useful in maintaining the student details, course details, and accounting in universities.
  • Reservation systems: To maintain the reservation and schedule information, database systems are used in airways and railways reservation systems
  • Telecommunication: For maintaining the records of the call made and generating the bills, DBMS is useful.

PURPOSE OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  Earlier database systems are created to manage the commercial data. Data are stored in files. For adding new data or updating the data or deleting the data, various programs are written. Separate applications have to be written for the addition of new data. As time evolves, more files and more applications are required by the system. This typical file processing system is supported by an Operating system. In this system, the data is permanently stored in files. It requires different application programs for extracting or adding new information. Before the introduction of the Database Management System (DBMS), the file processing system was in use.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  • It represents the aspects of real-world applications.
  • For managing the information systematically.
  • Multiple views for representing the data.
  • Operations such as insertion, deletion, and updating can be done efficiently.
  • A logical relationship between records and data is maintained.

ADVANTAGES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  • The data redundancy is removed i.e, there is no duplication of data in DBMS.
  • DBMS allows you to retrieve the desired data in an efficient way.
  • Data isolation can be done in separate tables for convenient usage.
  • A simple query language can be used to access the data.
  • In DBMS, the data integrity is maintained.
  • If some operation is performed on the particular data in one table, then the changes will be reflected on the entire database. So, the atomicity of data is maintained in DBMS.
  • Concurrent access to multiple users is possible in database systems.
  • In DBMS, we can also make the user access only the desired part of the data by restricting the access.

DISADVANTAGES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS                              

  • The complexity of database design is high. And it is also time-consuming.
  • If some failure has occurred in either software or hardware, a large amount of investment is needed to repair it.
  • The entire database may get affected if one part of the database gets affected.
  • For converting the file from a conventional file system to a database system, a large investment is needed to buy the required tools and adopting different techniques.
  • More training is needed for the people who design and maintain the database system.

SAY NO TO CHILD LABOUR

CHILD LABOUR

Child labor refers to the employment of a child in any work. This deprives the children of their childhood. It is physically, socially, mentally harmful to children. The education of children is drastically affected by child labor. Currently, the number of child labor has increased by 8.4 million in the last 4 years. There is a myth that most child laborers are orphans. But the truth is that only 3 out of 1000 are orphans. According to the International Labour Organization, currently, more than 168 million people between 5 and 14 are working. In India, according to the data collected from census 2011, it is estimated that there are about 10.1 million child laborers.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR

PRIMARY CAUSES: The International Labour Organization suggests that poverty is the simplest reason behind child labor. For many poor families, the children have to work to fulfill their basic needs. Income from this child may be low but it contributes between 25  to 40% of the household income.

CULTURAL CAUSES: In European history, certain cultural beliefs have rationalized child labor and therefore encouraged child labor. Some people think that doing work is good for character building and skill development of children. In many cultures, children have to take over their parent’s businesses. Also, in many cultures, the education of girls is valued. They think that there is no need for educating the girl children. And these girls are pushed into child labor such as doing household services.

MACROECONOMIC CAUSES: The growth of poverty and unavailability of good schools lies on the supply side of child labor. The growth of low paying informal economy rather than the higher paying formal economy is the cause for the demand side of child labor. Other scholars suggest that the size of the informal economy, inflexible labor market, and lack of modern manufacturing techniques are some of the macroeconomic causes for child labor.

SOME ACTS THAT PROHIBITS THE CHILD LABOUR:

  • The Factories Act of 1984: This act prohibits the working of children below the age of 14 years in any factories. The law also includes rules that how long pre-adults aged 15 to 18 years to be employed in any factory.
  • The Mines Act of 1952: This act prohibits children under 18 years working in the mine.
  • The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: This law prohibits the working of children (under 14 years) in hazardous places listed by the law.
  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act of 2000: This law states that anyone who employs children in hazardous places will be punishable with prison term.
  • The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009: The law provides mandatory education to all children aged between 6 to 14 years. This law also states that 25% of seats in every primary school must be allocated to children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.
  • In addition to this, many Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Child Rights, and You, RIDE India are working to eradicate child labor in India.

Despite these laws and prohibition acts in India, there are still millions of children are employed in homes, roadside restaurants, and factories across the country. Every year June 12 is observed as the anti-child labor day. As the citizens of India, we all should be united to eradicate child labor in our country. Donate funds to the NGOs and make awareness programs in rural areas. Start some small campaigns against child labor. Child labor can be eradicated if government performs effectively with public support.

DESIGN THINKING

DESIGN THINKING

 A human-centered approach to innovation in which you will transform the products and services based on the customer needs and by thinking creative ideas is known as design thinking. One of the most interesting approaches in developing a product is design thinking. Design thinking is an agile method. In this, we continuously identify the problem and find an appropriate solution that is both innovative and fulfills the customer’s needs. When design thinking is applied while developing a new product, the essence of the product will be valued more. The designers have to think out of the box to produce a good product. Design thinking transforms the focus from a business-centric approach to a customer-centric approach. The design should achieve the purpose and business goals and not just the beauty. Designers have several tools to assist them in conducting research, ideate solutions, and explore use cases to find the best solution to the problem.

IMPORTANCE OF DESIGN THINKING IN BUSINESS

  • All businesses will have never-ending goals. They want to produce new products that attract customers and helps to increase sales. When design thinking is applied, It can save vast amounts of money because it directs the attention to the particular solution the customer expects. The Return on Investment (ROI) of design thinking realizes the immediate cost savings.
  • Most of the software fails due to the following reasons: Not understanding the customer requirements, Lack of communication between customers and developers, and stakeholder policies. Fixing errors at the end of the development of the product will be 1000 times expensive than the cost before development. Design thinking provides a simple way to improve on by looking at what exactly the problems are and provides insights and data that are critical to building appropriate solutions.  
  • The first and foremost step to understand how design thinking is working is by knowing the current challenges faced in the business. Complex problems are broken down into tangible ones that can be analyzed and solved is the biggest advantage in design thinking. Creating cultural change across all projects and initiatives is what it takes.
  • Design is a creative team. The team of artists who create branding elements like logos, emoji, icons, and print advertisements. Design thinking is identified as a competitive advantage in businesses. In business, it helps to identify, understand and address the problems that affect customer relationships. Another big challenge to the organizations is measuring the return on investment (ROI) of design thinking.
  • By applying design thinking to business operations, we can able to see the change in overall performance compared to the previous workflow.
  • Businesses have come to recognize the importance of design thinking. The essence of design thinking in business is demonstrated by some famous organizations like Apple, Microsoft, Disney, Zoho, Infosys, TCS, Cisco, TATA Motors, Hyundai, Maruti, M&M, and IBM.
  • Whether you’re a CEO, a marketer, or a designer, or an engineer, there are some reasons why you should invest in design thinking. By investing in design thinking, it decreases the cost of customer support, a little up-front UX research can save hundreds of engineering hours, and improving your User experience (UX) saves a lot of money.

DESIGN THINKING COURSES

It is originated in Sanford University. Currently, design thinking is one of the sought courses and has its applications in many fields like healthcare, education, agriculture, financial services, environmental sustainability, etc. Nowadays many big software companies have made design thinking to be a mandatory skill for each of the employees. Many leading universities around the world including d.school, Stanford, Harvard, and MIT offer a course on design thinking. A separate master’s degree course on Product Design is offered in IITs and IISc in India. We can get admission for post-graduate studies in the field of technological design by writing CEED (Common Entrance Examination for Design).

DIVISIONS OF INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC

MUSIC IN INDIA

Music is one of the most popular art forms of India. The earliest tradition of music is traced to Sama Veda. The six chapters on music are exclusively dealt with in Bharata’s Natyashastra which is compiled between the 2nd century BC and 2nd century AD. The ragas were first discussed in Brihaddesiwritten by Matanga compiled between the 8th and 9th century AD. 264 ragas were mentioned in the Sangeet Ratnakara written by Sarangadeva in the 13th century. Several musical instruments were introduced over some time. Music was patronized by many rulers such as Samudragupta, King Bhoja of Dhara, and King Someshavra of Kalyana, and Samudra Gupta, monarch of Gupta. Music has also been associated with the worship of gods and goddesses. Jayadeva of Orissa composed a raga named Gita Govinda which composed the love of Radha and Krishna. Abhinavabharati written by Abhinavagupta (993-1055) gives more insights into music. In Tamil, the Nyanmanrs and Alvars have composed several poems to the music. Kabir, Mirabai, Tulsidas, Vidyapati are those who are closely associated with music. Kitab-e-Navras was written by Adil Shah 2 in the 17th century in which he praised both the Hind gods and Muslim saints. Tansen and Baiju Bawa were two great musicians during the period of Akbar. Mirabai, Tulsidas, and Surdas sang various devotional songs of Hindustani music.

DIVISIONS OF INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC

Indian classic music was broadly classified on two traditions during the medieval period. They are Hindustani Classical Music in North India and Carnatic music in South India,

HINDUSTANI CLASSICAL MUSIC

Hindustani classical music is the classical music of Northern India. During this period, the musical performance was enriched with several instruments. Dhrupad, Dhamar, Thumri, Khayal, and Tappa were the different styles of Hindustani music. Tansen’s music had the effect of magic and with his ‘Megh Rag’, he even caused the rainfall. Even today, his melodious songs are sung in every part of India. Baiju Bawra, Surdas was the musicians patronized by Akbar. Bahar, , Darbari, Desh , Bhairavi, Sindhu Bhairavi, Bhim Palasi, Hamsadhwani, Jai Jayanti, Megha Malhar, Todi, Yaman, Pilu, were the most popular ragas.

India has a variety of musical instruments of different types. Sitar, sarod, santoor and sarangi. Pakhawaj, tabla, and Mridangam are the most famous stringed instruments. The chief wind instruments are shehnai, nadaswaram, and flute. Gharana, a particular style of music is mostly preferred in Hindustani classical music. The gharanas function in gurushishya parampara i.e, the guru will teach his musical knowledge and style to his disciples. Gwalior gharana, Kirana gharana, and Jaipur gharana were some famous gharanas.

