Milestones in India’s science and technological development

The fashionable age is the age of science, technology and knowledge in which all of these are interrelated and are different aspects of the same thing. Explosion of knowledge and data , supported breathtaking advancement within the world of science and technology, has bestowed on man powers enviable even for gods. it’s helped man conquer space and time. Now one has unraveled many mysteries of nature and life and is ready to face new challenges and move forward within the realm of the unknown and thus the undiscovered. In India there has been an extended and distinct tradition of scientific research and technological advancement since the past .

Since independence, India has accelerated it’s speed and efforts in this field and have established many research laboratories, institutions of upper learning and technical education. The results would make anybody’s heart swell with pride , confidence and fulfillment. The best, however, is yet to return . The central and state governments, various public and private sector establishments are engaged in scientific research and technological development to require the state on the trail of rapid development, growth and prosperity. There are about 200 research laboratories spread everywhere in the country. The institutions of upper learning, and universities, the fashionable temples of learning, are all committed to need the country forward. they’re well equipped and staffed to secure for the people of the state all the blessings and benefits which can accrue from the acquisition and application of knowledge and technology. But there is no room for complacency, for during this field only the sky’s the limit and that we are yet a developing country.

Our technology policy is comprehensive and well thought out. It aims at developing indigenous technology to ensure efficient absorption and adoption of imported technology suitable to national priorities and availability of resources. Its main objective is attainment of technical competence and self- reliance, leading to reduction in vulnerability in strategic and important areas.

With a view to strengthening our economy and industrial development, our government has introduced many structural reforms through adoption of a replacement industrial policy which features an important pertaining to the programmes of development concerning science and technology. Consequently, technology has become our mainstay enterprise and now we’ve built a robust and reliable infrastructure for research, training and development in science and technology. Within the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains.

Today, India withstand droughts and natural calamities with much greater confidence than ever before. Now, we are at an edge to export food grains, etc. and are on the sting of white and blue revolutions. Our agricultural scientists and farmers, who are always ready to imbibe new technologies, our country has many kinds of hybrid seeds, crop- protection technologies, balanced farming practices and better water and irrigation management techniques. Similarly within the sector of economic research, we’ve achieved many milestones and India is emerging as a significant industrial power of the earth .

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), which has its network of research laboratories and institutions, has been chiefly instrumental in our major achievements in scientific and industrial research. We’ve now joined the exclusive club of six advanced nations by developing our own supercomputer at the Centre for Development of Advance Computing (C- CAD) at Pune. Our Atomic Research Commission, acknowledged in 1948, is engaged in valuable nuclear research for peaceful purposes. The chief agency for implementing atomic energy programmes is the Department of atomic energy . The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, near Mumbai is the most important single scientific establishment within the country, directing nuclear research. Now, we’ve five research reactors, including Cyrus, Dhruua, Zerina and Purnima. We’ve administered two underground nuclear tests at Pokhran in Rajasthan.

This is often an interesting achievement by our nuclear scientists, which has enabled us to become one of the chosen few countries on earth to have done it. India is additionally the first developing country, and one of the seven countries of the earth to master fast breeding technology. Research in breeder technology is currently happening at Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research at Kalpakkam, Chennai. The successful launching of the Polar Space Launching Vehicle (PSLV- D-2), in October 1994, marked India’s entry into the league of the world’s major space powers. Within the INSAT-2 series of satellites, launched first in 1992, India has shown its ability to fabricate complex systems like anything made anywhere within the earth . Our previous launches of the SLV-3 and thus the SLV were merely stepping stones to what’s going to be the workhorses of the business, the PSLV, which can launch one tone satellite into orbit of up to 1000 km, and therefore the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, which can take 2.5 tonne satellite to orbits 36,000 km away. India’s space programme rocketed to greater heights with the successful launch of the second Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D2) in May, 2003. As has been rightly observed, the challenge before Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is to take care of the momentum of the programme by integrating it with other missions. The foremost obvious ones are related to military communication and reconnaissance.India’s first space mission to specialize in an extraterrestrial landing, Chandrayaan-2, would have commenced by the time you read this. It’s a symbol achievement for India’s technological capability, in areas ranging from propulsion , signals and communications, materials, robotics, remote guidance and even AI , to let the lunar lander navigate on its own on the far side of the moon. If successful on all targeted fronts, it’d also increase humankind’s understanding of cosmology and thus the origins of the planet , because the moon probably could also be a piece of this planet that got thrown out at a stage when it had been mostly molten matter. And, of course, it’d cause greater understanding of the moon itself, its chemistry and composition. America landed men on the moon essentially to demonstrate that it had overcome the Sputnik scare — the shock realisation that the Soviet Union was before it in space science and technology which its own education system had to repair for greater specialize in science and maths — and had beaten the Soviet Union therein lone area of human achievement during which the Communist nation had been ahead.

