A Comparative study of the IOS Vs Android OS of the Mobile Platform – Of the Latest Versions

Picture Source : https://medium.com/mobile-app-development-publication/android-vs-ios-the-battle-of-security-speed-and-storage-8681f25144f2

ANDROID AS AN OPERATING SYSTEM


The android operating system is a mobile operating system that was
developed by Google(GOOGLE)to be primarily used for touch screen
devices, cellphones, and tablets. Its design lets users manipulate the
mobile devices intuitively, with finger movements that mirror common
motions, such as pinching, swiping, and tapping. Google also employs
Android software in televisions, cars, and wristwatches–each of which
is fitted with a unique user interface.

IOS AS AN OPERATING SYSTEM

OS responds to the user’s touch–allowing you touch the screen to
open a program, pinch your fingers together to minimize or enlarge
image, or swipe your finger across the screen to change pages.
It comes with the Safari web browser for internet use and iPod
application for playing music and Apple’s Mail for managing your emails.
Apple products have a very strong brand following, they tend to be the
most expensive but are also well-engineered. They do have drawbacks
however, they do not support a type of software called Flash which lots
of internet sites use to show video and you are locked into the Apple
Brand because the operating system only works on Apple products.

Comparison

In this world, where technology is growing at a very rapid speed. Almost every person right now is having a smartphone in their hands. Talking more about smartphones, we know that there are two biggest competitors in the OS (Operating System) market, mainly Android and IOS. Androids are widely used on phones and tablets, and even on televisions allowing users to be free in their choice. The iOS system, on the contrary, is limited to Apple devices, having no customization. The range of iOS devices is more premium-class iPhones, which is not affordable for everybody. Androids are compatible with any gadget of the price spectrum which makes them more liked among common people. Firstly, both operating systems have a lot in common: the zoom movements, tapping, swiping, a lock screen, similar to the PC’s desktop. That is why switching from one to another makes no problems, except that the iOS system has the most used icons on the home screen, while Androids allow users to set widgets, email, weather, etc. Secondly, software gets outdated every second, so it needs to be renewed regularly. The best results in updating security patches, for instance, belong to the iOS system. Around 90% of Apple devices are powered by the latest software versions whereas only high-end Android devices have the latest software. Both mobile operating systems have decent records and safeguards when it comes to security, but Android, being more open, has more vectors for malware to enter your phone. In particular, apps are more prone to bring trouble in Android, especially if you install from an alternative app store. Whereas in IOS it is not possible to install any apps outside of the Appstore. In the end, we can conclude that IOS is Better than Android in security, software, and privacy aspects. And android is better than IOS in customization and price aspects.

The Railways

Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on sleepers (ties) set in ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as “slab track”, in which the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.

Rolling stock in a rail transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than rubber-tired road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars (carriages and wagons) can be coupled into longer trains. The operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives that either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their power, usually by diesel engines or, historically, steam engines. Most tracks are accompanied by a signaling system. Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency but is often less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport when lower traffic levels are considered.

Picture source: https://scroll.in/article/669579/the-long-history-of-indian-railways-told-through-images

Indian Railways

Indian Railways (IR) is a statutory body under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Railways, Government of India that operates India’s national railway system. It manages the fourth-largest railway network in the world by size, with a route length of 67,956 km (42,226 mi) as of 31 March 2020. 45,881 km (28,509 mi) or 71% of all the broad-gauge routes are electrified with 25 kV 50 Hz AC electric traction as of 1 April 2021.

In the fiscal year ending March 2020, Indian Railways carried 808.6 crores (8.086 billion) passengers and transported 121.23 crores (1.2123 billion) tonnes of freight. It runs 1 lakh (100,000) passenger trains daily, on both long-distance and suburban routes, covering 7,325 stations across India. Mail or Express trains, the most common types of trains, run at an average speed of 50.6 km/h (31.4 mph). Suburban EMUs run at an average speed of 37.5 km/h (23.3 mph). Ordinary passenger trains (incl. mixed) run at an average speed of 33.5 km/h (20.8 mph). The maximum speed of passenger trains varies, with the Gatimaan Express running at a peak speed of 160 km/h (99 mph).

In the freight segment, IR runs 8,479 trains daily. The average speed of freight trains is around 24 km/h (15 mph). The maximum speed of freight trains varies from 60–75 km/h (37–47 mph) depending on their axle load with ‘container special’ trains running at a peak speed of 100 km/h (62 mph).

