Story of ram mandir ayodhya

History of Ayodhya

Ayodhya, also called Oudh or Awadh, town, south-central uttar pradesh state, northern india. It lies on the ghaghara river just east of faizabad.

An ancient town, Ayodhya is regarded as one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, revered because of its association in the great Indian epic ramayana with the birth of rama and with the rule of his father, Dasharatha. According to this source, the town was prosperous and well-fortified and had a large population.

Oudh was joined with the Agra Presidency in 1877 to form the North-Western Provinces and later the  united provinces of Agra and Oudh, now Uttar Pradesh state.

Dispute of ayodhya

Despite the town’s great age, there are few surviving monuments of any antiquity. The Babri masjid (“Mosque of Bābur”) was built in the early 16th century by the Mughal emperor Babur on a site traditionally identified as Rama’s birthplace and as the location of an ancient Hindu temple, the Ram Janmabhoomi. Because of its significance to both Hindus and Muslims, the site was often a matter of contention. In 1990, riots in northern India followed the storming of the mosque by Hindu nationalist’s intent on erecting a temple on the site; the ensuing crisis brought down the Indian government. Two years later, on December 6, 1992, the three-story mosque was demolished in a few hours by a crowd of Hindu nationalists. It was estimated that more than 2,000 people died in the rioting that swept through India following the mosque’s destruction. An investigative commission led by Manmohan singh Liberhan, a retired judge, was formed in 1992 but did not issue a report until 2009. The report, when it finally appeared, caused an uproar because it blamed several leading figures from the pro-Hindu Bhartiya janata party for the mosque’s destruction. A court ruling in 2010 divided the land between Hindus and Muslims, but that decision was overturned in 2019 by the Supreme Court, which entrusted the property exclusively to Hindus.

Judgement of ayodhya dispute

the Supreme Court cleared the way for the construction of a Ram Temple at the disputed site in Ayodhya, In the judgment of the three judges of the Allahabad High Court ruled that the 2.77 acres (1.12 ha) of Ayodhya land be divided into three parts, with one third going to the Ram Lalla ,a previous Hindu temple Rama represented by the Hindu Maha Sabha,, and directed the Centre to allot a 5-acre plot to the Sunni Waqf Board for building a mosque  and the remaining one third going to Nirmohi .

Now, after the judgement ,5th of august will be bhoomi pujan and construction will started soon of ram mandir.

The construction of the Ram temple in Ayodhya is set to begin on Wednesday when the first bricks will be laid for its foundation, according to a spokesperson for the head of the temple trust.

The event will be marked by prayers to Lord Shiva at the Kuber Tila shrine on the Ram Janmabhoomi site, allocated for the temple in a historic supreme court verdict last November.

The rudrabhishek ritual follows the tradition set by Lord Ram, who prayed to Shiva before launching an attack on Lanka, said Mahant Kamal Nayan Das, spokesperson for the Shri Ram Janmabhoomi Teertha Kshetra Trust head Mahant Nritya Gopal Das.

The work of laying the foundation of the temple will begin after these special prayers.

The prayers will be performed by Kamal Nayan Das and other priests on behalf of Mahant Nritya Gopal Das, who visited the site recently.

“This religious ceremony will last for at least two hours and after that the construction of the Ram Mandir will start with the laying of the foundation of the mandir structure,” Kamal Nayan Das said.

In its verdict on the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid land dispute, the Supreme Court had ruled in favour of construction of a temple at the site.

The Ayodhya dispute is a political, historical, and socio-religious debate in India, centered on a plot of land in the city of Ayodhya uttar pradesh.  This is the first  judgements in India’s history, a bench headed by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi put an end to the more than a century old dispute that has torn the social fabric of the nation.

Air force common admission test (AFCAT)

AFCAT is very popular exam as like upsc competitive exam, many of youngster have a dream to join Indian air force, when they watched movies and any of their idle who are in air force and who are playing a role of Indian air force cadet so, they become more crucial to join the air force. Many of youngsters have a dream to fly fighters plan they can do such thing after clearing these exam, interviews and some physical and medical tests.

 Air Force Common Admission Test is a written exam conducted by Indian Air Force twice every year to induct officers in the IAF. The written exam is followed by Air Force Selection Board Interview for shortlisted candidates.

 It is not tough to crack the AFCAT exam if candidates have prepared well.

 What are the options through AFCAT?

Through AFCAT you can apply for all the three branches of the IAF which are Flying Branch, Technical Branch and Ground Duty Branches. The eligibility criteria for different branches vary. Both men and women can apply for all the three branches. While for women there is short service commission only in all the three branches, for men there is Permanent as well as Short Service Commission for men. However for Flying Branch only Short Service Commission is there through AFCAT. Thus if you clear the written exam and then clear the AFSB also then you have a chance of joining the Air Force Academy.

Eligibility Criteria

  • Flying Branch –Age should lay between to 23 years at the time of course commencement. The candidate must be a Graduate (Minimum three year degree course) in any discipline from a recognized University who have attained minimum 60% marks in aggregate in all papers put together and have passed Math’s and Physics at 10+2 level OR BE / B Tech degree (Four year course) from a recognized University with minimum 60% marks in aggregate in all papers put together.
  • Technical Branch- The age must lay between 18 to 28 years at the time of course commencement.
  • Ground Duty Branch-The age must lie between 20-23 years for Graduates, 20-25 years for Post Graduates, 20-26 years for LLB (Three year course after graduation) and 20-27 years for M.Ed./PhD/CA/ICWA.

AFCAT is an online exam conducted by the Indian air force to get potential officers.

AFCAT exam was started in 2011 as an OMR sheet based paper. In 2019, AFCAT exam went online and many candidates attempted the AFCAT online across the country. 

All AFSB Stage 1 qualified candidates will have to appear for AFSB Stage 2 and undergo the following tests:

  1. Psychological Tests: These are the written psychological tests and are conducted by professional psychologists.
  2. Group Tests: These tests involve mental and physical activities to examine the candidates’ on various mental and physical parameters.
  3. Interview Round: In this round, the interviewing officer takes a personal round of interview for the candidate.
  4. Computerized Pilot Selection System (CPSS) Test: This test is mandatory for only those candidates who have applied for the Flying Branch.

If the candidate clears the Online Tests and both the stages of AFSB Interview then he will be called for Medical Examination.

If you really wants to join Indian air force and serve for our nation, AFCAT is an exam which can give you wings, for all of you who have the dream of working between the sprawling jets can turn this dream into reality through this exam.

Ayushman bharat scheme

Ayushman Bharat Programme is an umbrella health scheme of the Government of India. It was launched in 2018 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

The Ayushman Bharat programme was launched in 2018 to address health issues at all levels – primary, secondary and tertiary. It has two components:

  1. Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY), earlier known as the National Health Protection Scheme (NHPS)
  2. Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs)

Ayushman Bharat is an integrated approach comprising health insurance and primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare. The HWCs are aimed at improving access to cheap and quality healthcare services at the primary level. PM-JAY will cover the financial protection for availing healthcare services at the secondary and tertiary levels.

Ayushman Bharat is the largest government-funded healthcare programme in the world with over 50 crore beneficiaries. It has been dubbed ‘Modicare’.

There are 1300 diseases including serious health conditions like heart & liver ailments, cancer, tuberculosis are covered under AyushmanBharat and this very great help for those who cannot afford the costly treatment.

Features of Pradhan Mantri Ayushman Bharat Yojana

  • Over 10.74 crore poor and vulnerable families are covered across the country, No limit on family size and age of members.
  • Priority is given to girl child, women and senior citizens. Free treatment can be availed at all public and empanelled private hospitals.
  • The scheme was able to enrol 18,236 hospitals. Of these, 9,665 were private hospitals. In fact, of all the treatments served, 62 per cent of the expenditure was incurred in private hospitals. Around 46.5 lakh individuals availed treatment, with an average hospitalization cost of Rs 16,107.

With Ayushman Bharat sponsoring almost all secondary care and most of tertiary care hospitalizations, things are never going to be the same. Because of the large number of surgeries done in public and private hospitals, better infrastructure will come up which can easily take care of malaria, TB and HIV, apart from all other
medical treatments.
With the launch of the National Medical Commission by the government, the much debated shortage of medical specialists can be addressed in just three years.

Ayushman Bharat can transform healthcare by encouraging digital medical records.

Private healthcare was becoming unviable well before Ayushman Bharat, mainly because of the Central Government Health Scheme. The scheme, which sets the benchmark for procedural pricing for all government schemes, did not make major changes in its pricing of procedures, which is not scientifically arrived at, in the last 10 years. Compounding the problem was delayed payments by government sponsored health schemes, at times after more than a year.

The only grievance is the pending request for upward revision of some of the rates which assume will happen soon.

The AB-PMJAY offers a unique opportunity to improve the health of hundreds of millions of Indians and eliminate a major source of poverty afflicting the nation. There are, however, substantial challenges that need to be overcome to enable these benefits to be realised by the Indian population and ensure that the scheme makes a sustainable contribution to the progress of India towards UHC. UHC has become a key guiding target for health systems around the world under the Sustainable Development Goals to improve the health of the global population and overcome the scourge of medical-related impoverishment. The success of UHC is measured by the access of health services across the population, the types of services that are available, and the financial protection offered to the population. While there are obvious resource constraints in implementing AB-PMJAY.

Rafale in India

Rafale fighter jets will soon be inducted in Indian Air Force. This is sure to give Indian firepower a major boost. Rafale fighter jets will introduce new capabilities in IAF’s fighter fleet that will be unrivalled in the region. The aim of the Indian Air Force has always been to be prepared for a two-front war on Indian borders. IAF is capable of warding off twin threats to India and Rafale fighter jets are going to further increase Indian strength and strategic depth in the region.

The order for the HAMMER Missile for Rafale jets with the ability to neutralize any target at the range of around 60-70 km and is being acquired under the emergency powers for acquisition given to the armed forces by the Modi government.

“The order for the HAMMER missiles is being processed and the French authorities have agreed to supply them to us at a short notice for our Rafale combat aircraft,” government sources told ANI. In view of the urgent requirement for these missiles by the Air Force, the French authorities would be delivering the missiles to India from the existing stock meant for some other customer.

Rafale fighter jets are equipped with state of the art weapon systems. Most famous of these weapons are the Meteor missiles.

Meteor missiles are a game-changer. They are air-to-air missiles that work ‘beyond visual range’. This means that even if the pilot cannot locate enemy aircraft with his eyes, he/she can aim and fire the missile which will hit and destroy enemy aircraft. The Meteor is powered by a unique rocket-ramjet motor that gives Meteor far more engine power, for much longer than any other missile. This means it can fly faster, fly longer, and manoeuvre more than any other missile – giving Meteor the ability to chase down and destroy agile hostile fighters.

Every missile has a ‘no escape zone’, if a target aircraft is within this zone, it is hard for it to evade the missile and save itself. Greater the ‘no escape zone’, better is the missile.

India has contracted 36 Rafale multi-role fighter jets from France in fly-away condition with 13 India Specific Enhancements (ISE) under a €7.87 billion Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) signed in September 2016.

There is reason for rafale has powerful fighter plan it can take off weight than f-16.

The maximum take-off weight a Rafale can carry is 24.5 ton while an F-16 can carry a maximum of 21.7 ton. So, clearly in a dogfight between the two, the Rafales have a slight edge given the fact that it can load more weapons than the F-16s.

But, rafale is more costly than other fighter plan ,Big increase in Rafale’s price came because a deal bypassing mandated procedures and made in the face of official objections resulted in €1.3 billion ‘non-recurring’ cost attributed to the ‘Design and Development’ of 13 India Specific Enhancements being spread over 36 instead of 126 aircraft.

The Government has compromised national security by denying to the Air Force the 7 squadrons (126 aircraft) that it desperately needs. “The PM’s unilateral decision to buy 36 Rafales resulted in a price escalation of 41.42% per jet.

India is likely to receive the first batch of six Rafale fighter jets by July 27. The French-origin jets are expected to significantly boost the combat capability of the Indian Air Force.

That is great news for our country because after getting this fighter plan, india will become more powerful and it enhances the strength of india.

Right of equality(article-14 to 18)

The meaning of Equality before law which is defined under Article 14 of the Indian Constitution. It is one of the fundamental right. 

Recently, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) has been implemented in India. This law provides Indian citizenship to the migrants of six religious communities of three countries.

The enactment of the CAA is opposed by many Indian citizens, citing the reasons that it has granted Indian citizenship to six religious communities on the basis of religion while a particular religious community is excluded. So it’s a clear cut violation of article 14. While other Indians think that CAA does not discriminate with others.

What are the Exceptions to Right to Equality:

It is not like that the ‘Rule of Equality’ applies thoroughly. There are some exceptions to this that is why it does not apply in case of these circumstances and individuals. 

I. No criminal proceeding shall be initiated or continued against the President or the governor in any court during his/her term of office.

II. No court can issue an arrest warrant of the President or Government during his/her term of office.

III. No member of state Legislature (MLA) shall be liable to any proceeding in any court in respect of any statement or any vote given by him in the state Legislature.

