Who was the First Plastic Surgeon?

Plastic surgery – the name implies an artificial substance – but it is derived from the Greek word “Plastikos” which means to mold or to give form. An important specialty has been taking shape, one that reshapes the lives of patients. So who was the first plastic surgeon?

John Staige Davis was the first plastic surgeon. He played an important role not only at his council group in Hopkins but also in the United States in the plastic surgery. He limited his practice in the field of plastic surgery in those times. He was the only plastic surgeon who was there when World War I took place.

Dr. John Staige Davis

In 1991, Dr. Davis published the first English language textbook of plastic surgery and it is still used today. He sends copies to medical school founder, doctors and at that time no one acknowledged receiving it. And though plastic surgery at Hopkins would not gain the standard they deserved until the next century, Dr. Davis was helping to build the foundation for the entire discipline of plastic surgery in America.

He used to pioneer the transferring tissue techniques known as “Z- plasty” and the use of small deep grafts to heal chronic wounds. He was the founding member of The American Board of Surgery and The American Board of Plastic surgery. Dr. Davis’s work and reputation starts Hopkins on its way to becoming a crossroad and destination for the country’s best plastic surgeons.

In 1942, John Staige Davis was part-time faculty member and was running a plastic clinic even though he was in his 70s by then and beyond his retirement age, two years from then a forth year medical student at Hopkins had the chance observe the master surgeon doing a cleft lip repair.

His successor Dr. Edgerton graduates and proceeds to work by joining the army and was serving at Valley Forge General Hospital in Pennsylvania. He was one of the few surgeon treating thousands of men coming back from combat with disfiguring wounds and burns needing plastic surgery. This horrendous war injuries united skill surgeon in their desire to heal wounded soldiers. This dynamic gave raise to a new and important speciality in medicine.

Dr. Edgerton

With the scientific foundation and tissue regeneration, transplantation, and stem cell biology plastic surgery is uniquely poised to make the next major advance in medicine. By regenerating or replacing missing body parts, plastic surgery can transform patients life in ways that could not have been imagined only recently.

John Staige Davis didn’t lived to see plastic surgery receive the recognition and support if required and deserved in the world. But his path-breaking work and clear vision allowed a greater dream to be realized.

Woman of steel

India in the early 1800s was a place of riot, extortion and was trapped under the unsympathetic British rule. Being one of the richest country for spices and hard earned labour, the Indians not living under royalty were suppressed under the British rulers, even leading to the death of many. In times that hold importance of freedom, a young woman in her teens made a decision to change the world from wrong doings and eradicate the biased rule of another country over India. Rani Lakshmi Bai, a soul filled with patriotism and love for the country, stood up and fought with all her will to sustain a free Hindustan.

The Queen of Jhansi was born on 18th November 1828 in Varanasi. Since her childhood she was trained and taught to be a warrior and an independent woman to live on freely and to dream of an ‘Azaad’ Bharat. She was educated not only in her native languages but in English as a foreign language. Her maiden name was Manikarnika, which later after her marriage was known as Rani Lakshmi Bai. Manikarnika lost her mother at a young age and her responsibility entirely fell upon her Father, Moropant Tambe. He trained her for becoming the best version of herself by teaching her the importance of martial arts, horse riding, sword fighting, as well as shooting.

In the year 1842, Manikarnika married the King of Jhansi, Raja Gangadhar Rao Newalkar. On getting married into Jhansi, she was given the title of Rani Lakshmi Bai as a token of respect and honour to the new Queen of Jhansi. Being the Queen of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmi Bai couldn’t tolerate the cruelty of the British on poor Indians and setting them under their foot, to make a division between the elite and the common people of Jhansi. Crime and injustice against the people of Jhansi increased day by day, with the growth in death, either due to murder or suicide.

In the year 1851, Rani Lakshmi Bai gave birth to her son but within the period of four months, she lost him to illness. Thereafter, along with her husband, she decided to adopt a son for the future of Jhansi, for an heir to follow his father’s footsteps as Raja Gangadhar Rao was falling sick by every increasing day. Leading to this, in the year 1853, the Raja and Rani adopted a boy, Damodar Rao. Later in the year, Raja Gangadhar Rao Newalkar passed away and set the journey for Rani Lakshmi Bai to sit in his throne and lead Jhansi to its glorious future.

