What Kind of Introvert Are You?

Are you an introvert? It depends on which book you read. Here’s a sampling of the various conceptualizations of introversion in pop culture [1]: Preference for quiet, minimally stimulating environments: Quiet by Susan Cain Preference for concentration and solitude: The Introvert’s Way by Sophia Dembling Rechargeable battery: The Introvert Advantage by Marti Olsen Laney Thoughtful-introspective

Are you an introvert? It depends on which book you read.

Here’s a sampling of the various conceptualizations of introversion in pop culture [1]:

Historically, there has been just as much confusion in the psychological literature. Carl Jung originally defined introversion as a focus on one’s “inwardly directed psychic energy”. However, in the 30s, the psychologist J.P. Guilford showed that various attempts to measure Jung’s conceptualization of introversion resulted in multiple, distinct factors. In other words, there didn’t appear to be a single dimension of personality that captured all of introversion.

In the 60s Patricia Carrigan echoed this point, arguing that introversion was not effectively captured by a single scale. She cautioned that if the phrase introversion is to continue to be used, “care must be taken to specify its conceptual and operational referent. What appear to be minor distinctions between the various conceptions may in fact be crucial ones.” In the 70s, the heated debate continued, with a much older Guilford arguing with H.J. Eysenck over whether introversion can possibly, or even should, be captured by a single scale.

All seemed to be settled in the 90s with the emergence of the “Big Five” framework of personality. The five main factors of personality– extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and intellect/imagination– were empirically derived based on what patterns of behavior tend to go together within individuals. Under this framework, introversion is merely defined as the opposite of extraversion.

In the Big Five framework, extraversion comprises two main aspectsenthusiasm (reflecting sociability, positive emotions, and warmth) and assertiveness (reflecting the tendency to take charge, become a leader, and captivate attention). The common factor seems to be high sensitivity to rewards in the environment— which due to the highly social nature of humans throughout the course of human evolution, most prominently consists of rewards associated with social attention.

Therefore, under the dominant personality framework in modern psychology, if you score low in enthusiasm and assertiveness, you’re an introvert

Here’s the problem: the Big Five framework forces a definition of introversion onto people, many of whom do not conceptualize introversion in the same way. For instance, one study did a comparison of common-sense/everyday notions of introversion and ‘scientific’ conceptions of introversion. They found that the most prototypical characteristic of introversion, as identified by the general public, was the following item:

Clearly, many people equate introversion with introspection. In the Big Five framework, however, this item is classified as part of the intellect/imagination domain of personality, not the introversion domain. So there’s a serious mismatch between folk definitions of introversion and scientific definitions. People who view themselves as introverted because they are highly introspective are being told by scientists: “You aren’t really introverted based on patterns of covariation among the general population.” To which everyday people rightfully respond: “WTF?” [3]

As noted personality psychologist Jonathan Cheek told me, “by invalidating the ordinary language meaning of introversion by defining it solely as the opposite of Big Five Extraversion, the Big Five researchers are guilty of Psychological Imperialism [4].” Influenced by the seminal work of Jung, Guilford, and Carrigan, Cheek and his colleagues have decided to take a different approach, by focusing on the phenomenon of introversion on its own, free from having to be force-fit into one scheme or another.

As Carl Jung said, each individual is ultimately a unique crystal, but type theories can be helpful for navigating social life. Embracing this Jungian philosophy, Cheek and his colleagues argue that when people use the term “introversion”, they should never just use it by itself. Instead, they argue that researchers should put a specific modifier in front of the term. What modifiers could be used?

In her masters thesis (written under the advisement of Cheek), Jennifer Odessa Grimes defined four meanings of introversion: social, thinking, anxious, and restrained (which happens to form the positive acronym STAR). It’s possible to score high or low on either of these flavors of introversion. For instance, you could be low in social introversion by preference but not be particularly anxious in the presence of people. Or you could suffer from crippling social anxiety, but still have the desire to be highly social. Or any other combination of these four meanings of introversion.

By this point you’re probably wondering what kind of introvert you are. Well, you’re in luck. There’s a new test for that.

How important personal hygiene is to fight against Covid-19?