IV. No member of parliament (MP) shall be liable to any proceeding in any court in respect of any statement or any vote given by him in the Parliament.

V. The United Nations and its agencies also have diplomatic immunity.

VI. Foreign (sovereign ruler), ambassadors and diplomatic persons will be free from criminal and civil cases.

Article 14 says that the State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

This means that every person, who lives within territory of India, has the equal right before the law. That equals will be treated equally.

This article constitutes of 2 parts, being:

1. Equality before law and

2. Equal protection of the laws.

Although both sound similar, they don’t mean the same. The word “Law” in the former expression is used in a genuine sense – a philosophical sense, whereas the word “Laws” in the latter expression denotes specific laws in force.

Article 15 says that the state shall not any discriminate against any citizen on ground only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.

Article 16 guarantee equality of opportunity in matters of employment under the state. The right is available to citizens only.

Article 17 deals with a peculiar problem of our country. Howsoever praiseworthy the caste system in its origin might have been, it certainly proved to be a disgrace to humanity, a threat to unity and a serious hindrance to social, educational and economic progress of our country.

Article 18 Abolition of titles No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or trust under the State, accept without the consent of the President any title from any foreign State No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind from or under any foreign State Right to Freedom.

The Indian Constitution has granted the right to equality to all citizens. All are equal before the law and there can be no discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender, place of birth, etc.

digital marketing v/s social media marketing

A digital marketing include one or more platforms like (Internet Advertising, Mobile ads, TV, SMS, etc.) while a social media strategy may include one or more social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter, etc.)

While the two encompass different components, social media marketing is a part of digital marketing. However, while digital marketing will include promoting across multiple channels, social media marketing is limited to internet based social media platforms.

Digital marketing

Digital marketing is an era of new marketing, through this many people can commenced business, ads marketing approach that primarily relies on the internet to connect with the target audience through various digital media channels and platforms.

Digital marketing is an all-encompassing term that consists of digital channels, such as content writing , SEO, email marketing, social media marketing, mobile marketing and so on, to create elaborate strategies to reach and connect with prospects and customers.

An average user consumes content via the television, computer, tablet, smartphone, radio, and other traditional media. This constant exposure to various types of media has led to information overload, further complicating the buyer’s journey. Digital marketing has allowed brands to stay relevant by making themselves visible through different channels and touchpoints.

Apart from traditional marketing channels, such as television, newspapers, billboards, and so on, marketers use these digital channels to guide prospects through their purchase journey and keep in touch with their existing customers.

Digital marketing is about the implementation of a variety of customized digital media marketing channels to achieve any of the following objectives:

  • To grow your products or services sales and profits
  • Create your brand awareness and build a strong relationship with your target audience
  • Create and add value
  • Promote your products or services or brand
  • And many more!

Remember that it is not necessary to include all available digital media marketing channels in your marketing campaign to accomplish your goals. Digital marketers develop a customized digital marketing strategy that includes the most appropriate digital marketing channels that fit your business, target audience, and of course, your budget.

Social media marketing

Social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram are here to stay, which means that marketers can leverage this popularity and use it for their brand’s growth and also to pad their wallets. One of the greatest benefits of social media marketing is that it helps you reduce marketing costs, without sacrificing the results.

Not only can you reach a global audience with limited resources but social media can get you a target audience. Having access to all these customers will help boost traffic. When a new blog or update is put on the homepage, it can take time to get traction through Google, which means that few customers will know the new content if they are not searching for your product or service. Using social media for business also boosts your site’s SEO.

Social media marketing is a powerful way for businesses of all sizes to reach prospects and customers. SMM, is a form of internet marketing that involves creating and sharing content on social media networks in order to achieve your marketing and branding goals. Social media marketing includes activities like posting text and image updates, videos, and and other content that drives audience engagement, as well as paid social media advertising.

How Social Media Marketing Can Help You Meet Your Marketing Goals

Social media marketing can help with a number of goals, such as:

  • Increasing website traffic
  • Building conversions
  • Raising brand awareness
  • Creating a brand identity and positive brand association
  • Improving communication and interaction with key audiences

The bigger and more engaged your audience is on social media networks, the easier it will be for you to achieve every other marketing goal on your list!

Best Social Media Marketing Tips

Social Media Content Planning

Great Social Content 

A Consistent Brand Image 

Social Media for Content Promotion

Sharing Curated Links

Tracking Competitors

Measuring Success with Analytics

There are also best platforms for social media marketing like Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, twitter, google+, YouTube etc.

After reading the above explanations, it must be clear to you that social media marketing is just a part of digital marketing.

Digital marketing uses both online and offline digital means to reach out to the target audience, while social media marketing is limited to online boundaries.

Using all the digital marketing channels is not a wise decision and do not have the right impact. The choice of digital media channels depends on your industry, business, and type of audience. Due to this, you often need to test, make changes, retest and measure the outcomes of your digital marketing campaigns to determine which works best for your brand or business. Based on these results, you can drop those digital marketing channels, which fail to provide satisfactory growth or ROI.

The success of your social media marketing campaign depends heavily on your content strategy. It means you need to keep posting fresh and unique content on your social media accounts to interact and engage your target audience.

work smartly or intelligently?

To be an intelligent person is not so enough for your personality may be you are not ready to take quick actions smartly.

Being smart can focus more on the idea of being good at something by having a broader knowledge in that specific something compared to the majority. 

Being Intelligent, Many people attest that intelligence is gained through education but no, what you gain from education is cleverness as well as knowledge. Intelligence it is truly something we are born with and it can be manifested trough varies ways. I have looked to see if there are any scholars talking about this but sadly no. Intelligence is having the ability to find solutions to difficult situations quicker than other people or having different abilities that enhance the way you think.

An intelligent people can be hard working and they can devote long hours for work, but a person who work smartly they devote time according to the situation with action plan and devote less hours for the work.

Smart is an earned status. Smart can also be applied to sarcasm. We have ‘smart like’ answers, or we can be ‘smart’ when answering a question or talking in a conversation. We don’t apply intelligent to the idea of being sarcastic.

Intelligence, on the other hand, is something with which you are born. Your IQ is a measurement of your intelligence, and doesn’t change because it is a measure of your ability to learn. This can apply to terms we chronically associate with intelligence, like math, or it can apply to your ability to learn negotiation of emotional issues. In either case, it is inherent, and it simply stems from your genetic makeup.

Intelligent is used as a higher level of measured intellect. We give a higher compliment when we tell someone they are intelligent, versus when we tell them that they are smart. Intelligence is directly related to our own degree of sophisticated knowledge.

Smart is what you know AND how to benefit from what you know, Intelligence is the ability to become smart. Intelligence makes you smart and not the other way round
Perhaps, becoming smart, makes you appear more intelligent.

Smart can also be applied to describe appearance. If you are a smart dresser, or you represent yourself in a smart way, this in no way implies that you have intelligence. It means that you are appropriate for the conditions, and that you look very good. We don’t imply that you are an intelligent dresser.

Intelligence also implies a certain degree of higher education. Whether you’ve actually completed a higher education, or you have yet to do so, we refer to intelligent people as those we assume to have completed a higher level of education than high school. While there are those who are intelligent who never go to college, the implication is essential when understanding the description offered.

This is one of the big huge differences as many people affirm that we can learn to be smart but not cannot acquire intelligence through any means as it is something we are born with. That is the difference between the smart work and intelligent work. through this article we can understand the  work which is best an intelligent work or a smart work because to be educated is not enough to work smartly and intelligently both required for surviving our life’s , if you are intelligent and smart you can achieve anything in your life.

“Doctors the life savior’s”

Doctors have always been perceived as people with immense knowledge and the custodians of our health.  These health workers have left no stones unturned in leading the battle against an invisible enemy – the novel coronavirus. Leaving their lives and family behind, doctors are working round the clock to tackle every challenge during this global pandemic. Their fight is grueling, lonely and often thankless. However, despite difficulties, their commitment towards humanity never wavers.

Needless to say, doctors, nurses and people working in health-care sectors are particularly vulnerable to the highly infectious disease. In response to the global pandemic, the under-resourced doctors are facing unprecedented challenges. The list of the sleep-deprived heroes includes doctors, nurses, medical cleaners, pathologists, paramedics, ambulance drivers, and health-care administrators. In the fight against coronavirus, the brave medical army stands strong with thermometers, stethoscopes, and ventilators as their weapons. Not to forget, medical researchers are working day in and night out against all odds, hoping to find the antidote to the disease.

Since the coronavirus outbreak, health-care professionals have not only experienced the gratification of healing patients and saving their lives but have also lost many battles along the way. On top of that, many doctors have even sacrificed their own lives in the line of duty.

Every day, the selfless warriors are giving it their all in health-care settings while cutting themselves off from their families and loved ones. The sacrifice that they are making for the safety and welfare of humanity is priceless and deserves lifelong gratitude on our end. Most importantly, we must reassess the value health-care workers hold in our lives and the kind of treatment they get from us. Among the several lessons this coronavirus pandemic has been teaching us, the biggest one is to find ways to sufficiently invest in the better and more efficient medical fraternity and give medical professionals the respect, compensation and infrastructure that they truly deserve once this crisis is over.

That being said, we’d now like to highlight the heroic efforts of some courageous and inspiring doctors from across the globe who lost their lives while saving the lives of COVID-19 patients. Most of health care is far too distracted by the global pandemic of COVID-19. These are difficult times, professionally and personally. Doctors are in the thick of this pandemic, fighting from the front and performing their duties untiringly. Separated from their families—children, spouses, aging parents—indefinitely, moving into separate quarters, so they don’t bring the contagion home.

Doctor is our god who saved our lives. While the deadly virus has brought attention to the inadequacies in the health-care systems across the globe, doctors and health-care workers have been risking their lives to save all of us. They are also risking the lives of their family members, which indeed is a huge sacrifice.

Doctors are blessed with the magical powers to treat a life, to bring health into our lives and to be there with us when we lose hope. Today, at great personal risk doctors are working for our wellbeing. We can do something for our corona fighters by staying home, using of mask and sanitizers, maintain social distancing, we can support our doctors and health care workers by maintaining all these things. Moreover, the world needs to work towards advancement in medical research and technology. Nothing will be a greater tribute to the health-care workers than this.


Bargaining a consumer behavior

When a person wants to saves money during buying anything of its use it’s called bargaining, it’s a trick of saving money.

Bargaining or haggling is a type of negotiation in which the buyer and seller of a good or service debate the price and exact nature of a transaction. If the bargaining produces agreement on terms, the transaction takes place. Bargaining is an alternative pricing strategy to fixed prices. Optimally, if it costs the retailer nothing to engage and allow bargaining, they can deduce the buyer’s willingness to spend.

Bargaining means you are trying to get the best price without compromising on any features or benefits. It is competitive, aggressive and a win-lose strategy, and neither party is generally satisfied. On the other hand, negotiation happens in an environment of trust and openness. It is a win-win strategy where both the parties leave the table satisfied.

One of the most effective bargaining methods is to ask if buying multiple items together merits a discount. This is especially helpful when shopping for gifts.

Purchasing Negotiation is part art part science. 
If you have been led to believe that you must be the smartest man on planet Earth to be a successful negotiator, it is not so. Apart from having good skills as a negotiator, the most important factor is to Prepare.

This is where the psychological process comes in that you need to use persuasion, communication, verbal & nonverbal skills.

Basically there are 2 types of objectives and approaches to purchasing negotiation. The first is the Confrontational or Lose – Lose approach where you don’t care whether the suppliers makes or loses money. You just bang on the supplier to give you 20% discount no matter what.

Lose – Lose Approach

We call this lose-lose because while you may get the discount you want in the short term, that will come at the expense of quality, delivery times etc. So at the end while the supplier loses in the discount given the buying organization loses more than the discount given.

The second approach is that of Win-Win Negotiations. For example, when you write a price negotiation letter to the supplier, you want to be fair to the supplier and ensure that he makes a reasonable profit but he delivers the products/services with the highest possible quality and on time.

While Win  type is most talked about it happens in only about 20% of cases. Plus this is not easy, depending on who’s supervising the purchasing department and company culture.

  Deals fall through every day. But businesses that depend on long-term customer relationships have a particular need to avoid win-lose situations, since backing out of a bad deal can cost a lot of future deals as well. Some buyers resort to hardball tactics even when the salesperson has done a consummate job of selling. The premise is that it costs nothing to ask for a concession. Sellers can always say no. They will still do the deal. But many sellers—especially inexperienced ones—say yes to even the most outrageous customer demands. 

These is the scenario buying and selling of goods .does not matter you are rich or poor bargaining is the trend and behavior of  people .they likes to do these things because it’s a kind of sense of achievement after bargaining .


Cat is a very popular exam for enrollment of MBA, every year many of students conduct this exam for taking admission in their dream college.

 CAT is the entrance examination for management aspirants at the national level and is carried out on a rotational basis by the Indian Institute of Management. The cat examination will be tentatively conducted in the month of November in various cities across India.