The first railway proposals for India were made in Madras in 1832.

  • The country’s first transport train, Red Hill Railway (built by Arthur Cotton to transport granite for road-building), ran from Red Hills to the Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837. In 1845, the Godavari Dam Construction Railway was built by Cotton at Dowleswaram in Rajahmundry, to supply stone for the construction of a dam over the Godavari River. In 1851, the Solani Aqueduct Railway was built by Proby Cautley in Roorkee to transport construction materials for an aqueduct over the Solani River.
  • India’s first passenger train, operated by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and hauled by three steam locomotives (SahibSindh, and Sultan), ran for 34 kilometers (21 mi) with 400 people in 14 carriages on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge track between Bori Bunder (Mumbai) and Thane on 16 April 1853. The Thane viaducts, India’s first railway bridges, were built over the Thane creek when the Mumbai-Thane line was extended to Kalyan in May 1854. Eastern India’s first passenger train ran 39 km (24 mi) from Howrah, near Kolkata, to Hoogly on 15 August 1854. The first passenger train in South India ran 97 km (60 mi) from Royapuram-Veyasarapady (Madras) to Wallajabad (Arcot) on 1 July 1856.

Shillong

Wards Lake

Shillong is a hill station in the northeastern part of India and the capital of Meghalaya, which means “The Abode of Clouds”. It is the headquarters of the East Khasi Hills district. Shillong is the 330th most populous city in India with a population of 143,229 according to the 2011 census. It is said that the rolling hills around the town reminded the British of Scotland. Hence, they would also refer to it as the “Scotland of the East”.

Shillong has steadily grown in size since it was made the civil station of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills in 1864 by the British. In 1874, on the formation of Assam as the Chief Commissioner’s Province, it was chosen as the headquarters of the new administration because of its convenient location between the Brahmaputra and Surma valleys and more so because the climate of Shillong was much cooler than tropical India. Shillong remained the capital of undivided Assam until the creation of the new state of Meghalaya on 21 January 1972, when Shillong became the capital of Meghalaya, and Assam moved its capital to Dispur in Guwahati.

Shillong was capital for composite Assam during the British regime and later till a separate State of Meghalaya was formed. David Scott, the British civil servant of the East India Company, was the Agent of the Governor-General North East Frontier. During the First Anglo-Burmese War the British authorities felt the need for a road to connect Sylhet and Assam. The route was to traverse across the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. David Scott overcame the difficulties his administration faced from the opposition of the Khasi Syiems – their chiefs and people. Impressed by the favourable cool climate of Khasi Hills, they negotiated with the Syiem of Sohra in 1829 for a sanatorium for the British. 

Places to visit

SHILLONG PEAK

At a distance of 10 km from the city and at a height of 6449 ft (1965 m) above sea level, this is the highest point of Shillong. It offers a breathtaking panoramic view of the entire city, the Himalayas, its waterfalls as well as of the Bangladesh plains. A beautiful place to spend a day.

LADY HYDARI PARK

A very popular tourist spot in Shillong, the park is dedicated to the first lady of the province – Lady Hydari. This sprawling park, located in the heart of the city encompasses a wide variety of flora along with a mini zoo housing 73 species of birds and over 100 reptiles. The beautiful bed of flowers is the highlight of the park.

DAINTHLEN FALLS

Just before reaching Sohra, a road to the right leads one to the falls which are 5 km away. The waterfall derives its name from a Then or a snake of gigantic size which dwelt in a cave. Legend has it that the people destroyed the snake to rid themselves of its reign of terror. Adjacent to the very spot where the Thlen was slaughtered lies the Dainthlen Waterfalls. Natural rock carvings of the episode draw visitors to see the image of the Thlen, the symbol of greed, corruption, and evil.

Elephant Falls

Named after an Elephant like stone at its base, the Elephant Falls are amongst the most popular falls in the North-East, situated close to Shillong. It is a tourist attraction with three layers of the falls accessible from different vantage points.

