Indian political system

Politics in any country involves the ruling party and the opposition. Usually and ideally, political parties are formed based on the same line of thinking and ideology. The left and the right are the two terms usually used by media and political commentators to define the group of people with the same ideological bend of mind. The lefts are usually considered liberal, secular and pro-government ideologies while the right is considered majoritarian, pro-poor and rebellious in nature.

These definitions are not defined anywhere in the constitutions. of any governmental organisations, but are the terms coined by journalists, authors and commentators. For example, in the USA, the democrats are known to be left-leaning while the republicans are known to be right-leaning, in UK Labour party is seen to be right-leaning ideology and the conservative party having a left-leaning ideology. The case is similar in India as well, with Congress having left-leaning ideologies while BJP having right-leaning ideologies.

And for a perfect democracy to work, both the ideologies are necessary. A mature democracy is one where there is a fine demarcation between the two ideologies, but in countries like India, these demarcations are blurry and the left and right ideologies superimpose on each other often number of times.

The political system is built in such a way that, irrespective of what ideologies, policies, processes, institutions, strategy, behaviours, classes or diplomacy that a political party follows, the core vision and objective lie in the development of the country.

But, like always, not everything that glitters is gold, is it not?

Politics is called a dirty game and rightly so, especially in a country like India. Greed, corruption, injustice, bigotry and hatred are some of the very few terms that are usually associated with Indian politics. In this essay on Indian politics, we will not be able to talk about it all, but we will try to touch upon each of the issues.

Politicians usually choose their parties, not because they believe in the ideologies of the party, but because of the winnability quotient in the elections. Elections, unfortunately, is all about money power and muscle power. The ideologies and promises are just the sugar coating that politician do to get votes from people. But even if they follow the ideology of a party, the ideologies itself is flawed and broken from its core. Divide and rule policy followed by the British to rule India is followed by today’s politicians to get votes. Political parties, across the spectrum, try to divide people of India on the basis of religions and class. This is usually called by the term communal polarisation. The gullible voters play into the hands of these political parties and belive the fancy promises they show in the name of development. In a good democratic system, a common man should also be well aware of their rights and responsibilities as a law-abiding citizen.

A good politics consists of the government and its opposition, with both of them working for the development of the country, in their capacities. The opposition parties questions criticise and demands accountability from the ruling party so that the ruling regime is kept in check. The system works fine in its idealistic form. But political parties, with their greed for power, forget their true responsibilities and indulge in dirty games to grab power at any cost. That cost is borne by the common man of the country.

According to our Constitution, India is a “sovereign secular socialist democratic republic.” It has 28 states and seven Union Territories. With a population of approximately 112 crore, India happens to be the largest democracy in the world. Indian polity is a multi-party democracy, based on the adult franchise system of voting. That is any Indian citizen of 18 and above, who is not debarred by law, can vote in the Indian elections, at national, state and local levels.

India is a parliamentary democracy and a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Prime Minister is the head of government. He or she should be chosen by the MPs (Member of Parliaments) of the ruling party or the coalition that comes to power. The Vice President has to temporarily assume the role of President in the event of the death, resignation, or removal of the President, until a new President is chosen by the electoral college. The Vice President of India may also act temporarily as President, during the absence or illness of the President. The Vice President of India is also the Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Mohammad Hamid Ansari is the present Vice President of India.

Executive, Legislature and Judiciary

With the Union Government and State Governments wrest the executive power, while the legislative power is vested on the Union Government and the two houses of Indian Parliament- the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha- and also the State Government and two state legislatures-Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. However, here it deserves a mention that only five of India’s 28 states have Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council, which is also known as the upper house of state legislatures, along with the Vidhan Sabha. The rest of the states don’t have bicameral legislatures, and only have Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly. Each state also has a Governor, who is formally appointed by the President of India. The role of the Governor is somewhat similar to that of President in the national level; he is a titular head of the state in normal circumstances, but can exercise some powers when directed by the Union Government.

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Introduction: Identity Politics and Political Correctness

Identity Politics

Identity politics is a term that describes a political approach wherein people of a particular religion, race, social background, class or other identifying factor develop political agendas and organize based upon the interlocking systems of oppression that may affect their lives and come from their various identities. Identity politics centers the lived experiences of those facing various systems of oppression to better understand the ways in which racial, economic, sex-based, gender-based, and other forms of oppression are linked and to ensure that political agendas and political actions arising out of identity politics leave no one behind.

There is a very positive element to identity politics, that identity politics can be a great source of strength and unity to minority communities: they help them feel psychologically safe and secure especially when coping with life in the West. Language, culture and religion are the ways in which people also cope with the psychological stress of trauma or rapid change — refugees and migrants will band together in ethnic communities in new countries in order to stay connected to what they have lost or left behind. More and more people join the social groups which results in more authority and power. And as it is said, power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. The social groups formed on the basis of their particular identity now starts to diminish, cancel and supress any valid argument made against them. Now that the majority of people are on the side of these social groups related to Feminism, Gay right activism, anti-racism etc, a person having an opposing but a valid strong argument can’t place it without being called as anti-feminist, homophobic, and racist. In most cases it leads to their career being destroyed.

This whole mob mentality which evolutionized from a primary cause to help the oppressed groups, class is because of the absolute power it gets on the later stages. They think that everything they do is correct and which is horribly wrong. This whole thing of identity politics has a bad effect on the society. Forget forgiveness, something said mistakenly isn’t tolerated at all and the criticism, hate and abuse the person has to suffer is immense and eventually leaves a mark for the rest of his life.

Political Correctness

Political correctness is a term used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. The term has been used to describe a preference for inclusive language and avoidance of language or behaviour that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting to groups of people disadvantaged or discriminated against, particularly groups defined by ethnicity, sex, or gender.

Political correctness makes sure we remain within societal boundaries that have been previously established. This helps us maintain the previous progress we have made regarding acceptance, equality and inclusivity. By directing people to be careful in their speech we help prevent negative polarisation and the acceptance of prejudices. This way we do not lose progress in tolerance and equality. The spread of hate crimes, extreme nationalism and prejudices can also be attributed to from lack of political correctness in politics. When people with a platform say bigoted things, the wider population sees these views as legitimate.

Political correctness restricts public debates and thinking in society and in mainstream media. This results in ‘touchy’ issues not being discussed efficiently. There is no flexibility with social boundaries. Political correctness is a form of social engineering used to silence people with ‘controversial’ ideas. Political correctness is not fixed, so what is unacceptable changes. But who gets to decide what qualifies as unacceptable? Politicians who condemn others citing political correctness (excluding ‘hate speech’ or clear examples of discrimination) are going against the principles of freedom of speech. They are silencing people according to their own standards. Some people think political correctness is a leftist plot that silences the right and removes ‘alternative politicians’ from mainstream media. Because much of the world’s views are not strictly ‘politically correct’, they are not represented. Others think that ‘The whole political correctness movement was invented by the Far Right to inhibit any meaningful discussion of diversity issues in order to keep racial, gender, and other barriers in place.