The CAT examination opens the doors for candidates not only to be admitted to 20 IIMs but to more than 1000 B-Schools across India, making it one of the most crucial examinations for every management aspirant.

Apart from the IIMs, the CAT is also a prerequisite for admissions into numerous other prestigious management colleges across India which includes institutes like S.P Jain Institute of Management and Research (SPJIMR), Faculty of Management Studies (FMS), Management Development Institute (Gurgaon), Institute of Management Technology (IMT), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), International Management Institute (IMI), National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE) and several others.

CAT is one of the most important exams, and its preparation should not be taken lightly. One of the first questions that strike the mind of a candidate sitting for this examination is whether to prepare independently or take the help of a coaching center.

Before taking any important decisions regarding your preparation, you must reflect on your behavior in previous situations. You must evaluate yourself and think of whether you are disciplined and can stick to a plan or are more prone to procrastination and over-thinking. Depending on your caliber, you may clear CAT in a short duration, or it might take two to three attempts to crack it.

Depending on your tendencies, you must make the appropriate choice. The flexibility of self-learning is best suited for those candidates who are well aware of their learning and can set goals and achieve them, while also improving the performance.

CAT Exam Eligibility

  • Should Hold a Bachelor’s Degree and have secured a minimum of 50% marks or equivalent CGPA. The students belonging to any of the reserved categories like Scheduled Tribe (ST), Scheduled Caste (SC), and Persons with Disability (PWD) or Differently Abled (DA) category must have at least 45% marks.
  • The degree has to be awarded by any of the Universities included by an act of the central or a state legislature in India, or any other educational institutions established by an act of Parliament or are declared to be deemed as a University under Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956, or hold an equivalent qualification recognized by the MHRD, India.
  • Applicants who are appearing for the final year of their bachelor’s degree and the candidates who have completed their graduation degree requirements and are awaiting results are also eligible to apply.

·         CAT Exam Syllabus

CAT Quantitative Aptitude

CAT Logical Reasoning & Data Interpretation

CAT Verbal Ability & Reading Comprehension

·         Eligibility Verification

Mark sheets and Degree Certificate

Reservation Category Requirements

Candidates in the Final Year of Graduation

It should be noted that individual IIM shortlists candidates for their second stage of selection independently. The selection process includes a Written Ability Test (WAT) and a Personal Interview (PI). The performance of individuals in CAT exam will be an important component in the overall selection process. IIMs also consider previous academic records of the candidates, relevant work experience and other similar inputs while shortlisting and ranking the candidates at various stages during the admission process.

Throughout the journey of CAT preparation, you use to ensure that your mind is stable, and you can cope with the entire ordeal of studying long hours and putting in your all for an examination.

There is no proven methodology in CAT for scoring a good percentile. There are plenty of students who worked alone and cleared the CAT in their first attempt.

Cat exam need your hard work, dedication, and how much time you devote for crack this exam it’s all up to you, if you decided to clear this exam so you can do, but you should study for this exam with smart work and lots of focus. Before investing any amount of time or money in coaching, assess yourself and crack this exam with a target of get admission in IIM’s.

Pradhan mantri Jeevan jyoti bima yojana

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY ) is a social benefit scheme launched on May 9, 2015, by the government. The PMJJBY scheme is a life cover for a fixed amount of Rs 2 lakh for an annual premium of Rs 330 and is available to people in the age group of 18 to 50 years having a bank account. The life coverage will be available until the age of 55 years. The one-time payment towards the PMJJBY will be automatically debited from one’s account. Therefore, one has to enable auto-debit while signing up for the scheme.

The life cover of Rs. 2 lakh shall be for the one year period starting from 1st June to 31st May every year. The PMJJBY scheme is a yearly renewable scheme and to continue one has to give the consent to the banks in the month of May every year.

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana with a aim to provide financial support through cheaper term insurance to empower the disadvantaged and economically low strata of society, with motto of “JanDhan se Jan Surakhsha”.Term insurance is a type of life insurance, provides coverage for a certain period of time or years. If the insured dies over the policy tenure a death benefit (or sum assured) is paid out.

This scheme will be linked also to the bank accounts opened under the Pradhan mantra jan dhan yojana scheme. Most of these account had zero balance initially. The government aims to reduce the number of such zero balance accounts by using this and related schemes.

Now all Bank account holders can avail this facility through their net-banking service facility or filling a form at the bank branch at any time of the year.

But, there are some problem create by this, the banks have complained that revenue received will be very low. Some bankers have claimed that amount they are receiving is not sufficient to cover the service costs. Since this is a [group insurance] scheme, banks have not received instruction regarding cases where excessive claims are in a year. Insurers have also pointed out that no health certificate or information of pre-existing disease is required for joining.

Government Contribution

  • Various other Ministries can co-contribute premium for various categories of their beneficiaries out of their budget or out of Public Welfare Fund created in this budget out of unclaimed money.  This will be decided separately during the year.
  • Common Publicity Expenditure will be borne by Government.

The premium paid towards the pmjjby scheme is applicable for tax exemption under sec 80c of the income tax act

 If the bank account has become inoperative or there are not sufficient funds, the coverage will lapse. Those who exit the scheme may re-join later by furnishing a declaration of good health and paying the annual premium.

If the insurance cover is ceased due to any technical reasons such as the insufficient balance on the due date or due to any administrative issues, the same can be reinstated on receipt of appropriate premium subject, however, to the cover being treated as fresh and the 45 days lien clause being applicable

For the cover period 1st June 2019 to 31st May 2020, subscribers are required to enroll and give their auto-debit consent by 31st May 2019. As on 23.04.2018, gross enrolment reported by banks subject to verification of eligibility, etc. was nearly 5.3382 crore, while the total number of claims received was about 100,881 and the total number of claims disbursed was nearly 92,089.

Even though the sum assured is very low, one may get it to supplement existing coverage. Ideally, as a thumb rule, one should have a life cover of at least ten times of one’s annual take-home income.

So, these all information covered under Jeevan jyoti bima yojana .and that is really an achievement of government to give them facility and financial support for under privileged people.

Pradhan mantri Ujala scheme

The full form of UJALA is Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All.

UJALA scheme was launched by PM Narendra Modi on 1st May 2015 under the government of India. The Ujala Scheme was established by replacing the Bachat Lamp Yojana is a joint initiative of Public Sector Undertaking of the Government of India, Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) under the Union Ministry of Power and the Electricity Distribution Company.

The UJALA scheme also known as the LED-based Domestic Efficient Lighting Programme (DELP) aims to promote the efficient usage of energy for all i.e., its consumption, savings and lighting. This scheme is considered as the world’s largest program. According to the UJALA scheme, LED bulbs would be distributed by the Electricity Distribution Company at subsidized rates to every grid-connected customer with a metered connection.

This scheme launched by the Union government’s Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) and LED Street Lighting National Programme (SLNP), marked their fifth anniversary on 5th January 2020.

  • Both schemes have been spearheaded and implemented by Energy Efficiency Services Limited(EESL), a joint venture of PSUs under the Ministry of Power, Government of India.
  • These programmes have bagged global awards like the South Asia Procurement Innovation Award (SAPIA) 2017, CIO 100 award 2019, the Global Solid State Lighting (SSL) award of excellence.

The Centre’s ambitious National LED programme – Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) – will be implemented across the country by 2019, Minister for Power and Coal, Piyush Goyal said on Saturday.

“Since the UJALA scheme was launched a year ago on May 1, a total of 9 crore LED bulbs were sold in the country, which means people will get the benefit of Rs 5,500 crore in their electricity bills.

The cost of a 9-W LED bulb under the scheme is Rs 85 only .

The world’s largest solar power plant, the minister said, is coming up in Madhya Pradesh’s Rewa district and the state government is making all efforts to get it inaugurated by the Prime Minister.

This scheme become successful, some key pints are:

  • Replacing 200 million ordinary light bulbs by LED bulbs.
  • Load reduction of 5000 MW.
  • To reduce the emissions caused by greenhouse gases by 79 million tonnes of carbon dioxide.

People also get these purchasing benefits of every grid-connected consumer having a metered connection from their respective Electricity Distribution Company can get the LED bulbs at about 40% of the market price under the UJALA Scheme. Consumers also have the option of paying for the LEDs in equated monthly instalments.

For getting led bulbs, the enrollment procedure are:

  • Photo copy of the latest electricity bill
  • A copy of photo ID proof
  • A copy of residential proof (The address on the residential proof must match the address on the electricity bill.)
  • Cash advance in case of on-bill financing (balance amount recovered from the electricity bill) or full amount in case of upfront payment for each LED. In case of upfront payment, address proof is not mandatory.

This is the greatest benefit for every Indian consumer to purchase this led bulbs. LED bulbs have very long life (> 15 years if used of 4-5 hours every day) and are not likely to fuse. However, if the LED bulb stops working due to a technical defect, EESL will be providing free of cost warranty for all technical faults for three years. And the replacements shall be done through designated retail stores that will be communicated after the distribution ends. During the distribution, replacements can be done through any of the DELP distribution counters that would be operating within the city. Any EESL LED bulb can be replaced with any other company’s EESL LED bulb.

Right of education(21-A)

Education is one of the important part in each and every human life. If a person was educated he acquires knowledge, learns behavioral activities and methods to survive in the society. In simple manner, a person will be respected if he had some dignity in the society, and the only way to attain dignity and personality is educating himself. Education is a basic human right for all and is important for everyone to make the most of their lives. Other human rights include the right to freedom from slavery or torture and to a fair trial.

Having an education helps people to access all of their other human rights. Education improves an individual’s chances in life and helps to tackle poverty. 

Education reduces poverty, decreases social inequalities, empowers women and helps each individual reach their full potential.

It also brings significant economic returns for a country and helps societies to achieve lasting peace and sustainable development. Education is key to achieving all other human rights. 

 After Independence only it was raised to great extent. According to the 86th Amendment Act 2002, right to education was justified under the Article 14 and 21 as a part of fundamental right guaranteed to all citizens.

Right to Education – Article 21(A):
This article says state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

The administration activities in educational department in India was not much active. It must be developed by the proper planning by the executives. Though it was planned it does not exercise it properly, due to the corrupted hands in administration level. This situation must be deserted to the development of India in education system.

Every person is entitled to a quality education without discrimination, which means:

  • A compulsory free primary school education for every child
  • Secondary school (including technical training) must be available to everyone – states must work towards providing this for free
  • Higher education must be equally accessible, with countries working towards the goal of making this free
  • Fundamental education for those who missed out on primary school should be encouraged and available

It also means parents have the right to choose schools for their children and for individuals and organizations to set up schools that meet minimum standards.

Governments must provide good quality education and make sure all children can access it, without discrimination.

This is an international legal obligation and governments can be held accountable for failing to provide education for all its citizens.

Governments have to make sure all children can get the education they are entitled to by doing the following:

  • Removing anything that prevents access to quality education, such as repealing laws that cause discrimination
  • Preventing individuals or groups from stopping children from being educated
  • Taking steps to make sure children can get a quality education – this could include building schools or training teachers

The prominent organizations around the world striving for promotion of Right to Education are:
1. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
2. United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
3. World Bank
4. International Labour Organization (ILO)

The child is a soul with a being, a nature and capacities of its own, who must be helped to find them, to grow into their maturity, into a fullness of physical and vital energy.

Every generation looks up to the next generation with the hope that they shall build up a nation better than the present. Therefore education which empowers the future generation should always be the main concern for any nation. It is now an undisputed fact that right to education can be realized on a national level only through compulsory education.

A way to shop online

In this paramedic everyone try to neglect go in this time there is only solution to save life’s that is online shopping .Online shopping is a part of e commerce. If you wants to purchase anything you can order from it on a market reasonable prices. But the thing is, if online marketing charges high price no one attract on it, because the customer needs a reasonable markets prices.

Internet shopping is a phenomena that is growing rapidly nowadays. A peep into the exponential growth of the main players in this industry indicates there is still a large reservoir of market potential for e-commerce.

Online marketplaces provide a new and more convenient venue for the exchange of virtually all types of goods and services.

It is a process whereby consumers directly buy goods, services etc. from a seller without an intermediary service over the Internet. … Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day and many consumers have internet access both at work and at home. So it is very convenient for them to shop Online. 

Online stores are highly competitive, not only with other online stores but also with brick-and-mortar competitors. Price-comparison websites make deal hunting easier and also help guide shoppers to online stores with the best reputations by posting reviews submitted by other shoppers.

Point-of-sale advantages include stores offering no shipping charges and free ship-to-store options. A lot of online stores do not pass on sales tax (unless required by the state) to customers, which can add up substantial savings for those shoppers who buy primarily online. Other advantages of shopping online include:

  • The stores are almost never closed.
  • Shoppers can shop in their pajamas.
  • Online shoppers save on gas.
  • There are no parking hassles.
  • Online shoppers rarely have to deal with aggressive salespeople.
  • There are no annoying crowds.

