ONLINE SCHOOLING: THE FUTURE OF EDUCATION?

The pandemic has brought an evolution in every field. With the development of information and communication technology the world has witnessed increasing acceptance of online education over a period of time. Even before the covid-19 pandemic, individuals were involved in several e learning platforms to enhance their skills and employability. However, this schooling was limited to the classroom. But due to the sudden outbreak of covid-19, they had to adapt to the online mode of teaching in very short period of time. Online schooling has now became a new normal situation for the students as well as the teachers. It is seen as a more convenient but less interactive medium of teaching.

The current situations make it clear that the online mode of schooling is going to be the future of education. Along with the health sector education sector is the most affected area, about 1.2 billion of students around the world have been out of their classrooms and adapting to the new online mode of education. Continuous attempt has been made in research and development design new tools and software to simplify the process of online teaching. Even the government have been running several streaming platforms to provide students with lectures and digital content so they can learn conveniently.
Under the online mode of teaching, the classes are conducted in two methods where they can be delivered through online video streaming for live lectures. At times, the students are also provided by pre recorded lectures or or the recordings of the lectures conducted are also provided for future revision.

SCOPE OF ONLINE SCHOOLING IN INDIA

Based upon the analysis, India has nearly 1.5 million schools teaching around 260 million students daily. The school system of India is second largest in the world. It is expected that the online schooling in India will grow magnificently within the next three years. As per the experts the education involving primary secondary as well as higher education will be increasing to nearly 735 million users by the year 2021. This will create a conducive conditions for online schooling and also provide a boost to the other factors such as:

  • Rising digitalization in India, with increasing internet availability and usage online mode of education is certainly going to get a boost. With the improvement in technology internet speeds are also going to be upgraded with coming of optical fiber internet service in urban areas and the governments target of connecting the entire rural areas still the panchayat level through its Bharat net program. This will increase the accessibility to internet service for each individual which will allow them to easily assess the online schooling.
  • Various government policies and schemes, government is aiming to improve the role of online education in India. Along with the announcement of new education policy 2020 the government aims to create a separate unit in the ministry of human resources and development that will take care and focus upon and answering the capacity building to look after education of both school and the higher education. Beside this various other programs such as National digital library, SWAYAM, E-yantra, etc. the purpose of these programs is to provide good quality content to the students in the digital mode to keep them engaging and increase their interest in education.
  • Learning beyond the school, this new age of education the is not limited to the four walls of classroom. Children are not only dependent on the schools for learning they can enhance their knowledge with the use of new tools and techniques that are easily available online.
  • Minimization in the cost of education, online schooling also have some economical or financial advantages. The cost of education has been increasing sharply over the past few years. Schooling can be a great alternative to the traditional mode and also proved to be cost-effective. A particular setup with some specific device can enable the people to avail the facility of education and it also helps the students who were earlier not able to go to school due to the the distance differences and financial incapability. It can be observed that online classes require one time investment in digital devices such as laptop, smartphones, computers, etc.
  • Personalized and flexible, online schooling is more flexible as compared to the classroom classes which has a fixed time of teaching. It provides the liberty to the students to plan their day accordingly and as per themselves. There is enough scope to digest engage practice and learn at their own pace. Students have not to face any peer pressure and are able to study in a comfortable environment. Therefore, online schooling is more personalized that fields for build for the individual themselves.

LIMITATIONS OF ONLINE SCHOOLING

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Along with the the potential advantages, schooling is also characterized by certain limitations. Below are some limitations that prevents the successful implementation of online schooling:

  • Lack of internet connectivity, internet is now declared as a fundamental right for the individual. But yet coronavirus of children in India are unable to avail the internet facilities. The backward areas are yet deprived of a fast internet on mobile service. Slow internet or absence of such services becomes an hindrance in application of the online schooling.
  • Lack of digital devices, online schooling requires some devices such as laptops computers tablets or mobile Phones. India is marked by poverty and illiteracy, many people in country are unable to afford these devices or do not have the knowledge to operate them. This is a setback for the nation.
  • Lack of personal interaction, online education reduces face to face as well as social interaction between the students and teachers. It also hinders the development of interpersonal communication and social skills among the students. It establishes a sort of informal environment which we motivate or discourage the students to to study. This results and many types of disorders that can be physical as well as mental in young children.
  • No practical knowledge, online schooling deprive students from enjoying the physical infrastructural facilities. The students are unable to attend the lab dot carryout practical as they are unable to do that at their homes. Practical is also found an essential part of the curriculum of schooling that teaches the application of knowledge.

WAY FORWARD
It is clear that the pandemic period has disrupted the education system that was prevailing in the form of traditional methods. However under the current circumstances it has also acted as a bridge to encourage the digitalization of education full stop institutions need to be better equipped digitally as well as students need to learn digital skills for the betterment and improving quality of the learning. It can be concluded that the application of online education need to be accompanied with the changes in curriculum test books teacher training examinations etc. The scope and reach of energy education is greater than imagined. There is a need to evaluate both the pros and cons of online schooling and prepare for the challenges as per.

GLOBALIZATION AND IT’S IMPACT ON THE INDIAN SOCIETY

Globalization is the vast concept, in general sense it means integration of economies and societies through cross country flow of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people. The basic game of globalization is to generate some sort of connectivity among the human life residing in different parts of the world. It is not solely inclined by the economic forces but the development of information and communication technologies also intensified the scope and speed of interaction between the people all over the world. Therefore, it can be said that globalization is multi-dimensional concept.

GLOBALIZATION IN INDIA

India got independence in year 1947, during those times India was considered as one of the poorest countries in the world. The British colonial role has destroyed diverse and self-sufficient agrarian economy of India. The leaders and planners at that time, headed by prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru preferred a mixed economy system to develop the Indian economy. But the idea was not a favorable one in an economy that was as poor as India. Corresponding working of the public and private sector was not much profitable for the nation as a number of private sectors were growing and the public sector became sick. Most of the population in India was poor and the people who but not able to afford the private expenses and the public facilities were not much developed have to face a dilemma.