CARNATIC MUSIC

The compositions in Carnatic music were mostly composed by three people namely Shyam Shastri, Thyagaraja, and Mutthuswami Dikshitar between AD 1700 AND 1850. Another important composer of Carnatic music was Purandardasa. Thyagaraja is a saint as well as an artist who plays an important role in the essence of classical music. The main composition of classical music is known as Kriti. They were devotional. Patnam Subrahmanya Ayyar (l854-1902), Ramnad Srinivasa Iyengar (1860-1919), and Maha Vaidyanath Ayyar (1844-1893) were the notable musicians of this period. Some of the instruments used to accompany Carnatic music were flute, veena, nadaswaram, mridangam, and ghatam. Although there are different features in Hindustani music and classical music, there are some similar features. For example, to Alap in Hindustani classical music is similar to the Carnatic alapanaTarana in Hindustani resembles the Tilana in Carnatic music. Both pieces of music have Thalam.

MODERN INDIAN MUSIC

Western music has reached India through British rule. To meet the demand for Indian music, Indians have adopted some of their instruments such as violin and clarinet. Another important development in the music era was the Orchestration of music on stage. In the olden days, the performance of the orchestra was limited and can’t be heard by many people. But now, the orchestra has been recorded and posted to the public. Now, these orchestras were heard by people all over the world. Nowadays many musical institutions are established where we can learn music. . Baba Allauddin Khan, Pt. Ravi Shankar, Ustad Bismillah Khan, Ustad Alla Rakkha Khan, Ustad Zakir Hussain are some of the famous Musicians.

FOLK MUSIC

In today’s world, India has a rich legacy of folk music. Folk music represents the emotions of several groups of people. Many news songs are composed for celebrating the events. Some of the songs like Mand in Rajasthan and Bhatiali of Bengal were popular all over India. In Haryana, Ragini is a popular form of folk music. Folk songs have their way of conveying information. Muslims sing Sojkhwani (mournful songs) during Muharram. Christians sing some carols and choral music on festival occasions.

LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE OF NORTHERN INDIA

The languages were evolved at two levels namely the spoken and the written language. The old Brahmi script of Ashoka has uneven letter size by the period of Harsha, the size of letters become even and regular. By comparing the scripts of Hindi, Gujarati, and Punjabi, we can easily discover the changes of how they slowly developed over a long period. About 200 languages are prevailing for spoken languages in India. But some of the languages are spoken in only particular regions. Out of these only 22 languages have been recognized by our constitution. Hindi is spoken by different people in different forms. Rajasthani, which is a language spoken in Rajasthan is another variant of Hindi. This classification is based on the literature written by several poets over years. The Hindi that is spoken now is called Khadi Boli. In the 13th century, Khusrau has used Khadi Bholi in his compositions. But the extensive use of Hindi has started in the 19th century and also it shows some influences of Urdu.

PERSIAN AND URDU:

By the end of the 14th century AD, Urdu emerged as an independent language. By the existence of Turks and Mongols in India, Arabic and Persian were introduced. Urdu was served as an interaction between Hindi and Persian since Persian served as a court language for many centuries. After the conquest of Delhi (1192), the Turkish people acquired this region and slowly Urdu has become a formal language. As time passes, many people around Hindi started speaking Urdu. It became more popular in the early 18th century. Poetry in Urdu is also written by some Mughal emperors.

Khusrau(1253-325) is the earliest known Urdu poet. He was a follower of Nizam ud-din Auliya and he was a poet in the court of Sultan Balban. About 99 works have been completed by him. Laila Majnun and Ayina- I-Sikandari dedicated to Alau-din-Khalji was the most popular works written by him. Ghalib, Zauq, and Iqbal were the other well-known poets in that period. Iqbal’s “SareJahann se achcha Hindostan Hamara” is sung in many national celebrations of India. The Nawabs of Lucknow patronized the Urdu language and slowly it reached its height and now it has been adopted by the Pakistanis as their state language.

Most of the literature was written in Persian since Persian was the language of court during that period. Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan Dehelvi wrote poetries in Persian. The account of kings, important political events, and incidents during that period was written in Persian by the historians like Minhas-us-Siraj and Zia Barani, and Ibn Batuta. The tuzuk(autobiography) of Babar is originally written in Turkish by him. But later it was translated to Persian by his grandson Akbar. He patronized many scholars and got Mahabharata translated to Persian. Another unique piece of literature in Persian is Jahangir’s autobiography (Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri). The history of Akbar is dealt in it. Abul Fazl’s Akbarnamah and Ain-e-Akbari. Another good piece of poetry was written by Faizi. The Shahjahan’s days were written by Chandra Bhan. By the 20th century, Iqbal wrote some good poetry. All of these have become a part of Indian culture.

HINDI LANGUAGE:

During this time, there was growth in many regional languages like Hindi, Bengali, Assamese, Oriya, Marathi, and Gujarati. The 1st book in Hindi was Prithviraj Raso. It dealt with the exploits of Prithviraj Chauhan. The language has undergone several changes as the area where it was originally spoken expands. Many Hindi writers had looked to Sanskrit classics for guidance while writing literature. Due to the influence of the Bhakti movement in southern India, many poetries and prose written in Hindi were affected. Between the 7th and 8th centuries AD, the Hindi language has evolved during the Apabhramsa stage. This was characterized as Veergatha Kala (early period). Many Rajput rulers have patronized the poetry written in this period. Kabir and Tulsidas were the famous figures of this period. Surdas wrote Sur Sagar in which he talks about Lord Krishna as an infant. The festivals of Rama and Krishna are still celebrated grandly. Another important poet in this period was Nandadasa. Rahim and Bhushan wrote spiritual stories. In the 17th century, Bihari wrote Satsai which talks about shringar(love).   

Many writers have contributed to the development of modern Indian literature over the last 150 years. And in 1913, Rabindranath Tagore Tagore became the first Indian to win the Nobel Prize for literature (Geetanjali). Hindi prose came into its own during the 19th century. Bharatendu Harishchandra and Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi translated the works in Hindi from Sanskrit and other languages. Vande Mataram, a patriotic song in Sanskrit was composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji (l 838-94). IT was later translated to Hindi and became very popular. Swami Dayananda has also contributed to the growth of the Hindi language. His SatyarthaPrakash was the important literature. Mahadevi Verma was awarded Padma Vibhushanis the first woman writer in Hindi to highlight issues related to women. Maithili Sharan Gupt is another important name. Jaishankar Prasad wrote beautiful dramas.

HINDI LANGUAGE MAKES PROGRESS IN MODERN PERIOD:

By the end of the 18th century, the development of modern language was started. The main writers of this period were Sadasukh Lal, Inshallah Khan, and Bhartendu Harishchandra. Shakuntala is translated to Hindi by Raja Lakshman Singh. Many proses of Hindi literature were written by Bhartendu Harish Chandra, Mahavira Prasad Dwivedi, Ramchandra Shukla, and Shyam Sunder Das. A great contribution to the development of Hindi poetry was given by many poets like Jai Shanker Prasad, Maithalisharan Gupta, Sumitranandan Pant, Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Mahadevi Verma, Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’ and Haribans Rai ‘Bacchan’ made a great contribution to the development of Hindi poetry. Prem Chand, Vrindavan Lal Verma, and Ellachandra Joshi were great novel writers of Hindi. 

LITERATURES OF SOUTH INDIA

LITERATURE

     Literatures is a piece of writings that are valued as a word of art. The literature works maybe novels, plays, or poems, fiction or non-fiction that have long-lasting importance. It is also known as the preserved writings of a certain language or people. It is used to describe anything from the creative works including any technical works, scientific works. Fictional literature includes plays, poems, short stories, and songs. The non-fictional literature includes biographies, autobiographies, essays, newspapers, journals, essays, and diaries. The four Dravidian languages in India had developed their works of literature. These Dravidian languages are Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada.

TAMIL LITERATURE

     Tamil, being the oldest language among these developed the Sangam literature. Sangama literature is the oldest literature in Tamil. Tamil as a written language came into light during the Christian era. The literature of the Tamil language was compiled together in 600 AD. The poets in the assemblies who helped in gathering the Sangam literature over 3 to 4 centuries were patronized by the kings and chieftains. Poets from various parts of south India gathered in Madurai and these assemblies are known as sangams and the literature produced in these assemblies is known as “Sangama literature”. The Sangam literature was the collection of poems and songs written by different poets praising the heroes and heroines. This literature was unique and high in quality. Three sangams were held. The literature collected in the first Sangam was lost. About 2000 poems with more than 30000 lines of poetry have been found in the second Sangam.

     There were two main groups. They are Pathinenkilkanaku and Pathinenmelkanaku. The eight anthologies named Ettuthogai and the ten songs named Patthupaatu come under Pathinenmelkanaku. Pathinenkilkanaku has eighteen works about ethics and morals. The most important work among these is Thirukural written by Tiruvalluvar. Thirukural is divided into three parts. The first part deals with epics, the second part deals with polity and government, and the last part deals with love. Besides this Sangam literature, there is a work named Tholkaapiam which deals with grammar and poetry. Around the 6th century, there were two famous epics namely Silapathikkaram and Manimegalai. During the 6th to 12th century, Tamil devotional poems written by Alwars and Nayanmaars impacts the Bhakti movement. Kambaramayanam and Periya puraanam were two literaaly classic works.

TELUGU LITERATURE

     The golden age of Telugu literature was the Vijayanagara period. Uttaraharivamsam, a literary work was produced by the court poet, Nachana Somanatha. Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529), wrote an excellent prabandha named Amukta Malyada. Ashtadiggajas, eight Telugu literature were popular works in his court. Among them, literature named Manucharitram, by Allasani Peddana was the greatest. He was known as Andhra kavitapitamaha. Some of the author’s and their literature in Telugu are listed below:

  • Dhurjati – Kalahasteeswara Mahatmayam and Kalahasteeswara Satakam
  • Pingali Surana – Raghavapandaviyam and Kalapuranodayam
  • Ramakrishna – Panduranga Mahatmayam
  • Ramarajabhushana – Vasucharitram, Narasabhupaliyam and Harishchandra Nalopakhyanam.
  • Madayagari Mallana – Rajashekharacharitra
  • Ayyalaraju Ramabhadra – Ramabhyudayam and Sakalakathasara Sangraham.