If anything has an advantages so there is disadvantages also:

Online shopping, takes longer to ship a product back to an online store than it does to return it to a local shop, this might be the deciding factor on where to make the purchase.

  • Online shoppers do not have the ability to physically inspect or try on the items being considered for purchase.
  • Online shoppers sometimes lose the power to negotiate the price and payment terms that may exist in local stores.
  • Items ordered online are sometimes back-ordered, but shoppers may not find out until weeks later. This is particularly problematic when buying gifts.
  • Online shoppers do not always know if a site is a legitimate retail store and if is safe to shop.
  • Restocking and shipping costs are often charged on returns.
  • Online shoppers often do not have a person (or the same person) to talk to when dealing with a problem.
  • It is sometimes easier to get money refunded locally when the item purchased drops in price within the guaranteed price period.

Sometimes a deal that looks great falls short of what has been advertised. Communicating dissatisfaction can be difficult online and often takes enormous patience and tenacity to achieve satisfaction. Problem-solving face-to-face with local store employees is often faster and more satisfying. Contacting the next level of management is much easier at local stores than online.

Shoppers will save money and frustration by taking the time to learn the policies of both online and local stores before making purchases. Sometimes there are hidden charges like restocking fees at some online and local stores. The restocking fee may increase the longer it takes the shopper to return an items.

But, this time the only convenience for shopping that is online shopping because corona virus has changes many things, so if you are doing online shopping so beware from frauds and dangers, do compare prices of products.

Both businesses and customers have embraced online sales as a cheaper and more convenient way to shop, but just like anything associated with the Internet, there are benefits and dangers associated with shopping online. 

Russia succeed in covid -19 vaccine

Russia becomes first nation to complete clinical trials of Coronavirus vaccine

The results of the human trials showed that the group of volunteers are developing an immunity to COVID-19. 

Russian COVID Vaccine: Russia has become the first nation to successfully complete the human trials of COVID vaccine. Russia’s COVID vaccine has proven to be effective, as per the results of the trials. 

Chief Researcher Elena Smolyarchuk informed on July 12, 2020 that the human trials of Russia’s COVID vaccine have been completed and the volunteers will be discharged soon. Smolyarchuk is the head of Center for Clinical Research on Medications at Russia’s Sechenov University.

The ministry said 18 people had participated in the research and were discharged without “serious adverse events, health complaints, complications or side effects”.

The results of the trials “allow us to speak with confidence about the safety and good tolerability of the vaccine”, it said in a statement.

“Their immunity is working well, antibodies are being created, they are protected against the coronavirus,” researcher Svetlana Volchikhina said in a video released by the defence ministry.

Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu told President Vladimir Putin during the height of the epidemic in Russia in late May that military researchers were developing a vaccine with scientists at the Gamaleya Institute in Moscow.

The volunteers were isolated in the Burdenko military hospital in Moscow on June 18 when the trial vaccine was administered and underwent daily check-ups.

The defence ministry reported that “for 28 days after vaccination, the vital signs of the volunteers remained within normal limits”.

“We now know that we are 100 percent protected,” Yury, a member of the army who participated in the tests, said on leaving the hospital.

A second group of participants who were vaccinated on June 23 are currently in isolation in hospital under medical supervision .The defence ministry has said it expects clinical trials to be fully completed by the end of July .Smolyarchuk confirmed that the research has been completed and it proved that the vaccine was safe. The first group of volunteers is expected to be discharged on July 15, while the second group will be discharged on July 20.

How will long russia covid vaccine avilable in the markets?

Despite the successful human trials of the COVID vaccine, there is no official confirmation on when Russia’s vaccine will enter commercial production stage and be available for local people. 

According to the World Health Organization, there are at least 21 vaccines that are undergoing human trials across the world. India has also begun clinical trials of its two potential vaccine candidates- Bharat Biotech and ICMR’s COVAXIN and Zydus Cadila’s ZyCov-D. The registrations for the human trials of the Indian vaccines began on July 7. 

Russia stands fourth in the world in terms of total confirmed coronavirus cases with 7,27,162 COVID-19 cases including 5,01,061 recoveries and 11,335 deaths, as of July 13, 2020. Globally, around 1,25,52,763 COVID-19 cases have been detected, which includes more than 564,0 00 deaths.

So here we can understand the situation of covid vaccine in world, we can just pray from god that covid 19 vaccine will launch as soon as possible.

Pm mudra yojana scheme

The Government of India launched a flagship scheme called Prime Minister Mudra Yojana (PMMY) on 8th April 2015 to extend affordable loans to the non-corporate, non-farm micro and small enterprises to cater to their funding needs. One of the major aims of MUDRA loans was to bring the target audience into the formal financial fold.

What is MUDRA?

Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Limited is MUDRA full form created as a refinancing institution providing loans up to Rs. 10 lakhs maximum to the eligible enterprises through the Commercial Banks, RRBS, Cooperative Banks, NBFC and MFI etc. The borrowers can approach the nearby branches of the lending institutions or apply for loans under the MUDRA scheme or apply online.

The genesis of MUDRA:

The largest economic sector of the country after agriculture comprises of non-corporate micro enterprises generating the bulk of the employment opportunities estimated to be approximately ten crores impacting the life of 50 crore Indians. They are mainly engaged in manufacturing, trading, processing and services, and the enterprises are broadly classified as proprietary or Own Account Enterprises (OAE). Understandably, this sector is deemed to be the economic bulwark of the country, yet it is reckoned to be the largest disorganized business eco-systems in the world. The NSSO survey of 2013 places the OAE at 5.77 crore units, which lie out of the ambit of the formal financial sector enjoying no credit facilities whatsoever. The MUDRA scheme under the aegis of the PMMY aims to be this huge sector into the fold of institutional credit, transforming them into a potent instrument of employment and GDP growth.

The mission statement of Pradhan Mantri Mudra Loan is to create an inclusive value based entrepreneurial culture which is sustainable in partnership with financial institutions in achieving financial security and success.

 key benefits of MUDRA loan:

  • Micro and small enterprises engaged in income generation are the prime target for extension of loan facilities.
  • The borrowers are not required to provide any collateral or security to avail of Mudra Loan.
  • There are no processing charges for availing of the loan.
  • The loans are provided for the funded and non-funded category, inducing an element of flexibility in the usage of funds.
  • The loans can be in the form of term loans, overdraft facility, letters of credit or bank guarantees, thus catering to a wide array of requirements.
  • The Mudra loan scheme does not prescribe any minimum amount.

MUDRA Loan Details:

The name of the type of loan facilities under the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Loan is suggestive of the developmental phases of an enterprise and the quantum of loan sanctioned. There are three Categories of the MUDRA loans based on the stated parameters making the business viable.

1. Sishu: This loan is meant for entrepreneurs who are looking to start a business or in the process of establishing one. The maximum loan sanctioned under this category is Rs.50000. The basic norms of the loan are:

  • To provide finance for machinery.
  • Valid quotation and supplier details are essential.

2. Kishor: Under the MUDRA scheme, this category of loan is targeted towards entrepreneurs looking to expand their business through the infusion of fresh funds. Thus, the loan sanctioned under this category is in the range of Rs.50001 to Rs.5 lakhs. The key requirements for availing of this loan are:

  • The existing balance sheet for the previous two years.
  • Bank account statement.
  • Income and sales returns.
  • Estimated balance sheet for the current year.

3.Tarun: The third type of loan under PMMY is for entrepreneurs who are well entrenched and have established themselves in the business and yet looking for further growth or diversification. The loan sanctioned under Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana for this type of loan is in the range of Rs.500001 to Rs.10 lakhs. The amount involved being the highest under the MUDRA Scheme, the requirements are more stringent than the other two loans. Some of the key requirements are:

  • All the requirements listed for Kishor Mudra Loan.
  • Address and Identity proof.
  • Caste certificate, if eligible for reservation.
  • Primarily the loan facilities are extended to non-corporate non-farm enterprises. However, farm sector enterprises involved in allied services like fisheries, food processing and horticulture, to name a few are eligible.

So, if you are thinking to start your own business, you can take benefits of this scheme and contact with your nearby bank branches, check the eligibility of banks and processes and take loan according to your business.


NGOS are the backbone of poor’s, so, here we can know about how can ngos standardized the livelihoods of poor’s

But ngos not only help poor’s by giving them shelter and fodd but they also help in many way

1 By giving education of many things

Ex (education regarding sanitary, education regarding hygiene, education to children’s)

2 By giving employment to poor’s

Ex (according to their skills which they may suits best)

Going right in the middle of the communities and through insightful research, NGOs can ensure that the poorest of the poor in India get to experience sustainable growth and get an access to education and employment opportunities, and avail essential services.

Now, no’s help the poor to reduce poverty and make their life standardized in many ways but Assessing NGO’s performance in poverty reduction is a difficult task. However, it is worth learning from other observations conducted on NGO performance in alleviating poverty.

Likewise, Although NGO’s are appraised for their tremendous work, other scholars have opined that they do not see their essence due to the fact that many have fallen below expectations. In this Chapter, however, researcher’s task is to review the literature of other scholarly works as it relate to NGO’s roles in poverty alleviation.

NGOs general aim is to alleviate poverty through activities that promote capacity building and self-reliance.

NGOs are praised for promoting community self-reliance and empowerment through supporting community-based groups and relying on participatory processes.

In Sub-Saharan Africa for instance where survival for daily bread is a major hurdle, NGOs have been seen as liberators of human suffering the evidence is in Sierra Leone were sixty percent of citizens survival dependent upon donors.

Sustainable development, on the other hand, has emerged over the past few decades as an important paradigm for poverty alleviation.

In India, Poverty has been a firm and importunate problem. All the way through the independence to decades after that. Role of NGO, especially in a country like India, is very crucial. In fact, according to current statistics, a huge chunk of the Indian population is still below the poverty level. Not to mention, the focus of elections and all other political agendas have been around the concern. Various government subsidies and poverty amelioration mechanisms have been incorporated in the country. However, most of them failed to offer a commendable result.

Throughout the last few decades, role of NGO’s is extremely significant in poverty amelioration mechanism. They have brought about some of the best employment opportunities, livelihood programs, self-help groups and also empowerment programs. Many families both in rural and urban areas have enjoyed some of the most viable and consistent benefits from these NGO’s.

Role of NGO in poverty alleviation

  • NGO’s play a significant role in offering relief and other basic amenities to individuals who are suffering from extreme poverty.
  • These non-governmental organizations have initiated some empowerment programs. These programs empower both men and women, thereby offering some commendable benefits in their lifestyle.
  • NGO’s have brought about some viable and effective, skill based livelihood programs.
  • Various public services are provided by the NGO’s both at Macro and Micro levels.
  • NGO’s have also implemented some viable development programs which are extremely handy for the poverty stricken individuals.

Poverty has been a firm and importunate problem in India, all the way through the independence to decades after that. Role of NGO, especially in a country like India, is very crucial. In fact, according to current statistics, a huge chunk of the Indian population is still below the poverty level. Not to mention, the focus of elections and all other political agendas have been around the concern. Various government subsidies and poverty amelioration mechanisms have been incorporated in the country. However, most of them failed to offer a commendable result.

Throughout the last few decades, role of NGO’s is extremely significant in poverty amelioration mechanism. They have brought about some of the best employment opportunities, livelihood programs, self-help groups and also empowerment programs. Many families both in rural and urban areas have enjoyed some of the most viable and consistent benefits from these NGO’s.

Role of NGO in poverty alleviation

  • NGO’s play a significant role in offering relief and other basic amenities to individuals who are suffering from extreme poverty.
  • These non-governmental organizations have initiated some empowerment programs. These programs empower both men and women, thereby offering some commendable benefits in their lifestyle.
  • NGO’s have brought about some viable and effective, skill based livelihood programs.
  • Various public services are provided by the NGO’s both at Macro and Micro levels.
  • NGO’s have also implemented some viable development programs which are extremely handy for the poverty stricken individuals.

Apart from this, various other strategies are incorporated by the NGO’s to reduce poverty.

Providing resources to the poor

NGO’s offer socio-economic services

Helping to achieve the developmental goals.


Microfinance is another important sector that NGO’s have fully utilized in reaching out to the poor. Their roles in this sector, has immensely contributed to alleviating poverty among the poor. The purpose of using microfinance to alleviate poverty is as a result of what role microfinance can play and what impact it created on the beneficiaries. Microfinance has a very important role to play in development according to proponents of microfinance.

Now, these are the ways we can eliminate and reduce the poverty and improve the lives of poor’s by ngos .through examines the lives of poor’s ,by that properly, we can use microfinance and empowerment programs by all above mentioned activities we can improve the livelihoods of poor’s through NGOS.

Civil services – dream of every student


To become an IAS, IPS officer is the dream of every indian student, but to grab this opportunity students have to work harder more than his ability.

