India’s First Indigenous COVID-19 Vaccine – COVAXIN

A vaccine based on whole inactivated coronavirus has an efficacy rate of 77.8% against symptomatic COVID-19 infections, phase 3 trial data suggest.

Covaxin, also known as BBV152, was authorised for emergency 

COVAXIN, Indias indigenous COVID-19 vaccine by Bharat Biotech is developed in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Virology (NIV).

The indigenous, inactivated vaccine is developed and manufactured in Bharat Biotech’s BSL-3 (Bio-Safety Level 3) high containment facility.

The vaccine is developed using Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell derived platform technology. Inactivated vaccines do not replicate and are therefore unlikely to revert and cause pathological effects. They contain dead virus, incapable of infecting people but still able to instruct the immune system to mount a defensive reaction against an infection

Covaxin COVID-19 Vaccine To Be Available In First Quarter Of Next Year,  Says Bharat Biotech

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Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin has demonstrated 77.8 per cent effectiveness against symptomatic Covid and 65.2 per cent protection against the new Delta variant.

The company on Saturday said it concluded the final analysis of Covaxin efficacy from Phase 3 trials.

The efficacy analysis demonstrates Covaxin to be 93.4 per cent effective against severe symptomatic Covid cases while safety analysis shows adverse events reported were similar to placebo, with 12 per cent of subjects experiencing commonly known side-effects and less than 0.5 per cent feeling serious adverse events.

The efficacy data demonstrates 63.6 per cent protection against asymptomatic Covid, a release from the city-based vaccine maker said.

Phase 3 clinical trials of the vaccine was an event-driven analysis of 130 symptomatic Covid cases, reported at least two weeks after the second dose, conducted at 25 sites across India.

The whole virion inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV2, was developed in partnership with Indian Council of Medical Research and National Institute of Virology in Pune.

Krishna Ella, Chairman and Managing Director of Bharat Biotech, said, “The successful safety and efficacy readouts of Covaxin as a result of conducting the largest ever Covid vaccine’s trials in India establishes the ability of India and developing world countries to focus towards innovation and novel product development. We are proud to state that Innovation from India will now be available to protect global populations.”    

POSITIVE RESULTS

The Phase 3 trial involved 25,800 participants in India aged 18 to 98. Of these, 2,433 were over 60 years old, and 4,500 had pre-existing medical conditions (co-morbidities) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or obesity.

The study found that Covaxin had an efficacy of 93.4% against severe COVID-19 disease, and an overall vaccine efficacy of 77.8% against symptomatic infections confirmed by PCR tests. Against asymptomatic COVID-19, the efficacy was 63.6%. The vaccine also conferred 65.2% protection against symptomatic infection with the Delta variant, at least two weeks after the second dose.

As a rough comparison, recent figures from Public Health Scotland suggested that at least two weeks after the second dose, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 79% effective against the Delta variant, while the Oxford-AstraZeneca was 60% effective. However, different trial methodologies make it impossible to directly compare the relative efficacies of the various vaccines.

The main side effects from Covaxin were pain at the injection site, followed by headache, fatigue and fever. No severe or life-threatening adverse events were reported.

ICMR says, Covishield, Covaxin blend can give better outcomes

The examination was led on 18 individuals who have gotten two portions of two distinct vaccines and it has not yet been peer-assessed, reports said.

The Research:

The Indian Council of Medical Research has uncovered that a blend of Covishield and Covaxin, the two fundamental antibodies of India’s Covid inoculation program, can really yield better outcomes, news organization ANI detailed. The investigation was just led on 18 individuals of Uttar Pradesh’s Siddharth Nagar, who accidentally got two dosages of two separate immunizations / Vaccines. As indicated by the finding of the examination which is yet to be peer-checked on vaccination with a blend of an adenovirus vector stage-based antibody, trailed by inactivated entire infection immunization was protected as well as inspired better immunogenicity. Covishield, fabricated by Pune’s Serum Institute of India, is the adenovirus vector stage-based antibody and Covaxin, created and made by Bharat Biotech and the ICMR, is the entire infection immunization. Covishield and Covaxin have a place with two distinct sorts.

The investigation named ‘Fortunate Covid-19 Vaccine-Mix in Uttar Pradesh, India: Safety and Immunogenicity Assessment of a Heterologous Regime’ has been transferred on medRxiv. Under this investigation, 18 individuals got two dosages of two unique immunizations, the response of which was contrasted with 40 recipients of two portions of Covishield and 40 beneficiaries of two portions of Covaxin, news organization PTI announced. The examination length was from May to June 2021, it said.