KANNADA LITERATURE

       Apart from Telugu, Vijayanagaras’s extended their patronage over Kannada and Sanskrit writers. Kannada literature was contributed by many Jain scholars. After the 10th century AD, the Kannada language was developed. The Kannada literatures in this period are Dharmanathapurana by Madhava, Dharma Parikshe by Uritta Vilasa, Kavirajamang by Rashtrakuta king, Nripatunga Amoghavarsha, Adi Purana and Vïkramarjiva Vijaya by Pampa, Shanti Purana by Ponna, and Ajitanatha Purano by Ranna. The title of Ratnatraya was given to Pampa, Ponna, and Ranna.

       During the 13th century, many literary works were developed in Kannada. Some of them are Harishchandra Kavya and Somanatha Charita by Harishvara, Harivamshabhyudaya and Jiva Sambodhana by Bandhuvarma, Jagannathavijaya by Rudra Bhata, Madana Vijaya by Andayya, and Suktisudharnava by Mallikarjuna. The first Rama Katha in Kannada composed based on Valmiki’s Ramayana named Tarave Ramayana was written by Narahari. Sarvajna’s aphoristic tripadi (three-lined) compositions serve as a source of wisdom and ethics. Honnamma was the first outstanding poetess in Kannada. She wrote Hadibadeya Dharma (Duty of a Devout Wife).

MALAYALAM LITERATURE

       The people of Kerala and the surrounded areas speak Malayalam. The language of Malayalam emerged in the 11th century AD and become an independent language in the 15th century. A commentary on Arthashastra and Kokasandisan are two great works written by Bhasa Kautilya. Rama Panikkar and Ramanuj were two great authors of Kannada literature. Malayalam has a powerful form of expression even though it has emerged lately. People always enjoy writing in their mother tongue. Nowadays, many newspapers and magazines are published in the magazine.

CANCER

WHAT IS CANCER?

The abnormal growth of cells anywhere in the body causes cancer. These cells are called cancer cells. These cells destroy the normal tissues in the body. Normal body cells grow, divide and die in an orderly way whereas cancer cells continue to grow and divide in a disorderly fashion and these cells do not die. These cells form a tumor. But, not all cancer cells form tumors. Cancer can occur at any age but 67% of cancer deaths occur in people who are 65 years. There are two types of tumors. Malignant tumors and benign tumors. Malignant tumors spread to other parts of the body at a rapid speed. It spreads to other parts through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Whereas benign tumors stay in one place and start to grow slowly and expand in the same tissue. Although cancer is common, 5-10% of it can be hereditary, i.e they are inherited from their parents. The inherited cells undergo mutation and cause cancer.

CAUSES OF CANCER:

There are several causes of cancer. The substance that causes cancer is known as a carcinogen. This carcinogen affects the normal growth of cells.

Lifestyle factors: Smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs high fat-diet, and working with some toxic chemicals are the risk factors that may cause cancer in adults.

Inheritance: Cancer cells can also be inherited from our past generation to the present generation in some cases. It may be caused by a genetic mutation, exposure to chemicals in the living residence, or a combination of these factors. 

Genetic disorders: Some syndromes like Wiskott-Aldrich and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes are responsible for altering the immune system. The immune system helps to fight back against diseases and infections. Sometimes the stem cells in the bone marrow become damaged and when they reproduce, it results in the growth of cancer cells. The stem cells are damaged by some inherited genetic defects.

Environmental exposure: The use of pesticides and fertilizers in the growth of food plants have a direct link to childhood cancers. There is also evidence of cancer occurring in a child who lives in a polluted environment.

 TYPES OF CANCER:

Cancers are classified into four types based on where it is found.

  1. Carcinomas: This type of cancer appears in the epithelial tissues of the skin or some inner tissues of the internal organs. Carcinomas may spread to other parts of the body or it may develop in the same tissues where it was provided. The risk of carcinoma increases with age, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, exposure to ultraviolet rays. Examples of carcinomas include breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer.
  2. Sarcomas: Sarcomas appears in the tissues that support and connect the body. Sarcomas can develop in fat, joints, blood vessels, muscles, nerves, lymph vessels, bones, cartilages. Example: Bone cancer (osteosarcoma), liposarcoma in fat, and rhabdomyosarcoma in muscles. Sarcoma occurs in both children and adults.
  3. Leukemia: Cancer that occurs in the blood is known as leukemia. Leukemia involves white blood cells (WBCs). WBCs are responsible for fighting against infection and diseases. Normally they grow in an orderly fashion. But in the case of leukemia, the bone marrow produces more amount of WBCs, and those cells do not function properly. Example: Blood cancer.
  4. Lymphomas: It begins from the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of vessels and glands that help in fighting against infection. The most common types of lymphomas are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

TREATMENT:

Some of the cancers will have only one treatment. But most of the cancers have combinations of treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.

Chemotherapy: In this treatment, drugs are used to kill the cancer cells. The disadvantage is that it may also affect the normal cells and bone marrow and causes loss of hair and loss of weight and it reduces the immune responses.

Radiotherapy: In this treatment, high-energy rays are used to kill the cancer cells. These rays stop the growth and division of cancer cells. Some of the side effects are skin rashes, lowers WBCS count, and loss of appetite.

Surgery: In this treatment, the person has to undergo the surgery to remove the entire mass of cancer cells i.e, tumors in a particular area. In some cases, the only way to know if the person has cancer or what kind of cancer he has is by removing small tissue from the tumor and testing it.  

PREVENTION:

  • Always eat healthy foods. 
  • Consume more vegetables and fruits. 
  • Exercise regularly to keep your body fit and free from diseases. 
  • Don’t smoke and don’t drink alcohol. 
  • Minimize your exposure to harmful rays and chemicals. 
  • Avoid usage of tobacco. Reduce your exposure to the sun.
  • Consume nuts reduces the risk of cancer

We should follow preventive measures to avoid cancer. If already cancer has occurred, one has to undergo proper treatment.

10 TIPS TO LEAD A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

Life on the earth is precious. But life with health is more precious. Life without health is like food without salt. A healthy lifestyle concerns the health and well-being of an individual. In ancient days, health is defined as the absence of disease. But, health is a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being of an individual nor merely an absence of disease. We have to be responsible for maintaining our health. A healthy lifestyle helps you to live longer with a better and happy life. If you are healthy, you can finish the assigned task at a faster speed. To be healthy, first, identify the unhealthy habits and find new ways to replace them. Change one thing at a time. Because the small changes over a long period will be very helpful. When you live healthily, both your mind and body remain fresh and active, and also helps to prevent you from chronic diseases and long-term diseases. Feeling good about yourself and taking care of your health helps to increase your self-esteem and self-image. Some of the tips that you can follow to lead a healthy lifestyle are listed below:

  1. Maintain a regular exercise routine: Do simple exercises in the home. Walking is also a good exercise. Use steps instead of escalators in case you do not hurry. Doing household chores is also an exercise. Keep your body parts active. Avoid sitting in the same place for a long time. Practice yoga to keep both your body and mind relaxed.
  2. Sleep properly: Go to bed early at night and wake up early in the morning. Avoid usage of mobile phones at least one hour before you go to bed. One should sleep at least eight hours per day to lead a healthy lifestyle. Sleep helps in the healing and repair of your heart and blood vessels. Without enough sleep, the brain cannot be function well. Good periods of sleep also help in improving concentration.
  3. Drink water: On average, an adult’s body is composed of at least 50% of water. Drink 8 glasses of water per day. Water helps to regulate the body temperature. It also helps to carry nutrients and oxygen to cells. Drink 100% fresh fruit juices.
  4. Eat healthy foods: Consume foods that are rich in vitamins and nutrients. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables. Maintaining a balanced diet helps you to maintain the health of your body. Eat foods that contain proteins, minerals, and nutrients. It is best to eat at least 3 meals per day to keep you healthy.
  5. Avoid eating junk foods: Eating junk foods cause several diseases to human. Eating a lot of junk foods will result in obesity. Also, reduce the consumption of fast foods. Recent studies revealed that eating junk foods continuously also affects brain health. So try to avoid eating junk foods.
  6. Avoid smoking, drinking alcohol, and drugs: We all know that smoking causes cancer, and liquor consumption is injurious to health. Smoking not only causes cancer to the one who smokes, but it also affects the health of the persons around him. Drug- addiction causes several problems to the individual.
  7. Avoid stress, anxiety, and depression: Stress hormones affect your heart and brain. Avoid doing stressful works. Do the job that you are interested in. Don’t get angry over small things. Be calm and patient.
  8. Cleanliness: Always keep your surroundings clean. Don’t throw the garbage on the roads. Put them in the garbage can. A dirty environment will cause several health problems. We must maintain the cleanliness of our bodies, homes, surroundings to have good health.
  9. Be kind to everyone: Interact with your families and friends. Share your happiness and sadness with them. Be friendly to everyone. Smile often. It helps to keeps you healthy. There is also a proverb that says “Laughter is the best medicine”.
  10. Listen to Music: Listening to music makes you happier. It also improves your visual and verbal skills. Music boosts your immune system and helps you to free yourself from depression. It helps to reduce blood pressure, pulse rate, and heart rate.

IT IS HEALTH THAT IS REAL WEALTH AND NOT PIECES OF GOLD AND SILVER”

-Mahatma Gandhi

BANKING

BANKING

A bank is a financial institution that accepts money from the public and lending to people by loans with demand. Banking is a system that provides a safe place to save our money and supplies liquidity to the economy by providing loans to help businesses and also for the public to buy consumer products like homes, cars, lands, etc. Bank acts as a mid-way between savers and users of money. There are different types of banks. They are central banks, commercial banks, development banks, Cooperative banks, rural banks, etc. We can say that banking has gone through a metamorphosis. Nowadays there are a lot of ways to deposit and withdraw our money. With the advancement in technology, digital banking has reached its heights. Nowadays we use credit cards, debit cards, UPI transactions, Automated teller machines (ATM) for transactions of money.

WHAT DOES THE BANK DO?

  • It collects money from the public through accounts.
  • It lends the money to entrepreneurs through loans with demanding interest. It also issues loans to the public.
  • The interest rate paid by the bank to the customers is less than the interest rate that the bank charges to the lenders. The difference between them is the gross margin.
  • Banks’ s don’t work in isolation
  • In India, all banks are regulated by the central bank i.e, The Reserve Bank of India (RBI). 