The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is a nationwide competitive examination in India conducted by the union public service commission for recruitment to various civil services of the government of India, including the Indian administrative services (IAS), Indian foreign services (IFS), and Indian police services (IPS). Also simply referred to as the UPSC examination, it is conducted in three phases – a preliminary examination consisting of two objective-type papers (General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II also popularly known as Civil Service Aptitude Test or CSAT), and a main examination consisting of nine papers of conventional (essay) type, in which two papers are qualifying and only marks of seven are counted followed by a personality test (interview).


  • For the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service, the candidate must be a citizen of India.
  • For other services, the candidate must be one of the following:
  • A citizen of India.
  • A citizen of Nepal or a subject of Bhutan.
  • A Tibetan refugee who settled permanently in India before 1 January 1962.

Educational qualification

All candidates must have as a minimum one of the following educational qualifications:

  • A degree from a Central, State or a Deemed university
  • A degree received through correspondence or distance education
  • A degree from an open university
  • A qualification recognized by the Government of India as being equivalent to one of the above

The following candidates are also eligible, but must submit proof of their eligibility from a competent authority at their institute/university at the time of the main examination, failing which they will not be allowed to attend the exam.

  • Candidates who have appeared in an examination the passing of which would render them educationally qualified enough to satisfy one of the above points.
  • Candidates who have passed the final exam of the mbbs degree but have not yet completed an internship.
  • Candidates who have passed the final exam of ICAI, ICSI and ICWAI.
  • A degree from a private university.
  • A degree from any foreign university recognized by the association of Indian universities.


The candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 32 years (for the General category candidate) on 1 August of the year of examination. Prescribed age limits vary with respect to caste reservations.

Number of attempts

The number of times a candidate can appear for the exam are given below.

  • General category candidates – 6
  • OBC category candidates – 9
  • SC/ST candidates – unlimited attempts till 37 years of age.

Appearing to attempt one of the papers in the preliminary examination is counted as an attempt, including disqualification/ cancellation of candidature. However, applying to sit the exam but failing to attend is not counted as an attempt.

After ,accomplishing all this eligibility criteria students have to ready for preparing the entrances, as all we know this exam conduct in three variations,

First: preliminary exams

Second: mains exam

Third: interview –personality test

Students have to clear all this rounds, after completing all this rounds students have to go for eleven months physical training in Hyderabad.

Hope if you are dreaming to become an IAS, IPS officer so you will accomplish it, this services just need your hardwork and smart work.

Startup India

Startup India is an employment programme of India, this program is the opportunity for new entrepreneur In India. Startup India was a campaign which was first addressed by the PM Narendra Modi on 15th August 2015 at Red Fort, New Delhi. This campaign was introduced under the Government of India as an initiative to develop over 75 startup support hubs in the country.

Startup India scheme is an important government scheme which was launched on 16th January 2016 with an aim to promote and support the start-ups in India by providing bank finances. It was inaugurated by the former finance minister, Arun jaitley.

Organized by the Department for promotion of industry and internal trade, the major objective of Startup India is to discard some of the restrictive States Government policies which include:

  1. License Raj
  2. Land Permissions
  3. Foreign Investment Proposals
  4. Environmental Clearance

Startup India is a Government of India flagship initiative to build Startups and nurture innovation. Through this initiative, the Government plans to empower Startup ventures to boost entrepreneurship, economic growth and employment across India.

The Government’s Action Plan will help accelerate the growth of Startups throughout India, across all important sectors – in Tier 1, 2 and 3 cities, including semi-urban and rural areas – and includes promoting entrepreneurship among SCs/STs and women communities.

Definition of a Startup (for the purpose of Government Schemes only)

A Startup means an entity:

  • incorporated or registered in India not prior to five years
  • with an annual turnover not exceeding INR 25 crore in any preceding financial year
  • working towards innovation, development, deployment or commercialization of new products, processes or services driven by technology or intellectual property

The entity shall cease to be a Startup if:

  • it is formed by splitting up, or reconstruction, of a business already in existence
  • its turnover for the previous financial years has exceeded INR 25 crore
  • it has completed 5 years from the date of incorporation/registration

Further, the Startup shall be eligible for tax benefits only after it has obtained certification from the Inter-Ministerial Board, set up for such purpose.

Eligibility Criteria for Startup India Scheme

  • The start-up must be registered as a Private Company, LLP or Partnership Firm: …
  • The start-up must not be a product of restructuring: …
  • The Startup must not be older than 5 years: …
  • Annual turnover of the start-up must not be more Rest. …
  • The business must be involved in a new product or service.

Four major steps to register a company/ startup in India:

  • Step 1: Acquire Digital Signature Certificate (DSC)
  • Step 2: Acquire Director Identification Number (DIN)
  • Step 3: Create an account on MCA portal- New user registration @
  • Step 4: Incorporate or Apply for the company to be registered.

Under the Startup India programmed, startups were defined and redefined. For instance, the startups’ age was also increased from 5 to 7 years (10 in the case of biotech). The government has taken various initiatives to boost the growing startup culture in the country such as fast-tracking of startup patent applications, income tax exemption, and self-certification.

This is the plan which is released by the government of India to enhance the employment and encouragement for Indian people.

Stop animal cruelty

The use of animals to entertain human beings is wrong from the welfare point of view because: … it involves the animal in performances that are foreign to their natural behavior. It may involve cruelty during the show (e.g. bullfighting, rodeos) it may involve cruelty in training the animal.

cruelty in circuses

The wild animals commonly abused in circuses are extremely stressed by circus conditions. The loud noise of the music, the cheers of the crowd and the dizzying lights all disorientate and cause stress to wild animals. Over prolonged periods this can result in abnormal behaviors and health problems related to anxiety.

Animals do not want to perform painful, confusing and demeaning tricks, but animals in circuses have no choice. Trainers use abusive tools, including whips and electric prods, to force them to perform.

Not only are elephants, horses, hippopotamuses, birds, dogs, camels and other animals often beaten by trainers, but they also suffer from loneliness, boredom and frustration from being locked in cramped cages or chained for months on end as they travel from city to city. Instead of being loaded and unloaded like furniture into trucks and warehouses, these animals should be in their natural habitats – exploring, seeking mates and raising families.

In a research found that, an elephant age has been minimize due to lock under the cages.

A couple of cases of cruelty towards animals have come to light in the past few weeks which have enraged many and made one ponder as to whether the laws in existence are sufficient enough to protect animals. The most recent of all incidents of cruelty that have taken place this year, are that of killing of a pregnant elephant from kerela, a pregnant cow from Himachal Pradesh and a jackal from Tamil Nadu. I state these incidents together as these have the same method used to seriously injure/kill them. In all three cases, the poor animals were fed explosives covered with some kind of edibles.

 In 2019 an incident came to light where in Uttar Pradesh a tigress was brutally beaten with sticks, under a protected zone of the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve. Another inhumane incident saw the light of the day in September 2019 when a video of a nilgai (antelope) being pushed into a pit in Bihar and buried alive got viral. It is unimaginable to think that New Delhi has its very own ‘Serial dog killer’ who allegedly beat, stabbed and killed three dogs and a puppy.

Cruelty in zoos

 The process of segregating animals from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics; the process often ends with the segregated animal being killed. Several reasons are given for culling in zoos, including a lack of space, the genes of the culled animals are over-represented in the zoo population, the (young) animal might be attacked or killed, or the culled animals have contracted a disease.

Because animals in zoos are killed for many reasons, such as old age or disease, just as pet animals are often euthanized because of health problems, it is beyond the scope of this list to identify every case where an animal is killed in a zoo.

There is more to treating animals in an appropriate way than keeping them healthy: It’s possible (and used to be common) for zoos to keep animals in perfect physical shape, but in conditions that cause the animals to display serious behavioral problems.

These are the reasons, Many of the animals lost their ages under the cages of zoos , and we think they are entertaining us, we go in a zoos and purchase tickets not for the entrainment but we purchase those  tickets for giving more enhancement of cruelty on animals not even in zoos but also on circuses.

Law against this cruelty

The Supreme Court in 2014, in a case titled – Animal Welfare Board of India v. Nagraja&Ors., recognized the Right to Life as enshrined under Article 21 of the COI, to extend to animals as well.NGOs and animal rights activists condemn these brazen killings and inhumane acts however there is now an immediate need to make stricter laws.

Stop animal cruelty

Now, the time we should understand that animals are not entertainers for us ,they also have a rights to live out of cages without any interference of humans ,humans also don’t like interference of anybody so why they interfere in the animals life

These all things written above shows the cruelty of human beings on, it’s the time stop animal cruelty not even in India but all over the world .

Animals just need your love and care don’t harm them for your business and entertainment ,stop doing these things stop animal cruelty

Pradhan mantra Garib Kalyan Yojana

The Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY) was launched in the year 2016 by PM Narendra Modi along with the other provisions of Taxation Laws (Second Amendment) Act, 2016. It came into effect from 17th December 2016 under the Ministry of Finance. 

The Union Finance Minister has announced Rs1.70 lakh crore relief package under the newly framed Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana for the poor to help them fight the battle against CoronaVirus (COVID-19).

  • As part of the lockdown to stem the spread of the deadly virus, the government has stopped public transport, airlines and construction work, bringing to a halt most economic activities and leaving millions of workers in the informal economy without a livelihood.
  • The central government’s package comes a week after Kerala first announced a Rs 20,000-crore support for its people. Many states including Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Telangana and Rajasthan followed suit.

Benefits of PM Garib Kalyan Package

To reduce the loss caused by the outbreak of Covid-19 in India, the Finance Minister launched the PM Garib Kalyan Package on March 26th 2020 for the BPL families. 

Some of the benefits provided by the PM Garib Kalyan Package are as follows:

  • An Insurance Cover of Rs. 50 Lakh
  • Free Pulses for the next 3 months under PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana
  • Benefit to farmers
  • Free LPG cylinders to the BPL families
  • To help the low wage earners in organised sectors

The latest announcement on PMGKY was made on 29th June 2020. Earlier on 26th March 2020, the government took an initiative towards the loss caused by the outbreak. The lockdown in the nation due to Coronavirus expected to cost the Indian Economy a cost of around 9 lakh crores.

Announcements made by the Finance Minister, Nirmala Sitharaman on 26th March 2020 are mentioned below:

  • To provide an insurance cover of Rs 50 lakhs per health worker affected by COVID-19. 
  • To provide free resources of 5 kg wheat or rice and 1 kg of preferred pulses for 80 crore poor people for the next three months under the PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana.
  • 20 crore Women Jan Dhan account holders will be provided Rs 500 per month for next three months. 
  • There will be an increase in MNREGA wage to Rs 202 per day to benefit 13.62 crore families.

The Central Government has given orders to State Governments to use the Building and Construction Workers Welfare Fund to provide relief to Construction Workers.

PM Modi in his speech on 30th June 2020 mentioned the extension of the PM Garib Kalyan Yojana till the end of November 2020. He also mentioned that in the last 3 months, Rs. 31,000 crore deposited in bank accounts of 20 crore poor families.

  • Over 80 crore poor people are to be provided free food grains till November 2020 – 5kg of wheat/rice and 1 Kg of pulses per family.
  • The extension of PMGKY  is going to cost Rs.90,000 crore.
  • Due to the outbreak of Covid-19 in India, the Finance Minister, on 26th March 2020, had announced a ₹1.7 lakh crore Gareeb Kalyan package to mitigate the loss faced by the poor due to the coronavirus lockdown.
  • Earlier, the scheme was valid from December 16, 2016, to March 31, 2017, and later was extended till June 2020.
  • The PMGKY provided an opportunity to declare the unaccounted wealth and black money in a confidential manner and avoid prosecution after paying a fine of 50% on the undisclosed income. An additional 25% of the undisclosed income is invested in the scheme which can be refunded after four years, without any interest.

Globally, many countries had announced stimulus packages involving 10-12% fiscal expansions. In comparison, this package is only about 0.75% of India’s GDP, which is marginal.

The Government should now turn its focus towards businesses that are running out of cash and may soon default on even salaries and statutory commitments if relief is not given.

How to boost your immunity in this pandemic?

In this pandemic everyone wants to boost their immunity. But the question is, how to boost up immunity?

Covid‐19 attacks people with low immune systems and people especially people of under and over ages. The immune system is built on beneficial live bacteria that lives in the gut which protect the human body from various diseases. When the immune system response is low, weak, or damaged, it becomes an open invitation for infections such as coronavirus or other diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Plant‐based foods increase and help the intestinal beneficial bacteria, and the overall gut micro biome health which makes up to 85% of the body’s immune system. On the other hand, excess of animal foods deplete the body from good bacteria, promote inflammation, and are the underlying cause of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cardiovascular diseases, hepatitis B, cancer, and chronic kidney diseases.

Patients of coronavirus must have plenty of water, as that will keep their mucous membranes moist which can further lower the chances of cold and flu. If they do not sense thirst that much, then they can prepare soup for them or have coconut water, milk, green tea, and even some homemade fruit juice will be helpful. There is currently no evidence of COVID‐19 virus survival in sewage or drinking water.