Blending of immunizations is being talked about universally, all investigations are supportive of blending two antibodies to build the insurance against future contamination. The subject master panel of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization has in July suggested a preliminary of blending Covishield and Covaxin, which will be led by the Christian Medical College in Vellore on 300 sound volunteers.

While that will be an appropriate clinical preliminary to examine the adequacy of the mixed drink of Covishield and Covaxin, the ICMR’s investigation depended on the goof-up that occurred in May. There was no prompt antagonistic effect of the misunderstanding of the recipients. Presently, further investigation has uncovered that the misunderstanding has really worked for insurance as these individuals have more security than the individuals who have gotten two shots of a similar antibody.

What WHO has to say:

The issue of blending antibodies is touchy as World Health Organization has cautioned that people ought not settle on blending immunizations. Niti Aayog part (wellbeing) Dr VK Paul had before said that hypothetically there is no issue in blending two antibodies as the second portion in such a case will function as a promoter shot. Yet, as the public authority began its immunization drive on January 16, it requested that wellbeing laborers practice outrageous alert to ensure that the recipients get the second shot of the very antibody that they got as their first shots.

What to Understand?

  • We don’t have to take two different doses of vaccine; second shot should be of the same vaccine which we got as first dose.
  • We should adhere to advice of WHO, it will benefit our health only.

Mob lynching-to what extent correct?

Mob Lynching is an open punishment applied by a gather that does not have the authority to do so. Most times, lynching occurs when a group believes that a person has committed a crime, even if it has not been trialed or convicted. lynching’s practice may include public hangings, tar, and feathering, or other forms of extreme punishment or execution performed in public. Lynching differs from uncommon types of punishment because the public performs it outside the legal system. This is often handled by a group of people. Lynching is a mob justice in which ordinary people come together to terrorize or punish someone they think violates a legal, moral, and social standard. Today in our society cases of mob-lynching occur in the name of homecoming, love jihad, cow protection, and self-defense camps, the longstanding issues of communalism against the community are being expressed now as violence. The crowd is making a target of people .also many cases recorder where There is an attempt to provoke communities suffering from such attacks. 

The instant “justice” of the crowd also reveals the breaking of people’s confidence in law and order. mass lynching cases are mainly caused by the spread of rumors, suspicions, or religious beliefs. If we understand the events in what order they happened then, we may consider that some were the consequences of caste-based horrors, some were because of religious beliefs, and the rest was because of false news or rumors.

No doubt we should respect religious beliefs, but what if few people kill a person based on suspicion or suspicion? But the main question is that too what extend it is justified to take law in the hands. And to do injustice with someone in the name of the justice. Now need of the time is that government itself investigate the matter and give punishment to those who are culprit.

 

Evil corruption

Corruption refers to a form of criminal activity or dishonesty. It refers to an evil act by an individual or a group. It includes activities like bribery or embezzlement. Most people in positions of authority are susceptible to Corruption. Corruption certainly reflects greedy and selfish behavior. Bribery is the most common method of Corruption which involves improper use of favors and gifts in exchange for personal gain. the favors include money, gifts, company shares, sexual favors, employment, entertainment, and political benefits. Also, the personal gain can be – giving preferential treatment and overlooking crime.

One important way of preventing Corruption is to give a better salary in a government job. Many government employees receive pretty low salaries. so they resort to bribery to meet their expenses. So, government employees should receive higher salaries. , high salaries would reduce their motivation and resolve to engage in bribery. By Increasing the number of workers we can curb Corruption. In many government offices, the workload is very high. This provides an opportunity to slow down the work of government employees. Consequently, these employees then indulge in bribery in return for faster delivery of work. Hence, this opportunity to bribe can be removed by bringing in more employees in government offices.

Strong laws are very important for stopping Corruption. strict punishments need to be meted out to guilty individuals. Furthermore, there should be an efficient and quick implementation of strict laws. Applying cameras in workplaces is an excellent way to prevent corruption. Above all, many individuals would refrain from indulging in Corruption due to fear of being caught. Furthermore, these individuals would have otherwise engaged in Corruption. Furthermore, the politician supports them due to the benefits they receive. Corruption is a great evil in society. This evil should be quickly eliminated from society. 

Agony of covid19

COVID has not only affected us by entering our bodies but the agony of Losing family members, jobs, income, a completely disrupted education system, and constant fear of what next have severely damaged the peace of people. Even doctors, nurses are under the agony of constant threat and tremendous work pressure. Oxygen plants are being constructed and vaccines are being produced, however, what the mind has been going through cannot be cured by steroids or vaccines.