COMMON BANKING PRODUCTS AVAILABLE:

  • DEBIT CARDS: Debit card is the prepaid or pay now card that is linked to the card holder’s account. Debit cards quickly debit or subtract the money from one’s savings account. We can pay our expenses through debit cards. Once you use the debit card, the amount will be transferred to the merchant’s account. A debit card holds the card holder’s name, expiry date of the card, card number, card verification value (CVV). And the customer will be given a unique PIN (personal identification number) to access the card.
  • CREDIT CARD: Credit card is postpaid or pays later card that draws money from the bank. The bank gives the grace period to pay the money he used. If the amount is not paid by the customer within the stipulated time, then the customer is charged with interest.
  • AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM): ATMs are used by banks for efficiently dealing the customers. Instead of going to the bank and filling the form to withdraw money, one can easily get their cash by using ATM. Insert the card and PIN then enter the amount you wish to withdraw. You can also transfer cash from your account to another account, view your account information using the ATM.
  • ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER (ETF): This system helps to transfer the money in a faster way from one account to another. The sender and receiver of funds in this system may be in different cities and may have an account in different banks.
  • TELEBANKING: Telebanking refers to banking on phone services. In this system, the user can access his/her account details in a telephone call by giving his/her PIN to the bank.
  • MOBILE BANKING: A new revolution in e-banking is the emergence of mobile banking. In today’s world, most of us are using mobile phones. So, it becomes easier to transfer funds through mobile. Nowadays, we can pay the electric bills, gas bills, shopping bills, etc by sitting in the home with the help of a mobile phone.

WHAT TO LOOK FOR BEFORE INVESTING IN A BANK?

  • GROSS NPA RATIO: NPA stands for Non-performing assets. The net NPA to loans ratio is to check the overall quality of the bank’s loan book. The higher the NPA, the higher is the risk to invest in this bank.
  • NET NPA TO TOTAL ASSET: Net NPA is calculated by subtracting the provisions made from the gross NPA. The higher the net NPA, the worst the bank is.
  • CASA RATIO: It stands for Current Account and Savings Account. Higher the CASA ratio, the better the bank is.
  • NET INTEREST MARGIN: For banks, both the raw materials and finished product is money. So, the higher the net margin, the better the bank is.
  • CAPITAL ADEQUACY RATIOS: It’s the bank’s capital ratio. The capital is lent to various parties at different risk proportions. The higher the capital adequacy ratio, the better the bank is.

SWOT ANALYSIS

SWOT ANALYSIS

   A SWOT analysis is a strategic technique used to determine and define your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. This technique can be applied to either an organization or a person. Performing personal swot analysis will help know more about yourself. The ultimate aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objectives. It helps to build on what you do well, to address what you are lacking, to minimize risks, and to take the greatest possible advantage of chances for success. The internal factors are strengths or weaknesses and the external factors are opportunities and threats. SWOT plays as a strategic planning tool in an organization.

S-Strengths: Strengths are the qualities that separate you from others. It helps for the success of an organization or a person and will be assisting in achieving the organization’s mission. For example, some companies may be good at marketing strategies some may be good at their quality control. So, it may be anything that gives benefits to an organization.

W-Weaknesses; Weaknesses are the factors that may prevent successful results within a project. This is the area that we have to improve to remain competitive. Find out what makes your competitors better and what weaknesses you have and improve in that areas.

O-Opportunities: Opportunities are the chances to improve ourselves better. We have to grab the opportunities and make use of them to attain a higher level. Be ready to take opportunities and make full use of them to become stronger.

T-Threats: Threats are the external factors that have the potential to harm an organization. If we can predict the threats, then we can make sure to reduce them or avoid them. We also have to be aware of whether our weaknesses can be converted into our threats.

  I like to explain swot analysis by giving an example. Let’s see the personal swot analysis of Sridhar Vembu, who is the founder and CEO of the Zoho corporations. According to Forbes, he is the 59th richest Indian in the world. Zoho Corporation is an Indian multinational company that produces several web-based tools. Let’s analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for Sridhar Vembu.

HIS STRENGTHS

  • He has good communicational skills. 
  • He has good leadership skills with a good visionary.
  • He has a motherland spirit.
  • He is an artistic and confident person. He also has innovative ideas which made him a more successful person.
  • He has not only stopped with his creative ideas. He is a person who has converted his ideas into reality.

HIS WEAKNESSES

  • He has a less commercial vision.
  • He focussed more on upskilling rather than innovation.
  • The rapid growth of his company may distract from upgrading core services and make everything too complex.

HIS OPPORTUNITIES

  • There is a vital need for made-in-India products.
  • The government provides support for companies that concentrate on all facets of society.

HIS THREATS

  • There are diverse product portfolios.
  • Less interest in advertising and marketing may result in customer loss.
  • As his achievements rise, the responsibility also increases. He has to be responsible in case of any disasters in his projects.
  • Competitors with better research-intensive strategies.

Thus know your strengths and opportunities to shine and be aware of your weakness and threats and find a better solution to them.

MACHINE LEARNING

MACHINE LEARNING

       Machine learning is the branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In AI, the machines are designed to simulate human behavior. Whereas in machine learning, the machines are allowed to learn from the past data without programming explicitly. Any technology user in today’s world has benefitted from machine learning. It is a continuously growing field and hence provides several opportunities to the research industries. In machine learning, tasks are classified into broad categories. Two of the most adopted machine learning categories are supervised learning and unsupervised learning. In supervised learning, the machines train the algorithms based on the sample input and output labeled by the humans. It uses patterns to predict values on additional unlabeled data. In unsupervised learning, the machine trains the algorithm with no labeled data. It will find the structure within its input data. As a field, machine learning deals with data, so having a piece of knowledge in statistics will be useful in better understanding concepts.

WHY MACHINE LEARNING?

  • It develops systems that can automatically adapt and customize themselves according to the individuals.
  • It can be a key for unlocking the value of corporate and customer data which in turn helps the company to stay ahead of the competition.
  • For growing data and the different available data, the computational process is cheaper and faster and provides affordable storage.
  • By using algorithms to build models, organizations can make better decisions without human intervention.
  • Relationships and correlations can be hidden in a large amount of data. Machine learning will help find these relationships.
  • As technology keeps changing, it is difficult to continuously redesign the system by hand.
  • In some cases like medical diagnostics, the amount of data available about certain tasks might be too large for explicitly encoding by humans.

VARIOUS FIELDS THAT USES MACHINE LEARNING:

GOVERNMENT: By using machine learning systems, the prediction of potential future scenarios and adapting rapid changes becomes easy for government officials. Machine learning helps to improve cybersecurity and cyber intelligence. It also helps by reducing the failure rates of the project.

HEALTHCARE: The use of sensors to predict the pulse rate, heartbeats, sugar levels, sleeping patterns helps the doctors to assess their patient’s health in real-time. It provides real-time data from past surgeries and past medical records which will improve the accuracy of the surgical robot tools. Some of the benefits are avoidance of human errors and will be helpful during complex surgeries.

MARKETING AND SALES: The marketing sector has been revolutionized since the arrival of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. It has increased customer satisfaction by 10%. E-commerce and social media sites use machine learning to analyze the things that you are interested in and help in suggesting similar products to you based on your past habits. It has greatly helped in increasing the sales of e-shopping sites.

TRANSPORTATION: Through deep learning, machine learning, has explored the complex interactions of highways, traffic roads, accident-prone areas, crashes, environmental changes, and so on. It helped in traffic control management by providing results from the past day. So, the company can able to get their raw materials without any delay and supply their finished goods to the market inefficient time. 

FINANCE: The insights produced by machine learnings helps the investors to give a clear picture of risk and the right time for investment and helps to identify the high-risk clients and signs of fraudulent areas. It helps in analyzing the stock market movement to give financial recommendations. Machine learning also helps to be aware of the risks in the finance department.

MANUFACTURING: Machine learning has helped to improve productivity in the industrial field. It helps in the expansion of product and service lines due to mass production in a short time. Improved quality control with insights helps to improve the product’s quality. Ability to meet the customer’s new needs. Prediction helps to find risks and reduces the cost of production.

   Thus in today’s world, machine learning is implemented in several fields to complete the work faster and cheaper. The machine should be able to do all the works that man can do and machine learning will help to achieve this goal.

CONSERVE WATER, CONSERVE LIFE

WATER- THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT

Water is an essential component of our daily life. We drink water every day. More than 50% of the human body is made up of water. Not only humans, but all living organisms starting macro-organisms from plants, animals, reptiles, mushrooms to microorganisms also need water for the survival of life. Water is a chemical compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen. It is made up of several million molecules. About 71% of the earth’s surface is made up of water. And the remaining 29% is continents and islands. 97% of water is salty and only 3% of water is freshwater. An in this 3%, only 1.2% of water is drinkable and the remaining is in the form of glaciers, ice caps, and snow mountains. Water is also known as a universal component because it has the power of dissolving more substances than other liquids. But many people in today’s world are wasting fresh water. This leads to the water scarcity problem.

WATER SCARCITY AND ITS CAUSES

Water scarcity is defined as the insufficient amount of water to meet the demands of water usage within a region. A shortage occurs when there is a rise in demand and not enough supply to meet the demand. Water scarcity occurs because of both natural and human causes. We all know that water is not equally distributed on the earth’s surface, so water scarcity does not occur at the global level but some places are shortage of water. Some of the major causes for water scarcity are listed below:

  1. INCREASE IN POPULATION: The increase in population increases the water demand. Nowadays people are wasting water without knowing the effects that may cause in future generations.
  2. POLLUTION OF WATER: Water pollution is another major cause of water scarcity. Many industries release their wastewater into lakes which are the sources of freshwater. The release of harmful chemicals into the water may have several disadvantages include new diseases, loss of habitat for aquatic animals, etc.,
  3. GLOBAL WARMING: The rise in the earth’s temperature causes global warming. Due to this monsoon failure occurs in some places and those areas suffer from drought which leads to a shortage of water.
  4. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION: Unwanted usage of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture may cause groundwater pollution. This makes the groundwater polluted and unable to consume it.
  5. DEFORESTATION: The cutting of trees over a large area is known as deforestation. We all know that rainwater is the source of water. Deforestation leads to monsoon failure in some places which in turn causes water scarcity in that area.

HOW TO SAVE WATER?