The poverty rate started growing at an alarming rate there was an acute balance of payment prices and load domestic savings. There was no enough capital left for investment also the shortage of resources leads to difficulty in provision of educational and health facilities to the largely growing population. Moreover, the Indian economy was characterized by a higher rate of inflation and the balance of payment efficient that was around $10 billion.

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Observing the situation getting worst, PV Narsimha Rao government choose to introduce the policy of Liberation & Privatization and Dr. Manmohan Singh, the then finance minister played an instrumental role in the adaptation of this new economic policy of 1991. Along with above two stated policies, the policy of globalization was also adopted by India. However, the basic goal of the policy enactment was to allow India take foreign exchange loans from World Bank as the foreign exchange reserves were left for mere three weeks of outflow. The basic aim of the New Economic Policy was to rectify the financial health of the nation. However, there was some unpredictable impacts of globalization upon the country; it helped the nation to fulfil its need of foreign exchange but also cause some permanent damages to the Indian economy and system.

IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON INDIAN ECONOMY

Indian economy was tremendously benefited from the its policy of globalization. Since many years, the countries were trading and communicating with one another but the process has experienced a boost in the last two decades. Opening of Special Economic Zones in India and availability of new opportunities the foreign companies quite effective to develop the technological and economic sector of the nation. The foreign companies bought in highly advanced technologies with them and this assisted the Indian industries to become more technological advance. It also created consumer wellbeing; as now the consumer had a variety of products and brands to choose from.

Globalization has intensified the interdependence and competition between economies in the world market and at the same time export and import of various types of good has increased the flow of investment in one economy that help in the reconstruction of another. Therefore, globalization has established a sort of interrelatedness among the economies. As a result of this, there has been a change in the determination of the domestic economy. Now, Domestic economic development are not determined entirely by economic policies and economic conditions; rather they are influenced by both the domestic and international policies and economic conditions.

Every coin has two faces so does every policy. Apart from these positive aspects there was a negative development also attributed to globalization. Due to the interdependence among the economy is has become difficult for Indian government to insulate its economy from the world economy. The Indian people started preferring the global brands over the domestic products. The domestic trade and industries have been adversely affected because the global brands were considered cheap, more fashionable and easily available. To ensure its survival the Indian industry has to transform itself into capital intensive market from labor intensive which means adopting technological methods of production and resulted in higher rate of unemployment in India.

Along with its impact over the economy of the country the globalization has also certainly impacted the culture and tradition of the nation. It brought some improvements to the economic conditions of the people, increased the recognition of human rights, and also helped in improving the interaction among the people from different countries. People from different countries started sharing and adopting each other’s culture. Indian society was highly influenced by Western culture which can be highlighted through the division of joint family into nuclear or small families; the old and handicapped persons in the families are being forced to support themselves without any support from their children. The change can be noticed even in the daily habits of eating, dressing, talking etc.

Globalization has helped the women to established an identity of their own by not limiting their role to a homemaker and allowing them to work for their dreams. Women are now working in all sectors of Indian economy and enjoying the fruits of empowerment process brought by the globalization. But, at the same time their security has become a major issue in the changing scenario. They have been facing the double burden of family as well as job because the role of men has not changed much and has remained limited to their jobs.

Thus, it cannot be said that the impact of globalization was totally positive or negative it was a mixture of both. However, the point of concern is when an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed on the Indian culture every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing in India is to be approved unless recognized and recommended by an appropriate authority. These activities and ideologies should be checked in order to preserve the rich cultural diversity of India and to ensure the fulfilment of the principle of self-sufficiency and self-identity of India.

POPULATION GROWTH: BOON OR BANE

The whole world is going to a rapid increase in population growth. The sudden increase in the number of individuals in a community is termed as population explosion. Studying world history,  it can be said that in the past 200-300 years the world population has increased Tremendously. It has been predicted that the human population will increase by 1 billion in the next decade. The basic reasons for population explosion are accelerating birth rate, decreasing infant mortality and increasing life expectancy. There are different perspectives of looking at  population explosion,  some people believe it to be an  opportunity for the country, whereas, others look at the same concept negatively. It is not incorrect to say that population growth can be considered as a blessing until it creates some sort of pressure on the resources of the nation. 

STATUS OF POPULATION IN INDIA

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India is the second most populated country in the world after China, as nearly a fifth of the world population resides in India. As per the census conducted in 2011,  the population of India is 1.21 crores with 62.37 crores males and 58.6 crores females. However, The geographical area of India is not as large as compared to the population residing in the country;  as a result the density of population in India is very high. The census shows that the density of population is 382 persons per square kilometer. Also,  a UN report of “the world population prospects 2017” that has been revised by the department of economics and social affairs has predicted that India’s population will surpass the population of China by the year 2025. 

CAUSES OF POPULATION EXPLOSION

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Population growth and explosion is a multidimensional concept. It is not caused by some specific factor,  rather,  different factors affect the population in different ways.  The Scholars suggest that the population explosion is highly impacted by various fields. The improvement in the Healthcare sector has also contributed to the increase in population. Various social,  economic and political factors have their impact upon the growth of population in India. 

  • Social Causes: The highest literacy rate and lack of nationalism among the people has been the main reason for increasing birth rate. The Illiterate and conventional people are unaware of the consequences of high population growth and  they fail to adopt a proper family planning method. The religious orthodox that  compelled the people to believe in a certain manner also  contributes to the increasing population. The families who desire to have a son continue to reproduce even after having many daughters. The other reasons can be emphasis on agriculture, dominance of the joint family system and high composition of the rural population. 
  • Economic Causes: The economic backwardness and Widespread poverty also causes higher population growth. The poor people believe that more children names more assets, however, They fail to analyse the maintenance cost of the children. Also,  the weak social security system for the children is a factor ignored. 
  • Political Causes:  India is a democratic polity where the political leaders are seen as the Patron in chief of the community.  The representatives of people are selected on a majority of votes and the respective community leaders discourage population control measures. Even  if such measures are enforced in the country,  a complete application is not possible. The illiterate sector of the country will consider it as the infringement of their rights which will lead to riots or protests. 
  • Geographical causes: It is one of the most importantly contributing factors to the increasing population. Around 50% of India’s population is directly or indirectly indulged in agriculture which is their substance in nature,  they consider more children to be helping hand in performing their agricultural operations. Also, The residential area for the people is comparatively very less then the growth of the population. 

