NASA Shares Beautiful Images Of Jupiter’s Northern And Southern Auroras

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently shared images that show Jupiter’s northern and southern auroras – stunning light shows in a planet’s atmosphere

23 years ago this month, these views of Jupiter’s northern and southern auroras were taken in ultraviolet light by Hubble. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere,” states the Instagram post by NASA Hubble. As per NASA, Jupiter has the most powerful auroras in the solar system. The image shared by NASA has already garnered over 1 lakh likes and 200 comments where people are awe-struck by the stunning images.

For the uninitiated, Hubble, the observatory, is the first major optical telescope to be placed in space, the ultimate mountaintop, states NASA. Hubble has an unobstructed view of the universe and scientists have used it to observe the most distant stars and galaxies as well as the planets in our solar system.

NASA Hubble keeps sharing new beautiful pictures of the universe and recently also shared image of a huge cluster of galaxies, called Abell 370.

If you want to keep track of all the stunning images that NASA shares, make sure to follow the page on Instagram here.

Also, since we’re talking about Hubble, you might be interested to know that you can check out what Hubble looked at on your birthday on the NASA Website. Pretty cool, right?

There’s too much gold in the universe. No one knows where it came from.

Something is raining gold across the universe. But no one knows what it is.

Here’s the problem: Gold is an element, which means you can’t make it through ordinary chemical reactions — though alchemists tried for centuries. To make the sparkly metal, you have to bind 79 protons and 118 neutrons together to form a single atomic nucleus. That’s an intense nuclear fusion reaction. But such intense fusion doesn’t happen frequently enough, at least not nearby, to make the giant trove of gold we find on  Earth and elsewhere in the solar system. And a new study has found the most commonly-theorized origin of gold — collisions between neutron stars — can’t explain gold’s abundance either. So where’s the gold coming from? There are some other possibilities, including supernovas so intense they turn a star inside out. Unfortunately, even such strange phenomena can’t explain how blinged out the local universe is, the new study finds

what about those odder, star-flipping supernovas? This type of star explosion, a so-called magneto-rotational supernova, is “a very rare supernova, spinning very fast,” Kobayashi told Live Science.

During a magneto-rotational supernova, a dying star spins so fast and is wracked by such strong magnetic fields that it turns itself inside out as it explodes. As it dies, the star shoots white-hot jets of matter into space. And because the star has been turned inside out, its jets are chock full of gold nuclei. Stars that fuse gold at all are rare. Stars that fuse gold then spew it into space like this are even rarer.

But even neutron stars plus magneto-rotational supernovas together can’t explain Earth’s bonanza of gold, Kobayashi and her colleagues found.

“There’s two stages to this question,” she said. “Number one is: neutron star mergers are not enough. Number two: Even with the second source, we still can’t explain the observed amount of gold.”

Master Box Office Week 1: Thalapathy Vijay Starrer Crosses Rs 200 cr Worldwide, Rs 100 cr From Tamil Nadu Alone

Master Box Office Week 1: Thalapathy Viay starrer and Lokesh Kanagaraj-directorial has crossed the big benchmark of Rs 200 crore worldwide. Smashing records everyday

Thalapathy Vijay and Vijay Sethupathy starrer Master has taken over the Box Office with an unprecedented collection. The film has set the reviving tone at the ticket window and has already crossed the big benchmark of Rs 200 crore worldwide. After its one week’s collection, the Lokesh Kanagaraj-directorial is the fourth Vijay starrer to have reached Rs 200 crore at the worldwide Box Office after Mersal, Sarkar, and Bigil. Check out the worldwide Box Office breakup of Vijay’s films: Also Read – Master Box Office Day 7: Thalapathy Vijay, Vijay Sethupathi’s Film is Set to Cross Rs 100 Crore Mark in Tamil Nadu

Master has registered a fabulous Rs 200 crore at worldwide Box Office within eight-day of its release. The film has crossed Rs 100 crore benchmark in Tamil Nadu alone

Master has been an achiever in every sense at the Box Office. It has just not brought back the audience to the theatres but has also created hopes for filmmakers and exhibitors for the revival of cinema on the big screen. Apart from the ardent Vijay fans, it has invited the family audience to the theatres and that’s one of the biggest achievements of Master.

The film ended up beating Hollywood biggies Wonder Woman 1984, and Tenet within three days of its release in the UAE. With back-to-back records it’s making at the Box Office, Master has emerged as the biggest pandemic release in the world so far.

Watch out this space for all the Box Office latest updates on Master!


NASA shares pic of huge cluster of galaxies called Abell 370. Can you guess how far it is from Earth?

It isn’t every day that one gets to see a stunning snapshot of a massive cluster of galaxies. However, today isn’t like every other day. Today is any space enthusiast’s lucky day because today NASA has posted a picturesque image of Abell 370, a huge cluster of galaxies. An informative caption accompanies the picture. If you’re someone who generally enjoys learning about space, then you must check out the entire post.

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope shared this image on its official Instagram account on January 19. The text shared alongside the picture describes what it depicts. It reads, “Smears and streaks of light cover this #HubbleClassic image of a huge cluster of galaxies, called Abell 370. The massive gravity of this cluster causes even light to bend as it passes through, which distorts our view of the galaxies behind Abell 370, creating the warped shapes seen here. This cluster is located a mind-boggling 4.9 billion light-years from Earth”.

Did seeing that picture of the galaxy cluster about 4.9 billion light-years from Earth make your jaw drop? If so, then know that you’re not alone. Since being shared on the photo and video sharing platform merely three hours ago, this post has captured netizens’ attention. The share currently has over 43,100 likes and has also amassed many comments. These numbers are quickly rising.

Here’s what Instagram users had to say about the share. One person said, “Awesome”.

Another individual wrote, “Beautiful”. “Yes, mind-boggling indeed,” read one comment under the share.

Qualcomm reclaims the clock speed title with the Snapdragon 870 5G chipset and its 3.2 GHz CPU

Qualcomm introduced new powerful flackship processor between 865 and 888 It’s performance and feature are down👇

Its CPU reaches the highest clock speed in the mobile world – the prime core now runs at 3.2 GHz, up from 3.1 GHz on the 865+ and 2.94 GHz on the vanilla 865. Those two were surpassed by the Kirin 9000 and its 3.13 GHz prime core, but now Qualcomm has reclaimed the clock speed crown.

The Snapdragon 870 still uses Kryo 585 cores, which are based on ARM’s Cortex-A77 with some in-house tweaks. The Snapdragon 888 CPU is based on the newer Cortex-X1 and A78 instead, so while it runs at lower frequencies (2.84 GHz for the X1), there’s more to the performance story. We’ll have to wait for the first benchmarks to see how all these chips compare, though.

The Adreno 650 GPU makes a comeback, but it’s not clear if it received a clock boost of its own and, if not, whether it’s running at the 865 frequency (587 MHz) or 865+ (670 MHz). The Hexagon 698 and the Tensor Accelerator deliver the same 15 TOPS as the two 865 chips so that definitely did not get a boost.

The display driver can run 1440p class panels at up to 144Hz (or 4K at 60 Hz) and supports HDR10+ (Rec. 2020 color gamut). The Spectra 480 ISP is unchanged as well, with support for sensors up to 200 MP, 8K video capture at 30 fps (and 4K at 120 fps), high dynamic range videos using the HDR10+ and Dolby Vision standards.