These are some of the thoughts that haunt many of us who are infected or have lost people close to us due to COVID. Whenever we surf the internet through information pieces or even when we watch the news, we see they offer COVID helpline numbers, hospital details, and other valuable information on how to tackle COVID. In the same way, we can have a COVID Mental Health support helpline, wherein people can interact with therapists or more precisely connect to somebody who can listen and feel empathetically.

At this point advice like yoga, meditation, or “keep yourself engaged” does not work. There has to be sharing, there has to be handholding throughout the process of recovery. To heal completely from COVID or COVID implications the mind needs to be healed as well and we all have to pay attention to this

Mental Sickness

Covid-19 has shaken the entire world. Even though Major Pharma companies have developed vaccines intending to end the pandemic. we are still struggling to find an end to this pandemic. One of the issues that India faces is the delay in immunizing the population again Covid-19. The delay is partly due to overpopulation. And If the vaccines are not effective against the new variant, it needs to be redesigned to combat the new variant, prolonging the pandemic.

Due to covid, our country has to suffer Major economies struggle to cope with the health care burden as millions of infected people need hospitalization for several days, depending on the severity of the disease.

No one knows when lockdown will be enforced again to control the situation. Many are losing their families and not allowed to attend the final rites due to strict quarantine and lockdown measures. Along with these major problems This disease has seriously created mental health issues, and it may take years to recover from such mental health conditions. Governments have to set up a separate budget to manage increasing mental health issues. The freedom to move around has now been crippled by Covid-19, and most people in lockdown are confined in a small space, limiting them to have face-to-face interactions with their dear ones and friends. It has affected people from all walks of life and has led to mental health issues. It is hard to find a common solution to all as mental health issues differ from person to person. Students are the worst affected community as Many schools and colleges have resorted to online teaching, which isn’t as good as a regular session. 

The digital screen has now become our portal to communicate with the outside world. Many children have lost their parents in this second wave in India and have become orphans since then. There were several appeals to the Government of India requesting to support the children who have lost their parents/guardians/adopted parents. In such a drastic situation people are feeling alone. The best thing to overcome negative thoughts is by performing regular meditation and yoga, listen to music, news, recall sweet memories, watch favorite movies, plays, and read books. Only by overcoming our negative thoughts we can overcome mental sickeness.

Why unemployment occurs?

Being 2nd in terms of the population can seem a curse to our country especially in terms of employment. The competition that youngsters face these days is because of this population. Even those who get a job didn’t get the desired salary. Most employees are not paid in proportion to the work that we put in. What’s more, this is not a new problem or one that has been created by a single government. In our country, low monthly incomes are a norm – across all states, and as a consequence, wage inequality remains high. Wage growth significantly trails economic growth in the country. The sluggish growth of our GDP has led to a rise in inequality and widened the economic divide between rural and urban India.

The sad part is that India’s unemployed are mostly the higher educated and the young. And those who have jobs are not satisfied enough. If you believe that only a few people at the top are getting huge paychecks, think again. Because data suggest that we aren’t creating too many high-paying jobs either. And even though labor productivity has risen in India, growth in remuneration has remained slow. The sad part is statistic, graphs of unemployment are still the same. The new jobs and opportunities are nothing in front of our population. This problem needs to review and can be to some extent need to be solved through bargaining power. Skilling, sometimes, multi-skilling at all levels is the most effective way to fight the wage crisis and the coming job crisis -the crucial designation before talent can be matched with demand. If the skilling exception isn’t corrected, job seekers will end up in the bad job trap. Skills produce productivity, and productivity brings with it higher pay.

The problem is that the business power of workers in India is low and getting more worse. Wage changes are also a result of changes in the way of production. Throughout the last few years, production has become more capital intensive or less dependent on labor in nearly every manufacturing industry in the organized and unorganized sectors. This is true, if to a lesser extent, for agriculture and services as well. While technical know-how and increased use of machinery is a change that needs to be welcomed since it translates to increased productivity, in labor surplus economies like India, the enhanced productivity does not automatically translate to higher wages for employees. Therefore need of the time is to cope up with the desired need of the institutes and became more high tech by learning more digital skills.

SPUTNIK V COVID-19 VACCINE- MANUFACTURING IN KARNATAKA SOON

In the face of a vaccination shortage, Karnataka will house manufacturing plants for Covaxin and Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccines.

While Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin manufacturing facility in Malur, Kolar district, is under construction, Shilpa Medicare has signed a three-year definitive agreement with Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL) through its wholly-owned subsidiary Shilpa Biologicals Pvt. Ltd. (SBPL), for the production and supply of the Russia-made Sputnik V vaccine from its integrated biologics R&D-cum-manufacturing centre in Dharwad.