We know the virus is transmitted through direct contact with respiratory droplets of an infected person through coughing and sneezing, and touching surfaces contaminated with the virus. The virus may survive on surfaces for a few hours up to several days.

Taking necessary precautionary measures will help us to fight the deadly virus. Precautionary measures such as use of masks, maintaining social distance norms and sanitizing hands and  should be strictly followed.

Covid-19 case numbers and deaths were exponentially rising in India. We all have seen how effectively our corona warriors have fought the battle. The second wave was too powerful and the number of cases in a single day stretched our health community badly. Though, the cases are now in control but we are not in that environment where we can live like the normal days. This is the time when we all need to come together and have a spirit by doing our bit in fighting against the disease.

Have we ever questioned ourselves, why the second wave took this drastic shape? This happened because of not having the right attitude, taking the virus as a normal flu, not wearing the mask properly. When the cases came drastically down in January, people thought that the virus has gone and this resulted the spike in the cases. As a responsible citizen, we need to understand that our focus should be on maintaining personal hygiene not only for ourselves, but for others also. Wherever we go, we should sanitize the area properly, maintain social distance, and wash our hands properly to win the war against the deadly virus.

Keeping in mind the situation many brands stood up and launched products in hygiene and safety category at affordable prices.

The main purpose is to prevent UTI, which is becoming a common concern among women. The infection involves greater risk when one uses public washrooms that are often unclean and unhygienic. Apart from Toilet seats and toilet tops it is important to spray the disinfectant on flush, faucets, door knobs and other hard surfaces to avoid the chances of getting infected.

Increase in COVID- 19 cases saw a spike and this generated a surge in the requirement of masks, sanitisers and other COVID products as well.

The pandemic has caused tremendous disruption to the lives and work processes. Irrespective of how severely or mildly it affects a person, it is still capable of wreaking havoc with our physical and mental fitness and ability to perform various tasks. In such a scenario, using hygiene and sanitation products and adhering to cleanliness can keep us safe from illness.

People are requested to take utmost care of themselves by using mask, sanitisers and break the COVID- 19 chain which is a duty of every citizen and don’t take safety for granted. 

India’s deep ocean mission

Deep ocean

• Below 200 meters – little or no light. • Depth at which light begins to dwindle, typically around 200 meters (656 feet).

• Extreme conditions:
 Temperature reduces to 4°Celsius – constantly stays near freezing.
 Pressure – ranges from 40 to over 110 times the pressure of Earth’s atmosphere.

• Creatures exist microorganisms in hydrothermal vents, deep sea corals, fish, and other bizarre creatures.
• Harsh conditions – difficult to explore. • 95% of the ocean is unexplored and unutilised. • Countries exploring the deep ocean – China,France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, and Russia.

• Deep ocean mission of India – in line with, GoI’s Vision of New India by 2030.
 Blue Economy – one of core dimensions of growth.

Deep Ocean Mission

• Multi-ministerial multi-disciplinary programme.

• Objective – explore deep ocean for resources and develop deep sea technologies for sustainable use of ocean resources.

• Phase-wise implementation for 5 years.
 First phase – 2021-2024.

• Estimated cost – Rs. 4077 crores.

• Mission mode project to support the Blue Economy Initiatives of GoI.

• Nodal implementing Ministry – Ministry of Earth Sciences.
• Six major components:

  1. Development of Technologies for Deep Sea Mining, and Manned Submersible.
     Development of manned submersible – will carry 3 people to a depth of 6000 m in the ocean + scientific sensors and tools.
     Development of Integrated Mining System for mining Polymetallic Nodules from 6000 m depth in the central Indian Ocean.
     Future commercial exploitation of minerals in
    deep ocean.
     Blue Economy priority area – ‘exploring and
    harnessing of deep sea minerals and energy’.

Polymetallic nodules (PMN)

• Manganese or ferromanganese nodules.

• Potato-shaped, largely porous nodules.

• Found in deep sea – in abundance carpeting the sea
floor of world oceans.