The Incredible Growth of eSports

The eSports industry has seen tremendous growth over the years, both in terms of viewership and revenue. The increasing viewership is what mainly contributed to the revenue growth – and it’s not just because those viewers are generating revenue. Seeing the potential of reaching a large and engaged audience, brands are, investing in esports marketing both directly and indirectly. This has contributed to rapid revenue growth in the industry, only slowed down by COVID limiting large public eSports events.
eSports has also experienced growth in several other aspects, with many of them interrelated in one way or another. In this post, you will learn more about just how much the eSports industry is growing so you can understand how to leverage it.
We define eSports as being “professional or semi-professional competitive gaming in an organized format (tournament or league) with a specific goal/prize, such as winning a championship title or prize money).” The eSports stats we include here relate to professional competitive gaming content only and don’t include amateur competitions or live streaming around non-organized competitive gaming. Newzoo separates the eSports market from the live-streaming market (aka gaming market). For these stats, Newzoo separates eSports enthusiasts from occasional viewers. They define eSports enthusiasts as people who watch professional eSports content more than once a month and occasional viewers as those who watch professional content less regularly than that. Note that some of the statistics we report here differ from what we wrote in an earlier version of this article due to a change in Newzoo’s definitions and recognition of what they consider professional eSports.

Picture source : https://www.kioskmarketplace.com/blogs/esports-popping-up-worldwide-will-you-be-ready/

Earnings in eSports Tournaments

There’s little doubt that with so much growth in many of these statistics, there would also be growth in eSports tournament prize money and player earnings – at least until COVID arrived. 

In 2019, the total prize money for 5591 tournaments was $236,221,114. So, the mean tournament prize pool was $42,250. With 28,336 active players at these tournaments, each player’s mean earnings were $8,336, and their median earnings were $666.67 per player.

With the arrival of COVID-19 in 2020, the overall total prize money fell to $119,457,468 from just 4478 tournaments. The mean tournament prize pool was $26,677. With 24,231 active players at these tournaments, each player’s mean earnings were $4,930, and their median earnings were $582.08 per player.

Esports Teams and Advertising

Just like traditional professional sports, esports teams have owners, franchises, endorsement deals, cash prizes from tournament winnings, and more—all contributing to their annual revenue and total valuation. When the pandemic subsides, esports leagues will likely resume their efforts to expand their audiences by hosting live gameplay with regional esports teams in a way that will more closely mimic traditional sports leagues. 

As of 2020, the top five most valuable esports teams according to Forbes are:

TSM – Value: $410 million

Estimated Revenue: $45 million

Revenue from Esports: 50%

Owner: Andy Dinh

Cloud9 – Value: $350 million

Estimated Revenue: $30

Revenue from Esports: 70%

Owners: Jack and Paullie Etienne

Team Liquid – Value: $310 million

Estimated Revenue: $28 million

Revenue from Esports: 89%

Owners: aXiomatic Gaming, Victor Goossens, Steve Arhancet

FaZe Clan – Value: $305 million

Estimated Revenue: $40 million

Revenue from Esports: 20%

Owners: Lee Trink, Richard Bengston (FaZe Banks), Thomas Oliveira (FaZe Temperrr), Yousef Abdelfattah (FaZe Apex), Nordan Shat (FaZe Rain)

100 Thieves – Value: $190 million

Estimated Revenue: $16 million

Revenue from Esports: 35%

Owners: Matthew Haag, Drake, Scooter Braun, Dan Gilbert

Misrepresentation under the Indian Contract Act, 1872:

A misrepresentation is an untrue statement of a material fact made by one party which affects the other party’s decision in corresponding to a contract. If the misrepresentation is identified, the contract can be declared void, and depending on the situation, the unfavorably impacted party may seek damages. In such a contract dispute, the party who made the misrepresentation becomes the defendant and the aggrieved party is the plaintiff. Misrepresentation in contract law is especially important in business dealings where huge transactions occur with high frequency. Misrepresentations of the value and/or risk correlated with an agreement can cause enormous financial losses to businesses and individuals while increasing the risk of collaborative business ventures. Accordingly, misrepresentation contract law is vital to ensuring fairness and diminishing the risk of entering into agreements between individuals and businesses.

Concept of Misrepresentation

For understanding the concept of misrepresentation first, we need to know the meaning of representation in terms of the contract. A representation is said to be such a statement that generates the entry into a contract but is not a part of a term of the contract.

Misrepresentation is about the giving of inaccurate information by one party (or their agent) to the other before the contract is made which induces them to make the contract. If a person makes a contract in reliance on misrepresentation and has to face loss as a result, they can revoke the contract or claim damages.