The British wanted Jhansi under their rule completely, and a woman ruling the kingdom only boosted their ego and insecurities. Rani Lakshmi Bai got a notice by one of the British officer, Major Ellis to evacuate and handover Jhansi to the British. Infuriated by this act, Rani Lakshmi Bai said her famous words, “Meri Jhansi Nahi Dungi.” With this spirit, she fought for the freedom of Jhansi and ripped it off of the British rule.

The battle for freedom and survival started three years after with a huge massacre on the palace of Jhansi in the midst of the night, in order to capture the Queen as commanded by Sir Hugh Rose. Lakshmi Bai and her soldiers fought bravely against the surprised attack. As Jhansi was attacked terribly, the Queen of Jhansi, tied her son to her back and rode on a horse till she reached Kelpi. The Peshwa understood the situation and helped her with an army of her own. This was a stepping stone for all the woman inspired and taught by Rani Lakshmi Bai for a better world and a brighter future. With the upcoming war, woman were made warriors to fight against the injustice caused by the British.

On the day of the battle, Rani Lakshmi Bai fought with fire in her veins and courage in her blood. She fought till her last breath and created history by burning herself on the battle field so no Englishmen could touch her even after death. Rani Lakshmi Bai, a true warrior Queen inspired millions across the country and even today she lights the hearts of every woman who have to fight their own battles of bravery and sacrifice. As it is rightfully said, “Khoob ladi Mardani, Jhansi ki Rani”.

What History’s warfare up-skill us about directing in tranquility

Outside the study hall, Harvard Business School Professor Deepak Malhotra’s withstanding revenue is war and harmony, how wars start and end, how they might have been kept away from, and what exercises can be gained from them. Alongside examining wars, Malhotra has exhorted countries with immovable outfitted contentions, “to help them discover a route forward,” he says. The previous spring, he brought those exercises into the study hall with another course, “War and Peace: The Lessons of History for Leadership, Strategy, Negotiation, Policy, and Humanity.” The course gives a point by point investigation of the victories and disappointments of initiative, technique, and arrangements in a few contentions, going from the antiquated Peloponnesian Wars among Athens and Sparta, to World War I and World War II, to the Korean War and the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. 

While it might seem like a social investigations course, these conflicts offer a variety of exercises for corporate pioneers and business visionaries. All things considered, initiative difficulties, key decisions, and high-stakes arrangements are constants in clashes among countries, however in the business world, as well, he brings up. So business pioneers would do well to consider the preventative disappointments and promising triumphs on the world’s war zones as they seek after long haul achievement.

For Malhotra, who has shown exchange and different subjects at HBS since 2002, the “War and Peace” course stands apart as a top choice. It even motivated him to compose his fourth book and his first novel, The Peacemaker’s Code, delivered for this present month. The book is a sci-fi thrill ride in which a youthful Cambridge history specialist is called to Washington to encourage the United States president to turn away a calamitous conflict. The conflicts Malhotra inspects in his “War and Peace” course represent the perils of drawing exercises from too hardly any notable encounters, of neglecting to appropriately analyze the reasons for past disappointments, and the basic significance of seeing a contention from the opposite side’s perspective. Here are a few perceptions from his course’s contextual investigations.

Battled in three stages among Athens and Sparta, the Peloponnesian War included a bombed ceasefire and finished with Sparta’s triumph and the overshadowing of Athens as a force and a popular government. For Malhotra, the conflict brings up the issue of why a few contentions appear to be unavoidable, in any event, when adversaries attempt to keep away from them, and how those worth obliterating clashes may have been deflected. He says it additionally represents the requirement for adjusting steadiness and adaptability while executing a strategy.He says this conflict likewise exhibits the expected effect of initiative change on system, and the entanglements of arranged arrangements that don’t as expected record for the interests of each side.