There’s no onboard 5G modem, instead the chipset will be paired with an external Snapdragon X55 with sub-6 and mmWave support (up to 7.5 Gbps downlink speeds).

The Snapdragon 870 will be used in phones by Motorola, OnePlus, Oppo, Xiaomi and iQOO. Motorola says it will launch its phone “soon”, but there are no exact dates for any of the upcoming devices. The companies did give a few hints what kind of phones they are working on, though.

A supermassive black hole suddenly vanished. Scientists think it’s floating through space.

Black holes continue to elude scientists, with a lot about the celestial objects still shrouded in mystery. Now, a cosmic event has shaken astronomers!

A supermassive black hole earlier believed to be situated in the centre of a far off galaxy has suddenly vanished.

The galaxy officially called “A2261-BCG” seems to have lost its black hole. Scientists now believe that the black hole might be floating through space, marking the first such instance ever recorded.

The first ever “recoiling” black hole may now be floating through the universe.

Scientists posit that this implies that a powerful force emanating from somewhere in the galaxy may be behind the ejection of this supermassive black hole. The power of the force would have been strong enough to push the black hole far away!

According to scientists, every galaxy in the universe has at least one giant black hole at the centre. This includes our very own Milky Way.

Recently, a team from the University of Michigan published a study about recoding black holes in the American Astronomical Society Journal.

Lead by Dr Kayhan Gultekin, the team found that a black hole had suddenly went missing. He had had been studying A2261-BCG for quite some time when the unexpected event occurred.

In conversation with Motherboard, the doctor claimed that he was sceptical about seeing anything at the centre of the far-off galaxy, but found nothing.

The team of scientists observing it also believe that the black could be hiding somewhere in the galaxy where it cannot be detected.

A massive force is required to push a black hole from its position, and scientists claim that it could be owing to the collision of two supermassive black holes.

Even then, proving this remains difficult, as we have never been able to observe the collision of two supermassive blackholes

World’s oceans continue to warm, despite reduced carbon emissions

Despite reductions in global carbon emissions due to the COVID-19 lockdown, the world’s oceans in 2020 were the warmest in recorded history, according to a new research.

Published in the journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences earlier this week, the study was conducted by 20 scientists from 13 institutes in China, the United States and Italy.

Compared with 2019, the upper 2,000 meters of the Earth’s oceans have absorbed a greater amount of heat, enough to boil 1.3 billion kettles, each containing 1.5 liters of water. The increase in heat within the oceans is responsible for the increasing trend of record-breaking global ocean temperatures, said the research.

Cheng Lijing, lead author of the study and researcher at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said ocean heating is a key indicator for quantifying climate change, since more than 90 percent of global heat ends up in the oceans.

“However, due to the ocean’s delayed response to global warming, the trend of ocean warming will persist for decades at least,” said Cheng, explaining that the world’s ocean temperatures kept rising last year, despite reports that global carbon emissions fell as people stayed indoors due to COVID-19 restrictions

The study also found that over the past eight decades, the world’s oceans have been warmer in each decade than in the previous one. The effects of ocean warming manifest in the form of more typhoons, hurricanes and extreme rainfall.

In addition to ocean temperatures, researchers involved in the study calculated the salinity of ocean water. They found that areas of high salinity had increased in salinity, whereas the opposite was true for areas of lower salinity.

Researchers also shared data recorded by China’s IAP and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the study.

Studying Chaos Phenomena With One of the World’s Fastest Cameras

There are things in life that can be predicted reasonably well. The tides rise and fall. The moon waxes and wanes. A billiard ball bounces around a table according to orderly geometry.

And then there are things that defy easy prediction: The hurricane that changes direction without warning. The splashing of water in a fountain. The graceful disorder of branches growing from a tree.

These phenomena and others like them can be described as chaotic systems, and are notable for exhibiting behavior that is predictable at first, but grows increasingly random with time.

Because of the large role that chaotic systems play in the world around us, scientists and mathematicians have long sought to better understand them. Now, Caltech’s Lihong Wang, the Bren Professor in the Andrew and Peggy Cherng department of Medical Engineering, has developed a new tool that might help in this quest.

In the latest issue of Science Advances, Wang describes how he has used an ultrafast camera of his own design that recorded video at one billion frames per second to observe the movement of laser light in a chamber specially designed to induce chaotic reflections.

The camera makes use of a technology called compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), which Wang has demonstrated in other research to be capable of speeds as fast as 70 trillion frames per second. The speed at which a CUP camera takes video makes it capable of seeing light—the fastest thing in the universe—as it travels.

But CUP cameras have another feature that make them uniquely suited for studying chaotic systems. Unlike a traditional camera that shoots one frame of video at a time, a CUP camera essentially shoots all of its frames at once. This allows the camera to capture the entirety of a laser beam’s chaotic path through the chamber all in one go.

That matters because in a chaotic system, the behavior is different every time. If the camera only captured part of the action, the behavior that was not recorded could never be studied, because it would never occur in exactly the same way again. It would be like trying to photograph a bird, but with a camera that can only capture one body part at a time; furthermore, every time the bird landed near you, it would be a different species. Although you could try to assemble all your photos into one composite bird image, that cobbled-together bird would have the beak of a crow, the neck of a stork, the wings of a duck, the tail of a hawk, and the legs of a chicken. Not exactly useful.

Wang says that the ability of his CUP camera to capture the chaotic movement of light may breathe new life into the study of optical chaos, which has applications in physics, communications, and cryptography

Unrivaled View of Brilliant ‘Planetary Nebula’ NGC 2899

Its distinctive butterfly shape is caused by one star interfering with the gas expulsion pattern of another

star at the center of this tie-dye apparition is collapsing, a process scientists have watched and measured for decades. In 2020 astronomers overcame the 3,000 to 6,500 light-years separating us from this celestial beauty, named NGC 2899, for the clearest picture of it yet.

Though the phenomenon is called a planetary nebula, the term is a misnomer. These cosmic clouds appear when a star burns through the hydrogen at its core. The outer layers of the star separate while the center falls inward, transforming into a white dwarf. As it caves, the core generates ultraviolet radiation and six-million six-million-mile-per-hour winds. Clouds of gas, laden with elements ejected by the star through its lifetime, glow under the heat of the radiation and are shoved outward by the winds. In the image of NGC 2899, oxygen (blue) is surrounded by hydrogen (pink).

The expelled gas is normally fairly round, so early astronomers in the 1700s assumed the spectacle came from a planet—hence the phenomenon’s name. Discovered in 1835 by English astronomer John Herschel in the constellation Vela, NGC 2899 looks like a butterfly because it is made of two stars. Scientists think that one of them is collapsing andthat the second is interfering with the normal gas expulsion pattern, creating the symmetrical form of only 10 to 20 percent of planetary nebulae. The spectacular sight will eventually show up closer to home: our own sun should reach this phase of its life span in several billion years.

Wind turbine maker Vestas halts batch of V150s after Sweden collapse probe

Vestas has temporarily taken around 150 of its V150 machines out of service “in an abundance of caution” after identifying a blade fault as the cause of a turbine collapse in Sweden late last year.