Unwarranted Statements

A statement made without any reasonable basis is an unwarranted statement. When a person makes a positive statement of a fact without any trustworthy source of information and believes that statement to be true, the act amounts to misrepresentation. When something is unwarranted it is not called for under the provided circumstances. For instance, arguing the merits of someone’s talent is one thing, but addressing them stupid is unwarranted.

Breach of duty

Once a duty has been established about the defendant we must find that the defendant has breached the duty. A breach of the duty of care occurs when one fails to achieve his or her duty of care to act wisely in some aspect. Commonly, if a party does not act reasonably to prevent foreseeable injuries to others, the duty of care is breached. Breach of duty is defined in a very interesting case named Vaughn V Menlove which states that the defendant is found to have overdue of the claimant and if he acts below the reasonable standard then a breach of duty would have been committed 

  • they may find out the cause of the breach and try to remedy it;
  • they may dispute that a breach has occurred;
  • they may argue that there is an exclusion clause or other terms in the contract limiting their liability for the breach; or
  • they might argue that there is a cause for their breach, or that the contract is invalid.

Inducing mistakes about subject matters

Inducing mistake about subject matter involves mistakes of fact. This happens when both the parties misunderstood each other leaving them at a crossroads. Such a wrongful act or a mistake can be because of an error in understanding, or ignorance or omission, etc. But a mistake is never intentional, it is an innocent commanding. 

References

The role social media plays 

Picture source : https://www.reviewsxp.com/blog/best-social-media-sites/

Human beings are social creatures. We need the companionship of others to thrive in life, and the strength of our connections has a huge impact on our mental health and happiness. Being socially connected to others can ease stress, anxiety, and depression, boost self-worth, provide comfort and joy, prevent loneliness, and even add years to your life. On the flip side, lacking strong social connections can pose a serious risk to your mental and emotional health.

In today’s world, many of us rely on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube, and Instagram to find and connect with each other. While each has its benefits, it’s important to remember that social media can never be a replacement for real-world human connection. It requires in-person contact with others to trigger the hormones that alleviate stress and make you feel happier, healthier, and more positive. Ironically for a technology that’s designed to bring people closer together, spending too much time engaging with social media can actually make you feel more lonely and isolated—and exacerbate mental health problems such as anxiety and depression

The positive aspects of social media

While virtual interaction on social media doesn’t have the same psychological benefits as face-to-face contact, there are still many positive ways in which it can help you stay connected and support your wellbeing.

Social media enables you to:

  • Communicate and stay up to date with family and friends around the world.
  • Find new friends and communities; network with other people who share similar interests or ambitions.
  • Join or promote worthwhile causes; raise awareness on important issues.
  • Seek or offer emotional support during tough times.
  • Find a vital social connection if you live in a remote area, for example, or have limited independence, social anxiety, or are part of a marginalized group.
  • Find an outlet for your creativity and self-expression.
  • Discover (with care) sources of valuable information and learning.

The negative aspects of social media

Since it’s a relatively new technology, there’s little research to establish the long-term consequences, good or bad, of social media use. However, multiple studies have found a strong link between heavy social media and an increased risk for depression, anxiety, loneliness, self harm, and even sucidal thoughts

Social media may promote negative experiences such as:

  • Inadequacy about your life or appearance. Even if you know that images you’re viewing on social media are manipulated, they can still make you feel insecure about how you look or what’s going on in your own life. 
  • Fear of missing out (FOMO). While FOMO has been around far longer than social media, sites such as Facebook and Instagram seem to exacerbate feelings that others are having more fun or living better lives than you are.
  • Isolation. A study at the University of Pennsylvania found that high usage of Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram increases rather decreases feelings of loneliness. Conversely, the study found that reducing social media usage can actually make you feel less lonely and isolated and improve your overall wellbeing.
  • Depression and anxiety The more you prioritize social media interaction over in-person relationships, the more you’re at risk for developing or exacerbating mood disorders such as anxiety and depression.
  • Cyberbullying. About 10 percent of teens report being bullied on social media and many other users are subjected to offensive comments. Social media platforms such as Twitter can be hotspots for spreading hurtful rumors, lies, and abuse that can leave lasting emotional scars.
  • Self-absorption. Sharing endless selfies and all your innermost thoughts on social media can create unhealthy self-centeredness and distance you from real-life connections.