A political emergency started by the death of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand prompted raising assemblies, close quarters conflict, the breakdown of the Russian Empire, and a truce that rebuffed Germany.You may take the exercise that, if individuals rush to be forceful, too speedy to even think about pushing back on others, that will prompt struggle, Malhotra says.So you ought to be more tolerant, more malleable, really lenient when struggle can possibly heighten. In any case, even this apparently sensible end is perilous to apply indiscriminately in each future struggle—as turns out to be clear years and years after the fact, in the number one spot up to the subsequent World War. The Treaty of Versailles left Germany ruining for vengeance, and it additionally left its World War I foes in a financial downturn and restless to keep away from another conflict. Malhotra says that perspective and the exercises “learned” in World War I, may have driven the Allies to not be adequately forceful, along these lines neglecting to prevent Adolf Hitler and different fundamentalists. For business visionaries, he says the takeaway is that “the methodology that is effective in one endeavor doesn’t really prevail in another. Similarly,what works when driving a little association probably won’t work with a bigger one, and a system that you have depended on beneficially in past dealings may should be altogether disposed of in the following arrangement. The case additionally prompted an entrancing conversation about whether the inability to keep away from World War II was basically a disappointment of administration, procedure, or arrangement.


900,000 Rohingya Muslims were driven out of Myanmar. The refugees fled the country due to persecution of Myanmar’s military. The refugees fled to neighbouring countries of Bangladesh, India, Thailand and other south-east countries. The Buddhist nationalist majority in the country, they consider the Rohingya Muslim minority as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and refer the immigrants as Bengalis. They are considered as illegal immigrants as the Burmese nationality law effectively denied them citizenship. Because they are denied citizenship, they can’t pursue higher education. The citizenship act of 1982 banned them from getting citizenship; they are the biggest stateless population. They are the most persecuted minorities in the world. The Myanmar government and its military have been accused of ethnic cleansing.

The genocide had two waves, the first phase of persecution was from October 2016 – 2017, and the second phase was 2017. The genocide started in December 2016, where the military in northern Rakhine where more than 1,250 villages were burned down by the military. The crackdown caused arbitrary arrests, sexual assaults, gang rapes and violence against civilians. All of this violence was sanctioned by the government. According to a police document that was procured by the Reuters said that the Myanmar police that 423 Rohingya Muslims were detained and among the 423, 13 were children. From the interviews done by the office of the United Nation High Commission of Human Rights women said that sexual assaults and gang rapes were systematic and planned. Rape has been used as a weapon in the genocide and women are forced to watch their children, husbands and family members die in front of them. In January 2017, an online video surfaced in which the armed forces were violently beating Rohingya Muslims, the Myanmar government then detained 4 officers over the video. All these crimes amount up to war crimes. There have also been reports of using child soldiers in the ongoing persecution. Satellite images show that Rohingya Muslim villages were ransacked and burned to the ground.
The military-led government hasn’t taken any actions against the genocide but are a part of it. The first free elections were held in 1990 but it was annulled. The free elections held in 2016 elected Aung San Suu Kyi as its leader but the military still holds all the power behind this democratic facade. When cyclone Nargis hit the country, the government intentionally blocked attempts to aid the minority population, thousands died as a result. Despite, the international condemnation, the government has declined to stop or comment on the issue. It’s largely Buddhist population believes that the Rohingya Muslims are illegal immigrants thus it justified the actions of the government. This genocide has led to the world’s biggest stateless population and a huge refugee crisis. Most of the Rohingya Muslims flee the country and go to Bangladesh. Due to this Bangladesh has a high influx of refugee who then migrates to India, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries looking for refuge. Because most of these countries have a huge population they are reluctant to take it, refugees. Because no country is willing to take them in they must live in refugee camps till the issue gets resolved. The ongoing genocide has been a huge blow to human rights in Myanmar, the government refusal of acknowledgement and its participation in the genocide has garnered international criticism. Many reports of rape, assault, attack on the civilian population have made it very clear that there is a rampant violation of human rights. The crisis is currently ongoing with little efforts from the government to control it.