A investigation into the V150 4.2MW collapse at the Aldermyrberget wind farm found a bonding failure on blade-root inserts due to a manufacturing issue at a single supplier, confirmed a spokesman for the Danish wind giant.

Vestas has halted around 150 of the turbines that could potentially be exposed to the same issue, which caused a loose blade to destabilise the Swedish turbine and collapse, he added.

“Vestas is taking this step out of an abundance of caution and is working to put a solution in place to get the turbines safely operating again,” the spokesman told Recharge, adding that the company is liaising with customers over options for repair or replacement.

No other operational turbines have been affected, and the fault is not related to two other V150 blade incidents in the US and Australia last year, said Vestas.

Nobody was hurt in the incident at the Aldermyrberget project, which is owned by Wpd and was ramping up for full commissioning when the turbine collapsed in November.

The V150 has been a huge commercial success for Vestas over the last few years, with thousands of the turbines ordered for deployment in markets around the world as developers move to more powerful machines. The OEM had booked more than 10GW of orders for the V150 4.2MW by mid-2020

Glowing images of fluorescent reptiles recently discovered by scientists in Africa

Astonishing glow-in-the-dark discoveries were recently made in Africa, after scientists recently discovered reptiles that glow in the dark… literally! Namibia’s geckos shine bright under black lights, as stated in a study recently published in Scientific Reports.

According to the report, the stripes and blots on the reptile prevent it from being identified by predators, and keep them singled out from other geckos. A lot of such discoveries have been made recently across the world. In Australia, platypuses with fluorescent markings were discovered. 

Astonishing glow-in-the-dark discoveries were recently made in Africa, after scientists recently discovered reptiles that glow in the dark… literally! Namibia’s geckos shine bright under black lights, as stated in a study recently published in Scientific Reports.

According to the report, the stripes and blots on the reptile prevent it from being identified by predators, and keep them singled out from other geckos. A lot of such discoveries have been made recently across the world. In Australia, platypuses with fluorescent markings were discovered.

The particular species in question have translucent skin, with even their bones glowing under ultraviolet light.

Dr Mark Scherz from Germany’s University Potsdam, part of the Adaptive Genomics Group recently spoke to Live Science about the astonishing discovery, claiming that the colour was shocking to the researchers.

“Actually it turns out quite a few other species, including geckos, have sufficiently transparent skin that their bones’ fluorescence can be seen through it under a sufficiently strong UV light,” Scherz said.

“We have observed in captivity that, although these animals are largely solitary, they do run up to one another to greet each other after a short period of separation,” Scherz added.

 “They also lick condensation from each other’s bodies. So there are lots of reasons that being able to see each other over long distances would be useful for these geckos,” he further said.

Scientists witness the death of a galaxy 9 million light-years away unfold, in a remarkable first

Even though galaxies are known to die out, scientists never could witness the process of a galaxy dying out, until now. Using a high tech telescope, scientists saw the galaxy, ID2299, ejecting out the star forming gases and losing its fuel. As per a press statement, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) spotted the galaxy ejecting nearly half of its star-forming gas. Also, the speed of this ejection was “equivalent to 10,000 Suns-worth of gas a year”. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) was a partner in the observation and the team thinks that this celestial event has been triggered by a collision with another galaxy.

As per the statement, galaxies begin to ‘die’ when they stop forming stars. Now they are getting to actually see how the process takes place. The galaxy is nine billion years away. Hence, what we are seeing now is when the Universe was just 4.5 billion years old.

“This is the first time we have observed a typical massive star-forming galaxy in the distant Universe about to ‘die’ because of a massive cold gas ejection,” said lead researcher Annagrazia Puglisi, who is associated with the Durham University, UK, and the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre, France.

Apart from ejecting out material, the galaxy is also forming stars. The rate of creating stars is very rapid, almost hundreds of times faster than our galaxy, the Milky Way. The result of this fast creation will be that the remaining gas in ID2299 will be consumed gradually, over a few tens of millions of years.

Earlier, it was believed that winds caused by star formation and the activity of black holes at the centres of giant galaxies caused the ejection of star-forming material into space. But the recent case shows that mergers of galaxies can also lead to the shutting down of a galaxy.

“ALMA has shed new light on the mechanisms that can halt the formation of stars in distant galaxies. Witnessing such a massive disruption event adds an important piece to the complex puzzle of galaxy evolution,” said Chiara Circosta, a researcher at the University College London who was part of the research. The study has been published in the journal

Rare White Tiger Born In Zoo Is Being Raised by Humans After Mother Rejects It

Tigers are majestic creatures — whether it’s their stripes or just the way their face appears, it’s both adorable and menacing. And it is no secret that tigers around the world are striving hard to keep up with the world, with their population so low, they’ve been categorized as endangered and are listed on the Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

However, what’s rarer are white tigers. They’re not found in the wild and a few dozens that do exist globally are in captivity. And recently, another white tiger has joined this list. 

The little one was born around a week ago, weighing just a kilogram at birth, according to director Eduardo Sacasa in a conversation with AFP.

Upon birth, Nieve’s mother rejected it and now it is being raised by the zoo staff. The cub is being kept away from the mother now and is being bottle fed by Sacasa’s wife, Mariana Arguello, who helps him manage the zoo which as of now consists of 700 animals as well as a rescue centre. 

While feeding Nieve, Arguello said in a statement to AFP, “She has not lost her appetite; every three hours she gets the bottle. If not, she screams… also if the milk gets too cold.” 

Existence of white tigers

In case you didn’t know, white tigers are essentially forms of the Royal Bengal tigers that originate in India, however, what makes them white is a rare recessive gene. They are different from albino tigers or categorised as a different species. 

In Nieve’s case, she came from a couple of coloured mother and father. However, the mother, who was saved after being abandoned by a circus crew had inherited the gene from her grandfather, who was white.  As of now, no white tigers exist in wild habitat, all of them are raised and nurtured in captivity. 

Scientists surprised to discover two dwarf giraffes in Namibia, Uganda

A dwarf giraffe named Nigel, born in 2014, stands with an adult male at an undisclosed location in Namibia on March 26, 2018. Photo: Giraffe Conservation Foundation via Reuters

Being tall is the giraffe’s competitive advantage, giving it the pick of leaves from the tallest trees, so scientists were stunned to find two giraffe dwarves on different sides of Africa.

“It’s fascinating what our researchers out in the field found,” Julian Fennessy, co-founder of the Giraffe Conservation Foundation, told Reuters in a videocall on January 8. “We were very surprised.”

Most giraffes grow to 15 to 20 feet (4.5m to 6m), but in 2018, scientists working with the foundation discovered an eight-and-a-half-foot (2.6m) giraffe in Namibia. Three years earlier, they had also found a 9-foot 3-inch (2.8m) giraffe in a Ugandan wildlife park.

They published their findings in the British Medical Journal at the end of December.

In both cases, the giraffes had the standard long necks but short, stumpy legs, the paper said. Skeletal dysplasia, the medical name for the condition, affects humans and domesticated animals, but the paper said it was rare to see in wild animals.

Footage taken by the foundation showed the Ugandan giraffe standing on thick, muscled legs in the dry savanna of Murchison Falls national park in northern Uganda, while a taller animal with the usual long, stick-like legs walked behind it.