ADVANTAGES OF POPULATION GROWTH

  • Increasing population contributes to a larger working population, larger population provides a greater man power which can be utilised to increase the efficiency of different sections of the nation to move towards prosperity. 
  •  Also India’s population is termed as young population with the average age of 25-26 years which can be considered as a productive age and this kind of production can help the economy to grow. 
  • More population means more consumers for the industries so then dresses can focus upon increasing the production to meet the increasing demand which will consequently contribute to more demand of labour. Thus,  the cycle between increasing production and increasing labour force goes on. 
  •  Population explosion also provides us with the people of multi talents in different fields such as Sports,  music,  arts, etc. Therefore, countries’ investment on such human resources can provide enough opportunities to the people to outshine. 

DISADVANTAGES OF POPULATION GROWTH 

  • Increase in population exerts pressure upon the natural resources of the nation. This can lead to an overall shortage of land,  employment,  capital,  and help services in the country. 
  •  a rapidly growing population has also affected the environment and resources negatively leading to their degradation. 
  • Providing the basic amenities and ensuring a good standard of living for all the individual citizens of the country becomes a difficult task with the growth of population. 
  • Large population requires more production of food even though the land under the agriculture remains static, increasing the production becomes a difficult task.  the population increase and the production of food are unlikely to correspond to each other. 
  •  increasing population causes employment issues in the country. India is already facing the problem of unemployment and such Rapid increase in the population will obviously contribute more to the issue. 
  • This will ultimately cause a decrease in the per capita income, standard of living of the people and lead to economic failure.

CONCLUSION

The population explosion can be seen as an opportunity for some and as a disgrace for others. Therefore,  there is an immediate need to look upon the matter. The government needs to  formulate laws and regulations that control population growth. Any disagreement to these laws and regulations should be dealt with strictness. 

CENSORSHIP OF WEBSERIES: PROS AND CONS

The entertainment industry is changing at a rapid rate in the twenty-first century. The introduction of over-the-top technical platforms or video streaming platforms in India has boosted the entertainment industry’s growth.

Nearly 60% of film revenue was earned via theatre screenings at the start of the decade, with the remainder coming from other sources such as CD/DVD release, DTH rights, and other international rights. However, as the demand for video streaming platforms grows, this pattern is rapidly changing.


These services are eliminating the need for new content from theatres, CDs, and DVDs. They broadcast both traditional TV channels and web shows that are only available on these platforms.

According to a recent study, web series are the most popular material on these platforms. On these platforms, over 34% of viewers watch web series. On these platforms, 16 percent of people watch movies and news, 13 percent watch reality TV shows, and ten percent watch live sports events. These platforms are primarily used to watch Hindi material (above 80%).

REASON BEHIND RAPID RISE OF OTT PLATFORM

These platforms are well-known among viewers for a number of reasons. It is primarily used for recreational purposes. People spend their free time on these platforms watching their favorite web series, news, sports, and other content. It has a lot of motion. The shows can be viewed while travelling, during lunch, or during downtime, and they can be accessible anywhere and at any time. These platforms make their services available on mobile devices that are easy to use. Users may now view web series and other online material on their mobile devices at their leisure thanks to the low cost of bandwidth.

The programmes that provide these materials on phones are really simple to utilize. They don’t require the use of a set-top box, a satellite dish, or even a television. All you need is a smartphone and access to the internet. Furthermore, content on these channels is available on demand. An individual can use the OTT application and begin watching whatever show they like. They are not required to wait for specific times during the day when the show will be available to them. These platforms are also budget-friendly. They are free to download and have a relatively cheap monthly subscription charge as compared to traditional set-top boxes or movie theatres.

The content on these platforms can be customized, and the existing content can be seen in any language of one’s choice. They’re also known for their frequent upgrades. Unlike set-top boxes and movie theatres, where new shows and movies are released after extended periods of time, shows on internet platforms are updated often. On-demand content covers a wide range of genres. With a single monthly cost, people may view horror, comedy, drama, classics, romance, epics, and a variety of other genres on one platform. All of these elements have combined to fuel the growth of these internet platforms in India.

NO REGULATION OVER WEBSERIES CONTENT

Traditional satellite channels provide broadcasters the freedom to air whatever programming they want. The government is in charge of evaluating whether or not a certain piece of content is appropriate for public consumption. Because of the rise of online streaming, the government’s regulatory role has shrunk. Television providers are regulated by rules and regulations, but there are no checks and balances in place for the newly developing internet streaming companies. The tailored subscription-based content available on these platforms also decreases the amount of surveillance that can be implemented. These self-regulatory OTT services that stream a variety of web series are self-regulatory. They’ve signed their own censorship code, which forbids them from presenting certain types of content and established a grievance resolution system for consumer complaints. However, this code has not been signed by all platforms. As a result, many of these web shows are still unregulated, and their content isn’t vetted before being broadcast. Though the government has stated that online content will be regulated, the guidelines are still unclear.