By the end of August, the Kolar vaccine manufacturing facility, according to state Health Minister Dr K Sudhakar, will be able to produce four to five crore doses each month.

Sudhakar claimed he attended a video conference with Bharat Biotech founder Dr Krishna Ella, his daughter Dr Jala Ella, and the rest of the team on May 17 in Bengaluru. Sudhakar said, “Dr Ella has assured me that their facility at Malur in Kolar will be able to produce one crore vaccines by June-end. By July-end it will be two to three crores, and their target by August-end is four crore to five crore vaccine doses.”

Dr. Krishna Ella and the directors of Bharat Biotech have also informed him that vaccination doses will be delivered to Karnataka as soon as possible, according to the minister. Sudhakar stated that he had requested a rollout timeline from them.

Meanwhile, SBPL said in a regulatory filing that it expects to produce 50 million doses of the dual vector Sputnik V in the first 12 months of commercial production.

On May 14, DRL soft-launched the imported COVID-19 vaccine Sputnik V. The vaccination is priced at Rs 948 per dosage, plus a 5% GST (retail price of Rs 995.40).

DRL, according to Shilpa Medicare, will help SBPL transfer technologies. SBPL will be in charge of manufacturing, while DRL will be in charge of distributing and promoting the vaccine doses throughout its marketing regions, according to the agreement.

In the near future, Shilpa Medicare stated, the businesses are looking into manufacturing Sputnik Light, a single-dose version of the Sputnik V vaccine.

Inoculations of the new coronavirus vaccines have been administered to nearly 1.13 crore people in Karnataka thus far. Both the first and second doses are included in this figure. However, due to a scarcity of dosages, the immunisation campaign for adults aged 18 to 44 has been halted.

India is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19 infection, and quick mass vaccination is being viewed as a viable approach to stop the pandemic from spreading further.

DR REDDY’S SPUTNIK V VACCINE; TIE-UP WITH APOLLO HOSPITALS

On May 17, Dr. Reddy’s said that 8-9 states have contacted the company about purchasing the Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine. Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are among the states that have reached out to them, according to the company.

The imported doses of Russia’s Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine were priced at Rs 948 plus 5% GST, or Rs 995.40 per dose, according to Dr Reddy’s. It stated that the price for both government and private channels will remain the same.

The company plans to partner with hospitals in the metro area that can store vaccines at 18 degrees Celsius.

Last week, Dr Reddy’s received 1.5 lakh Sputnik first dose doses, and the company said it received a second consignment of 60,000 second dose doses over the weekend.

“We have a supply commitment of 36 million doses from RDIF in the next two months,” said M V Ramana, CEO of Branded Formulations at Dr Reddy’s.

Dr. Reddy’s is attempting to obtain further doses from RDIF, according to Raman. RDIF has agreed to supply 250 million Sputnik V first and second doses to the company. Russia will have between 15-20% of the initial supplies.

The vaccine prices will come down once local manufacturers start supplying, which is expected in the next two to three months, according to Dr. Reddy’s.

“They have to absorb the technology from RDIF, have to get approvals from the regulators and then scale up manufacturing,” said Sauri Gudlavalleti- Head of Research and Development. “We are working with the regulator to bring appropriate guidance, on whether the other Indian suppliers with whom RDIF signed supply agreement will have to do clinical trials or not,: Gudlavalleti added.

DCGI has given Hetero, which has a partnership with RDIF, permission to conduct Phase-3 trials of the Sputnik V vaccine.

Gudlavalleti stated that the company plans to approach the Indian drug regulator in the coming weeks to request emergency use authorization for the Sputnik Light single-dose vaccine.

Tie-up with Apollo Hospitals

Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories and Apollo Hospitals declared a collaboration on Monday to conduct a trial launch of the Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine in India.

Dr. Reddy’s will rely on the Apollo Hospitals network around the country for vaccine storage, transportation, administration, and monitoring.

The Sputnik V vaccine would cost between Rs 1,200 and Rs 1,250 per dose, according to Apollo Hospitals.

According to Dr. Reddy’s, the initial rollout will begin on May 17 in Hyderabad and will be expanded to Visakhapatnam and other metro cities on May 18.

In addition to Apollo, Dr. Reddy’s has a partnership with IHH Healthcare’s Contitental Hospitals.