“Unfortunately there’s probably no benefit at all. Giraffes have grown taller to reach the taller trees,” Mr. Fennessy said. He added that it would most likely be physically impossible for them to breed with their normal-sized counterparts.

Numbers of the world’s tallest mammal have declined by some 40% over the past 30 years to around 1,11,000, so all four species are classified by conservationists as “vulnerable”.

Scientists discover new state of matter: Liquid Glass

A team of scientists from Germany and the Netherlands have used a technology called confocal microscopy to discover a new state of matter, Liquid Glass, hidden inside mysterious transformations that happen between liquid and solid states of glass.

“Suspensions of colloidal particles are widely spread in nature and technology and have been studied intensely over more than a century,” said co-senior author Professor Andreas Zumbusch, Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz. “When the density of such suspensions is increased to high volume fractions, often their structural dynamics are arrested in a disordered, glassy state before they can form an ordered structure.”

He also explained that till date such experiments were being performed using spherical colloids. However, an increased interest in synthetic colloids as material building blocks led to “development of a multitude of novel techniques for the synthesis of colloidal particles with specific geometries and interactions.”

The scientists, in this research, focused on ellipsoidal polymethylmethacrylate colloids. “Due to their distinct shapes our particles have orientation, as opposed to spherical particles, which gives rise to entirely new and previously unstudied kinds of complex behaviors,” he explained.

Researchers recorded temporal development of the 3D positions and orientations for nearly 6,000 ellipsoidal particles using confocal laser scanning microscopy. “At certain particle densities orientational motion froze whereas translational motion persisted, resulting in glassy states where the particles clustered to form local structures with similar orientation,” Zumbusch said.

“What we’ve termed liquid glass is a result of these clusters mutually obstructing each other and mediating characteristic long-range spatial correlations,” he explained. “These prevent the formation of a liquid crystal which would be the globally ordered state of matter expected from thermodynamics.”

As a result, the team noticed a regular phase transformation and a nonequilibrium phase transformation interacting with one another.

Earth is spinning faster. Here’s what scientists are saying

The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) in Paris announced in July last year that no “leap second” would be added to the world’s official timekeeping in December 2020.

Scientists think days are getting shorter than 24 hours because the planet is spinning faster than it has in 50 years and a full day has been taking less than normal since last year. According to the Daily Mail, July 19, 2020, was the shortest day since scientists began keeping records in the 1960s – 1.4602 milliseconds shorter than the full 24 hours. It is a retreat from previous records showing that for decades, the Earth took slightly longer than 24 hours to complete a rotation.

The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) in Paris announced in July last year that no “leap second” would be added to the world’s official timekeeping in December 2020. Leap seconds are time adjustments like leap years and timekeepers at IERS have added leap seconds to 27 days since the 1970s, with the most recent on December 31, 2016. According to the Daily Mail, they keep atomic time in line with solar time, thereby keeping satellites and communications equipment in sync. The next possible date for a leap second is June 30, 2021, as  leap seconds are always added on the last day of June or December.

According to scientists, the days are on average about 0.5 seconds shorter than 24 hours. Though the time difference is noticed only at the atomic level, experts say its impact could be significant. World timekeepers are debating whether to delete a second from time — called a “negative leap second” — to account for the change and bring time passage back into line with the rotation of the Earth.

Peter Whibberley of the National Physical Laboratory in the UK said, while speaking to the Telegraph, that the Earth is spinning faster now than at any time in the last 50 years. “It’s quite possible that a negative leap second will be needed if the Earth’s rotation rate increases further, but it’s too early to say if this is likely to happen. There are also international discussions taking place about the future of leap seconds, and it’s also possible that the need for a negative leap second might push the decision towards ending leap seconds for good,” Whibberley, a senior research scientist, said.

Peter Whibberley of the National Physical Laboratory in the UK said, while speaking to the Telegraph, that the Earth is spinning faster now than at any time in the last 50 years. “It’s quite possible that a negative leap second will be needed if the Earth’s rotation rate increases further, but it’s too early to say if this is likely to happen. There are also international discussions taking place about the future of leap seconds, and it’s also possible that the need for a negative leap second might push the decision towards ending leap seconds for good,” Whibberley, a senior research scientist, said.

A study published in Science Advances in 2015 suggests global warming may be the reason behind the Earth’s speedier rotation.A study published in Science Advances in 2015 suggests global warming may be the reason behind the Earth’s speedier rotation.

Govt to conduct national cow science exam; says it will educate on importance of cows

The 54-page study material released for the exam includes some diffent topics that claim things like earthquakes occur due to cow slaughter

The Rashtriya Kamdhenu  Aayog (RKA) chairman Vallabhbhai  Kathiria said on Tuesday that the government plans to conduct a nationwide voluntary online examination on “cow science” next month to infuse curiosity among people and educate students about the importance of cows.

According to an article in The Indian Express, the exam will be conducted by RKA, an agency established for the protection of cows under the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying.

This exam is going to be the first of its kind and will be held annually. During a press conference, Kathiria said that “cow is full of science and needs to be explored”.  He said that the exam will be held in 12 regional languages apart from Hindi and English.

The official release of the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, under which RKA functions stated that the exam will be conducted in four categories – Primary level (up to 8th standard), Secondary level (from class 9th to class 12th), College level (after 12thstd) and the fourth category will be for the general public. It also said that the exam model is going to consist of multiple-choice questions (MCQ’s).

According to the ministry, the examination will be free of cost and meritorious candidates will be given certificates and prizes.

However, the study material released for this exam seems to be the most interesting and amusing part.  The 54-page study material includes some misleading topics that claim things like earthquakes occur due to cow slaughter and how nearly any disease can be cured by a cow by-product.

What was said to be a document to help the students study about the science behind cows, looks more or less like an excuse to spread a set narrative and propaganda.

NASA shared some interstellar fireworks to bring 2020 to an end. The Orion Nebula looks like a rainbow canvas peppered with dots of light.

A composite image of the Orion Nebula, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope

NASA decided to share some interstellar fireworks to end an unforgettable year.

The agency posts an “image of the day,” every day, and the final image of 2020 did not disappoint.

A canvas of color, NASA’s December 31 image of the day depicts a composite image of the Orion Nebula, captured by the Hubble Space and Spitzer Space Telescopes.

It’s located more than 1,500 light-years away from Earth.

Nebulae like this one are interstellar nurseries – giant clouds of gas and dust in space that cradle infant stars as they’re born. Some nebulae form as stars die: As a star’s core cools, it starts to shed its outer layers, which disperse to form gaseous clouds

A rainbow canvas

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope captured two nebula

When space telescopes like the Hubble image the hydrogen, sulfur, and carbon molecules that make up nebulae like Orion they don’t capture color. Rather, Hubble records particles of light, which NASA can then view through different filters that only let in certain wavelengths of color. Then they assign color to the particles that come through those filters (light than came through the red filter is assigned a red color, for example.)

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope captured this image of the Helix Nebula, which is located in the constellation Aquarius-about 700 light-years away from Earth

By combining images of the same nebula viewed with different filters, the agency can create a composite, color image like the ones shown above

“We often use color as a tool, whether it is to enhance an object’s detail or to visualize what ordinarily could never be seen by the human eye,” NASA said.