PROS OF CENSORSHIP AND REGULATION

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  • The web series and related content distributed via digital media were successful in reaching a larger audience. However, explicit and violent content reaches our youngsters, having negative consequences for their attitudes and lives. Censoring and regulating internet web series content has a number of benefits.
  • It safeguards people’s right to free speech and expression because watching a web series is also considered expression and speech. Censorship and control can protect people, especially children, from violent and sexually manipulative content that could expose them to pornographic materials and other sorts of discrimination. As a result, the freedom of one community is balanced against the freedom of the other.
  • Censoring and controlling this type of content might help people avoid becoming victims of abuse or violence, as well as perpetrators. Children can be affected, which can lead to undesirable changes in their behavior for others.
  • It restricts some religious and societal groups from seeing these web series because of the offensive material. The type of content that is eye-catching and involves controversy is frequently presented on web series. This is disseminated in order to attract as many subscribers and views as possible. Regulating this type of stuff, which is both religiously and socially inappropriate, is one way to keep the culture in check.
  • It would also help to avoid violent crimes and the spread of abusive culture in Indian society. Many online shows thrive on violent and uncensored criminal scenes, which have a particularly negative impact on young people, who become involved in these types of activities at a young age.
  • Censorship and certification will increase the quality of content broadcast on various internet platforms in the form of web series. In contrast to the current western impact on these platforms, more relevant content for Indian society can be created.
  • In addition, regulation will limit the unfair advantages that OTT platforms showing web series have over traditional television. As a result, on these platforms, it will provide fairness and healthy competition.

ONLINE GAMING IS DANGEROUSLY ATTRACTIVE TOYOUTH

Indian online gaming industry has grown at an exponential rate over the past few years and it is expected to grow further with India’s digital revolution. The beginning of online gaming industry in India is traced back to 2000s when PC gaming and console gaming brought several middle income group Indians on digital gaming platform. The international developers provided a base to the Indian gamers whereas the Indian gaming developer’s ecosystem primarily acted as service providers. As India’s smartphone user base and internet penetration increased, online gaming grew very fast with an estimated 120 million gamers online now.


The fast spread of low-cost cellphones among rural and urban populations has been a major driver of growth in the Indian online gaming business. In India, there are around 400 million smartphone users. Though India’s internet penetration is low, it is predicted to reach over 53% of the population by 2021. New technology at accessible prices, an increase in the number of local developers, and other factors will all contribute to this growth.

INDIAN GAMER’S PROFILE

According to a Google India survey, the average Indian gamer is under the age of 24. In comparison to females, males make up the majority of gamers. Male gamers make up 83 percent of the gaming population, which is concentrated in the country’s urban areas. Under the influence of their peers, these individuals begin gaming. Another motive for starting online gaming is for entertainment and time management.

Gaming is also used by some people for stress release and social engagement. Mobile phones are the most popular gaming platform, with 85 percent of games being played on them. Puzzle games, action games, and adventure games are the most popular genres among Indian gamers.

REASON FOR RISE OF ONLINE GAME IN INDIA

  • INTERNET-Internet Adoption With an expected 650 million online users by 2030, India is the world’s second largest online market. When compared to a decade ago, internet penetration in India’s rural and urban areas has steadily increased. In terms of user base, New Delhi, India’s capital, and its neighboring areas have the most internet depth. This is owing to the low cost of data in comparison to other countries. All age groups have actively used the internet for various objectives. Furthermore, there is still a lot of room for new individuals to join. As a result, the popularity of online gaming has skyrocketed.
  • Higher Living Standards– The income of the middle and upper middle classes has expanded significantly, improving their level of living. They may now spend more time on leisure activities and spend their free time doing so. They have been drawn to online gaming by rising living standards and more free time, which takes only a small investment in a smartphone and an active mobile internet connection.
  • A Rise in Smartphone Adoption By 2022, India’s smartphone population is expected to reach 820 million people. In both rural and urban areas, the number of smartphones has increased. This is owing to the introduction of lower-cost smartphones in Indian markets. Smartphone adoption has surpassed 25%, with the rate being substantially greater in metropolitan areas.
  • India’s youth India is a young country in terms of demographics, with 50% of the population under the age of 25 and 65% under the age of 35. This age group enjoys online gaming and is more informed about smartphone and online gaming platform trends.
  • Technologies that are within reach In India, new technologies such as virtual reality and augmented reality are far more affordable than in previous years. These technologies facilitate online gaming and improve the gaming experience.
  • Developing a Developed Ecosystem in the Community Previously, Indian gamers received games from multinational developers. Indian developers, on the other hand, have risen to prominence on a global scale as their skills have improved. Local developers have begun to create games in India.
  • Games that are completely free– The majority of games in the gaming ecosystem are available for free. Users do not have to pay to download or play games. The expansion of India’s gaming environment has been boosted by the rise of freemium games. The games are free to play in this approach, but the user must pay the creator for some premium features. This does not prevent consumers from downloading and playing free games without purchasing the premium version.

Gaming Addiction in Children and Teens

Gaming addiction has been designated as a mental health issue by the World Health Organization. Gaming addiction is defined by the World Health Organization as a pattern of continuous or recurrent gaming behavior that has grown so pervasive that it has surpassed other life interests. According to a study conducted by a US-based organization, 24.2 percent of Indian gamers have taken time off work to play games. Many people play video games while at work. There is sufficient evidence to imply that gaming addiction has spread to India. According to the World Health Organization, gaming addiction can affect many parts of life, including academics, job, relationships, and health.

The following are indicators of addiction, according to psychologists.

  • Playing nonstop for long periods of time. Social invitations to play games are being declined.
  • Personal and professional relationships are strained.
  • Headaches, dry eyes, and aching fingers are all symptoms of sleep problems and disrupted sleep patterns.
  • Weight gain or decrease that is out of the ordinary • Modifications to daily activities, such as eating habits.
  • Less focus on schoolwork, studying, and office work, for example.
  • Playing games on a regular basis and not being able to stop.

The Consequences of Gaming Addiction

Gaming addiction has a variety of physical and mental consequences. Gaming addiction has a number of negative consequences.