Ethnic cleansing is a premeditated attack done to drive out a specific community of people from a particular area. This means that a place will no longer have any signs of existence of the specific community; the area will no longer have the cultural or physical remains of the community thus effectively ethnically cleansing the area of traces of the specific community. It differs from genocide as the only intention of ethnic cleansing is to push a particular community from the area where genocide aims to completely kill an ethnic community in the area. Ethnic cleansing or forcibly pushing out a community is considered as a crime against humanity and condemned by the International Criminal Court and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Ethnic cleansing is done using a wide range of inhuman methods such as rape, executions, assaults or unlawful detention or forceful displacement, threatening civilians and attacking civilian population all these crimes are classified as crimes against humanity.

Ethnic cleansing is ideas that rise when nationalist movements with racist ideologies. The term ethnic cleansing was first used during the war in Yugoslavia where Bosnian Muslims were driven out of the country by Bosnian Serbs who claimed the land as their own. There are many examples of ethnic cleansing; the most radical and extreme is the displacement of Jews with culminated in the mass killing of the Jews. The ethnic cleansing of Jews was tied to the final solution proposed by Hitler which says that the true and real solution to the problems faced by the people of Germany was the Jews and the only way to end it was to deport them or kill them in concentration camps. The Tutsi community in the country of Rwanda was also first raped, its civilian population attacked and unlawful detention this later progressed to a genocide where the Tutsis in the country were violently killed. The most recent example is the Rohingya persecution in Myanmar where Rohingya Muslims were forcefully deported from Rakhine State by Myanmar’s military government. The Rohingya Muslims were denied from getting citizenships thus were considered as illegal immigrants and were driven out of the country to Bangladesh.

Ethnic cleansing occurs during a war which later escalates into genocide. At least this is the usual trend. The reason could be a community’s religion, race or colour which is discriminated in an area. It is accompanied by assault, unlawful deportation and attack on civilian population which is against the Geneva Convention and a war crime. The very idea of ethnic cleansing debases a value of human life and disregards every human right which every person regardless of their nationality is entitled to. The entire idea of ethnic cleansing is inhuman and a disgusting taint on humanity. Political parties tend to take advantage over nationalism to create a common enemy where the majority of the population can relate to it. Ethnic cleansing divides an already fragmented population of a country leading to more problems. There should be more stringent rules from the international laws laid down that condemn ethnic cleansing. Monitoring bodies such as the UN must make ethnic cleansing which occurs in various forms must be recognized.

What is the issue between Israel and Palestine?

Israel- Palestinian conflict is a currently ongoing conflict between the Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians to gain control of the land. The conflict has been a long one. It started when after the British mandate, the country that was occupied by the British was divided into two countries a Jewish country of Israel and an Arab nation of Palestine. During the First World War, the British government has agreed to respect Arab independence but later with the Balfour Declaration which stated that the British government would support a state for the jews. This was the first legal friction between the two self-determined communities. In 1947- 1948, the British forces withdrew from the Mandate Palestine and war broke out, on one side were the Israeli forces and on the other side was the Arab Palestinians and the surrounding Arab countries who supported the Arab Palestinians. The war broke out when the United Nations decided and voted to split region of Palestine into two states, a Jewish state and an Arab state. But the Arab community and the surrounding Arab countries did not accept the plan and the two communities started fighting using guerilla techniques. In the early march of 1948, Israelis had fought and won against the Palestinians in battles.

Later, when the British left the country a fully-fledged war broke out when the Jewish community residing in Palestine declared the formation and initiation of the state of Israel. The Arab nations and the Arab Liberation Army in retaliation attacked Israel. Egypt attacks the southern cost, Syria and Lebanon fought with Israelis in the north. The war had 15,000 casualties and Israel held on to most of the Mandate Palestine, Jordon had occupied west bank region and Egypt takes over the Gaza strip. In the 6 day war of 1967, Israeli toke control of the west bank from Jordan and the Gaza strip from Egypt. This seriously affected the Palestinian nationalism.
Peace efforts were made in the Oslo Accords in 1993, where Arab Palestinians were allowed to come back to Israel to Gaza strip and west bank but these decisions weren’t taken well by both communities. The peace initiatives were opposed and prime minister of Israel Rabin was murdered by a fanatical Israelis man, thus ending the peace talks. Later in 2000, the war of the second Intifada where there was a prolonged conflict between the Israeli and Palestinian sides which ended in 2004-2005. Later, the Israeli government removed itself from the Gaza strip and ended the Israeli occupation in the Gaza strip. The militant group Hamas gained electoral majority as the Palestinian parliamentary elections and Israel issued a notice that the group must follow the Israeli agreements, Hamas rejected the notions. This agreement and military tensions culminated in the battle of Gaza. Hamas took control of the entire Gaza strip . in 2008, Israel government planned an operation called cast lead which leads to many civilians deaths and damage.
This has been the fight for territory by the Israelis and the Palestinians