Piracy

Piracy refers to the unauthorized duplication of copyrighted content that is then sold at substantially lower prices in the ‘grey’ market. The ease of access to technology has meant that over the years, piracy has become more rampant. For example, CD writers are available off the shelf at very low prices, making music piracy a simple affair.
Many laws have been made to prevent privacy. Internationally, the laws for punishing piracy in developed countries are stringent and punitive in nature. In Asian countries and more in India too, it does not get the attention at the national level due to more engaging issues at hand. However, the industry, especially the IT and music industry, has been taking an active interest in stemming the rot. These organizations identify sources of music piracy and then conduct raids with the help of the police. However, convictions are few and the penalties are not harsh enough to act as a deterrent. Piracy is done in many ways like video piracy, cable piracy, and DVD/CD piracy. Video piracy takes place when a film is produced in the form of a video cassette without proper authorization from the right holder i.e. the producer. Often, film producers sell video rights to another party (generally after six weeks or more of release in theatres), which makes video cassettes for selling, or lending.

Types of Piracy

Counterfeiting

This type of piracy is the illegal duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted material with the intent of imitating the copyrighted product. In the case of packaged software, it is common to find counterfeit copies of the compact discs incorporating the software programs, as well as related packaging, manuals, license agreements, labels, registration cards, and security features.

Internet Piracy

This occurs when unauthorized software is downloaded from the Internet. The same purchasing rules apply to online software purchases as for those bought in compact disc format. Common Internet piracy techniques are:

  • Websites that make software available for free download or in exchange for others
  • Internet auction sites that offer counterfeit or out-of-channel software
  • Peer-to-peer networks that enable unauthorized transfer of copyrighted programs

End-User Piracy

This occurs when an individual reproduces copies of software without authorization. These include:

  • Using one licensed copy to install a program on multiple computers
  • Copying discs for installation or distribution
  • Taking advantage of upgrade offers without having a legal copy of the version to be upgraded
  • Acquiring academic or other restricted or non-retail software without a proper license
  • Swapping discs in or outside the workplace

Client-Server Overuse

This type of piracy occurs when too many users on a network are using a central copy of a program at the same time. If you have a local-area network and install programs on the server for several people to use, you have to be sure your license entitles you to do so. If you have more users than allowed by the license, that’s “overuse”.

Hard-Disk Loading

This occurs when a business sells new computers with illegal copies of software loaded onto the hard disks to make the purchase of the machines more attractive.

Child labour in India

The term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential, and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that :

  •  Is mentally physically, socially, or morally dangerous or harmful to children and/or
  • interferes with their schooling by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; obliging them to leave school prematurely; or requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.
Image Source : PTI

Key facts

  • The number of children in child labour has risen to 160 million worldwide – an increase of 8.4 million children in the last four years – with 9 million additional children at risk due to the impact of COVID-19.
  • Progress to end child labour has stalled for the first time in 20 years, reversing the previous downward trend that saw child labour fall by 94 million between 2000 and 2016.
  • The incidence of hazardous work in countries affected by armed conflict is 50% higher than the global average.
  • 30 million children live outside their country of birth, increasing their risk of being trafficked for sexual exploitation and other work.

Child labour in India
According to data from Census 2011, the number of child labourers in India is 10.1 million of which 5.6 million are boys and 4.5 million are girls. A total of 152 million children – 64 million girls and 88 million boys – are estimated to be in child labour globally, accounting for almost one in ten of all children worldwide.
Despite rates of child labour declining over the last few years, children are still being used in some severe forms of child labour such as bonded labour, child soldiers, and trafficking. Across India, child labourers can be found in a variety of industries: brick kilns, carpet weaving, garment making, domestic service, food and refreshment services (such as tea stalls), agriculture, fisheries, and mining. Children are also at risk of various other forms of exploitation including sexual exploitation and production of child pornography, including online. Child labor and exploitation are the results of many factors, including poverty, social norms condoning them, lack of decent work opportunities for adults and adolescents, migration, and emergencies. These factors are not only the cause but also a consequence of social inequities reinforced by discrimination.

How can we stop child labor in India?

  • Sending more children to school 

India has the world’s largest educational system, yet faces the hurdles of low literacy, due to low enrolment. Organizations like Save the Children execute several initiatives to boost children’s enrolment in schools. The organization maps out-of-school children and those who are at risk of dropping out and ensures that they enter into the fold of education.