The food you eat plays a key aspect in determining your overall health and immunity. Eat low carb diets, as this will help control high blood sugar and pressure.  A low carb diet will help slow down diabetes and focus on a protein-rich diet to keep you in good shape. And regularly consume vegetables and fruits rich in Beta carotene, Ascorbic acid & other essential vitamins. Certain foods like mushrooms, tomato, bell pepper and green vegetables like broccoli, spinach are also good options to build resilience in the body against infections.

Vitamin C is an important aspect of improving immunity, for the kids, adults, or even elderly people. Fruits like oranges, papaya, kiwi, and guava are rich in vitamin C and should be included in diet. Moreover, some vegetables like eggplant, bell peppers, beetroots, spinach, and cauliflower are known to be quite rich in vitamin C and are good for immunity. Green vegetables like broccoli, mushrooms, and even kale are a few immunity boosters that one can include in the diet. They improve the immune system of older people quite rapidly. Berries can also be included in the diet along with foods rich in omega‐3 fatty acids—beans, flax seeds, and even some nuts. Elderly people should consume Spirulina and Curcumin, as they are extremely rich in vitamin C and minerals. These super foods help in building and strengthening immunity at great level.

Water‐soluble vitamins have significant benefits in treatment of sepsis and septic shock, a life‐threatening condition, which is caused by inflammation produced by pathogenic organisms. Other ways vitamin C aids the body are as a pro‐oxidant for immune cells, antioxidant for lung epithelial cells, and immunosuppressive effects (Erol, 2020). Foods that contain vitamin C are oranges, kiwi, kale, and broccoli (Hill, 2018).

Vitamin E is vital for maintaining the overall health of elderly people, including their immunity. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that can protect you from various infections, bacteria, and viruses. Soaked almonds, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, and even hazelnuts should be consumed to get the daily dose of vitamin E. Vitamin E functions primarily as an un‐specific, chain‐breaking antioxidant that bans the spread of lipid peroxidation. This vitamin is often a radical peroxyl scavenger that protects the polyunsaturated fats in plasma membranes and lipoproteins (Liang et al., 2003). F2‐isoprostan quantification is the most effective indices of free‐radical production and oxidative lipid destruction in vivo (Lin et al., 2002). The F2‐isoprostans are enhanced, and their emission may be reduced by taking supplements with vitamin E. Vitamin E performs a significant part in preserving immune responses.

Some other aspects, you can stay healthy, and boost your immunity by these things:

Don’t avoid sleep: take at least 8 hours of sleep in a day.

Stay hydrated and try to drink water of  every one hour gap, at least 12 glass of water in this summer season and 8 glasses water in winter season.

Never skip exercises, make routine of exercises in your life it will make you more attractive and boost your immunity very easily-

You can do yoga, aerobics, stretching, morning walk and many more things,

Be relaxed and distress, and do mediation it will help you to focus on your work

And lastly, take vitamin c every day and avoid sugar as much as you can

While the battle against the Covid-19 pandemic is fought by our health care workers, we can do our bit by limiting our exposure to the virus by staying indoors, social distancing, eating healthy, hydrating .

corona virus vaccine

As expected in recent news , corona virus vaccination can be launched on 15 august 2020 but now the vaccine for COVID-19 can be expected only by early next year, a parliamentary panel was informed on Friday. The House panel of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Science and Technology, Environment and Climate heard presentations by the Department of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the principal scientific adviser to the government on Centre’s preparedness for COVID-19.

Sources said that the panel was informed that a COVID-19 vaccine could be available only by early next year. The panel which is chaired by senior Congress leader Jairam Ramesh, saw six other members in attendence for the meeting.

This was the first meeting of the panel since the country wide lockdown to curb the novel coronavirus outbreak was imposed on March 25.

On July 2, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in a statement had announced that it would partner with Bharat Biotech International Limited (BBIL) to fast-track clinical trials of the indigenous COVID-19 vaccine (BBV152 COVID Vaccine).

In an official statement, ICMR Director General Balram Bhargava stated that ICMR aims to launch the indigenous COVID-19 vaccine by August 15.

  • COVAXIN has become the first vaccine candidate developed in India to receive the DCGI nod to conduct phase 1 and 2 clinical trials
  • The ICMR’s August 15 deadline for the India’s first indigenous coronavirus vaccine has created confusion among experts.
  •  A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to control and finally end the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus. With more than 200 candidates being developed across the world, vaccine development is moving at unprecedented speed. Joining the global race to create a safe vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, Indian researchers will soon start testing the country’s first indigenous coronavirus vaccine candidate, COVAXIN, on 1,100 people in two phases – phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. Developed by Bharat Biotech in partnership with Indian Council Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Virology (NIV), the experimental inactivated vaccine is derived from a strain of SARS-COV-2 virus isolated by ICMR-NIV, Pune. COVAXIN has demonstrated safety and immune response in preclinical studies.
  • The world urgently needs a COVID-19 vaccine, which will help prevent and reduce the risk of infection, as well as resultant complications. However, there’s also a growing momentum of skeptics raising doubts about future vaccine programmes against other infectious diseases – with safety being a major concern. As COVID-19 continues to spread, pathways of vaccine development are changing in ways as researchers race against time to create a safe jab by shortening process time from the usual 15- to 20-year timeline to one that might be as short as one year. Perhaps, the ICMR’s 40-day target to launch Bharat Biotech’s COVID-19 vaccine by August 15 has caused alarm among scientists and some in the medical fraternity. While the research body has clarified that the date was ‘not a deadline’, several experts have warned against any hasty solution that may compromise standards of scientific rigour.
  •  Experts, familiar with vaccine trials, including the AIIMS Director, New Delhi, have already said that such deadlines may not be met, given the vaccine is yet to undergo the phase 2/ 3 trials and still there are a few more stages to go through before it could get FDA regulatory approval for production, which in itself is a time-consuming task.

So, even if clinical trials vaccine is in accelerated mode all the world ( multi-centric trials), the whole process of vaccine approval by FDA to vaccine production and coming to market for effective distribution will not be before August 2021.

  • Right now we are in a situation, where desperate time needs desperate measures – and at the fastest speed, it takes 12 to 18 months. Post-approval by the FDA, it should take around 1 – 1.5 years for the massive production of billions of vaccine doses.
  • Hence, on the safer side, it looks like August 2021 for a viable COVID vaccine to enter the market.

So, we should maintain the precautions, use of face mask, hand sanitizer and social distancing now is the only medicine of covid-19 till covid-19 vaccine launch.

skill india mission

 Skill India Mission is a government scheme launched in 2015. It is an umbrella scheme that has many skilling schemes and programmes under it. The chief objective is to empower the youth of the country with adequate skill sets that will enable their employment in relevant sectors and also improve productivity. 

Skill India Objectives

The chief objective of the Skill India Mission is to provide market-relevant skills training to more than 40 crore young people in the country by the year 2022.

  • The mission intends to create opportunities and space for the development of talents in Indian youth.
  • It aims to develop those sectors which have been put under skill development for the last many years, and also to recognize new sectors for skill development.

Other objectives are:

  1. Closing the gap between skill required by the industry and skills people possess for employment generation.
  2. Reducing poverty in the country.
  3. Increasing the competitiveness of Indian businesses.
  4. Ensuring that skill training imparted is relevant and of quality.
  5. Preparing Indians to take on the world manpower/resources market.
  6. Diversifying the existing skill development programmes to meet today’s challenges.
  7. Building actual competencies rather than giving people mere qualifications.
  8. Offering opportunities for lifelong learning for developing skills.
  9. Augmenting better and active engagement of social partners and building a strong public-private partnership in skill development.
  10. Mobilising adequate investments for financing skills development sustainable.

Features of Skill India

There are many features to the Skill India Mission that make it different from the previous skill development missions.

  • The focus is on improving the employability of the youth so that they get employment and also enhances entrepreneurship among them.
  • The mission offers training, guidance and support for all traditional types of employment like weavers, cobblers, carpenters, welders, masons, blacksmiths, nurses, etc.
  • New domains will also be emphasised on such as real estate, transportation, construction, gem industry, textiles, banking, jewellery designing, tourism and other sectors where the level of skill is inadequate.
  • Training imparted would be of international standards so that India’s youth get jobs not only in India but also abroad where there is demand.
  • An important feature is the creation of a new hallmark ‘Rural India Skill’.
  • Customised need-based programmes would be started for specific age groups in communication, life and positive thinking skills, language skills, behavioural skills, management skills, etc.
  • The course methodology would also not be unconventional and would be innovative. It would involve games, brainstorming sessions, group discussions, case studies and so on.

Why does India need a skills development programme?

As of a 2014 report, India’s formally skilled workforce is just 2%. Additionally, there is a huge problem of employability among the educated workforce of the country. Lack of vocational or professional skills makes it difficult for the youth to adapt to changing demands and technologies of the marketplace. The high level of unemployment is due to the failure to get jobs and also due to a lack of competency and training.

  • A study by the Skill Development Council (NSDC) indicates that there will be a need for around 12 crores skilled manpower by 2022 across 24 key sectors.
  • Casual workers, who constitute about 90% of the labour force, are poorly skilled as they do not get adequate training. Current vocational training programmes do not meet their demands.
  • There is a problem of social acceptability when it comes to vocational education. Vocational courses are looked down upon and this needs to change.
  • Changing technology is a big challenge and opportunity for the labour force. Employees will have to constantly upgrade their skills if they are to remain relevant in the job market.
  • There is a problem with the lack of infrastructure in the current training institutes.
  • Another problem is the poor quality of trainers available. Students trained by such trainers are not employable in the industry.
  • There is a big issue with the standardisation of skills in the country. New schemes are designed to resolve this issue by having nationwide standards that also stand up to international benchmarks.

Skilling is important because of the following factors:

  1. Demographic dividend: Most major economies of the world have an ageing population. India, with a favourable demographic dividend, can grab this opportunity and serve the manpower market. But, for this adequate skilling is to be provided to up the employability. To capitalise on this, there is only a narrow demographic window, that of a few decades.
  2. The percentage of the workforce receiving skill training is only 10% in India which is very small compared to other countries – Germany (75%), Japan (80%), South Korea (96%).
  3. Sectoral mobilisation: As productivity improves in agriculture due to increased mechanisation, there will be fewer people required in the farming sector. There will thus be a shift from this sector to other secondary and tertiary activities.

National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015

The chief objective of this policy is to match the challenge of skilling at scale with speed, standard (quality) and sustainability. It aims to offer an umbrella framework to all skilling activities carried out within India, to align them to common standards and connect skilling with demand centres. In addition to laying down the objectives and expected outcomes, the policy also identifies the overall institutional framework which will act as a means to achieve the expected results. 

Skill Loan Scheme

Under this scheme, loans ranging from Rs.5000 to Rs. 1.5 lakhs will be provided for those seeking to attend skill development programmes. The idea behind the scheme is to remove financial hurdles for people who want to upgrade their skills and learn new skills.


Though skill training in the country has improved in recent years, the absence of job linkages is only aggravating the problem of unemployment. The newly appointed Minister for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Dharmendra Pradhan has echoed a similar concern. “We have to think big way, a lot of technologies are coming, conventional jobs are squeezed, new verticals are emerging, what are they, they have to be informed to employable youths which all big jobs are there.”

Skill development starts with identifying future job prospects and segmenting it according to the need and feasibility of training candidates. The PPP model of operation of SSCs presents a great chance of bringing industry best practices in learning and development into such training modules. Private players can use technology to automate, improve and scale training and certification approach of skill-based training. By creating better linkages between the many stakeholders in the process and establishing key deliverables and a clear chain of accountability would help make such training programs more effective. Working towards increasing the accessibility of such training programs, in parallel, should also be looked at. A recently proposed move of making such training more district centric is a step towards that direction.

As India aims to have one of the strongest economic growth stories in the 21st century, it becomes vital for it ensure it growing workforce is capable to handle the incoming disruptions and find suitable jobs. And a core part of this is to tackle the problem of unskilled labor in India and fix its skilling initiatives, today rather than tomorrow.

Delhi the city of pandavas

Delhi, the capital of India has a strong historical background. It was ruled by some of the most powerful emperors in Indian history.

The history of the city is as old as the epic Mahabharata. The town was known as Indraprastha, where Pandavas used to live. In due course eight more cities came alive adjacent to Indraprastha: Lal Kot, Siri, Dinpanah, Quila Rai Pithora, Ferozabad, Jahanpanah, Tughlakabad and Shahjahanabad.


indraprastha is not only known from the Mahabharata. It is also mentioned as “Indapatta” or “Indapattana” in Pali-language Buddhist texts, where it is described as the capital of the Kuru Kingdom, situated on the Yamuna River. The Buddhist literature also mentions Hatthinipura (Hastinapura) and several smaller towns and villages of the Kuru kingdom. Indraprastha may have been known to the Greco-Roman world as well: it is thought to be mentioned in Ptolemy‘s Geography dating from the 2nd century CE as the city “Indabara”, possibly derived from the Prakrit form “Indabatta”, and which was probably in the vicinity of Delhi.