Achievements in space still have a component of demonstration of technological capability, apart from their intrinsic utility. So, becoming the fourth nation within the world, behind the US, the previous Soviet Union and China, to land a mobile explorer on the moon, tells the earth of India’s capability altogether the intricate technologies that are marshalled and harmonised to carry out Chandrayaan-2, its predecessor having orbited the moon with a proximity of 100km. The mission, conceived in 2008, has taken 11years to end . The mission director and thus the project director are both women, to boot. The Indian Space Research Organisation is standing testimony to the overall public sector’s capacity to deliver outstanding results, when given autonomy and resources. There’s a case for similar public sector initiatives in cyber security, telecom systems and AI . What it lacks is political vision and commitment. Our success on Antarctica speaks volumes of our scientific genius and technological wisdom within the world . So far, 13 scientific expeditions by our oceanographers,scientists and technicians are to Antarctica where we’ve two permanent stations on the icy continent. within the field of defence also our achievements are quite laudable.

The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists. we’ve also been successful in producing opt-electronic preparation and night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. The HAL at Bangalore has already produced the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH). Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved so that its benefits reach the masses. Scientists within the country will strive hard to bring technological developments to people’s doorsteps.

Therefore, they can not rest on their laurels, but should remember the famous and galvanizing lines of the poet Robert Frost: The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I even have promises to stay, And miles to travel before I sleep……

The Chandrayaan-2 equipment of the Indian Space Research Organization identifies hydroxyl, or water molecules, on the Moon.

The IIRS captures data from the lunar surface’s electromagnetic spectrum, which is then utilised to determine mineral composition.

According to a new report published in Current Science, an instrument on the Indian Space Research Organisation’s Chandrayaan-2 has found the existence of hydroxyl (OH) and water molecules (H2O) on the Moon’s surface.

The data was acquired from the electromagnetic spectrum received from the lunar surface by the Imaging infrared spectrometer (IIRS), created by ISRO’s Space Applications Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad, and then utilised to detect mineral composition. The lander and rover on Chandrayaan-2, which was launched in 2019, were entirely destroyed in a sad crash, but the orbiter remained operational and is now being used by scientists to make ground-breaking findings from the lunar surface.

The instrument has a wavelength range of 0.8 to 5 micrometres, allowing it to discriminate between OH (hydroxyl) and H2O (water) molecules with greater precision. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper or M3 was also used by Chandrayaan-1 in 2008. Its wavelength, however, was limited to 0.4 to 3 micrometres. Scientists questioned the instrument’s accuracy at the time, claiming that it was difficult to discern OH from H2O in this situation.

The paper, co-authored by scientists from the IIRS in Dehradun, the SAC in Ahmedabad, the UR Rao Satellite Centre, and the ISRO headquarters in Bengaluru, reveals that the formation of hydroxyl or water molecules occurs as a result of a process known as space weathering, which occurs when solar winds blow over the lunar surface. Another factor could be the interaction of small meteorites with the surface, which could cause chemical changes.

The discovery is also important for future planetary exploration and resource utilisation, according to the research. “The appropriate interpretation of hydration features using spectrum analysis is vital because it gives important inputs into the geology and geophysics of the mantle (of the moon) in terms of mineralogy, chemical composition, rheology, and solar–wind interaction.”

A Brief Introduction to Stars

Stars are something we all know and see, glittering in the night sky above. Most people, however are content to just admire their beauty. These stars have their own fascinating physics and chemistry behind them. There are a lot of fascinating information which not many people are aware of. This article will attempt to give some basic information about stars to facilitate a greater interest in them.

What exactly are stars and how are they ‘born’

Stars are luminous spheroidal celestial objects made up of plasma. They are held together by their own gravity. They may be found singularly or in groups known as constellations. Stars are born in star nurseries called nebula. Nebula are nothings but clouds of gas and dust. Star formation begins due to instability in the gravity within molecular clouds. This gravitational instability soon causes the nebula cloud / clouds to collapse under its own gravitational force. The density of the region also increases. The gravitational energy gets converted into heat which causes a rise in temperature. After a certain period, the collapsed nebula cloud reaches the hydrostatic equilibrium condition. Hydrostatic equilibrium is the condition where and external force (like gravity) of an object either fluid or plastic in nature gets balanced by a pressure-gradient force. This gives rise to a protostar, which then evolves into a star.