There are roughly 3000 nebulea in our galaxy.

The closest known nebula to our planet is the Helix Nebula, the cosmic remnant of a dying star. It’s about half the distance from Earth as the Orion Nebula is – 700 light-years (so if you traveled at the speed of light, it’d take you 700 years to get there).

The Hubble Space Telescope has been imaging nebulae for 30 years, and these images help scientists learn more about how these cosmic clouds evolve, or even dim and shrink, over time.

Ancient marine creatures called radiodonts had incredible vision that likely drove an evolutionary arms race

The international study, led by Professor John Paterson from the University of New England Research Centre, in collaboration with the University of Adelaide, the South Australian Museum and The Natural History Museum (UK), found that radiodonts developed sophisticated eyes over 500 million years ago, with some adapted to the dim light of deep water.

“our study provides critical new information about the evolution of the earliest marine animal ecosystems,” Professor Paterson said. “In particular, it supports the idea that vision played a crucial role during the Cambrian Explosion, a pivotal phase in history when most major animal groups first appeared during a rapid burst of evolution over half a billion years ago.”

Radiodonts, meaning “radiating teeth,” are a group of arthropods that dominated the oceans around 500 million years ago. The many species share a similar body layout comprising of a head with a pair of large, segmented appendages for capturing prey, a circular mouth with serrated teeth, and a squid-like body. It now seems likely that some lived at depths down to 1000 meters and had developed large, complex eyes to compensate for the lack of light in this extreme environment.

“When complex visual systems arose, animals could better sense their surroundings,” Professor Paterson explained. “That may have fuelled an evolutionary arms race between predators and prey. Once established, vision became a driving force in evolution and helped shape the biodiversity and ecological interactions we see today.”

Some of the first radiodont fossils discovered over a century ago were isolated body parts, and initial attempts at reconstructions resulted in “Frankenstein’s monsters.”

But over the past few decades many new discoveries — including whole radiodont bodies — have given a clearer picture of their anatomy, diversity and possible lifestyles.

Co-author, Associate Professor Diego García-Bellido from the University of Adelaide and South Australian Museum, said the rich treasure trove of fossils at Emu Bay Shale on South Australia’s Kangaroo Island in particular has helped to build a clearer picture of Earth’s earliest animals.

“The Emu Bay Shale is the only place in the world that preserves eyes with lenses of Cambrian radiodonts. The more than thirty specimens of eyes we now have, has shed new light on the ecology, behavior, and evolution of these, the largest animals alive half-a-billion years ago,” A/Prof. García-Bellido said.

This new research published on December 2, 2020.

Could we ever pull enough carbon out of the atmosphere to stop climate change?

Nature has equipped Earth with several giant “sponges,” or carbon sinks, that can help humans battle climate change. These natural sponges, as well as human-made ones, can sop up carbon, effectively removing it from the atmosphere. 

But what does this sci-fi-like act really entail? And how much will it actually take — and cost — to make a difference and slow climate change

Sabine Fuss has been looking for these answers for the last two years. An economist in Berlin, Fuss leads a research group at the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change and was part of the original Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — established by the United Nations to assess the science, risks and impacts of global warming. After the panel’s 2018 report and the new Paris Agreement goal to keep global warming to 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit (1.5 degrees Celsius) or less, Fuss was tasked with finding out which carbon removal strategies were most promising and feasible

Afforestation and reforestation — planting or replanting of forests, respectively — are well known natural carbon sinks. Vast numbers of trees can sequester the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere for photosynthesis, a chemical reaction that uses the sun’s energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen. According to a 2019 study in the journal Science, planting 1 trillion trees could store about 225 billion tons (205 billion metric tons) of carbon, or about two-thirds of the carbon released by humans into the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution began. 

Agriculture land management is another natural carbon removal approach that’s relatively low risk and already being tested out, according to Jane Zelikova, terrestrial ecologist and chief scientist at Carbon180, a nonprofit that advocates for carbon removal strategies in the U.S. Practices such as rotational grazing, reduced tilling and crop rotation increase carbon intake by photosynthesis, and that carbon is eventually stored in root tissues that decompose in the soil. The National Academy of Sciences found that carbon storage in soil was enough to offset as much as 10% of U.S. annual net emissions — or about 632 million tons (574 million metric tons) of CO2 — at a low cost. 

But nature-based carbon removal, like planting and replanting forests, can conflict with other policy goals, like food production, Fuss said. Scaled up, these strategies require a lot of land, oftentimes land that’s already in use. 

This is why more tech-based approaches to carbon removal are crucial, they say. With direct air capture and carbon storage, for instance, a chemical process takes carbon dioxide out of the air and binds it to filters. When the filter is heated, the CO2 can be captured and then injected underground. There are currently 15 direct air capture plants worldwide, according to the International Energy Agency. There’s also bioenergy with carbon capture. With this method, plants and trees are grown, creating a carbon sink, and then the organic material is burned to produce heat or fuel known as bioenergy. During combustion, the carbon emissions are captured and stored underground. Another carbon capture trick involves mineralization; in this process, rocks get ground up to increase the surfaces available to chemically react with, and crystallize, CO2. Afterward, the mineralized CO2 is stored underground. 

The need to deploy these solutions is imminent. The global carbon budget, the amount of CO2 humans can emit before the global temperature rises 2.7 F (1.5 C) above preindustrial levels, is about 300 gigatons of CO2, Fuss said. 

Earth’s atmosphere is full of microbes. Could they help us find life on other worlds?

If you’re feeling lonely, take solace in remembering that there are countless tiny living things floating tens of thousands of feet above your head.

And as scientists have come to learn more and more about this high-flying life and how it interacts with Earth’s surface, they are beginning to question just how implausible it is to wonder whether similar life could theoretically hide out in the clouds of Venus or still more exotic worlds.

“We humans really are bottom-dwellers underneath an ocean of atmosphere above our head, and we really don’t know where Earth’s biosphere boundary stops at extreme altitudes,” David Smith, who studies life in the atmosphere at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California, said at a roundtable event held on Dec. 14 at the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union, held virtually this month. “It seems just about anywhere we sample with NASA aircraft and balloons, we find signatures of microbial life.”

So far, life in Earth’s atmosphere seems to be strictly microbial and a temporary affair, intimately connected to life on Earth’s surface rather than an independent ecosystem. Tiny, hardy organisms are swept up from the thin transition where Earth’s atmosphere meets the planet and carried into the lower layers of the atmosphere on an epic detour.

“Based on what we know, the things are just moving through the atmosphere,” Kevin Dillon, a Ph.D. candidate in microbiology at Rutgers University, said during the panel. “Microbes travel and use the atmosphere almost like a highway, and specifically can hitch a ride in clouds.”

Microbes end up in two layers of the atmosphere. In the lower troposphere, microbes mostly have to contend with the risk of drying out, Diana Gentry, a research scientist at Ames, said during the panel. Hence the appeal of clouds.

“If you are picked up and suspended in the atmosphere, you’re in danger of losing all of your water pretty quickly,” Gentry said. “So clouds in the lower level are great — they’re like these mobile water hotspots that can help keep you wet as you’re picked up and transported around.” In the troposphere, some microbes may survive pretty normally, even.