It is everyone’s responsibility to save water for the present and future generations. Here are some tips to save water:

  • Recycle the water. Use the domestic wastage of water for watering the plants. This reduces water scarcity.
  • Create awareness programs among people to understand the importance of fresh water and the ways to save it for the present and future generations.
  • Improve the irrigation practices in agriculture. Use sprinkler irrigation to reduce the wastage of water wherever possible.
  • Use organic manure in agricultural lands rather than pesticides and chemical fertilizers. This will not affect the groundwater and hence no water scarcity.
  • Limit your usage of water in the house. Turn off your water while brushing. Check for the leakage of taps. Avoid usage of the shower.
  • Practicing rainwater harvesting is the most efficient way to save water. It increases the groundwater level and thus no water shortage.
  • Solar desalination and smart irrigation system help in sustainable water management.
  • Invest in new water-conserving technologies in the areas of water scarcity.

SOFTWARE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES

SOFTWARE QUALITY:

Quality will always be a concern in all stages of planning and execution. Software quality is defined as the functionality of a product that satisfies the user or customer requirements. To achieve quality, check characteristics that define the quality of a product. For each characteristic of quality, set standards. Find out the reason that is affecting the software quality and rectify it.

IMPORTANCE OF SOFTWARE QUALITY:

INCREASING CRITICALITY OF SOFTWARE: The end-user of the software product will always have a concern about the quality of the software product. For example, in aircraft systems, the customers are concern about the quality of the product. Any software failure in this may lead to dangerous accidents.

ACCUMULATING ERRORS DURING SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT: A software product undergoes several stages to get it finished as a deliverable product. If the error in the initial stage is not identified, then it may get increased in the further stages causing disasters like the failure of the product. If the error is found at the later stages, then it will be more expensive to solve these errors. The debugging phases will be difficult since the numbers of errors are unknown.

REPUTATION: Some companies have a strong reputation among people because of their quality of production. A good, solid reputation is hard to earn but easy to lose. So the company with a good reputation will have a strong business. The loss of quality in their product will not only bury their reputation but also affects sales and marketing.

SOFTWARE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES:

Software quality is groped into three sets namely product operation qualities, product revision qualities, and project revision techniques.

PROJECT OPERATION TECHNIQUES

  • CORRECTNESS: It is the agreement of program code with specifications. The product should be independent of the actual application of the software system. It is the extent to which the software satisfies the user requirements and specifications.
  • RELIABILITY: Reliability of software is defined as the level of the system that fulfills the qualities under specific input trials in a specific period. The software will be seen as reliable if it has a low number of errors. The sub characteristics of reliability are maturity, fault tolerance, and recoverability.
  • EFFICIENCY: The ability of a product can perform its function with the best possible utilization of time and space. A product that works with high speed and low space and memory will be more efficient.
  • INTEGRITY: Software integrity is the process of maintaining the safety and security of the code. Analytics will be clear and accessible. It prevents the product from cyber threats.
  • USABILITY: It is the user’s experience of using the product. The product should attain the user’s satisfaction. The sub characteristics of usability are understandability, learnability, and operability.

PROJECT REVISION TECHNIQUES

  • MAINTAINABILITY: It is the suitability for debugging and modification of an application. Readability, extensibility, and testability are the qualities that maintainability relies on.
  • FLEXIBILITY: The ability of the software to be flexible to external environmental and user’s requirements.
  • TESTABILITY: The ability of software to undergo debugging. The software should have to meet the user’s conditions and produce the best product.

PROJECT TRANSITION TECHNIQUES

  • PORTABILITY: The ability of software to work in other environments than the place where it was originally designed. The portability of the software depends on the hardware independence, the language of implementation, and hardware properties.
  • REUSABILITY: It is the ability of software to be reused in different environments. It is achieved by software metric techniques.
  • INTEROPERABILITY: It is defined as the ability of different software that facilitates the effective exchange and process of information with one another. Interoperability testing methodology follows the PCDA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) Cycle.

BASICS OF PERSONAL FINANCE

SETTING UP SMART FINANCIAL GOALS:

          Every person should have clear goals in his/her life to lead a healthy and wealthy life. There is a story which has happened 60 years ago, in 1963, a 29 years old professor who is teaching Accountancy in an American university asked his students that how many of them have written their goals in life? Surprisingly only 9 out of 300 students have written their goals of life on a piece of paper. Then after 30 years later. i.e, in 1993, all the students came to visit a college and they visited the same professor who is now 59 years old. He calculated the net worth of each person. It turned out that only 9 people each of whose net worth is greater than the combined net worth of 291 people. And interestingly those 9 people were those who had written their goals 30 years ago. So, it is important to have clear financial goals in your life. There are three important elements in setting up financial goals. They are

  1. SMART IT: Smart stands for Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant and Time. One has to be clear of exactly what he wants to have, how much he has to have, whether it is achievable and relevant, and when he wishes to have that.
  2. TIME IT: Goals can be immediate, short term, medium-term and long term. The task you have to do within 30 days is immediate goals. For example, buying an android phone. The task that takes a year to accomplish is short-term goals. For example, to buy a television. The goals that require up to 3 years come under the medium-term goal. Example: having own bike, travel for vacation. The long-term goals require more than 3 years. This includes, to study in abroad for a high school student.
  3. WRITE IT: It is always better to write your goals in a sheet of diary so that the goals stay long in your mind and you can achieve it.

POWER OF COMPOUNDING:

           There is a thought that compound interest is considered the eighth wonder of the world. Compound interest earns interest on the interest rather than the simple interest which earns interest only on the principal amount. For example, a principal amount of thousand rupees for ten years at a rate of ten percent will earn thousand rupees at simple interest and thousand five hundred and ninety-three rupees in compound interest. So when it comes to investing, compound interest is always better since it allows the fund to grow at a faster rate. So you have to remind these three principles

  1. The longer the time, the more money will grow.
  2. Earlier the investment you made, better you are.
  3. Smaller savings over a long period will earn more amount.

MAINTAINING RECORDS (ACTUALS AND BUDGETS)

             Everyone has to maintain proper financial records so that you can know the level of spending and savings from your income. There are several sources of income. For adults, it may be salary from the job, profit through business, and interest on savings. For college students, the source of income may be pocket money from parents, gifts received from relatives, stipends from internships, etc., and expenses may be college fees, mess bills, fuel expenses, mobile recharge bills. So it is always better to write down the financial records to use the money effectively. At the start of every month, do budget planning and save at least twenty percent of your savings. Proper planning and execution will help for the wise usage of money. In between this process, maintain financial records.

ECONOMICS OF MONEY

HOW MONEY ORIGINATED?

            Money is neither invented nor discovered. It evolved over years. Several centuries ago, there existed a system named the barter system. The barter system is the system where the goods and services are exchanged with each other. For example, If a person says X sells vegetable to another person Y, then the person Y have to sell fruits to the person X. Thus they exchanged goods between them. As time evolves, yellow metal and paper currency was used by the people. The yellow metal is nothing but gold, silver. In this system, the people used gold and silver to buy goods and commodities. As time evolves, the government has said that no need to use gold metals and they will issue notes, i.e, currencies with the value written on them. The government has ordered everyone to use and accept this. As long as people trust the system introduced by the government, paper currency is available. This is how money evolved over a while. Today, there are multiple forms of money. They are credit cards, debit cards, mobile banking, electronic wallets.

HOW DO WE SPEND MONEY?

            There are five forms of spending. They are needs, wants necessities, comforts, and luxuries.

NEEDS: Needs are the things that you must require at that time. Some of the common needs of a man are food, clothing, shelter, transport, communication, education. For example, as a college student, you need to have a phone since many study materials have been sent to your devices.

WANTS: Wants are the thing that you desire to have. Unlike needs, wants have options to choose from. If you do not have those things, it will not affect you. For example, well-furnished home, time-saving home devices, AC rooms, etc.,

NECESSITIES: Necessities have been categorized into three types: 

  • Necessities for life: This includes the basic things you need to run life on earth. Example: Food, clothing, and shelter.
  • Necessities for efficiency: This includes the bike for college students, a car for a businessman.
  • Conventional necessities: It is a social habit of practicing some habits. For example, people spend more money on wedding receptions.

COMFORTS: Comforts are the things that make life more enjoyable. The examples include a Well-furnished home, AC bedrooms, etc.,

LUXURIES: Luxuries represents the higher strata of spending. For example: Having a BMW car, buying diamonds.

       The important point is that needs and wants change with time. For instance, when you are a college student, having a Macbook pro is want. But when you are in the corporate world, having a Macbook pro becomes the need. Necessities, comforts, and luxuries will also differ from time to time and people to people. In the 1990s having a phone is a luxury, in 2000 having a phone is comfort and now it is a necessity to have a phone.

TAX, SAVINGS, AND INVESTMENT:

TAX: The part of our earnings has to be paid to the government in a form of taxes. The reason why we have to pay the taxes is that the government sets up the environment for our earnings. Taxes enable the government to maintain the city infrastructure by providing good roads, hospitals, and transports. To be a good citizen, we must pay the taxes honestly. The tax rate will be increased if some of the people are not paying their taxes properly. Once we paid the tax, then that money will be the government’s money. There are two types of taxes namely direct tax (income tax) and indirect tax (GST).

SAVINGS: Savings is the money that remains after you spend the money from your earnings. You can put your money in a savings bank account. The money in your account will be safe. The ability to convert them into cash is high. The rate of risk is low in a savings account. If you need money within one year, then put the money in a savings account. The ideal equation is INCOME-SAVINGS=EXPENSE.

INVESTMENT: You can invest the money in bank deposits, mutual funds, equity shares, fixed deposits, gold. The return of the money will be higher or lower. The risk of losing money varies by the investment you made. It is a long-term process generally more than 2 years. The liquidity depends on the type of investment. If you want to need the money a few years later, then invest the money.

GLOBAL WARMING- CAUSES, IMPACTS, CONTROL

GLOBAL WARMING:

           Global warming is the phenomenon of the increase of certain gas levels in the atmosphere due to the increase in the earth’s temperature. The temperature rise is due to the greenhouse effect caused by the increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other pollutants. This term has been observed over the past 2 or 3 centuries. The rise in global warming has brought changes in climatic patterns. Many scientists have warned that a temperature rise may bring significant social, ecological, and economic damage to society. Such damage also includes the extinction of some flora and fauna species.

CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING:

          The causes of global warming may be natural or artificial (man-made). The following are the major causes of global warming:

  • DEFORESTATION: The cutting of trees over a large area will result in deforestation. The loss of trees will gradually increase the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since the plants are the main source to intake CO2 and release Oxygen (O2). This in turn results in economic imbalance and increases global warming.
  • INDUSTRIALIZATION AND POPULATION GROWTH: With the advent of industrial development, there is a rapid rise in the earth’s temperature. The release of harmful pollutants into the atmosphere results in global warming. The increase in population increases the level of CO2 in the atmosphere since they exhale CO2.
  • GASES PRODUCED IN AGRICULTURE: Various farming activities produce carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Methane is released by various resources like rice paddies, fossil fuels, cow dung. By adding the fertilizers to the land, it increases the level of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. This leads to a rise in the earth’s temperature.
  • VOLCANIC ERUPTION AND FOREST FIRE: The ash and smoke emitted during the volcanic eruption and forest fire will drastically increase the level of CO2, which in turn increases global warming.

IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON EARTH

  • MELTING OF GLACIERS: Global warming has led to the temperature rise which may bring several disadvantages to the earth. This in turn increases the melting of glaciers and thus increases sea level.
  • ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCE: Increase in global warming results has affected the coral reefs that may lead to the extinction of some flora and fauna species. This creates an ecological imbalance.
  • CLIMATIC CHANGES: Global warming has brought changes in climatic patterns. The monsoon failure, drought, acid rain, tsunami, floods due to heavy rainfall are some of the results of climatic changes. This will have a drastic impact on the living species of earth. The marine ecosystem is greatly affected by global warming.
  • ARRIVAL OF NEW DISEASES: The patterns of heat and humidity have been greatly affected by global warming. This results in the mutation of several microbes and that mutation maybe sometimes dangerous and will result in severe diseases. The increase in temperature affects the normal healthy lifestyle of humans.
  • LOSS OF HABITAT: Global warming will result in the loss of habitat for several flora and fauna species. Some of the animals have to migrate from their natural habitats or some become endangered species and indirectly it brings drastic effects on biodiversity.

HOW TO STOP GLOBAL WARMING?

            Follow 3R’s Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Reduce the usage of devices that emits CFCs and CO2 to the atmosphere. Plant more saplings to decrease the level of carbon dioxide and thus helps in maintaining the ecological balance. Conduct many awareness programs about global warming and its impact so that people can understand. Avoid the usage of plastic bags and canes. Use energy-efficient products to save energy. So, let’ protect our earth by following these steps.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP

       An entrepreneur is an individual who has the capacity and willingness to run a business by knowing the risks to make profits. The process of setting up a business is known as entrepreneurship. It needs a business model, capital coupled with vision, enterprise, and industry. It is an integral aspect of any community, society, and nation to succeed in an ever-changing competitive global marketplace. An entrepreneur must spot opportunities, manage risks, and face challenges. He/she needs to take accountability and responsibility for success or failure.

WHO IS AN ENTREPRENEUR?

  • Is visionary
  • Is an investor(capital or fund)
  • Is a risk-taker
  • Is an Innovator
  • Is future-oriented
  • Is an enterprise creator.

QUALITIES OF AN ENTREPRENEUR

  • CREATIVE THINKING: An entrepreneur must have creative thinking, motivation, conviction, and passion. He/she must be able to analyze the problems and bring proper solutions.
  • LEADERSHIP ABILITY: An entrepreneur should have leadership abilities. So that he splits the works into groups and can finish the work without any conflicts.
  • BUSINESS MANAGEMENT: He/she should possess business management skills. He should protect the organization’s secrets from competitors.
  • COMMUNICATION ABILITY: He/she should have the ability to build connections and networking. Good communication skills always bring a benefit to the entrepreneur. He/she should maintain good relations with customers, partners, and employees.
  • OPPORTUNITY GRABBER: An entrepreneur should be an opportunity grabber.
  • TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE: An entrepreneur should possess sufficient technical knowledge.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP, INNOVATION, AND IPR

        Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and IP Rights (Intellectual Property Rights) can create sustained impact in the ecosystem. Entrepreneurs should bring innovative ideas to their ventures. Innovative offerings increase the efficiency and productivity of the workforce. It also helps to improve the brand values and increases the profit rate. Entrepreneurs need to be aware of IP rights and policies to benefit from innovative ideas. It helps to protect the business ventures from unjustified infringement claims from other entities.

IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ECONOMY

       Entrepreneurship is essential for several reasons to include promoting social changes, increasing innovation, increasing employment rates. Entrepreneurs are frequently considered as nation’s assets since they help in the national income of the country. Great entrepreneurs can change the lifestyle on a local and national basis. The standard of living has been increased with the development of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs help in increasing the country’s export trade and thereby play an important role in the economic development of a country. New and improved products and services from entrepreneurs boost the national income of the country. In addition to this, it increases the employment rate in that country. Through the invention of new products, entrepreneurs help in improved quality of life and economic freedom. For example, smartphones are used worldwide by more than 5 billion people. Technological entrepreneurship can have a long-lasting impact on the world until the growth of smartphones. Entrepreneurship is innovation and hence helps in providing funds for research and development with several institutions. It also helps in balancing regional development by setting up industries in less developed areas. The growth of business in these areas leads to several developments include transport, health, education, entertainment, etc. Thus the role of entrepreneurs in today’s economy is indispensable.

TIPS TO DEVELOP YOUR INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS:

     Interpersonal skills are the soft skills that you rely on to communicate or interact with others. These skills are essential for communication between people. Effective interpersonal skills can get you a good job and have a bright light on your career advancement. Some of the interpersonal skills include leadership, teamwork, active listening, responsibility, dependability, motivation, flexibility, patience, and empathy. In the workplace, strong interpersonal skills are an asset to you that helps you to be confident. 

WHY INTERPERSONAL SKILLS ARE IMPORTANT?

     Strong interpersonal skills help you during the interview for your jobs since interviewers will always expect a person who can easily interact with others. This will also help you to succeed in your job by helping you with understanding others and adjust according to them to work effectively. These skills are essential for communicating and working in groups in your personal and professional life. People with strong intercommunication skills can always maintain a good relationship with friends, families, and colleagues. Other benefits include good problem-solving techniques and decision-making skills. 

TIPS FOR IMPROVING INTERPERSONAL SKILLS:

      You can improve your interpersonal skills by following the tips listed below:

  1. FIND WHAT YOU NEED TO IMPROVE: Identify the areas of interpersonal skills that you are weak. You can find it by asking for feedback from your friends, teachers, or family members since they know you well. After getting feedback from them, work on that area to improve your skills.
  2. LEARN FROM OTHERS: Learning is a great habit to improve yourself. Learning happens everywhere. Even a small kid can teach something that will be useful for you and others around you. Learn from your colleagues, friends, and leaders who inspire you. Note their tone of voice, body language, and facial expressions. Apply those skills to improve your communication skills.
  3. TRAIN YOURSELF: Put yourself in a position where you can use your interpersonal skills. For example, you can join the social events and clubs of the company/college where you can get a chance to interact with others.
  4. AVOID DISTRACTIONS: Put your mobile aside when you are communicating with others. Give full attention to what they are saying so that you can understand them and respond to them more effectively.
  5. ENROLL IN COURSES: Enroll yourself in courses to learn and improve your skills. Different apps like BYJUs, Coursera, Udemy, etc., provide various courses for developing your interpersonal skills. You can also see a lot of videos posted on YouTube regarding interpersonal skills and practice in daily life.
  6. RECORD YOURSELF: Record your speaking on your phone or recorder and then listen to it. Then identify the areas where you are mistaken. Note things that you would like to change or develop such as grammatical errors, tenses, tone of voice, speed of talking, or body language. Record periodically to assess your progress. Also, speak in front of mirrors so that you can see your body language and expression.
  7. BE CONFIDENT: Teach yourself to be positive and confident by reminding the good things you have accomplished earlier. Try to see the positive things in every work you are assigned so that you do not need to be stressed or depressed.
  8. BE ASSERTIVE: Assertiveness is when you confidently express your ideas fairly and honestly considering the views of other people. People are more likely to like and respect you if you are assertive. 
  9. AVOID TALKING OVER OTHERS: Always practice the habit of listening to others. Good listeners will always possess strong communication skills. Wait until the opposite person ends their conversation and then convey your ideas on that.
  10. THINK BEFORE YOU SPEAK: Consider your words while you are communicating with others. Don’t use harsh words while speaking. You must be calm, honest, and also respectful.

AUTOMATION-A BOON OR BANE

AUTOMATION

       Automation is defined as the technique that makes a product or process by automatically using technology. It reduces the human input in the process. Automation has brought wide changes in the world. Starting from morning to evening, our works are automated in one way or another. For example, purified water by purifiers, food cooked in Microwave oven, washing clothes in the washing machine, automated vacuum cleaner, robots for work field, etc. We can say that most things are automated in the work field. Automation has been used in several fields including manufacturing, transport, defense, operations, and Information Technology. Automation plays a major role in IT optimization and digital transformation. Consequently, the automated systems have become more sophisticated. In the 21st century, we are mostly dependent on automation. Although it has several advantages, eventually it possesses some disadvantages. So, let’s discuss whether automation is a bane or boon?

AUTOMATION- BOON

        From the simplest to complex things, Automation has integrated with every part of our lives. With the help of automation, every work has been easily completed and it saves a lot of time.

Automation in the home: Using the combination of hardware and software components, home appliances are made. Starting from the purifier, washing machine, refrigerator, microwave oven, vacuum cleaner, etc…. most of the home appliances are automated which saves more time and energy.

Network Automation: By using software, the configuration, management, and operations of computer networks are automated. Network automation has become significant to manage the complexities of modern dynamic networks. It helps to reduce human errors in network management and operations.

Automation in the office: More organizations are using automation in the workplace to improve productivity and lower costs. The office automation system consists of both hardware and software solutions to transfer the data between systems without human interventions. Office automation brings broad changes of benefits to include improved accuracy, cost and time reduction,  storing and managing the data in an efficient manner, facility management, and several administrative works.

Security automation: The use of technologies to integrate security processes, applications, and infrastructure with reduced human assistance is known as security automation. Fast threat detection can reduce the impact of data loss.