  • Effects on the Budget Despite the fact that most games are free to play, they do incorporate a variety of features.
  • Premium features are not available for a fee. Premium features are purchased by gamers in order to advance further in the game. Young people frequently spend a large portion of their earnings on premium material. Even to download free games, several platforms request debit and credit card details. Young people who have access to these credit or debit cards frequently buy apps without their parents’ permission.
  • Effects on Personal Development Impact on other aspects of life is one of the most significant consequences on adolescents. It has an impact on personal development since young people are unable to focus on their education or careers. In their educational or professional lives, people may become bored, have difficulty concentrating, and feel demotivated. Young people’s emotional well-being is also harmed by exposure to violent graphic or sexual content. It leads to violent behavior and everyday hostility over trivial matters. This has an impact on people’s personal development because they are frequently frustrated with themselves.
  • Social Relationships Affects Gaming addiction makes it difficult for people to interact socially since they are preoccupied with their games while ignoring their responsibilities. Interaction is reduced in.
  • Both physical and mental health are endangered by social lives. Relationships between addicted gamers are frequently strained. Because they value gaming above all other activities in life, they frequently make socially damaging decisions. They don’t have time or the energy after their gaming sessions to invest in their relationships.

EFFECT ON PHYSICAL HEALTH
People that play video games for lengthy periods of time have stiffness, backaches, soreness, and numbness. When one stares at a screen for lengthy periods of time without taking a break, eye strain is prevalent. People frequently play video games while sitting in bad postures, which can lead to complicated stress and strains that are difficult to diagnose using standard methods. People’s lives get more sedentry as a result of their gaming addiction, as they skip out on regular exercise and even meals. They also engage in unsanitary behaviours such as eating junk food and eating and playing at the same time. Sleep rhythms are also disrupted by gaming addiction.

EFFECT ON MENTAL HEALTH


Gaming addiction has a negative impact on mental health. It causes rage or hostility, and young people frequently cry, scream, or physically attack their families or peers. In addition, there is a strong want to return to gaming as soon as one completes another daily chore, such as eating or doing home or office work. People also feel alone or lonely because they spend so much time alone playing video games. Younger gamers are frequently depressed as a result of having to stop playing games for numerous reasons.

REASON FOR INCREASING GAMING AMONG PEOPLE

Video games boost a person’s self-esteem and confidence. The person feels empowered and believes they can face life’s tough challenges. It also increases people’s decision-making speed. However, it becomes extremely risky because violence-based action games are frequently used to develop decision-making abilities.
Collaboration is encouraged while playing games, which enhances teamwork and cooperation abilities. Young people feel motivated and energized when they contribute to the team and are rewarded for it.
People who are interested in mathematics and solving puzzles are drawn to games that incorporate puzzle solving and mathematical skills.

It becomes compulsive. The player’s brain gets a good exercise while gaming. As participants continue to play games, the difficulty level rises, and the game becomes more engrossing. They enjoy the challenge and are eager to complete the more harder stages. Because it requires multitasking, it boosts players’ self-esteem and improves their motor skills, decision-making ability, and cognitive abilities.

Friends in peer groups frequently recommend games to their peers. Younger people are drawn to online gaming because of the social dialogues and excitement that surrounds it. Increased internet gaming is further aided by engaging ads and captivating graphics.

CONCLUSION

The internet has become a vital part of people’s daily life in India and around the world. Smartphones are increasingly being utilized for everyday chores such as cooking, travelling, learning, and schooling. In India, mobile gaming has been growing for over two decades. While it has provided some with a sense of fulfilment, it has also been linked to social anxiety, loneliness, and even despair. It is critical to regulate gambling at all levels, from the household to the national level. India has a sizable demographic dividend if it is reaped and appropriately utilized in a timely manner. Gaming addiction has emerged as a significant impediment to realizing this demographic dividend. Though the internet gaming industry has developed in leaps and bounds, it has also created a slew of issues for young people and their families. These concerns highlight the need to reconsider how online games are played and regulated.

FAILURES ARE THE PILLARS TO SUCCESS

Success is a long journey with many obstacles coming in the path, however, these hindrances are a part of the process. The success comes from continuous learning and the true learner is the one who makes mistakes. No one is perfect, yet near perfection can be achieved through attempting and making mistakes. Individuals’ lives are full of ups and downs and it becomes necessary to respond to these difficulties in a positive and favorable manner that helps the individual to experience and learn something. It is the individual perspective towards a situation that matters the most and bring certain consequences.

Success and failure are two faces of the same coins. There is no final success without the experience of failure. In the process of hustling for the success, an individual has to conquer the hardships. The actually teachings come from the failures, however, the individuals are afraid to fail and give up. The persons who accept the challenges and face the failure are the one who are able to climb the ladder to success. Density also favors them; as it has been said, “God helps the one who are willing to help themselves”. Thus, the individual must have that attitude to write their own fate.

Failures and setbacks are disheartening, but it is a major part of the individual life since childhood. As a child, no individual was able to learn walking without falling or tumbling; we fall, we stand again and run. It is the individual spirit that encourages them keep working hard to achieve the goals and built a life they desired for. Success is an aggregate of hard work, dedication and determination. It is not necessary that every individual action can bear a sweet fruit, sometimes, the results are not correspondingly equal to the efforts. However, it definitely takes the individual a step closer to the goal, failures teach lessons and provide incomparable experience to the individuals.

A determined person will look for the positive aspect in every situation, even if they fail. The failure works as a teacher that highlights the shortcomings in the efforts and helps to improve. One should work upon the things that were lacking in the last attempt and prepare for the next try accordingly. Consistent efforts and improvements can visibly bring great results. A person who learns from his failures and work upon them for betterment, are definitely bound to be successful in their life.

Spirit and optimism are necessary elements for overcoming the failures. The individual should be willing to enjoy and celebrate every moment of the life. The success after a number of failures feels more pleasing and is cherished more. The failures are a sign of trying and learning something new. It has been widely said that a person who never failed has never tried something new.  Therefore, one should believe in making mistakes, learning from them and keep the efforts on.