. Over 7 million Palestinians refugees were and are displaced from their home. Israel refuses to take in the refugees. these refugees seek refuge in Jordan, Lebanon and other neighbouring states. The main reason is the different religions of the two community one being Jewish and the other being Muslim. One of the core problems is its negotiation as both parties are reluctant to conclude this seemingly constant state of violence.

With economic measures, India turns the tables on China

China’s economy is dealing with many challenges, including from the China-U.S. trade war.

However, options are tilted in China’s favour because the country is far less dependent on India’s market than India is on Chinese imports

India is considering a range of economic measures aimed at Chinese firms amid the border tensions. The move to ban 59 Chinese apps may be just the start, with other measures likely to follow if tensions along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) continue without disengagement.

Following the June 29 ban, Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari announced on July 1 that Chinese companies would not be allowed to take part in road projects.

Reports have said the government is considering trade and procurement curbs targeting China. The government is also increasing scrutiny of Chinese investments in many sectors, and weighing a decision to keep out Chinese companies from 5G trials, in which they are now involved.

The moves could potentially cost Chinese companies billions of dollars in contracts and future earnings. The message from Delhi is it cannot continue trade and investment relations as normal if China does not agree to return to the status quo of April before its incursions along the LAC began.

The Chinese government and State media have hit out at the measures. In separate statements, China’s Foreign Ministry in Beijing and the Chinese Embassy in New Delhi called on India to review the moves. The embassy said the measures “selectively and discriminatorily aims at certain Chinese apps on ambiguous and far-fetched grounds” and “goes against the general trend of international trade and E-commerce, and is not conducive to consumer interests and the market competition in India.”

State media have also widely criticised calls in India to boycott Chinese goods. The Global Times quoted one expert as saying “the sheer irrationality” of the campaign “would only end up dealing a blow to the local people in India”.

China is itself no stranger to such moves, having frequently deployed economic countermeasures, from restricting market access to boycotting goods in the midst of its own disputes with countries ranging from South Korea and Japan to the Philippines and Mongolia.

China’s State media spearheaded a boycott of South Korean goods in 2016 and 2017, when Seoul deployed the U.S. Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile system. China then placed curbs on outbound tourism to South Korea, costing the country millions of dollars in tourism revenue. China also used regulatory measures to close almost 90 Korean-owned Lotte Mart stores in the mainland.

In 2010, China began restricting exports of rare earth elements to Japan – a key ingredient for many electronics industries – following a collision near disputed East China Sea islands. Two years later, mass protests were organised by China over the islands issue, which led to boycotts of Japanese brands and, in some instances, violence targeting Japanese branded-cars and stores. With the Philippines, a dispute over the Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea in 2012 led to China curbing imports on bananas and restricting tourism, costing the country millions of dollars in revenue.

Coercive actions

Economic sanctions have been one of the key tools of Chinese coercion, according to Zhang Ketian, who is writing a book on Chinese coercion and is assistant professor of international security at George Mason University. Based on interviews with Chinese experts and policy documents, Ms. Zhang noted that coercive actions were selective and focused on “targets when economic cost of coercing is low” but the impact is high.

With South Korea, for example, China did not target all sectors. “It left exports of Korean semiconductors, key intermediate goods for Chinese companies, untouched. Seoul relented in October 2017 by issuing a list of assurances meant to clarify to China that Seoul would not expand the scope of THAAD,” said a 2018 report on “China’s use of coercive measures” from the Centre for a New American Security.