Life in solar system

Of course, for as many uncertainties as there are when it comes to life in Earth’s atmosphere, they only multiply in atmospheres beyond Earth’s.

One key constraint is that while we know full well Earth’s surface is a paradise from which microbes can take their grand adventure, other planetary surfaces in the solar system are either certainly or likely more hostile to life as we know it, although they may well have been plenty habitable in the distant past. The appeal of someplace like Venus, for example, as a destination in the search for life is in its atmosphere, where some scientists have argued that liquid droplets about 30 to 37 miles (48 to 60 kilometers) up could act as a haven in the acidic, hot environment for which Venus is famous.

And beyond

Just as Earth serves as a template for considering other solar system worlds, our neighborhood offers archetypes to consider for worlds beyond our star — with another step down in how much we know about them, of course. Where Earth is our daily backdrop and the planets are destinations for sophisticated spacecraft, exoplanets are mostly blemishes silhouetted against their stars in astronomical observations.

And it turns out, spotting atmospheric life is tricky, even here on Earth. “Every time we fly through clouds and make cloud water collections, we have this really strong signal of Earth life. And yet, we can’t measure it remotely,” Smith said. “We know life is in those clouds, but we don’t have any instruments that are sensitive enough to detect that without actually collecting the cloud water.”

Four Ways Quantum Physics Challenges Our Sense of Reality

Imagine opening the weekend paper and looking through the puzzle pages for the Sudoku. You spend your morning working through this logic puzzle, only to realise by the last few squares there’s no consistent way to finish it.

“I must have made a mistake,” you think. So you try again, this time starting from the corner you couldn’t finish and working back the other way. But the same thing happens again. You’re down to the last few squares and find there is no consistent solution.

Working out the basic nature of reality according to quantum mechanics is a little bit like an impossible Sudoku. No matter where we start with quantum theory, we always end up at a conundrum that forces us to rethink the way the world fundamentally works. (This is what makes quantum mechanics so much fun.)

1. Spooky action-at-a-distance

As far as we know, the speed of light (around 3×10^8 metres per second) is the universe’s ultimate speed limit. Albert Einstein famously scoffed at the prospect of physical systems influencing each other faster than a light signal could travel between them.

Back in the 1940s Einstein called this “spooky action-at-a-distance”. When quantum mechanics had earlier appeared to predict such spooky goings-on, he argued the theory must not yet be finished, and some better theory would tell the true story.

2. Loosening our grip on reality

Yes, we can. And many in the quantum physics community think this way, too. But this would be no consolation to Einstein.

Einstein had a long-running debate with his friend Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist, about this very question. Bohr argued we should indeed give up the idea of the stuff of the world being well defined, so we can avoid spooky action-at-a-distance. In Bohr’s view, the world doesn’t have definite properties unless we’re looking at it. When we’re not looking, Bohr thought, the world as we know it isn’t really there.

3. Back to the future

The Bohr-Einstein debate is reasonably familiar fare in the history of quantum mechanics. Less familiar is the foggy corner of this quantum logic puzzle where we can rescue both a well-defined, independent world and no spooky action. But we will need to get weird in other ways.

If doing an experiment to measure a quantum system in the lab could somehow affect what the system was like before the measurement, then Einstein could have his cake and eat it too. This hypothesis is called “retrocausality”, because the effects of doing the experiment would have to travel backwards in time.

4. No view from Olympus

Imagine Zeus perched atop Mount Olympus, surveying the world. Imagine he were able to see everything that has happened, and will happen, everywhere and for all time. Call this the “God’s eye view” of the world. It is natural to think there must be some way the world is, even if it can only be known by an all-seeing God.

Recent research in quantum mechanics suggests a God’s eye view of the world is impossible, even in principle. In certain strange quantum scenarios, different scientists can look carefully at the systems in their labs and make thorough recordings of what they see – but they will disagree about what happened when they come to compare notes. And there might well be no absolute fact of the matter about who’s correct – not even Zeus could know!

So next time you encounter an impossible Sudoku, rest assured you’re in good company. The entire quantum physics community, and perhaps even Zeus himself, knows exactly how you feel.

A huge asteroid and three small NEOs will shoot past Earth in early Jan, NASA warns

NASA has warned that a monstrous 220-meter asteroid is headed Earth’s way early in the new year.

Year 2020’s final asteroid, 2020 YB4, measuring just 36 metres in diameter or roughly half the wingspan of a 747,

passed by the Earth shortly after 6 am UTC at a distance of 6.1 million kilometres.

Keeping up with the trend, in the first days of January, three additional, small Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will grace

the Earth with their presence. 

The 15-metre asteroid 2019 YB4 will fly by at a safe distance of 6.4 million kilometres. It will be followed up by two

more chunks of cosmic debris in the form of the 15-meter 2020 YA1 and the 21-meter 2020 YP4, which will pass by at

1.5 and 2.1 million kilometers respectively, the next day.

A bigger asteroid will shoot past Earth on January 3, as the relatively mountainous 2003 AF23, measuring an

impressive 220m in diameter or about as wide as the Golden Gate Bridge is tall, at 6.9 million kilometers.  

GST collection creates a record

The gross goods and services tax (GST) revenue collected in the month of December 2020 was Rs 1,15,174 crore of which CGST was Rs 21,365 crore, SGST was ₹ 27,804 crore, IGST was ₹ 57,426 crore (including ₹ 27,050 crore collected on import of goods) and cess was ₹ 8,579 crore (including ₹ 971 crore collected on goods imports). The total number of GSTR-3B Returns filed for November up to December 31, 2020, was 87 lakhs.

The government settled ₹ 23,276 crore to CGST and ₹ 17,681 crore to SGST from IGST as regular settlement. The total revenue earned by the Union government and the state governments after regular settlement in the month of December 2020 was Rs 44,641 crore for CGST and Rs 45,485 crore for the SGST.

In line with the recent trend of recovery in the GST revenues, the revenues for December 2020 was 12 per cent higher than the GST revenues in the same month last year. During the month, revenues from import of goods was 27 per cent higher and the revenues from domestic transaction (including import of services) were 8 per cent higher that the revenues from these sources during the same month last year.

The GST revenues during December 2020 have been the highest since the introduction of GST and it is the first time that it crossed Rs 1.15 lakh crore. The highest GST collection to date was Rs 1,13,866 crore in April 2019. The revenues of April normally tend to be high since they pertain to the returns of March, which marks the end of financial year. The December 2020 revenues are significantly higher than last month’s revenues of Rs 1,04.963 crore. This is the highest growth in monthly revenues since last 21 months. This has been due to combined effect of the rapid economic recovery post pandemic and the nation-wide drive against GST evaders and fake bills along with many systemic changes introduced recently, which have led to improved compliance.

Until now, GST revenues have crossed ₹ 1.1 lakh crore three times since the introduction of GST. This is the third month in a row in the current financial year after the economy has been showing signs or recovery post pandemic that the GST revenues have been more than Rs 1 lakh crore. The average growth in GST revenues during the last quarter has been 7.3 per cent as compared to -8.2 per cent during the second quarter and -41.0 per cent during the first quarter of the financial year.