After their Uncle King Dhritarashtra partitioned the Kingdom of Hastinapur (which was rightfully Yudhishtir’s) into two in order to stem the rivalry between the Pandava brothers and the Kauravas .

Mahabharata is about the Kauravas and the Pandavas, two groups of relatives engaged in a long conflict with each other. It refers to Indraprastha as a major city that was the capital of the Pandava Kingdom from about 1400 BC. Indraprastha is considered to have been the first significant settlement in the Delhi area, which has since hosted a succession of kingdoms and giant civilisations. At some point, Indraprastha fell from grace, either conquered or abandoned. The ASI believes that Purana Qila may have been built on top of these ruins.

How much years did pandavas ruled on indraprastha?

Indraprastha, The capital of the Pandavas (the Pandus) whence they ruled for 36 years.

It lay to the west of Yamuna river, in modern-day Delhi territory.

How did pandavas built the indraprastha?

 Pandavas cleared this forest to construct their capital city called Indraprastha. This forest was earlier inhabited by Naga tribes led by a king named Takshaka.

Arjuna and Krishna cleared this forest by setting up a fire. The inhabitants of this forest were Killed or displaced. This was the root cause of the enmity of the Naga Takshaka towards the Kuru kings who ruled from Indraprastha and Hastinapura.

The Mahabharata states that Indra was the protecting deity (deva) of Khandava forest, which is why the region was known as Indraprastha.

When the forest was being burned, Indra attacked Arjuna with his bolt (vajra), injuring him.

But Arjuna defeated all gods, Gandharvas and demons in that fierce battle and burnt entire forest.

chhapadeshwar Mahadev Mandir in Kharkhoda, Haryana was the part of Khandav Van.

Khanda village named after Khandava Forest.

Later Lord Indra sent Mayasur and Vishvakarman  to Build a Superlative City that would be so Beautiful and Magnificent that it would compete with Lord Indra’s Heavenly abode – Hence it was called as “Mayanagari” or a Magical city as Maya an Asur had built it with several Magical Tricks and Treats in Architecture and construction.

Who ruled on indraprastha after the defeat of kauravas and pandavas?

The death of several rulers and kings in the war resulted in several successions, of which two notable ones being the crowning of Yudhishthira as the king of Hastinapura and declaration of Yuyutsu as the subordinate king to Yudhishthira for the kingdom of Indraprastha. Evidently, the central power in the Gangetic plain had now shifted from the Kurus to the Panchalas. The states of Hastinapur and Indraprastha were reunified and were governed by the Pandavas.

Now, where the indraprastha situated in delhi and on what place?

 It is often thought to have been located in the region of present-day New Delhi, particularly the Old Fort (Purana Qila), although this has not been conclusively confirmed. The city is sometimes also known as Khandavaprastha or Khandava Forest, the name of a forest region on the banks of Yamuna river.

Aatma nirbhar bharat abhiyaan

Prime minister narendra modi announced a special economic package of Rs 20 lakh crore (equivalent to 10% of India’s GDP) with the aim of making the country independent against the tough competition in the global supply chain and to help in empowering the poor, labourers, migrants who have been adversely affected by COVID On 12 may .

Atmanirbhar Bharat has been called by some as a re-packaged version of the Make in India movement using new taglines such as ‘Vocal for Local’.

As part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat package, numerous government decisions have taken place such as changing the definition of MSMEs, boosting scope for private participation in numerous sectors, increasing FDI in the defence sector; and the vision has found support in many sectors such as the solar manufacturers sector.

The growth of India’s personal protective equipment (PPE) sector from zero before March, to 1,50,000 pieces a day by the beginning of May, is considered as a fine example of a self-reliant India. The PPE industry in India has become a 7,000 crore (US$980 million) in two months, the second largest after China. The largest fund in the country worth 21,000 crore (US$2.9 billion) was setup by the IIT Alumni Council with the aim of supporting the mission towards self-reliance.

This self-reliant policy does not aim to be protectionist in nature and as the Finance Minister clarified, “self-reliant India does not mean cutting off from rest of the world”. The law and IT minister, Ravi Shankar Prasad, said that self-reliance does “not mean isolating away from the world. Foreign direct investment is welcome, technology is welcome , self-reliant India… translates to being a bigger and more important part of the global economy.

The Five pillars of Atmanirbhar Bharat focus on:

  • Economy
  • Infrastructure
  • System
  • Vibrant Demography and
  • Demand

The Five phases of Atma nirbhar Bharat are:

Some details about phases of aatma nirbhar bharat :

MSME Sector

Rs 3 lakh crore Collateral free Automatic Loans have been announced for businesses including MSMEs. Some welfare measures include:

  • 1)Rs 50,000 crore equity infusion through MSME Fund of Funds
  • 2)reduction of EPF contribution for businesses and workers for 3 months
  • 3)extension of due date of all income tax returns for FY 2019-20 till Nov 30, 2020
  • 4)Rs 45,000 crore Partial Credit Guarantee Scheme 2.0

Poor including farmers and migrant workers

  1. Free supply of food grains to migrants for 2 months
  2. Affordable Rental Housing Complexes for migrants/urban poor
  3. Rs 5000 crore Special Credit Facility for street vendors
  4. Rs 30,000 crore Additional Emergency Working Capital Funding for farmers through NABARD
  5. Rs 2 lakh crore Concessional Credit Boost to 2.5 crore farmers through Kisan Credit Cards

Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries

  1. Rs 1 lakh crore Agri Infrastructure Fund for farm gate infrastructure for farmers
  2. Rs 20,000 crore for fishermen through Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)
  3. Rs 15,000 crore for Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund
  4. Rs 500 crore for beekeeping initiatives
  5. Amendments to Essential Commodities Act to enable better price realisation for farmers
  6. Agriculture Marketing Reforms to provide marketing choices to farmers
  7. Agriculture produce price and quality assurance

New Horizons of Growth

 1.Policy reforms to fast track investment to pave way towards Aatma Nirbhar Bharat
2. Policy reforms in coal sector, mineral sector, defense production
3. Private participation in space activities
4. More world class airports through PPP

Government Reforms and Enablers

1.Rs 40,000 crore increase in allocation for MGNREGA to boost employment
2. Health reforms and initiatives to increase investment in public health and to prepare the nation for future pandemics
3. Technology driven education with equity post COVID
4. Enhancement of Ease of Doing Business through IBC related measures
5. Public Sector Enterprise Policy for a Self Reliant India

These all policies can be successful when, india  accept the ‘make in india’ products .

After this successful completion India would definitely become the aatma nirbhar and self reliant india in all over the world.

Tobacco consumption

Tobacco consumption is a huge public health issue in India and its impact is especially devastating among the poor. Effective tobacco control should be a top priority, both as a health issue and as a method to reduce poverty. Tobacco use is deeply ingrained as a cultural practice and there are a myriad of tobacco types. We reviewed multiple determinants of tobacco consumption including socio-economic status, marriage, population growth, marketing strategies, and price. We also considered the tobacco burden including economic and social costs and adverse health impacts especially those resulting from oral cancer. We then addressed the history of tobacco control legislation in India and challenges in implementation. Tobacco consumption in India is continuing to increase despite tobacco control policy. Needed are more visible and aggressive anti-tobacco campaigns including increased public awareness of tobacco harms and active engagement of worksites and health professionals in promoting tobacco cessation.

Databases searched include PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar using key words tobacco use in India, cigarettes, beedis, smokeless tobacco, tobacco control, and legislation policies, and wide probability of these words was used in a variety of combinations. Reports of Government of India and World Health Organization (WHO), news reports from Web sites, names of individual states in India were used with the above key words to obtain state-specific information. The cross references of the selected articles were also considered. Nationally representative surveys conducted by Government of India time to time with tobacco as the component and large-scale and local community-based studies on tobacco were all taken into consideration. Articles reporting findings of empirical studies and were extended to increase use of evidence-based prevention and intervention to maximize review data. Most of the studies included are those relevant to Indian subcontinent.

India is the second largest consumer of tobacco.

Males contributed 91% of the entire economic burden and remaining accounted for the females. SLT accounts for 66% of direct medical costs among the females. SLT has grown at an alarming rate in India, about one-fifth of the world’s total production and cultivation is done by India.

Hazards of tobacco use

Tobacco is deadly in any form either be smoking or smokeless; scientific evidences have proved that tobacco leads to disease, disability, and death. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monograph, there is sufficient evidence in humans that tobacco smoking causes cancer of the lung; oral cavity; naso-, oro-, and hypo-pharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses; larynx; esophagus; stomach; pancreas; liver; kidney (body and pelvis); ureter; urinary bladder; uterine cervix; and bone marrow (myeloid leukemia). Colorectal cancer is seen to be associated with cigarette smoking, although there is insufficient evidence for it to be causal. Ninety percent of all lung cancer deaths in men and 80% in women are caused by smoking. Research has clearly indicated causal associations between active smoking and adverse reproductive outcomes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Studies on bidi smoking, the most common form of tobacco smoking in India, provide evidence toward causality of it as carcinogenic substance. Case–control studies demonstrate a strong association of bidi smoking with cancers at various sites, such as oral cavity (including subsites), pharynx, larynx, esophagus, lung, and stomach. The research has indicated the significant trends with the duration and number of bidi smoked with causation of any type of cancer; passive smoking also attributed to diseases related to tobacco consumption.

Prevalence of various smoking tobacco in India

People smoke more tobacco in urban areas as compared with rural mind. With increase in age, smoking prevalence increases, and in India, males smoke more tobacco as compared with females. As compared with the urban area, there is more consumption of bidi and hookah in the rural areas. Daily cigarette smoking is about 6% compared with bidi smoking, which is 10%. In total, 63% of cigarette smokers smoke cigarette every day, whereas 81% of bidi smokers smoke bidi every day. In rural and urban areas, prevalence of daily cigarette smoking is 3% and 5%, respectively, whereas that of daily bidi smoking is 9% and 5%, respectively.

Sociocultural factors influencing tobacco consumption in India

Prevalence studies of tobacco use in India have shown wide variations between urban and rural areas, regions, age, gender, education, and other sociodemographic variables across the country.

There has also been a complex interplay of sociocultural factors that not only influenced the acceptance or rejection of tobacco by sections of society but also determined the patterns of use. In ancient India, smoking tobacco in the joint family was considered as a taboo and was mostly consumed by the dominant male members of the family. The younger members of the family avoid consumption of tobacco products in presence of elder family members. The practice of members of different generations smoking together, in a home setting, is rare even today though modernity has led to some relaxation of these rules.

Now,tobacco prevention and control policies in India have largely focused on awareness and behavior change campaigns, with much weaker implementation of more effective population level interventions, such as taxation increases and the banning of smoking in public places.

Public policy and health promotion interventions (a part of the sociopolitical context) need to have an inequality perspective to have desired impact and accordingly modify tobacco control policies. Uniform population-based approach of health education had worsened social inequalities as major benefits are harnessed by upper economic classes. Tobacco control measures that differentially target the poor include banning of advertisements, raising tobacco prices, work place interventions, free supply of cessation aids, and telephone help lines. Taxation has been reported as the most effective policy measure to curb smoking epidemic in poor. A 10% increase in bidi prices cut down bidi consumption by 9.2%.

All in all, addressing the inequalities in tobacco consumption did not necessitate introducing new set of interventions for tobacco control, but modifying the existing ones. To reduce the mortality and morbidity related to tobacco, there should be suitable policy reformation with interventions like inclusion of large public health programs in relation with NCD program to solve this problem holistically.


Brief History of CPA

To define the standards of the accounting industry, 31 accountants formed an association called the ‘American Association of Public Accountants (AAPA) in 1887. This association was renamed as AICPA in 1957, and it also conducts the CPA exam. In 2001 industry witnessed a major scandal called the ‘Enron Corporation scandal.’ In this, the company’s leaders duped regulations by showcasing fake holdings and poor accounting practices. Thus, in 2002, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed, and through this act, accountants are now liable to follow stringent restrictions for their consulting assignments. After this, the accounting industry saw a major shift in its overall practices, and hence the demand for certified accounting professionals rose.

What is CPA (Certified Public Accountant)?

Certified Public Accountant or CPA is a certification offered by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), for competency in the field of Accountancy. One may a CPA is an accountant with higher level of education and experience in the field. The AICPA defines a CPA as “a trusted financial advisor who helps individuals, businesses, and other organizations plan and reach their financial goals. Whatever those goals-saving for a new home, opening a new office, or planning a multi-billion dollar merger-CPAs can help.”

CPA certification is a professional recognition most beneficial for CACSMBA, Financial Advisors, Cost Accounting professionals, etc. Finance and accounting professionals can pursue CPA course to earn certification for career ascent, from the AICPA by fulfilling three criteria – Education, CPA Exam and Experience.

The requirement of CPAs is very high in various fields like public accounting, business and industry, government, not-for-profit, and education. The profiles include financial analysis, financial accounting and reporting, management accounting and treasury/cash management. To learn more about the opportunities available in each of these areas.