Help to Disables: With the advancement in technology, automation helped disabled people to overcome their disabilities and by providing proper care independence, they can work like normal people.

AUTOMATION – BANE

Increases unemployment rates: Low-skill workers can be replaced. But nowadays, even the highly skilled workers are replaced by automated machines. Recent advancements in robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) reduced human works in the working environment.

Health issues: Most of the children in this 21st century are addicted to the video game. They prefer online and computer games rather than outdoor games. It makes people lazy and weak. This may be the cause for many health issues like eye problems, back pain, etc.

Machines are sensitive: Automation to some extent can be good but when more control is given to them, it may lead to some disasters Machines can never act like humans and they will be programmed without knowing the sensitivity of the issue.

Hackers:  Technology can be hacked by hackers. Sometimes, it may lead to wide disaster to a country by other countries. Our private details can be stolen by some hackers and they may demand several things to compromise them.

Loss of human interaction: Dealing with computers and machines can reduce the interactions between people.

        Overall, Automation is very essential for the growth and development of a country. Automation ensures the utilization of resources in various fields include healthcare, sports, energy, and technology. Without automation, we will spend more time finishing the task and thus delivery will be done very late. The economic imbalance will be increased. In short term, automation will cause unemployment and may bring some disadvantages. But in the long term effect, Automation will be needed for the better development of the nation.

GLOCALIZATION-AN OVERVIEW

GLOCALIZATION

        The combination of globalization and localization gives rise to the new term known as glocalization. The term refers to the product or service which is distributed at the global level is adjusted to be useful for the local users or consumers. Adopting glocalization can bring several advantages in expanding business. Some of the examples in various fields are listed below: 

IN ORGANIZATIONS: There are plenty of benefits to glocalization. A lot of research tells the importance of incorporating the local tastes, preferences, cultural differences in terms of dealing with external consumers and addressing the competition. In the working environment, people have to adapt to the norms and practices of the organization. This leads to much more employment opportunities. Also, it arouses a sense of respect in other cultures as global companies try to learn about our ethnic cultures. Glocalization leads to decentralization of powers in Multinational companies as a major power is transferred to the business heads in the target market country while introducing a glocal product as an indigenous team is required to understand the market aspects of the place and work accordingly. This would reduce the migration of talented people to other countries in search of better appraisal. Hence glocalization is a welcome change for creating a unified world.

IN MUSIC: Music taste varies from each country. We take their form of music and convert it according to our feasibility and we enjoy it. We also practice the art of mashups by blending two or more pre-recorded songs and new compositions from the existing ones. This makes the song more popular as it had been made into our kind of music taste. There is also a lot of scope in doing mashups.

IN DRESSING STYLES: Our culture defines and frames our dressing style. But as time goes on our lifestyle changes and we started to adapt according to our comfortability and feasibility. We started to adapt their sense of style by making some modifications according to our convenience which is becoming more popular than our form of dresses.

IN communication: Across the globe, domestic and international communication has expanded, and that’s the reason why there is a need for a global language English which has become the lingua franca in major parts of the world. In every field of work, English has become a dominating language. Glocalization would mean giving more importance to global languages like English.

IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES: In manufacturing industries, glocalization boosts productivity and sales. A common example would be cars. If an American car company wants to sell their cars in India, they have to meet the local customs. For example, in India, the steering wheel will be placed on the right-hand side of the car.

IN ARTS AND CULTURE: Another example of glocalization in my mind is Semi Classical Dance. Bharatanatyam is an Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu. In the olden days, Bharathanatyam has been a solo dance exclusively performed by women. But nowadays many people dance Bharatnatyam in a western style. And this dance has increasingly become famous and liked by many people all over the world. A local culture that became glocal is our way of greeting others: Tamilians greet each other with the word “vanakkam” by joining their hands in a praying position and bowing the head a bit. Whereas the English people used to greet others by shaking hands. But after the spread of the Coronavirus, all people around the world used to greet others like Tamilians style.

        Thus in the modern world, glocalization has become a trending topic and it has been adopted by many Multi-National Companies(MNCs).

THE HISTORIC FRAMEWORK OF INDIAN TRADITION

Tradition is a custom or belief passed from past generation to present generation. India has a continuous history covering a long period. By following the Indologist, DR.A.L.Basham’s analysis, the Indian heritage can be best appreciated with different historical periods. This period is broadly discussed as follows:

BEFORE 1500 BC: PRE-VEDIC CULTURE OF THE INDUS VALLEY:

This culture came to light through excavations at Mohenjodaro (in Sind) and Harappa (Punjab) – both now in Pakistan, Harappa/Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal (Gulf of Cambay)(Gujarat) and Surkotada (Gujarat). The Indus Valley finds reveal a great civilization that flourished in the dim, distant past. The civilization – the material aspects of life or the external features of living – was marked by: streets and lanes laid out according to a set plan; houses built of bricks; public tanks; places of worship; granaries for storing grain; fortifications. The people occupied themselves in agriculture, made use of pottery, and sculpted on metal. It was the Age of Bronze – objects made of the bronze-like knife – blades, saws, sickles, chisels, celts, razors, pins, tweezers, fishhooks were used in households. Spears, arrowheads, and short swords made of bronze were used for defense.

1500 BC – 1000 BC: EARLY VEDIC AGE:

The Vedic hymns which are chanted even today, the personal rituals that are practiced, The patriarchal and patrilineal family system are some of the legacies from this period.

1000 BC – 600 BC: LATER VEDIC TIMES:

To this period we owe the passion for speculation on ultimate causes (as reflected in the Upanishads), the quest for the Absolute (the concept of Brahman), the doctrine of transmigration and rebirth (the idea of Karma and consequences of good and bad acts), the concept of a release from a cycle of births and deaths ( the goal of Liberation or Moksha) and the glory of mysticism. This period saw the crystallization of the four classes (‘Varnas’, a social order originally conceived as a functional division of labor, which has turned out to be a mixed blessing though corruption); the introduction of iron; the domestication of the elephant; and the development of kingdoms out of tribal chieftainships.

600 BC – 320 BC: THE EMERGENCE OF BUDDHISM

Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, is the founder of Buddhism. The four main principles taught by Buddha are life is suffering, craving causes suffering, suffering can be overcome, following noble 8-fold paths to end suffering.

320 BC – 185 BC: THE MAURYAN EMPIRE:

We have inherited from this period: the Indian idea of statecraft as embodied in Arthasastra of the Mauryan Minister, Kautilya, also known as Chanakya; the earliest surviving sculpture of India (the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath); the oldest artificial caves ( Lomas Rishi Caves, Barabar Hills, Bihar) and the most ancient Buddhist stupas (Sanchi). The national symbol of the Ashoka Chakra is taken from the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath with its Lion Capital. The Dharma Chakra represents the dharma or the Law of the Buddha, and the lions the temporal power of the emperor who has dedicated all his resources to the victory of dharma (dharma Vijaya). “The symbolism of Indian art attained its highest expression in the Sarnath capital, which is as much Buddhist as Vedic in the significance of its several parts”.

184 BC-AD 320: THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE MAURYAS AND THE GUPTAS:

New forms of devotional religion, with Shiva and Vishnu as the central deities, emerged. The Mahabaratha and The Ramayana were edited. Sanskrit literature, consisting of drama and poetry, developed. Philosophical schools characterized by logical reasoning emerged.

AD 320 – AD 647: THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE RISE OF THE GUPTAS AND THE DEATH OF HARSHAVARDHANA:

This is the classical period of Indian civilization from which we have inherited the works of Kalidasa (Sanskrit drama and poetry); the paintings of Ajanta; the place notation of numerals (with nine digits and zero); The Puranas (legends illustrating the Vedic religious conceptions and philosophical doctrines). Stone-built temples appeared throughout the land. Worship of the deity as Mother Goddess came into vogue.

AD 647 – AD 1200: THE PERIOD OF BHAKTI SCHOOLS AND THE PHILOSOPHICAL SYSTEMS OF SRI SANKARA AND   SRIRAMANUJA:

The devotional hymns of the Alwars and the Nayanmars of the South gave an impetus to the bhakti movement in the country. To this period belong the imposing temple structures of the South and the bronze images of various gods.

AD 1192 – AD 1526: THE SULTANATE PERIOD (MUSLIM RULE):

The new style of architecture with the dome and the arch made its appearance. Vernacular literature appeared instead of Sanskrit which was the main vehicle of literary expression till then.

AD 1526 – AD 1707: THE MUGHAL EMPIRE:

Imposing edifices like the Taj Mahal belong to this period. Sikhism belongs to this period – ‘born as a small devotional sect and reborn, when the period concluded, as a martial brotherhood’.

18TH, 19TH, AND 20TH CENTURIES: THE DOMINANCE OF THE ENGLISH:

After a period of stagnation in the 18thcentury, India began to feel the impact of the West. The study of the English language was made compulsory and the English system of administration was introduced. As a reaction, the modern Indian renaissance, which included a revival of ancient learning and reform of Hindu social customs and practices, began with Raja Rammohan Roy is in the lead. Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda, Dayananda Saraswati, Sri Aurobindo, among others, held up the glories of our religious and philosophical heritage, by precept and example. Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the Father of the Nation delivering the people from bondage into freedom. The subcontinent was divided into India and Pakistan and both countries attained complete independence from foreign rule. India became the Sovereign Democratic Republic on January 26th, 1950 with freedom and dignity assured to every individual citizen under the country’s new Constitution.

INTELLECUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

WHAT IS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY?

        Intellectual property refers to the product of the mind, which is distinct from the usual notations of the property. These products could be inventions, artistic and literary works, designs and symbols, names, and images used in commerce. Intellectual property is in tangible form and cannot be sensed by other people since it is valuable to the original creator. The main purpose of intellectual property is to encourage the innovation of products.

WHY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ARE NEEDED?

  1. The intellectual property law provides the exclusive rights of the products to the creator.
  2. These rights provide legal ownership to the authors.
  3. Without IP protection, third parties can easily exploit your products.
  4. Patent protection is important to encourage the disclosure of information to the public which may be useful to the inventors to improve the product.
  5. It provides growth in areas of research, innovation, and employment.