  • More stringent laws and effective implementation

Policymaking is essential to long-lasting social change, and lobbying for better laws involves demonstrating how change can bring considerable benefit. The government should be strict with all the laws and take heavy actions against the lawbreakers.

  • Spread awareness

Parental awareness of the evils of child labor can prevent disruption in schooling and the pushing of children into labor. Lack of understanding on the part of parents creates situations where traffickers prey upon children and many trafficked children end up in child labor. Aware communities can comprehend and respond to children’s issues much more effectively.

  •   Discouraging people to employ children in homes, shops, factories, etc

Child labor gets a resounding approval when Indian businesses openly use it, in industries like retail, hospitality, and menial work. NGOs today sensitize trade organizations to end this social evil and educate locals about reporting instances of child labor at businesses and homes. Save the Children has to its credit getting India’s biggest IT market declared child-labor-free.

( Reference from UNICEF and UNICEF India)

Substance abuse in India

Picture source : https://pharmeasy.in/blog/drug-abuse-in-india-the-fatal-problem/

Substance abuse also known as drug abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The use of psychoactive substances causes significant health and social problems for the people who use them, and also for others in their families and communities. Substances of abuse include alcohol, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogens, prescription, and over-the-counter drug abuse. (Psychoactive substances are substances that, when taken in or administered into one’s system, affect mental processes).

Psychoactive substance use poses a significant threat to the health, social and economic aspects of families, communities, and nations. Globally, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders is significantly higher than the prevalence of drug use disorders. Generally, alcohol and drug use disorders are more common among males than among females. According to the World Health Organisation Report 2002 (WHO), 8.9% of the total burden of disease is due to the use of psychoactive substances; tobacco accounted for 4.1%, alcohol 4%, and illicit drugs 0.8% of the burden of disease. There are 2 billion alcohol users, 1.3 billion smokers, and 185 million drug users globally (WHO 2002). These three psychoactive substances have different disease burdens on different age groups. Illicit drug use causes mortality earliest in life, alcohol also mainly (65%) before the age of 60, while 70% of the tobacco deaths occur after the age of 60.

In India

Today, no part of the world is free from the curse of drug trafficking and drug addiction. Millions of drug addicts, all over the world, are leading miserable lives, between life and death. India too is caught in this vicious circle of drug abuse, and the numbers of drug addicts are increasing day by day. According to a UN report, One million heroin addicts are registered in India, and unofficially there are as many as five million. What started as casual use among a minuscule population of high-income group youth in the metro has permeated to all sections of society. Inhalation of heroin alone has given way to intravenous drug use, that too in combination with other sedatives and painkillers. This has increased the intensity of the effect, hastened the process of addiction, and complicated the process of recovery. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Cannabis products, often called charas, bhang, or ganja, are abused throughout the country because it has attained some amount of religious sanctity because of its association with some Hindu deities. The International Narcotics Control Board in its 2002 report released in Vienna pointed out that in India persons addicted to opiates are shifting their drug of choice from opium to heroin.

Adolescent drug abuse is one of the major areas of concern in adolescent and young people’s behavior. It is estimated that, in India, by the time most boys reach the ninth grade, about 50 percent of them have tried at least one of the substances of abuse nature. In the last three decades, many epidemiological surveys have been carried out in India to assess the prevalence of substance abuse.

Where I encountered with corruption

Corruption in India is an issue that affects the economy of central, state, and local government agencies in many ways. Corruption is blamed for stunting the economy of India. A study conducted by Transparency International in 2005 recorded that more than 62% of Indians had at some point or another paid a bribe to a public official to get a job done. In 2008, another report showed that about 50% of Indians had first-hand experience of paying bribes or using contacts to get services performed by public offices, however, in 2020 their Corruption Perceptions Index ranked the country 86th place out of 180, reflecting a steady decline in the perception of corruption among people. 