The report said China “has punished countries that undermine its territorial claims and foreign policy goals with measures such as restricting trade, encouraging popular boycotts, and cutting off tourism.”

In all those relationships, China had particular leverage that it used to inflict immediate economic pain.

In the India-China economic relationship, where trade is lopsided in China’s favour, both sides have different levers that they could turn to, but the options are tilted in China’s favour because China is far less dependent on India’s market than India is on Chinese imports.

India’s biggest lever is its market, which has emerged as one of the important overseas markets for Chinese companies in the technology space and in telecom. For TikTok, one of the 59 apps banned, India is the biggest overseas market with more than 100 million users according to estimates. While the parent company ByteDance reported modest earnings of $5.8 million in 2018-2019, its first full year in India, company officials said the move could cost billions of dollars in future revenue. A source close to the company told the Chinese finance magazine Caixin that ByteDance “is anticipating a loss of more than $6 billion, most likely more than the combined losses for all the other Chinese companies behind the other 58 apps banned in India.”

A move to restrict Chinese companies from India’s 5G rollout would also have the similar effect of costing hundreds of millions of dollars in potential revenue.

If India does have considerable leverage that could hurt potential revenues of Chinese companies, the problem for Delhi is China could inflict immediate economic pain should it choose to. In 2019-20, India’s imports from China accounted for $65 billion out of two-way trade of $82 billion, and the country relies on China for crucial imports for many of its industries, from auto components to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Between 70 and 90% of APIs, needed for the pharma industry, come from China.

Industry representatives have in recent days already expressed concern over delays in customs clearances. If China curtailed imports as it did with Japan, even if doing so incurred its companies limited costs, the consequences would be far more serious.

Difficult choices

India faces difficult choices and needs to be selective in its measures, said former Foreign Secretary Shyam Saran. “You have to choose areas where you don’t get hurt more than they do,” he said. “TikTok is a good candidate as India is their largest market. Telecom is another. This is a huge market for Huawei. You may stop them for 5G, but at the same time a large part of the infrastructure you already have in place in the 4G network is all Chinese, so we will still need Chinese maintenance and servicing.”

The problem for India is its overall leverage with China is such that it cannot inflict serious pain on the five-times-larger Chinese economy as a whole, even if it could hurt individual companies. This, while India remains deeply dependent on Chinese goods, whether they are procured from China or elsewhere, although China’s exports to India account for less than 3% of its overall exports. On the investment front, Chinese investment in Indian tech start-ups has crossed $4 billion, according to estimates, spanning major investments in companies including Paytm, Swiggy, Ola and Flipkart.

“What do we do, for example, with Paytm?” asked Mr. Saran. “If we stop these investments, we will pull the rug out of the entire ecosystem. The problem is we are far more dependent on Chinese imports than China is dependent on us as a market. Losing a contract to India may cause some pain to companies, but will have a minimal impact on the scale they are operating. If China stops exporting APIs, there will be major disruptions in our pharma industry since producing APIs locally will take time.”

Whether the targeted economic measures will influence Beijing’s behaviour on the border will ultimately depend on China’s calculus and whether Beijing views any perceived gains from the current border stand-offs as outweighing the not insignificant economic costs of losing a key potential market. Moreover, losing this market would come at a time when the Chinese economy is facing its own challenges in the wake of the pandemic and facing increasing barriers in many Western countries.

Tears for Gaseous Terror……

Tear gas, known as a lachrymal agent (from the Latin lacrima, meaning “tear”), sometimes known as mace, is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and blindness. In the eye, it stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland to produce tears. Tear “gas” generally consists of aerosolized solid or liquid compounds (Bromo Acetone or Xylyl Bromide), not gas. Tear gas works by irritating mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, mouth and lungs. It causes crying, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing, pain in the eyes, and temporary blindness. With CS gas, symptoms of irritation typically appear after 20 to 60 seconds of exposure and commonly resolve within 30 minutes of leaving (or being removed from) the area. In case of a survey it was found that severe symptoms requiring medical evaluation were found in 6.8% of people. The most severe injuries were to the eyes (54%), respiratory system (32%) and skin (18%). The most severe injuries occurred in law enforcement training, intentionally incapacitating people, and law enforcement (whether of individuals or crowd control).