• Metals – manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt,lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium.
 Nickel, cobalt, manganese and copper – of economic and strategic importance.
• 15 year contract of India with International Seabed Authority (ISA) in 2002 – for exploration of PMN in CIOB.
 Extended 5 more years – 2017-22.
 Presently allocated an area of 75,000
sq.km. – located 2000 km away from southern tip.
 Estimated polymetallic nodule resource potential – 380 million tonnes.
 Nickel – 4.7 million tonnes
 Copper – 4.29 million tonnes
 Cobalt – 0.55 million tonnes
 Manganese – 92.59 million tonnes

2.Development of Ocean Climate Change Advisory
Services
 Developing observations & models to understand &
provide future projections of important climate variables on seasonal to decadal time scales.
 Blue Economy priority area – coastal tourism.

3.Technological innovations for exploration and
conservation of deep-sea biodiversity
 Bio-prospecting of deep-sea flora and fauna including microbes.
 Studies on sustainable utilization of deep-sea
bio-resources.
 Blue Economy priority area – Marine Fisheries and allied services.

4. Deep Ocean Survey and Exploration
 Explore and identify potential sites of multi-metal Hydrothermal Sulphides
mineralization along the Indian Ocean mid-oceanic ridges.
 Hydrothermal Sulphides or seafloor massive sulphides – only metal-bearing deposits of (current) commercial significance that form
at active plate boundaries – high concentrations of copper, zinc, lead,arsenic, cobalt, silver, gold and other metals.
 Blue Economy priority area – deep sea exploration of ocean resources.

5.Energy and freshwater from the Ocean
 Studies and detailed engineering design for offshore Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powered desalination plant.
 Blue Economy priority area – off-shore energy development.

6.Advanced Marine Station for Ocean Biology
 Development of human capacity and enterprise in ocean biology and engineering.
 Research into industrial application and product development through on-site business incubator facilities.
 Blue Economy priority area – Marine Biology, Blue trade and Blue manufacturing.
• Benefits:
 Attempts to indigenise technologies by collaborating with leading institutes and
private industries.
 Design, development and fabrication of specialised equipment, ships and setting
up of required infrastructure – will spur the growth of the Indian industry, especially the MSME and Start-ups.
 Generating employment
 Research vessel for deep ocean exploration to be built in Indian shipyard.
 Capacity development in Marine Biology.

The Launch of Deep Ocean mission in India

The Deep Ocean Mission which was pending for a long time has been approved by the union cabinet. The mission is to be implemented at an estimated cost of Rs. 4,077 crore for a period of 5 years. It will be Phase-wise, where the first phase for 3 years(2021-2024) will be Rs. 2823.4crore.The Ministry of Earth Science [MoES] will be the Nodal Ministry implementing this multi-institutional mission. The institutions are ISRO, DRDO, BARC, CSIR, Department of Biotechnology etc.,

Deep Ocean Mission is a project to support the Blue Economy initiative of govt. of India. The mission will let India explore the Polymetallic nodules in the allotted area of 75,000 sq. km  in the Central Indian Ocean Basin [COIB] by the UN National Seabed Authority. The rocks containing copper, iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt are scattered in the seabed.

The mission involves 6 main components they are:

1) Deep sea mining and Manned submersible:

Developing a manned submersible capable of carrying 3 people with scientific sensors and tools to a depth of 6000 metre. For mining of Polymetallic nodules in central Indian ocean an integrated mining system will be developed.

2) Ocean climate change advisory service:

Developing a suite of observations and models to understand and provide future projections of important climate variables  on seasonal to decadal time scales.

3) Exploration and conservation of deep-sea habitat:

Technological innovations for exploring deep sea flora and fauna, including microbes and make study on sustainable utilization of these bio-resources.

4) Deep sea survey and exploration:

To explore and identify sources of hypothermal minerals as it is the source for precious metals formed from earth’s crust found along the Indian ocean mid oceanic ridges.

5) Energy and fresh water from ocean:

Studies and detailed engineering design for off shore Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation[OTEC] powered desalination plant.

6) Advanced marine station for ocean:

Developing Human resource in the ocean science field. By grooming experts and developing enterprises in ocean biology and engineering. This will translate research into industrial application and product development through online site business incubator facility.

 

The Deep Ocean Mission was envisaged in 2019 as Rs. 8000 crore mission. If it works, India will be in the list of those countries that is able to launch underwater mission in the unexplored depths of ocean.