India hockey great and Olympic medalist Michael Kindo dies at 73

Former India hockey player, an Olympic medalist and World Cup-winner, Michael Kindo passed away on December 31 due to age-related complications.

  • Former India hockey player Michael Kindo passed away at 73 on 31/12/20 , Thursday.
  • Michael Kindo was part of the 1975 hockey team that won the World Cup in Malaysia
  • Kindo was also part of the 1972 bronze-medal winning hockey team in Munich

India hockey legend Micheal Kindo passed away aged 73 on December 31 in Rourkela, Odisha after a prolonged illness. Kindo was part of the 1972 bronze medal-winning Indian Olympic team in Munich.

Michael Kindo, who played as a full-back was also part of the 1975 hockey team that won the World Cup in Kuala Lumpur. Kindo was part of the squad that defeated Pakistan in the final to win its maiden World Cup gold medal.

According to his family members, Kindo was suffering from age-related complications and breathed his last at 3:30 pm IST on Thursday. Kindo is survived by his wife and two daughters.

Hockey India and Odisha Sports took to social media on Thursday to condole the death of Michael Kindo, who was also the first tribal to don India colours at the highest level in hockey.

We are deeply saddened by the demise of our former hockey player and 1975 World Cup winner, Michael Kindo. We send out our heartfelt condolences to his family,” Hockey India wrote.

@TheHockeyIndia, 👈 tag at Twitter.

South Korea’s ‘artificial sun’ sets new world record, lights up at 100 million degrees for record 20 seconds


A superconducting fusion device, also known as the Korean artificial sun, set the new world record as it successfully maintained high temperature over 100 million degrees (Celsius) for a record 20 seconds.

Comfortably setting a new world record for fusion, South Korea managed to light up an artificial sun at over 100 million degrees for a record 20 seconds. In comparison, the core of the Sun burns at only 15 million degrees Celsius.

According to reports, a team of South Korean physicists used an “artificial sun” — a superconducting fusion device known as KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) for the experiment. For the fusion, scientists obtained a plasma (one of the four fundamental states of matter) from hydrogen composed of hot ions that exceeded the 100 million degrees temperature. To retain the ions, it is necessary to maintain incredibly high temperatures.

The researchers established a world record by turning this national artificial sun nuclear fusion reactor on and maintaining the high-temperature plasma for 20 seconds with an ion temperature over 100 million degrees (Celsius).

This fusion surpassed last year’s plasma operation that worked for 8 seconds. In 2018, KSTAR had reached a temperature of 100 million degrees for the first time, but only managed to keep it running for around 1.5 seconds.
The goal of the institute is to achieve fusion ignition for 300 seconds at a time by 2025, the report said.

Tokamak devices like KSTAR are used to recreate fusion reactions that occur in the Sun, here on Earth. According to the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), there are about 250 tokamak devices around the world, the report said.

Tokamak is an acronym for the Russian term “toroïdalnaïa kameras magnitnymi katushkami” or “toroidal chamber with magnetic coils”.

However, “none of them broke the barrier of maintaining the operation for 10 seconds or longer. It is the operational limit of the normal-conducting device and it was difficult to maintain a stable plasma state in the fusion device at such high temperatures for a long time,” a report in said.

Earlier in this month, China turned on its ‘artificial sun’ which managed to operate at 150 million degrees Celsius, a local report cited the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC).

In November 2018, the Institute of Plasma Physics in Hefei, China, had announced that an Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (East) device had reached a milestone temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius and heating power of 100Mw.

The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (East) is an experimental fusion reactor built at the Institute of Plasma Physics in Hefei, China, on behalf of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. his temperature was sustained for 10 seconds.

Scientists Discover a New Whale Population in the Indian Ocean

New Delhi: Scientists had found evidence of unknown population of blue whales living in the western Indian Ocean based on an analysis of sound recordings from the region, reported The New York Times.

According to a recently published study in the journal Species Research, this group of whales has its own distinct song or sound, different from any other whale song. So far, only about a dozen blue whale songs – each of which is a distinct identifier of a unique population – have been documented. Several blue whale populations have previously been recognised based on their distinct songs.

scientists involved in the study first recorded the song while undertaking research focused on Omura’s whales in the coast of Madagascar. It soon became apparent to the researchers that they had found a previously unidentified population of blue whales.

“It was quite remarkable to find a whale sound in our data that was completely unique, never before reported, and recognize it as a blue whale,” said Dr Salvatore Cerchio, who led the analysis of recordings of the whales. “With all that work on blue whale songs, to think there was a population out there that no one knew about until 2017, well, it kind of blows your mind,” Cerchio said.

Researchers said that they had initially assumed that the whales in question belonged to the same population of blue whales near Sri Lanka that had already been studied.

Before their recording effort off Oman, there were no acoustic data from the Arabian Sea, and so the identity of that population of blue whales was initially just a guess,” said study co-author Andrew Willson from Five Oceans Environmental Services LLC. “Our work shows that there is a lot more to learn about these animals, and this is an urgent requirement in light of the wide range of threats to large whales related to expanding maritime industries in the region.”

Hunted to near extinction, the number of blue whales shrank from 250,000 to around 1,000 by 1950s and started to recover from their dwindling numbers only recently following a global moratorium on commercial whaling.

“For 20 years we have focused work on the highly endangered Arabian Sea humpback whale, for which we believe only about 100 animals remain off the coast of Oman,” said Suaad Al Harthi of the Environment Society of Oman.

Weight of it is upto 380,000 pounds and stretching 100 feet long, the blue whale the largest creature to have ever lived on Earth , might at first seem difficult for human eyes and ears to miss.



Snake is a family tree of Reptails all reptails will move slowly and it can survive in both water and land but snake hos no leg now but 150 Million years ago the snakes which had a legs and it used leg to survive .

The above image is decayed snake bone research says around 150M years before all the snakes lived with leg by due to earth evolution it lost its legs and survived in the land without leg and it try to move in zig-zag manner to move one place to another . Snakes are reptiles with no legs. They move by using their muscles to push their scales against the ground or other objects.


How it lost? , we didn’t get clear idea because bone of the snake is rare. We didn’t get snakes bone between 150M -100Million years so we didn’t get clear idea about how it lost its leg it is mistry.

Researchers found two type of snake that has leg and they lived in different locations one is under water another is on the ground and due to earths evaluation the answer for this question is mistry. We doesn’t have exact answer for it.


By the research for growing leg and hand the gene called “SONIC HEDGEHOG” is shortly called as SSH it plays a role to grow legs and hand not only snake for all living organism including human also. And HOXD13 enzymes is used to grow fingers for all living organism .

The snake has it both SSH and HOXD13 but it can’t promote (enhancer) is less so it is growing but not visible it is tiny and not growing large and lost it now a days living snake .

HOXD13 and SSH

The scientist try to give enhancer and retrive the snakes leg the research is going on . They try to introduce in rats egg and now research is doing on.

They found that python have small leg while laying eggs, but it doesn’t have enhancer to develop the legs and finger to the snakes.


Though it lost legs and it can’t stand so it is always on touch body with ground so it can here every vibration on earth so need of ear is not nessasary for it so it lost its earing power and finaly lost its ear.

Though it does not have ear to hear it feel the vibration on earth and survives.