As with all non-lethal or less-lethal weapons, there is some risk of serious permanent injury or death when tear gas is used. This includes risks from being hit by tear gas cartridges that may cause severe bruising, loss of eyesight, or skull fracture, resulting in immediate death. A case of serious vascular injury from tear gas shells has also been reported from Iran, with high rates of associated nerve injury (44%) and amputation (17%), as well as instances of head injuries in young people.While the medical consequences of the gases themselves are typically limited to minor skin inflammation, delayed complications are also possible. People with pre existing respiratory conditions such as asthma are particularly at risk. They are likely to need medical attention and may sometimes require hospitalization or even ventilation support.Skin exposure to CS may cause chemical burns or induce allergic contact dermatitis. When people are hit at close range or are severely exposed, eye injuries involving scarring of the cornea can lead to a permanent loss in visual acuity. Frequent or high levels of exposure carry increased risks of respiratory illness.

There is no specific antidote to common tear gases. Getting clear of gas and into fresh air is the first line of action. Removing contaminated clothing and avoiding shared use of contaminated towels could help reduce skin reactions. Immediate removal of contact lenses has also been recommended, as they can retain particles. Once a person has been exposed, there are a variety of methods to remove as much chemical as possible and relieve symptoms. The standard first aid for burning solutions in the eye is irrigation (spraying or flushing out) with water. There are reports that water may increase pain from CS gas, but the balance of limited evidence currently suggests water or saline are the best options. Some evidence suggests that Diphoterine, a hypertonic amphoteric salt solution, a first aid product for chemical splashes, may help with ocular burns or chemicals in the eye.Bathing and washing the body vigorously with soap and water can remove particles that adhere to the skin. Clothes, shoes and accessories that come into contact with vapors must be washed well since all untreated particles can remain active for up to a week.Some advocate using fans or hair dryers to evaporate the spray, but this has not been shown to be better than washing out the eyes and it may spread contamination.Anticholinergics can work like some antihistamines as they reduce lacrymation and decrease salivation, acting as an antisialagogue, and for overall nose discomfort as they are used to treat allergic reactions in the nose (e.g., itching, runny nose, and sneezing).Oral analgesics may help relieve eye pain.Vinegar, petroleum jelly, milk and lemon juice solutions have also been used by activists. It is unclear how effective these remedies are. In particular, vinegar itself can burn the eyes and prolonged inhalation can also irritate the airways. Though vegetable oil and vinegar have also been reported as helping relieve burning caused by pepper spray, usage of baking soda or toothpaste, stating that they trap the particles emanating from the gas near the airways that are more feasible to inhale. A small trial of baby shampoo for washing out the eyes did not show any benefit. So it’s better to visit a medical professional rather than to try home remedies if you are exposed to tear gas.

Blacklist China!

Easier said than done

Economic retribution against China will have limited effect, constructing domestic potentials and leveraging the market is essential.
To begin with, boycotting Chinese products is easier said than done. India is dependent on China for a wide range of goods, lining-up from electronics to fertilisers — Made in China often helps Make in India too.
In the fallout of Monday night’s confrontation between India and China in the Galwan Valley, there has been a growing tumult for a boycott of Chinese products — in impact, a demand to use trade as a blunt instrument of retaliation against China. The Department of Telecommunications has reportedly conveyed to state-owned BSNL that it must not use Chinese made equipment in its network upgradation plans, even as the government is “actively considering” asking private mobile service providers to lessen their reliance on China-made equipment. Another Chinese engineering company is likely to forfeit a contract with the Indian railways, and there is reportedly talk of cutting down imports of products such as electronics from China. While the demand for boycotting Chinese goods may make for good optics, at this critical juncture, there is need to exert wariness, and for a deemed strategy. The harsh reality is that economic retaliation will have its own set of consequences. As India accounts for a nominal share of China’s export market, it will at best have limited impact on China. And the implications for India of such actions will play out at multiple levels.