Image source : https://www.gettyimages.in/illustrations/corruption

My personal experience with corruption.
(I have changed the designation and events places since I don’t want to be in trouble)
It was back in February when I went to DTO(District Transport Office) to get the form for my driving license. I took the form and filled out the details, went to the counter to submit the form but I was told that the official would come on the next day. I came back the next day and the same thing happened to me all the time. After visiting the office for a week finally, the official had come and I submitted my form to him and all he responded was that the process would take up to 3 weeks to 2 months.
It was already a month and I had no response for my form, I went to the office to get inquired but I found out that they had not even checked the form yet. Another official came and told me to come tomorrow for the clicking of photograph and I went there the next day. My photo was taken and processing of my form had begun. Later on the same week I had got the call that I had to appear for the driving test. I went for the test, I had seen many people outside the hall talking to the instructor but they didn’t enter inside. The instructor came inside and asked me some basic road rules, I knew the answers easily so it didn’t take me much time. And I was told again to wait for a month for a response. I came back after a month and found out that I had failed the test, I reappeared again and I failed it again. It was my third attempt now and I didn’t want to lose it, I asked the instructor that even if my answers are correct, why did I failed but he didn’t answer me. Then outside I met a man who asked me the purpose to come to this office, I told him everything about me failing the test. He replied calmly that if I don’t pay the officials 4000 rupees, they will not let me pass the test and get my license.

In India in every office there is a bit of corruption till the date, the officials won’t do the what they are given salaries for, instead, they would ask for bribes for doing the work.
A study conducted between 2004 and 2005 found that India’s driver licensing procedure was a hugely distorted bureaucratic process and allows drivers to be licensed despite their low driving ability through promoting the usage of agents. Individuals with the willingness to pay make a significant payment above the official fee and most of these extra payments are made to agents, who act as an intermediary between bureaucrats and applicants
The average licensee paid Rs 1,080, approximately 2.5 times the official fee of Rs 450, to obtain a license. On average, those who hired agents had a lower driving ability, with agents helping unqualified drivers obtain licenses and bypass the legally required driving examination. Among the surveyed individuals, approximately 60% of the license holders did not even take the licensing exam and 54% of those license holders failed an independent driving test.
Agents are the channels of corruption in this bureaucratic driver licensing system, facilitating access to licenses among those who are unqualified to drive. Some of the failures of this licensing system are caused by corrupt bureaucrats who collaborate with agents by creating additional barriers within the system against those who did not hire agents.

(Written with reference to : Wikipedia and transparency international)

The Movies

 A film also called a moviemotion picture, or moving picture is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These images are generally accompanied by sound, and more rarely, other sensory stimulations.  The word “cinema“, short for cinematography is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.

The worlds first three movies were 

  • The Horse In Motion (1878)
  • Roundhay Garden Scene (1888)
  • Arrival of a Train (1895)

Modern Cinema 

With years of the release of the first movie, the Cinema is constantly evolving all around the world with new technology being added up all the time. 

Back in the 1960’s to 1990’s watching movies in theaters was a huge trend and it was most popular among teens and college students. Students were so interested in watching the latest release on Fridays that they will bunk classes for it. 

Then came the era of VCR, DVD players. It gained a lot of market attraction. Their main motive was comfort and portability. People could buy a DVD player and then go to any movie library, pick any disc and watch it at home as many times as they want. and it also gave out a decent quality. The top companies in this field were Philips, Sony, and Toshiba.

Soon the era of internet had begun, people had soon begun shifting from DVD players and started to watch movies online on the internet. The acronym OTT stands for Over-the-Top. This means streaming across different devices whenever we want is possible because of “over-the-top,” a convenient little term that explains the new delivery method of film and TV content over the internet without the need for traditional broadcast, cable, or satellite pay-TV providers. In the best quality possible. In simple terms, we’re talking about people paying an internet provider, like jio, for internet access to watch Netflix, without paying for cable TV. In many ways, OTT platforms were considered much convenient since we didn’t need to Keep buying disks as we did for the DVD players. The top competitors in the market are Netflix, Amazon, and Disney. 

Is watching movies in theaters still a trend?

The beginning of covid culture

With the rise of coronavirus (COVID19), In the last few months, individuals, families, and communities in India have been negotiating a new social order. India’s roughly 1.3 billion people went under the first phase of lockdown in March 2020.  

The government had initiated these protocols concerning WHO :

  1. Wearing a mask in public 
  • Make sure your mask covers your nose, mouth, and chin.
  • Clean your hands before you put your mask on, before and after you take it off, and after you touch it at any time.
  • When you take off your mask, store it in a clean plastic bag, and every day either wash it if it’s a fabric mask or dispose of it in a trash bin if it’s a medical mask.
  • Don’t use masks with valves. 