TALKING ABOUT COVID VACCINATION

As a result of the current COVID-19 pandemic, life as we know it has changed in profound ways. There have been over 140 million incidents and over 3 million deaths worldwide to date. To combat this crisis, scientists from all over the world came together in a once-in-a-lifetime effort. As a result of this global research effort, a number of vaccines have been granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)/Listing (EUL). In the United States, the introduction of three vaccines by Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen promises to put an end to what has been a particularly bad year. As of April 14th, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) has granted EUL to four vaccines: Pfizer-BioNTech, SK BIO AstraZeneca, Janssen (J&J), and Serum Institute of India, with several more awaiting investigation, including Moderna (approval decision pending end of April). At least one country has approved a total of 14 vaccines.

OUR TIMELY RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC WAS INFLUENCED BY ANIMAL RESEARCH

Animal research is more important than ever before, both in fundamental research, such as understanding immune system control, and applied research, where that expertise is applied to the production of cures and other therapeutic strategies. The timescales from bench to bedside are often long in Animal Research, making it difficult to understand the immediate human value of such science. Consider the fact that in the United States, we were able to manufacture three vaccines with an EUA for COVID-19 in less than a year. How was it possible to pull off such a feat? Such rapid progress was possible because of Animal Research into coronaviruses over the last decade, which included Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), as well as decades of prior research into mRNA vaccines, as we wrote at the start of the pandemic.

Vaccines (like all other medications) are generally tested in animals before going through clinical (human) trials to ensure their safety and effectiveness. However, due to the urgency of the COVID-19 hazard, safety and efficacy testing for some of the 110 candidate vaccines and treatments produced (e.g., Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine) was accelerated, and Phase 1 clinical trials began—where the smallest number of human subjects is usually enrolled. That isn’t to suggest that those candidates’ protection and effectiveness weren’t tested in animal models until going into clinical trials. Instead of testing safety and effectiveness prior to clinical trials, animals were tested concurrently with human trials.

Russia succeed in covid -19 vaccine

Russia becomes first nation to complete clinical trials of Coronavirus vaccine

The results of the human trials showed that the group of volunteers are developing an immunity to COVID-19. 

Russian COVID Vaccine: Russia has become the first nation to successfully complete the human trials of COVID vaccine. Russia’s COVID vaccine has proven to be effective, as per the results of the trials. 

Chief Researcher Elena Smolyarchuk informed on July 12, 2020 that the human trials of Russia’s COVID vaccine have been completed and the volunteers will be discharged soon. Smolyarchuk is the head of Center for Clinical Research on Medications at Russia’s Sechenov University.

The ministry said 18 people had participated in the research and were discharged without “serious adverse events, health complaints, complications or side effects”.

The results of the trials “allow us to speak with confidence about the safety and good tolerability of the vaccine”, it said in a statement.

“Their immunity is working well, antibodies are being created, they are protected against the coronavirus,” researcher Svetlana Volchikhina said in a video released by the defence ministry.

Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu told President Vladimir Putin during the height of the epidemic in Russia in late May that military researchers were developing a vaccine with scientists at the Gamaleya Institute in Moscow.

The volunteers were isolated in the Burdenko military hospital in Moscow on June 18 when the trial vaccine was administered and underwent daily check-ups.

The defence ministry reported that “for 28 days after vaccination, the vital signs of the volunteers remained within normal limits”.

“We now know that we are 100 percent protected,” Yury, a member of the army who participated in the tests, said on leaving the hospital.

A second group of participants who were vaccinated on June 23 are currently in isolation in hospital under medical supervision .The defence ministry has said it expects clinical trials to be fully completed by the end of July .Smolyarchuk confirmed that the research has been completed and it proved that the vaccine was safe. The first group of volunteers is expected to be discharged on July 15, while the second group will be discharged on July 20.

How will long russia covid vaccine avilable in the markets?

Despite the successful human trials of the COVID vaccine, there is no official confirmation on when Russia’s vaccine will enter commercial production stage and be available for local people. 

According to the World Health Organization, there are at least 21 vaccines that are undergoing human trials across the world. India has also begun clinical trials of its two potential vaccine candidates- Bharat Biotech and ICMR’s COVAXIN and Zydus Cadila’s ZyCov-D. The registrations for the human trials of the Indian vaccines began on July 7. 

Russia stands fourth in the world in terms of total confirmed coronavirus cases with 7,27,162 COVID-19 cases including 5,01,061 recoveries and 11,335 deaths, as of July 13, 2020. Globally, around 1,25,52,763 COVID-19 cases have been detected, which includes more than 564,0 00 deaths.

So here we can understand the situation of covid vaccine in world, we can just pray from god that covid 19 vaccine will launch as soon as possible.