The history emphasis that all the renowned personalities have been a failure for once in their life, but, the reason for them being successful today is their unbreakable determination and fortitude. People need to accept failure as a part of their lives and should not stay in denial when they encounter disappointment. There is long list of people who faced number of difficulties in their lives and still outshined the world through their constant efforts. Few of these personalities are:

Bill gates, the second richest person on earth, he is a Harvard University dropper. His first business named, Traf-O-Data was a huge failure, but he didn’t give up and founded Microsoft in 1975. Now, Microsoft is the world’s largest PC software company.

Other such personality, Walt Disney, the most famous and loved person in the animation industry once faced huge failure. He was unable to join the United States Army and was compelled to drive an Ambulance. Later, he founded Walt Disney company and mickey mouse, which was a grand success for him and he set-up the Disney brother studies to make many more animations. Further, he founded Disney Land and Disney Park.

Similarly, J.K. Rowling, the author of the famous series of novel Harry potter once lived a life full of poverty and depressed. Her novel was rejected by 12 publications and now the sequel is a one of the most favorite among the people of all age groups. The popularity of the novel can be known from the fact that there was a series of movie produced upon the book and it has such a huge fan following.

Therefore. Success is a journey full of difficulties, and the journey is more joyful as compared to the destination. The individual should have the patience and determination to hustle continuously and enjoy the journey. Success is not a one-day task, it takes a number of bricks to build a castle and similarly, success is a long process that can be achieved through small steps.  

INDIA AND THE QUAD

The world is constantly changing at a rapid pace as new power centres emerge and old ones rejuvenate. China’s aggression in its maritime and land domain is a perfect example of the quick and rapid changes taking place in India’s neighbourhood. In this setting, the Quad’s four members, including India, have stepped up their efforts to protect their interests in all areas, including political, economic, environmental, and security. In the Indo-Pacific area, India has substantial strategic interests. It will need to build strategic alliances such as the Quad grouping to protect its interests against China’s unilateral growth in aggressiveness.

What exactly is QUAD?

The Quad or Quadrilateral Security Dialogue is an informal strategic dialogue involving India, Australia, the United States, and Japan, which is an island nation. Its goal is to make the Indo-Pacific area “free, open, and wealthy.” Shinzo Abe, the former Japanese Prime Minister, first proposed the Quad grouping concept in 2007. The concept could not be pursued at the time since Australia had apparently withdrawn owing to Chinese pressure. Another cause for the Quad’s demise was Japan’s new pro-Beijing government and the reaffirmation of the India-China connection.
All four members of ASEAN re-entered talks to reestablish the quadrilateral security partnership during the 2017 ASEAN summit. They paved the way for the development of a new policy to preserve the Indo-Pacific region’s crucial water routes free of foreign influence, particularly Chinese influence. In the face of China’s aggressive postures in the region, the organisation now seeks to promote a “free and open Indo-Pacific.” India. Japan and the United States were in negotiations to invite Australia to Malabar for a quadrilateral coordinated naval exercise.
The Quad grouping will get a new military dimension as a result of this military exercise. These four countries have made it clear that China’s growing assertiveness in the Indo-Pacific area must be controlled. Apart from restraining China’s growing power, the Quad also ensures that the Asian region is free of uncertainty.

The Quad is also a gathering of democratic countries that will undoubtedly aid in the promotion of democratic, rule-based, diverse, cooperative, and inclusive ideals.It will be more sustainable if the countries are able to balance their interests and include more substantive dimensions apart from the current cines.

First Leaders' Summit: QUAD

Quadrangle Dimensions

DIPLOMAT -Diplomatic The Quad is a meeting place for diplomats. Quad sessions have attempted to address the Indo-Pacific region’s bigger agendas. Members have a high level of policy coordination on issues such as maritime security, terrorism, cyber security, and connectivity, all of which have an impact on the rules-based regional order. Even ASEAN collaboration, which is beneficial to maintaining peace and prosperity in the Asian area, can be supplemented by the Quad.

INTELLIGENCE– Intelligence Quad isn’t a strategic partnership yet. As a result, the amount of intelligence that can be shared among its members is limited. Regardless, there are indicators of increased information exchange in a number of military sectors, including marine domain awareness.

Because the Quad member’s key military assets are spread across the Indian Ocean, this vast geographical range offers a strategic advantage. In the marine industry, information sharing may be improved to combat concerns such as maritime terrorism and piracy. All four countries are developing information networks, with Australia, Japan, and the United States agreeing to share defense-related data. India has also started laying the groundwork for intelligence exchange with the United States and Japan.

MILITARY-The Quad’s military component does not play a significant role in deterrence. Military coordination between the Quad’s four members is restricted. Military-to-military interaction is, however, required. There are steps that may be taken to strengthen military readiness for any situation in the Indo-Pacific. The Indo-Pacific region’s states must develop their capacity. It will also be necessary to transmit military technology and defense equipment. States in the region continue to rely on larger powers like Russia and the United States. India can also play a supporting role in bolstering the regional governments’ military capability.

ECONOMY-Quad’s economic component will involve regional connectivity and economic integration. China’s Belt and Road Initiative has had a considerable impact on existing infrastructure development standards. China provides funds to a number of developing countries, which they employ to meet their infrastructure demands. Through the Indian Ocean, regional connectivity initiatives should strive to connect Far West Asia and Central Asia with South-East Asia. To promote regional connection and secure mutual interests in trade, commerce, connectivity, peace, and prosperity, investments in critical infrastructure should be made.

China and the Quad Nations

The Quad’s four members have some common concerns about China’s expanding power in the region, as they are all affected by China’s growing influence in their different spheres of influence.

USA- The United States has maintained a continuous policy of limiting China’s growing influence in East Asia. The Quad is seen by the United States as an opportunity to reclaim influence in the Indo-Pacific region. In its national security plan, national defense strategy, and Pentagon report on the Indo-Pacific strategy, the United States has referred to China as a strategic foe.