Stars are comprised of gases, mainly hydrogen and helium. The structure of a star comprises of its core where various nuclear reactions take place, a conduction zone which carries energy outwards from the core, a convection zone which transfers gases of extremely high temperatures to the surface, and the surface of the star. The heat generated by these nuclear reactions is what makes the stars shine.

The types of stars

Red Giants

Red giants are stars which have run out of hydrogen from their core. As an alternative way, they start to use hydrogen present outside the core, which causes it to swell and puff up. After the hydrogen totally gets over, it starts burning up other gases which may cause it to grow into yellow or blue supergiants and hypergiants.

Betelguese, a red giant seen from a telescope
Betelguese, a red giant seen from a telescope

White Dwarfs

White Dwarfs are dying stars. They are formed from stars which has used up all of its available gas. It then collapses to form a small planet-sized star with only a white-hot and extremely dense core.

Sirius B, a white dwarf seen from a telescope
Sirius B, a white dwarf seen from a telescope

Neutron Stars

If a star roughly 5 times or more the size of our sun dies, it does not become a white dwarf. Instead, it undergoes a supernova explosion. Supernova explosions are very bright and powerful enough that it could be seen with the naked eye even on Earth despite the star being 168, 000 light years away (SN 1987A). The intense force of the gravity produced in the collapse causes the protons and electrons to merge forming a star made purely of neutrons, giving these stars the name ‘neutron stars’. However more massively sized stars, roughly 8 times the sun, instead collapse to form not neutron stars, but black holes, a region of space with gravity so extremely powerful that even light cannot escape it.  

Illustration of neutron star
Illustration of neutron star
Image of a black hole courtesy NASA
Image of a black hole courtesy NASA

Meet Ham : The first Chimp in Space

On 31st March 1961, A chimpanzee named Ham was sent to space. NASA was later planning to send a human into Earth’s orbit. With Ham’s help, the project to send a human into earth’s orbital became successful. The competition was getting ignited between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had previously sent a dog to space and thus proving that mammals can survive in space. And this was how the ‘chimp in space’ project was born. Ham’s space flight lasted 16 ½ minutes and he spent a total of 6 ½  minutes in gravity.

NASA used to call Ham ‘Number 65’ as they thought that media and viewers will cling to a cute name and thus he was never called Ham until he arrived safely from space. Ham was given hardcore training by NASA so that Ham would survive in space.

On  31st January 1961, he was strapped to his capsule called the bio pack, he was also attached with biosensors. He was monitored using computers by NASA officials. Ham’s capsule was cracked due to the high speed and there was a loss of air pressure. Also, Ham landed 132 miles away in the Atlantic ocean from the predicted landing spot it took the recruited USS donner hours to search for harm but at last, he was rescued it was reported that due to the crack Ham was at high risk and was saved only by his suit.

After the space mission, it was reported that Ham was reluctant to sit back in that space chair. The data collected from Ham’s mission was really helpful to send Alan Shepher Jr., the First American in space in May 1961.

After the mission, Ham was sent to a zoo in Washington DC where he lived 17 years in solitude and 3 years with other chimpanzees. Unfortunately, he died on 19 January 1983 at the age of 25 (which is too young for a chimpanzee) His body was buried at the International Space Hall of Fame, New Mexico. Also, his skull is preserved at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Maryland.

Image result for ham the the chim in space

Axiom announces crew for the first private space mission

It was everyone’s dream to go to space once. The dream started when we aspired to become astronauts but this dream changed as we grew up. Earlier it was only possible for astronauts to go to space. But Elon Musk had other plans. Currently, the world’s richest man, Elon Musk is preparing to send 3 people in space. Yes, you read it right. 3 people who are not astronauts will soon go on a journey to outer space and live the dream we all had.

Axiom Space announced on January 26 that it has selected a crew for the first-ever private mission to the International Space station. It is a crew of four people. One is a NASA veteran and three private paying customers. 

The proposed mission is set to launch a SpaceX Crew Dragon. But this mission will not happen before January 2022. The crew will stay at the International Space Station for a time period of eight days. The objective of this mission is to conduct extensive research and undertake “philanthropic projects”. 