  • Snakes are carnivores (meat eaters).
  • Snakes don’t have eyelids.
  • Snakes can’t bite food so have to swallow it whole
  • Snakes are found on every continent of the world except Antarctica.
  • Snakes have internal ears but not external ones.



Launched on September 5, 1977, sixteen days after Voyager 2 which lifted off on August 20, Voyager 1 is now the furthest manufactured object from Earth,From a distance of 140 AU away (as on September 22, 2017), Voyager 1 is still in regular contact with the Deep Space Network, and receiving control inputs and return data.

It is still going away from solar system and capture what are all it seeing in it’s path and it going in target to reach Intersteller place and deep place


It traveled from Earth and reach the next next planet of Earth called as “Jupiter” there it started to capture a lot of pictures, including Jupiter’s moons and we can seen the small ring of jupiter. Below image 👇taken by Voyager 1 of an erupting volcano on Jupiter’s moon  came as a major surprise. Voyager also discovered that material ejected from volcanoes .since sulphur, oxygen, and sodium was detected by Voyager 1 right at the outer limits of Jupiter’s magnetosphere

IO moon of JUPITER


On moving gradually the very next to Jupiter is Satern it has large ring around planet , the planet’s upper atmosphere contains only about 7% helium. its helium abundance was expected to be about 11%, or the value for both the Sun and Jupiter.

Investigators are surmising that the heavier helium is sinking downward through the less-dense hydrogen in the planets’ atmosphere creating heat, which might explain why Saturn radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun. 

It only found Titan which is called as the Satern’s moon and it go away from solar system by crossed Uranus, Neptune and pluto .


In VOYAGER 1 they fixed a “Golden CD” and have a camera in VOYAGER which is used to take picture and store in that CD and also they have attached human normal activity like 55 languages shown in above image👆 , 115+ images in earth, beautiful place in earth, 95 songs ext.. Are stored in that Golden CD and put it to fly also capture as video rought to earth from flying place.

These are sent along with VOYAGER to any other species in universe like Aliens to know about our self and to come to earth,. If they found it they may come but till we didn’t get such image like from VOYAGER 1 .


When Voyager 1’s power supply gets too low, the probe’s handlers will switch back to the attitude-control thrusters, NASA officials said. (Voyager 1 is powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, or RTG.

Voyager 1 is expected to keep its current touch with science instruments on through 2021. Voyager 2 is expected to keep its current touch with science instruments on through 2020. … Even if science data won’t likely be collected after 2025, engineering data could continue to be returned for several more years.


Here, when crossing the solar system it take whole solar system as single photo. There to see we are live in single dot, 👇

Solar system captured by VOYAGER 1

All the rich, poor and species are in single dot.


The growth of MediaTek also means that it somewhere hampered Qualcomm’s market that dropped from 31% share in Q2 to 29% in Q3.

When we talk about the biggest processor makers in the smartphone world, usually Qualcomm and Samsung brands come to all mind. However, both of these were not the biggest smartphone chipset supplier in third quarter of the 2020. According to a new report from smartphone industry, MediaTek was the one that to get the lead position then Qualcomm

As per the report, the Taiwanese chipset maker performed well in $100 to 250 In India( ₹7000 – ₹18,000) price . India and China were two of the most important markets for MediaTek in Q3. One of the reasons for MediaTek’s growth is also said to be the inactive growth of Huawei due to these US sanctions.

MediaTek chipsets were in some 100 million smartphones that were sold globally in the third quarter. All this helped the company to expand its market share from 26% in second quarter to 31%.

The growth of MediaTek also means that it somewhere hampered Qualcomm’s market that dropped from 31% share in Q2 to 29% in 

However, Qualcomm even now is still leading when it comes to market for 5G chipsets. It had a share of 39% in the third quarter. As per report, the demand for 5G phones increased in Q3 with 17% of all handsets supporting 5G network. And this helped Qualcomm expand its market share. 

The research by smartphone world says that this 5G trend is likely to continue with 1/3rd of all smartphones that will be shipped in the fourth quarter of 2020. While Qualcomm has brought some new 5G supporting chipsets including the Snapdragon 690, Snapdragon 750G and Snapdragon 865 Plus, MediaTek on the other hand, has also expanded its lineup across different series using its DIMENSITY range of 5G chipsets.

Any how, 5G chipset is not nessasary for all country even in India we are going to get 5G in Q2 2021 via JIO telecommunications company and they are told that we are going to launch we wait and see how long it take to provide 5G to people.

In India only Mediatech Dimensity 800U only launched and which smart phone brand going to launch whth this chipset don’t know, where it is Mi or Realme. My preference is Realme going to launch first

Get ready India, we are going to get better network communication in 2021-2022. It may go longer than 2022 because of COVID -19 pandamic,when Indian government give spectrum auction we get 5G better network in India


Though Mediatech come from low level it achive by its performance ie… By the engineer who are all designing this chipset great aplast, any suggestion or Idea put it in comment..




It was started in the year 2019 end but no one knows who is first person and where it started officialy. Probably all the countries and telling about China has orginated but no one have solid evidence about origin of covid now it took peeks in some country.


In United Kingdom (UK) , they have less population around 60 million population as for 2020,in that they submitted highest peek of around 40,000 people, it seems that they are facing another generation of covid -19 already they said we are in second wave in September 2020 and now the UK research council said that we are only research about covid by checking human RNA and most of the country . They have sperated their country as zone as India seperated 3 different zone as cases reported.


UK has seperated in 3 zone and they are in strict lockdown ZONE 1 : Should not go to any where including near store what ever, guess they are can’t celebrate the Christmas itself it was their bad time how ever thay have to manage if they have to live. ZONE 2 : They can move with in their street or among 3 neighboring houses obviously they are also indange they should be very careful. ZONE 3 : They have slight relax compared to other zones


UK research council said that they have many research centre to check human RNA function and they were caution about it. They said it was seems to it affecting like South African affected like. What they are going to do? No one knows.


Even in South Africa people also affecting next generation of virus. around 14,000 people affected in one day. The curve again goes up.

It reported last week that scientists have found a new genetic mutation which might be responsible for the recent surge in Covid-19 cases in South Africa

This South African variant is more transmissible than the UK variant, British health secretary has said, as this variant has mutated further than the UK variant. South African Health Minister Zweli Mkhize tweeted on Twitter

Britain, Germany, Switzerland, Turkey, Israel and Mauritius have banned flights from South Africa.The new variant ie…Spreading in South Africa has been named as 501.V2.

Britain, Germany, Switzerland, Turkey, Israel and Mauritius have banned flights from South Africa.The new variant ie…Spreading in South Africa has been named as 501.V2.

People suffering a lot but till we didn’t get any proper vaccine till now how much month or year to get vaccine and people will go as their wish, the answer for it is “? ” When it end..


May be , it ha possible because people are migrated from UK to India particularly states like Maharastra, Karnataka, Thelungana, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Gujarat, West Bengal, Punjab. Totaly 9 states so be aware and take precautions now it is snow or winter⛄ season . Be careful But India does not afffect much compare to other country, but be careful.



What a crazy game God we are suffering a lot it was affecting for both poor and rich without any partiality, it slows but again it gets up where it going to end or get perfect vaccine in suitable for all climate in different countries