AUSTRALIA-Australia China’s rising interest in Australia’s land, infrastructure, politics, and universities has been a source of anxiety for the country. Taking into account the continent’s overwhelming economic reliance on China, it has maintained its commitment to a comprehensive strategic engagement with China. It is attempting to break free from its crippling reliance in regards to China.

Japan- Japan has expressed its displeasure with China’s territorial encroachment in the region. As a result of its extensive trading links with China, Japan must strike a balance between its economic requirements and territorial concerns.

INDIA-India China’s violations of international conventions, incursions of Indian borders, and buildup of military infrastructure, among other things, have constituted a severe threat to India. India must stand up to Chinese encroachment on its frontiers, protect its land and sea rights, and safeguard strategic autonomy.

India’s Benefits or Possibilities

What A Formalised Quad Means For India And The Indo-Pacific

For India, there are border clashes, the repercussions of the One Belt One Road Initiative, and the geopolitical implications of the China-Pakistan economic corridor. The Quad has numerous benefits that help it overcome these obstacles. India has a number of opportunities.

  1. A boost in defense spending China invests more on defense than Japan, Australia, and India combined. The participation of the United States in the organisation will provide India’s defence sector a much-needed boost, as it will aid in technology transfer and defence collaboration.
  2. Borders that are secure With China’s encroachment on India’s frontiers, Quad could prove to be a useful ally in limiting Chinese influence in India’s border regions. Both China’s and Pakistan’s involvement in pressuring India has exacerbated the situation on the northern frontiers. Quad can help to keep things in check in this circumstance.
  3. Indian Ocean Sustainability The Indian Ocean is the only ocean in the world named after a country, India. In the Indian Ocean region, India has the obligation of providing net security. India, along with the Quad nations, can challenge China’s String of Pearls or Maritime Silk Road, as well as its debt trap diplomacy, to provide sustainability and prosperity in the Indian Ocean region.
  4. The Act East Policy of India With India’s participation in the Quad grouping, India’s Act East policy, which aims to improve economic, geopolitical, and cultural links with the large Asia-Pacific region, will be strengthened. It will also give a boost to SAGAR’s mission. SAGAR(security and growth for all in the region)
  5. The Region’s Stability India is concerned about the United States’ waning importance and the rise of China’s influence in the Indian Ocean and Asia. Instabilities in the regions that harm India’s interests may result from the imbalance caused by such a circumstance. As a result, Quad grouping may provide an opportunity to instill stability in its surrounding region.

Quadrilateral Challenges

Though the Quad Grouping has many tangible benefits, it also has a number of issues that must be addressed in order for it to be a success. These problems include the following:

  1. An Ambiguous Vision Despite the possibility of cooperation, the Quad remains a vehicle with no clear strategic goals. The separate interests of each country in the grouping can also be used to determine this. India seeks to advance all of the region’s security and economic interests, whereas the US wants a formal alliance.
  2. Non-alignments India’s foreign policy is based on the non-alignment idea. To confront the Chinese menace, India will need to forsake its non-alignment strategy and join a formal alliance with the US and two other countries in the form of the Quad.
  3. China’s ties with ASEAN China has lent the ASEAN area a large sum of money. It also has a number of strategic infrastructure projects and military bases in several ASEAN countries’ islands. Following the RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership) agreement, China’s influence in ASEAN has risen even further.
  4. There is no consensus among members. Each member of the Quad has a different strategic interest. They anticipate the Quad as a means of furthering their own interests and achieving their goals. There is no shared vision among the Quad members. Though progress has been achieved in several meetings among the members, a long-term vision document is required.

Next Steps

The Quad will have to develop its own distinct perspective. It will have to move beyond China’s centricity and be open to accommodate each other’s interests in order for “talks of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific” to become more than just that. To evolve, the Quad should focus on building a strong regional framework and collaborating with all regional parties.

RIGHT TO INTERNET AS A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT

Fundamental rights meant a vital component in the Constitution of India. It has been stated in the Part III of the Constitution, under the Article 12 to 35 and is also defined as Magna Carta of India. The fundamental rights are aimed to promote the ideal for the political democracy in India. They protect the rights and liberties of the citizens, and at the same time, prevent the establishment of an authoritarian and despotic rule in the country. The fundamental rights are provided to all the individuals without any type of discrimination or exclusion. They uphold the equality and dignity of the individuals and maintain the unity among the people.

Should cybersecurity be a human right?

NEED TO RECOGNISE RIGHT TO INTERNET AS A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT

The world today is complex and concise; the individuals have been performing their activities through mobile phones and related devices that demands internet access to function properly. The internet is an ocean of information with helps the users to stay updated and connected with the things going around them. Therefore, Broadband and mobile internet can be considered as a lifeline for the people around the world.  

Internet is an important component for to citizen to regulate and check the government functioning. As it plays a key role in accessing the information and take decisions accordingly. Being a residence of a democratic nation, Indian citizens have the right to keep a check on and observe the activities of the government and concern authorities, internet becomes an easy and valuable source of these information. The people are able to update themselves with all the ongoing activities and upcoming projects through their mobile phones with the facility of internet. Initially, only newspapers were available to know the happenings, whereas, today the news can reach the people even before in is printed and delivered through the newspaper.

Internet and broadband have been a bliss for the boost of the technological industry. There has been a remarkable expansion in the field of science and technology with the assistance of internet. We can observe the growth of the online applications that help an individual to order food, such as Zomato, swiggy, etc. some other apps can help to book for a mechanic or even the beautician, an individual can now call a cab at their door steps just with one click; this is the implications of the internet.

During the Covid-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown, the individuals were able to practice work-from-home only because of the availability of internet. Under such circumstance, right to internet becomes necessary to promote the right to education. The schools have started teaching the students through online mode, even the examinations, activities, assignments, etc. are conducted online; thus, internet becomes necessary to attend the classes. The internet has ensured the continuation of the regular activities of the individuals in a different manner but accurately.