CPA Eligibility

  • To pursue CPA certification programme, the candidate must have a Graduation degree or equivalent.
  • To earn the CPA license, the candidate must complete 150 hours of the CPA course semester.
  • Many states require candidates to have 1-2 years of experience under a CPA.

It must be noted that CPA eligibility criteria is different for the US citizens and candidates from rest of the world.The consent agreement, international testing fees, and additional identification requirements of international candidates is different from that of the US candidates.

CPA Exam

The exam is a 16-hour, four-part assessment designed to test skills and knowledge required of a CPA. The computer based test is conducted at designated test centers in various countries and is same for candidates from all the countries. Medium of the test is English. The questions paper consists of MCQs, simulation and written ability. Passing marks in 75 on 0-99 scale.

The candidate has to complete the four-part assessment in 18 months to be eligible for CPA license.

CPA Jobs and Recruiters

The job role of a CPA is financial management which includes assessing and analyzing financial status of the client, reviewing financial documents, preparing reports related to capital, tax and audits, offer advice on book keeping and inform the client about changes in government regulation. The main tasks one performs as a CPA are listed below:

  • Prepare and assess financial records and statements.
  • Maintain records of all financial activities along with the records of assets, liabilities and tax.
  • Prepare financial reports for clients.
  • Ensure compliance with government regulations.

CPA career options:

CPA course is an ultimate qualification that gives you an unlimited possibilities to show case your skills in the field of accounting. After completing your CPA course you can begin our career in the following fields like accounting & auditing firms, investment banks, research firms, hedge funds, commercial banks, mutual funds, merger and acquisitions etc.

  • Insurance firms
  • Credit agencies
  • Central banks
  • Assets management firms etc.

CPA licensed professionals are hired by individuals, corporate houses, industry, government, private and non-profit organizations.

CPA Salary

The average salary for a CPA in India according to is Rs 7.6 lakh per annum. Salary will not be constraint if you have sufficient skills and talent. The salary varies based on the skillest and diligence, experience gained by the individual in the work force.

 Are CPA professionals demanded in India?

Yes, since MNCs and Big4s are rising in India, the demand for CPA certified professionals is progressing.  CPA certification holders are giving preference over CAs because they have in-depth knowledge of subjects like US GAAP, IFRS & US Compliance & Taxation. In contrast, CA only has proficiency in Indian GAAP.

The top recruiters hiring CPA professionals are:

Below is a list of recruiters hiring CPA professionals:

Top Recruiters Hiring CPA Professionals
DeloitteAccentureAmerican ExpressPhilips
PWCCap GeminiBarclaysTata Power
KPMGGenpactJP MorganSintex

  The eligibility criteria for attending the CPA exam?

To become eligible for the CPA exam, an Indian student should have any of the below qualifications ­

  • Member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
  • Member of the Institute of Cost and Works Accountants in India
  • Member of the Company Secretaries in India
  • Master of Commerce or MBAs

The minimum education qualification for taking the US CPA exam is –

  • CPA exam – 120 credits
  • CPA license – 120 credits

In India, 1 graduation year is equal to 20 credits; hence, 3 years B.Com and 2 years of MBA course equal 90 + 60 credits.

Conclusion: hope this information shed as a part of the CPA course details has enlightened you a bit.


What is ACCA?

ACCA stands for Association of Chartered Certified Accountants, which was originated from London and mainly focuses on Accounting and Finance. This course has been recognized in 180 countries throughout the world but mainly in the UK and European countries which means that you can join a Chartered Firm or successfully built your career as a finance professional after completing ACCA in such 180 countries. Although, if you are dreaming to do the audit and attestation work in India, CA is the only option.

ACCA is set to promote the excellence in Accounting and Finance globally and hence covers knowledge of UK GAAP, Laws and IFRS which opens the doors of many International and National companies handling the overseas clients.

ACCA course has been organized by ACCA (Association of Chartered Certified Accountants) UK professional body and it is also considered easier than Chartered Accountancy.

One of the most impressive things of ACCA course is that it recognizes the other qualifications you attained. It recognizes your graduation, post-graduation CA Inter and CA Final Qualification also. Out of the total of 14 papers in the ACCA course, a graduate or a CA Inter pass out has to appear in only 9 papers while after becoming CA  you have to attempt just 5 papers.

ACCA: association of chartered certified accountant is a professional degree course.

This exam is one of the most highly reputed exams in India. Over the past few years, ACCA India has managed to garner much recognition across the country. As the ACCA certification is new here in India, students are finding it difficult to decide whether it is a good career option or not.

ACCA certification in India:

 The ACCA qualification is equivalent to CA (ICAI) certification in India. However, the CA qualification is a bit too difficult to get through. However, the CA qualification is a must if you wish to work in one of the Indian firms, start your own business, or become a partner in a CA firm. That’s so because an Indian CA would have thorough knowledge about the taxes, laws, Indian economy, policies, etc.

Similarly, if you aspire to work abroad, then ACCA becomes a compulsory qualification. ACCA job opportunities are available across Australia, UK, Singapore, Dubai, etc. Besides, students who would like to have experience and comprehensive knowledge within the finance domain, ACCA works big time.

 The ACCA career opportunities:

There are multiple ACCA career opportunities available worldwide. Apart from an accountant, an ACCA professional can work as a management consultant, financial planner, and so on.

It is not possible for an ACCA to pursue auditing in India. That’s because an ACCA India has no authority for signing and hence he cannot mark his signature on audit reports. Similarly, he cannot set up his own auditing firm as well. However, ACCA India professional can carry out auditing job in the UK.

Acca India job opportunities:

It is predicted that in India could easily become one of the biggest global markets for ACCA. As such, the Indian economy is on the path of growth and globalization. Due to which, even MNCs and larger international companies are turning towards India to seek professional accountants and ace finance experts.

ACCA salary in India is considerably equivalent to that of a CA professional. An individual with ACCA qualification can earn an average salary of up to INR 8 lac p.a. The pay scale generally ranges between INR 4 lac p.a. To INR 15 lac p.a. It could go higher too, depending upon candidate’s skills, company’s demands, competition, etc.

Which companies are hiring ACCA in India?

ACCA qualified individuals get easily placed at Big 4 companies like EY, PwC, Deloitte, and KPMG. MNCs including Tata Grant Thornton, Embassy Group, and PepsiCo as well recruit ACCA India professionals. Apart from that, Accenture, HSBC, and Shalimar Paints also do look for accountants having ACCA certification.

ACCA India – Scope and opportunities

ACCA exam is a globally recognized exam. In recent years its recognition has increased exponentially among Indian students. Since the certification of ACCA in India is new, students have a dilemma whether to opt for it or not.

However, if one has an aspiration to work in other countries also, apart from India, where ACCA is coveted then he must opt for ACCA. These countries include UK, Dubai, Singapore, etc. If the student is looking to gain experience and knowledge in the finance field, this qualification shall help.

ACCA can work as an accountant, financial consultant, management consultant, financial planner, etc. However, an ACCA cannot practice auditing in India. The ACCAs working in audit firms in India (including the Big 4) can work as part of the audit team. However, the partner signing the audit report must be a member of the ICAI.

Some basics things about acca :acca courses mainly focuses on accounting and finance ,acca not easy but not hard as ca ,acca has a  global coverage therefore it is based on uk tax laws,

Multinational companies who are handling the work of overseas clients or companies outside India prefer ACCA.

After reading this above article, you must be sure about how to start your career in association of chartered certified accountants (acca).


MBA (Master of Business Administration) is a master degree programmer in business administration.

Before jumping to the conclusion that a Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) is the right path for you, stop and ask yourself why. The hunky-dory vision of life after MBA may not be so easy after all. Not every management graduate receives a cushy job and dream salary package. You must have your goals in place to be able to establish a solid and successful career after an MBA.

The usual reasons for doing an MBA these days:

It earns you more money

It gives you a promotion in your job

It helps you quit a job that sucks

Why pursue an MBA

To launch a progressive career

To make a shift in career, if you already are an experienced professional

To nurture an innovative outlook

To network with the best in the market

To add a brand value to yourself

To enhance personal growth

To start a business/ start-up/ turn entrepreneur

To move to another location

Scope of an MBA amongst Current Market Trends

Pursuing an MBA will give you skills that you may use to solve day-to-day business and management problems. MBA courses are more relevant today than ever before because thought leaders are needed to exploit the rapid growth in the Indian economy.

Unique Knowledge

Cut-throat competition is a reality. It is not uncommon for senior employees who have experience but lack an up-to-date skill set to lose out to younger colleagues who have pursued an MBA.


There is an increased specialization of careers in the service sector. This has led to emergence of specialized subjects in which you can pursue an MBA. Through subjects such as finance or marketing, you will not only learn the basics of business, but also be able to create a niche for yourself. You can look for the availability of a course of your liking in the best B-schools of India online or through appearing for their entrance exams, if any.

Better pay and Scope for Promotions

Pursuing a course such as a 2 year or1 year full time may change the direction of your career. It is an added academic achievement, which may increase the likelihood of getting a raise and promotion. It may also open up opportunities for jobs that you were not eligible for before because of its orientation towards leadership and team-building.

Entrepreneurship Skills

Startup India and other initiatives have made the Indian economy conducive to the establishment and growth of businesses.

The curriculum of a one year MBA or any other MBA courses in India will train you to differentiate between a good and bad strategy business strategy. You will learn how to give your business a global outreach, how to adopt techniques to attract external funding, and how to hire the best minds in the job market.

Having an MBA on your CV may translate into job security because you will still be able to find a job even if your business does not perform favorably.

India as an Emerging Economy

Emerging economies are proving to be fertile ground for MBA graduates, because it is easier to navigate unstructured markets with a structured mind. Companies are constantly looking to expand in such economies, and they need professionals trained in business and management to give direction to their growth.

The increase in domestic and foreign demand coupled with expansion in finance, real estate and investments are expected to cause a surge in India’s growth story, and an MBA degree is best designed to take advantage of it.

 MBA is a biggest opportunity for future security ,an mba aspirant can do anything in industrial sector .mba is one the most big job oriented professional programme and one which has been sought by the students .after completing this degree you may become the manager or can start their own business.

The MBA degree was initiated in the late 19th century in the USA. The MBA degree has been started to produce the sound management professional equip with the basic and advanced knowledge to stand the business administration.

Today, the world is growing in the fields of marketing, industrialization, financing and education. The MBA programme has specially been designed for the candidates who are executing the administration of the industries or related field.

Courses :-  For the admission in an MBA programme, many institutions require the GMAT 2020 (Graduate Management Admission Test) score.

But, entrance test is not required for the admission to the distance learning or Online.

In india (ignou : Indira Gandhi national open university provides mba course)

But in delhi university you need to crack the the cat exam after that you will get the admission in delhi university.

Many colleges and Universities are offering MBA programme as full-time and part-time or through online or distance learning education.

An exe-MBA (Executive Management of Business Administration) is also popular now. The working professional who wishes to get the higher degree according to his job profile can do the EMBA as part-time or online medium. In India, the accreditation body for MBA or related programme is AICTE (All India Council of Technical Education). There are different accreditation bodies in different countries.

The student can choose the core courses according to the interest. The top core subjects of an MBA degree are as the following:

The students choose the mba specialization fields according to their interest. Whether you have done graduation in engineeringartsscience or humanities, you are free to choose the MBA programme in any specialization, what you wish to.

Once you have done your MBA degree, you can go for the doctoral degree programme (PhD), offers by the various institutions in India and Abroad.


There are many universities which provides mba in india or foreign

The best part of the programme that the graduate in any discipline can get the admission in MBA programme.

The top colleges or universities in India, offering MBA programme are as following:

  • Symbiosis International University
  • Institute of Management & Technology
  • Sikkim Manipal University
  • Maharishi Dayanand university
  • ICFAI University
  • Amity University
  • Lovely Professional University
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth University
  • Indian Institute of Finance

Jobs profiles of mba holder

 An MBA professional always plays a vital role in his/her company and this is why, he used to keep in touch with the board of directors.

No need to specify the companies who recruit the MBA professionals. The all sectors including government and public have various industries, companies, institutions or related organizations, come in the job prospective fields for an MBA professional.

  • Brand Manager
  • Account Manager
  • International Business Manager
  • Marketing Executive
  • Business Technical Consultant
  • Business Development Executive
  • Marketing Manager
  • Management Consultant

These are some profiles of a mba holder who can be engaged in this work after completing his post-graduation in mba


“Handsome salary packages are offered to MBA qualified candidates”.

Management sector is one of the highest paying sector. The salary is no issue for the right candidates who have a good leadership, decision making skill, enthusiasm and good academic background.

The initial package in India is around Rs. 2 to 3 lakh per annum but the maximum is unlimited. Also the increment in this sector is quiet good and depending on your capability, you can reach up to six figure income in quick span of time.

  • Enrollment : if you completed your graduation from any fields you can prepare now for entrances for ex: CAT Entrance Exam ,XAT Entrance Exam,GMAT Entrance Exam,CMAT Entrance Exam,MAT Entrance Exam

After clearing this exam you can enroll your interest in your dream universities.