Any endeavour to reduce imports from China, operationalized through tariffs or other non-tariff barriers, will put up the prices for Indian consumers. And as India also imports capital goods and intermediate products from China, such restrictions will affect domestic manufacturing competitiveness, and thus further worsen the country’s export competitiveness. Moreover, in the short-run, ensuring uninterrupted alternative supplies may not be a reasonable option. There is also the issue of Chinese investment in the Indian start-up space to contend with. Companies like Alibaba and Tencent have invested in “unicorns” such as Zomato, Paytm, Byju’s, Ola cabs and others. This relationship will be difficult to disentangle. The government will have to carefully think through the consequences of any policy action that it decides to pursue. The policy should flow from a careful cost-benefit analysis, not be driven by knee-jerk reactions.

This is not to deny the need to build up domestic capabilities, across sectors. The long-term objective should be to push through long-pending legislation that aims to address the structural bottlenecks that continue to plague and hinder domestic competitiveness. India’s strategy should be to boost manufacturing competitiveness, and increase its share in world trade. But this is a long-term proposition. The short-run costs of boycotting Chinese products will be heavy and may even be counter-productive.

‘PROXY WAR’ Yemen crisis: What is happening in Yemen?

A vicious civil war storming in Yemen has claimed more than 16,000 lives and left 13million people on the threshold of famine.

Credit: Getty Image

The conflict has been given a name to “proxy war” among competing powers in the Middle East as a Saudi-led coalition battles rebels backed by Iran.

How many people have been killed in the crisis?
The UN had confirmed the deaths of at least 7,500 civilians with most caused by Saudi-led coalition airstrikes.

However, monitoring groups believe the death toll is far higher. In October last year, the US-based Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) said it had registered more than 100,000 deaths, including 12,0000 civilians killed in direct attacks.

More than 23,000 fatalities were reported in 2019.

According to the Yemen Data Project, more than 17,500 civilians have been killed and injured since 2015 -with a quarter of all civilians killed in air raids said to be women and children.

Some 100,000 people are now thought to be dead because of the conflict, from direct involvement and knock-on effects such as mass starvation and inadequate sanitation.

This week, Yemen has recorded 208 coronavirus-related deaths pandemic.

The country’s national committee against the virus confirmed the total number of infections stands at 844, while the number of recoveries is around 80.

International health officials have said Yemen’s population could be extremely vulnerable to an outbreak.

It would be hard to scan the outbreak in the country as Yemen’s health infrastructure has been destroyed by years of civil war.

Aside from the threat of COVID-19, Yemen is also suffering an outbreak of the mosquito-transmitted Chikungunya virus.

There are also more than 100,000 known cholera cases across the nation.
Famine in Yemen
Yemen, the Gulf’s poorest nation, has been torn apart by the conflict.
Supplies of basic goods and humanitarian aid have been halted by forces battling control of the strategic port in Hodeidah.
Violence has forced farmers to abandon their crops, and hospitals have been overwhelmed by sick, wounded and malnourished children.
Hadramout province has seen some of the worst pockets of malnutrition and disease in the war-torn country.

Many displaced people, returnees, refugees and asylum seekers are now reliant on regular humanitarian aid to survive, according to the UN.

Credit: TOI

Charity UNICEF says approximately 80% of Yemen’s population, or 24 million people, rely on aid, and 10 million are facing famine.
According to the charity Save the Children, 12.3 million children – 0r 93% -need humanitarian assistance and protection.
The charity says 1 in 5 of children have lost their homes, while 70% don’t have access to clean water and sanitation
A further 7.4 million children are in need of child protection assistance, while 2 million children are out of school.
The United Nations (UN) has put out an appeal for donations amidst growing fears regarding the situation in Yemen.

It comes as COVID-19 spreads rapidly throughout the country’s population, which has already been devastated by years of war.

A number of charities are running campaigns to raise money for the people affected by the war.
The civil war is considered one of the largest humanitarian crisis’ in the world right now, with millions affected.
International organisations such as The Red Cross, Save the Children, UNICEF and Oxfam are collecting donations to help Yemeni citizens and families.