The crew members are:

  • Michael Lopez-Alegria, a former NASA astronaut. He will be the flight’s commander 
  • Larry Connor will be the flight’s pilot.
  • Mark Pathy will serve as a mission specialist.
  • Eytan Stibbe will also serve as a mission specialist. 

Michael Lopez has logged a total of 260 days in outer space in his previous missions and is also the vice president at Axiom. Lopez-Alegria will be the first former NASA astronaut to return to orbit and visit the ISS. He will also be 63 when he launches. 

At the age of 71 years, Connor will become the second oldest person to fly to space. He is the head of the Connor Group, a luxury apartment investment firm with over $3 billion in assets. 

Pathy, 50, will be the 11th Canadian to fly to space after nine Canadian Space Agency astronauts and the co-founder of Cirque du Soleil, who became Canada’s first so-called “space tourist” in 2009.

Patthy is the CEO and Chairman of Marvik, a privately owned investment and financing company. 

Stibbe, who was born in Haifa, will be the second Israeli to launch into space, following his friend Ilan Ramon, who tragically died on the space shuttle Columbia in 2003. Stibbe founded the Vital Capital Fund, which is focused on business and financing ventures primarily in Africa. He is also one of the founders and is a board member of the Center for African Studies at Ben-Gurion University. 

Although Axiom did not disclose the price the three commercial astronauts paid to be on the Ax-1 mission. But according to internal sources, an estimate of cost-per-person is priced around $55 million. 

The mission now needs the approval from NASA. Axiom also proposed the potential of flying two per year. Axiom and NASA are currently working through a Basic Ordering Agreement that will enable private astronaut missions to the ISS. 

The Axiom space station modules will initially be attached to the Harmony node of the ISS. After the ISS is retired, the modules will be separated. It will then become the first free-flying commercial space station in low Earth orbit. 

VOYAGER 1 FACTS

LAUCH AND JOURNEY

Launched on September 5, 1977, sixteen days after Voyager 2 which lifted off on August 20, Voyager 1 is now the furthest manufactured object from Earth,From a distance of 140 AU away (as on September 22, 2017), Voyager 1 is still in regular contact with the Deep Space Network, and receiving control inputs and return data.

It is still going away from solar system and capture what are all it seeing in it’s path and it going in target to reach Intersteller place and deep place

TRAVEL TO JUPITER

It traveled from Earth and reach the next next planet of Earth called as “Jupiter” there it started to capture a lot of pictures, including Jupiter’s moons and we can seen the small ring of jupiter. Below image 👇taken by Voyager 1 of an erupting volcano on Jupiter’s moon  came as a major surprise. Voyager also discovered that material ejected from volcanoes .since sulphur, oxygen, and sodium was detected by Voyager 1 right at the outer limits of Jupiter’s magnetosphere

IO moon of JUPITER

VOYAGER 1 AT SATERN

On moving gradually the very next to Jupiter is Satern it has large ring around planet , the planet’s upper atmosphere contains only about 7% helium. its helium abundance was expected to be about 11%, or the value for both the Sun and Jupiter.

Investigators are surmising that the heavier helium is sinking downward through the less-dense hydrogen in the planets’ atmosphere creating heat, which might explain why Saturn radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun. 

It only found Titan which is called as the Satern’s moon and it go away from solar system by crossed Uranus, Neptune and pluto .

SECRET CARRYING VOYAGER

In VOYAGER 1 they fixed a “Golden CD” and have a camera in VOYAGER which is used to take picture and store in that CD and also they have attached human normal activity like 55 languages shown in above image👆 , 115+ images in earth, beautiful place in earth, 95 songs ext.. Are stored in that Golden CD and put it to fly also capture as video rought to earth from flying place.

These are sent along with VOYAGER to any other species in universe like Aliens to know about our self and to come to earth,. If they found it they may come but till we didn’t get such image like from VOYAGER 1 .

END OF VOYAGER 1

When Voyager 1’s power supply gets too low, the probe’s handlers will switch back to the attitude-control thrusters, NASA officials said. (Voyager 1 is powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, or RTG.

Voyager 1 is expected to keep its current touch with science instruments on through 2021. Voyager 2 is expected to keep its current touch with science instruments on through 2020. … Even if science data won’t likely be collected after 2025, engineering data could continue to be returned for several more years.

CONCLUSION

Here, when crossing the solar system it take whole solar system as single photo. There to see we are live in single dot, 👇

Solar system captured by VOYAGER 1

All the rich, poor and species are in single dot.