TYPES OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

  1. PATENT

                A patent is the exclusive rights given to the invention i.e, a product or process that provides the new solution for the problem. It gives them rights to the owner to protect their product from making, using, selling by other people for a limited period of years. The lifetime of a patent for a patentee is 20 years. The patentee must properly include the claims by pointing out the novelty of your idea. This is important because it provides the legal protection of the patent in case of infringements. A patent is given by checking the criteria like the novelty of the idea, the presence of inventive step, and its commercial applicability. A patent is given by regional and national patent offices like the Indian patent office, European patent office, and African Regional Intellectual Property Organization.

2. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

                   Design refers to the shape, size, pattern or ornament, or composition of lines or colors or combinations applied to any two-dimensional or three-dimensional products or for both through the industrial process by manual or chemical or mechanical, which a finished article is judged by the eye.

3. COPYRIGHTS

                   Copyrights are given to the author to protect their ownership of their product. Copyrights are given by verifying the tangible form of work and original authorship of the work. Copyrights are given to expressions and not to ideas or procedures or any mathematical concepts. Some of the copyrighted works are literary works, dramatical works, musical works, pictorial, graphical, and sculptural works, motion pictures, and architectural works. The duration of copyrights is 60 years.

4. TRADEMARKS

                   Trademarks are distinctive signs used by a company or industry which cannot be used by others. Trademarks could be distinctive combinations of words or letters or numerals, distinctive shapes or signs, non-visible signs like sound, taste, smell, and collective marks and certification marks. Trademark ensures the owners of the marks the exclusive rights to identify goods and services. The lifetime of a trademark is 10 years.

5. TRADE SECRETS

                  Trade secrets refer to the information including a formula, pattern, compilation, method, device, technique, or process that derives the independent economic value. It should not be readily accessible to other persons who can easily attain economic value by disclosing it. Some of the manufacturing secrets are Research and Development (R&D) information, Proprietary information about production/process, quality control information. Some of the commercial secrets include employee/vendor/partner information, infrastructure and organization information, internal financial information, and sales and marketing information.

YOGA AND ITS IMPORTANCE

ESSENCE OF YOGA IN TODAY’S WORLD:

Today the lifestyle of people has changed drastically. In the olden days, people have done more physical works which made them stay healthier for a longer time. With the advancement in technology, man has invented several things to complete the work easily without any physical effort. So the man in the modern world depends on machines to complete their work rather than by physical effort and thus results in an unhealthy lifestyle of humans. In ancient days, there is a saying in Tamil that goes, “Unave Marunthu” which means that the food which we eat is the medicine. But nowadays, due to the over usage of pesticides and chemicals, the food becomes unhealthy to the person. The habits of over-eating and eating many junk foods has caused many side effects to people. A couple of generations ago, people worked physically to get their chores done whereas in the modern world everything is done by just clicking the button. A thirty minutes walk per day increases the overall health of your body. Currently, people use escalators/elevators even for a short distance instead of taking a staircase. According to World Health Organization(WHO), insufficient physical works can lead to many health problems includes cardiovascular problems, diabetes, cancer, etc, Thus we should keep our body parts active by doing physical works which leads to a healthy life. Yoga is a valuable gift of India’s ancient tradition. The art of practicing yoga helps in increasing the healthy lifestyle of people.

BENEFITS OF YOGA:

  1. Improves healthy lifestyle: The greatest wealth is health. Good physical and mental health is important for the person to achieve their life goals. Studies have proven that one’s physical and mental health is improved by practicing yoga.
  2. Maintains inner peace: Yoga is a powerful way to attain inner peace. Meditation helps in achieving inner peace and thereby eliminating pressure and tension.
  3. Increases energy: Yoga helps in maintaining the metabolism and thus produces energy in the body. So the person can be active and energetic throughout the day.
  4. Better flexibility and posture: Regular practice of yoga helps in maintaining the flexibility of the body parts and improves the posture when you stand, sit, sleep or walk.
  5. Manage stress: Continuous practice of yoga helps to get rid of stress and anxiety. Pranayama is the best exercise to keep your mind calm.
  6. Helps in weight loss: Surya namaskar (sun salutation) is the best way for weight loss.
  7. Helps to sleep better: Regular exercise and meditation help to treat insomnia.
  8. Reduces breathing troubles: The regular practicing of yoga helps in increasing lung capacity and oxygen intake. So, it reduces respiratory problems.
  9. Good for your heart: Yoga helps to maintain proper blood pressure and thereby reducing cardiovascular problems.
  10. Increases blood flow: Yoga increases the levels of hemoglobin in the blood and maintains proper blood circulation. It also reduces the chances of heart attacks and stroke.
  11. Increase your intuition: Most of us suffer from low self-esteem. We may think negatively even before we start it. But by continuous practice of yoga, we can positively start the work.

The nature of yoga is to shine the light of awareness into the darkest corners of the body”

                                                                                                                         -Jason Crandell

                                                                                                                         

CYBERSECURITY AND ITS THREE PRINCIPLES

CYBERSECURITY

In today’s world, many organizations use the network to store, gather and share information. As more data is gathered and stored, the protection of this information is significant. To protect these data, the field of cybersecurity is introduced. Cybersecurity is a practice of protecting your computers, mobile phones, servers, data, and other electronic devices from malicious attacks. On a personal level, you have to protect your identity, data, and computer devices. At the industrial level, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect their organization’s data. In the modern world, protecting our data and privacy is really important. This field provides a wide range of opportunities due to the increasing reliance on computers and the internet. Cybersecurity can also be called network security, information security, and information technology security. Any information about you can be considered as data. It may be educational, medical, employment, and financial data. Sometimes the data which you stored in your computing device can be profitable to others. By hacking your device, they get access to your data and they may threaten you. So it’s your responsibility to be aware of the cyber world.

CIA TRIAD

The three main principles of cybersecurity are confidentiality, integrity, and availability. (CIA Triad). This provides the guidelines for data security for an organization.

CONFIDENTIALITY

Confidentiality ensures the privacy of data by restricting unauthorized access to the data. So, the term confidentiality can also be termed as privacy. An organization’s policies should restrict the access to data only to the authorized person and ensure that the data is only viewed by those authorized individuals. For example, a Java programmer in a company should not have access to view the personal details of other employees in that company. In addition to this, an organization has to make sure that proper training is given to the employees to protect themselves and company from the cyber-attacks. Some of the methods to ensure confidentiality is data encryption, create strong passwords (a word containing uppercase and lowercase letters, special symbols, and digits with a minimum of 8 characters), multifactor authentication, and be aware of fraudulent emails.

INTEGRITY

 Integrity ensures the accuracy, consistency, and trustworthiness of the data. Data integrity can also be referred to as data quality. Data undergoes varieties of stages include storage, retrieval, update, and transfer. During these states, data must remain unaltered. The need for data integrity varies among different organizations. For instance, Instagram does not verify its user profiles whereas in the bank and financial sectors data integrity is indispensable, and in the medical field it is the matter of life and death. Loss of data integrity may cause severe problems to the organization. So it is important to ensure data integrity. Data integrity can be compromised by human error (input), transferring from one device to another device, or by any cyber-attacks. Data integrity can be verified using a checksum. It verifies the strings of characters in a file after they have been transferred from one device to another device.

AVAILABILITY

Availability is the principle that explains the availability of data at the point when users needed. Proper mitigation plans should be done in case of sudden attacks to recover from it quickly as possible. The denial-of-service (DoS attacks) can threaten system availability. An organization can ensure its availability of data by proper maintenance of equipment, keeping the software and operating system up to date, mitigation plans, new technological implementations and performing hardware repairs, and keeping backups of data.

IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA

   Interacting with friends and families is always a concern for people across the long distance. Since communications are the way to strengthen the relationship between people, they started thinking to develop a way to solve this issue. People started to create new solutions where face-to-face communication is not possible. With the advancement of technology in the late 19th century, the first recognizable social media site named Six Degrees was created in 1997. It enables the users to upload their pictures and make friends with other people. After the invention of blogging in 1999, Social media has started reaching popularity. It has become a technological platform through which we can share our ideas, view, news, career opportunities, and information through virtual networks and communities. The arrival of YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter in the early 20th century made it easier to communicate with many new people. Today, some of the popular social media sites are LinkedIn, Instagram, Twitter, WhatsApp, Messenger, WeChat, etc,

Advantages of social media

           Social media has become an integral part of the modern world is the unbreakable truth. Some of the advantages of social media are listed below:

           REACHES LARGE AUDIENCE:   In the 21st century, millions of users use social media. So it is a great opportunity to market your product since it reaches an enormous number of people. Social media has the tremendous advantage of reaching many people, so you can find new leads for your products or services.

       EDUCATION: The benefits produced by social media in education is inevitable. It provides better communication between learners and teachers. Many e-learning apps are created and students can learn anything they want from anywhere in the world. It provides a great opportunity for the students to learn from many experts.

      INFORMATION AND UPDATES: Worldwide news is updated instantly on social media sites which makes people know the current happenings around the world. The information posted on social media websites reaches people faster than the traditional way of spreading the news.

SHOWCASE ONE’S TALENT: The vast usage of social media helps to showcase one’s hidden talents. Through this people can easily post their talented works. When people support them, it creates a self-belief in them to do something that they like.

Disadvantages of social media

            Though social media has advantages, it also negatively affected society. Some of the disadvantages of social media are listed below:

    HACKING: Whether the personal data and privacy of a person are secured or not is a big question in the cyber world. Hackers can easily hack the details of people through the information posted on their pages. Several Twitter and Facebook pages of celebrities and VIPs are hacked by affecting their personal lives. This is the dangerous drawback of social media among the others.

   ADDICTION: Teenagers are the ones who got most affected by social media. Sometimes they got deeply immersed in social media which cuts off them from society. Overuse of social media has caused a lot of health and mental problems.

   REPUTATION: Someone can easily frame the person by posting a false story. This will ruin the reputation of that person that he/she has gained so far. Due to the rumors, businesses can also suffer great losses.

 HEALTH ISSUES: Due to this pandemic, social media has got more users. The over usage of social media could bring many side effects on health. Some of the harmful consequences of excessive usage of social media are stress, anxiety, loss of sleep, eye problems, low self-esteem, etc.

      Everything has its advantages and disadvantages. It is all about how we use them. Social media has more advantages compares to drawbacks. It will be more advantageous unless it is used negatively. So it’s in the hands of ours to make it use it effectively.