2. Maintaining distance in public places

  • Avoid the 3Cs: spaces that are closed, crowded, or involve close contact.
  • Keeping 6 feet distance or a minimum of 3 feet in public
  • Meet people outside. Outdoor gatherings are safer than indoor ones, particularly if indoor spaces are small and without outdoor air coming in.
  •  Open a window to increase the amount of natural ventilation when indoors.

3. Keep good hygiene 

  • Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with either an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water. This eliminates germs that may be on your hands, including viruses.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Dispose of the used tissue immediately into a closed bin and wash your hands.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces frequently, especially those which are regularly touched, such as door handles, faucets, and phone screens.

4. Vaccination 

  • Get vaccinated as soon as it’s your turn and follow local guidance on vaccination.
  • Do not believe in any false information about vaccination.
  • The vaccines approved in India are :

          1 Zydus Cadila. ZyCoV-D. 

          2 Moderna. mRNA-1273.

          3 Sputnik V.

          4 Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) 

          5 Oxford/AstraZeneca. AZD1222.

          6 Serum Institute of India. Covishield

          7 Bharat Biotech. Covaxin. 

What to do if we get sick?

  • If you have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately. Call by telephone first and follow the directions of your local health authority.
  • Do not take any random medicines without the concern of a proper physician. 
  • Know the full range of symptoms of COVID-19. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, tiredness, and loss of taste or smell. Less common symptoms include aches and pains, headache, sore throat, red or irritated eyes, diarrhea, a skin rash, or discoloration of fingers or toes.
  • Stay home and self-isolate for 10 days from symptom onset, plus three days after symptoms cease. Call your health care provider or hotline for advice. Have someone bring you supplies. If you need to leave your house or have someone near you, wear a properly fitted mask to avoid infecting others.
  • Keep up to date on the latest information from trusted sources, such as WHO or your local and national health authorities. Local and national authorities and public health units are best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to protect themselves.

Written with reference to WHO and MoHFW (Ministery of health and family welfare Government of India ) 

Changes in Education

It all started on the ending days of march 2020 when lockdown began in India, everyone was at home and there were no signs of going out. At that time many problems came out among students like stress, anxiety, frustration, and boredom and we missed going to school/college and hanging out with friends. 

Soon schools and colleges started the medium of education through the internet. First, we all thought it would be easy to cope up but it didn’t work out to be like that. Various methods were used for classes like reading material, assignments, communication via email, live chats or messages, and delivering content by live sessions, presentations, recorded videos, or lectures.

Picture credits: https://thedmonline.com/how-students-are-adjusting-to-online-classes/

 Both students and teachers faced a lot of problems in this medium.

Technical issues

Many students were not well equipped with devices and a high internet connection that is required for online learning. Due to this, they face problems in going live for virtual learning and other platforms that require an internet connection. And most of the teachers were not much familiar with technology as it was their first time teaching on this medium.

Distractions

Because online learners use their computers and the Internet to participate in online learning, they may be tempted by many distractions. Students working on an assignment may find themselves surfing the Web, checking social networking sites, or catching up with video games. 

Lack of In-Person Interaction

Despite of getting reading material, communication via email, live sessions, presentations, recorded videos, or lectures for the students. As compared to traditional ones, students find it difficult to communicate in person who struggles with understanding concepts. Many times these students do not even approach teachers to clear their doubts as they are shy to speak up in front of everyone.

 Evaluation

In online mode, the task of giving assignments is easier but it is difficult to evaluate the students on basis of their performance. There would be students who would be copying everything from the internet. In a recent survey, it was found that 73% of students cheat during online examinations via internet, and 27% were cheating through books. 

Time management

In many cases, both students and teachers find difficulty in managing their time with online learning and doing household work. Online learning is completely new for them and requires intensive work. Everyone needs a well-planned schedule to manage their time in an effective manner. Online learning provides flexible time unlike traditional classrooms, whereas in traditional classes the schedule is highly maintained.

Course

The course and its content is designed earlier with respect to traditional classrooms. But with the shift to online learning, it requires redesigning of course which can take a considerable amount of time. In most cases, these courses work well in traditional classrooms but go flat in online learning. It happens when there are no content-related activities, assignments, or projects that can be done online.

Covid 19 brought a very big change in Education. Well in the end from my own perspective I can say conclusively that both traditional and online methods are in need of much evolving in fulfilling the needs of both teachers and students.