INTERNET AS A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT

Recently, there has been a debate over the inclusion of the Right to internet under the fundamental rights. It was emphasised that the Right to Internet must be included under the Right to freedom along with the Right to Speech and Expression. Kerala High Court in Faheema Shirin vs State of Kerala (2019) declared the Right Internet access as a fundamental right forming a part of the Right to Privacy and the Right to Education under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution.

In present digital world where almost, every service is being digitised, it is important to recognise the Right to Internet access as an independent right. Court observed that the internet acts as a learning tool and nobody can impose restrictions on it, citing discipline.

Human Rights Council of the United Nations also regards the Right of access to the Internet as a fundamental freedom and a tool to ensure the Right to education. Also, the Supreme Court has declared that access to the internet is protected under Article 19 of the Constitution.

CHALLENGES BEFORE UNIFORM INTERNET ACCESS

Though, the recognition of such a fundamental right is laudable, it does have reasonable restrictions under specified circumstances. The judgement gave administration space to restrict internet access on the condition that it’s proportionate to the problem identified. This formulation seems fuzzy and could provide enough scope for administration to justify internet snap-offs in various cases Further, a digital divide in the economy would render a sizeable proportion of the population unable to enjoy the fundamental right to Internet. This will eventually lead furthering of social disparities. Moreover, the rising number of cyber related crimes would leave more people susceptible in absence of proper guidelines related to the Right to Internet access.

CONCLUSION

Internet itself is a great force which has shackled the monotony and global order by its brute force. Anything which has power can be used in both good and bad ways as we know internet can be a boon and bane at same time. It rests with the people after recognizing internet as fundamental right how to utilize the power that comes with internet. Both good and bad powers have large implication on the lives of people. As both Supreme and High Courts through various judgements in country have to strike balance between nights of individuals and right of state, preservation of balance should be of utmost importance to enable individual to become a balanced and responsible citizen.

The Right to Internet access and digital literacy will empower citizens with increased access to information, services and the creation of better livelihood opportunities.

COVID-19: ITS IMPACT UPON THE MENTAL HEALTH OF ADULTS AND CHILDREN

The Covid pandemic and its outbreak was observed in India during the December 2019, since then, it’s been around more than 1 years. Covid is basically a communicable disease that spreads through a virus, called as Corona virus. Staring off with few patients, it has now turned into an Epidemic causing death of many people. Covid was supposed to be a disease affecting the physic and the internal organ functioning of the individual, however, it has been affected the overall life of the people in an adverse manner. During these times, many people have suffered badly, either physically, economically, socially, financially, mentally or psychologically. Some people lost their family member/members, others have to give up upon their jobs and businesses, it has been difficult to even fulfil the basic needs and desires.

At the worst, people have started observing symptoms of various mental disorders and psychological imbalances. The confinement within an enclosed area has became a cause of stress, depression, anxiety and tension in the lives of the individuals. The individuals have fallen prey to mental instability due to the feeling of loneliness or stagnation in lives. The demise of near-ones, loss of job and inability to make both the ends meet can be the additional reason for depression and stress among the people. The situation has been wickeder for the people who have already been suffering from such illnesses. As shown by a report, 4 out of 10 adults have reported the symptoms of anxiety or depression in US. Large number of people complain about the initial symptoms of negative mental health; such as sleeplessness, chaotic eating habits, increasing alcoholic consumption and worsening chronic conditions.

New research Seeks to Tackle Impact of COVID-19 on Children and Young  People's Mental Health — Department of Psychiatry

The pandemic has affected people of all the age groups and the symptoms of mental illness are also observed among the teens and young children. Stimuli to the surroundings atmosphere and regular introduction to the natural environment is necessary to ensure proper growth of a child, the pandemic has led to nation wide lockdown and the schools have also been shut down. As a result, the children/students are compelled to stay within their homes, they are unable to enjoy and play in the natural surroundings. They are unable to meet their friends and have a conversation with them. Also, the parents are working from home and while managing the household chores and their jobs, they sometimes miss out upon their child. This has developed a sense of sadness, anxiety and isolation among the children, negative thoughts are clutching and corrupting the young minds.

Also, as a student the schedule and studies have being a mess during the pandemic. The phenomenon of online classes is quite new to maximum of the students; it becomes difficult to adapt to the change. It is a misery for the students, particularly the young children who are completing their initial years of schooling through the online mode. Long screen times, online examinations, assignments, projects, etc. have made the education bulky and monotonous. The students are unable to get their eyes stick to their screens during the lectures, they either distracted or are unable to generate their interest. Even the high secondary and college going students find the online mode of education to be difficulty, primarily because it is completely new and also because they are unable to enjoy the particular environment of the classrooms. Thus, along with their risk to their health, they are also mentally disturbed because of the incompetence to cope up with the new methods.

Therefore, it can be observed that the pandemic has been really harsh for the people of all ages around the world. This has led to the mental and psychological breakdown of the adults and children/students. However, we can observe the situation getting better slowly and gradually, we as a nation are fighting against this virus and many infected persons are recovering are a faster pace. The need is to know the situation, try to stay motivated and help the people around you. These are the tough times but its not permanent; this too shall pass and thus, an individual must maintain their faith in their god and also upon themselves.

Environmental Pollution: MAKING THE PLANET UHEALTHY FOR LIVING

Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment .Pollution may muddy landscapes, poison soils and waterways, or kill plants and animals. Humans are also regularly harmed by pollution. Long-term exposure to air pollution, for example, can lead to chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer and other diseases Pollution may muddy landscapes, poison soils and waterways, or kill plants and animals. Humans are also regularly harmed by pollution. Long-term exposure to air pollution, for example, can lead to chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer and other diseases.

Environmental pollution has existed  for centuries. But evidence suggests that since With the coming of the Industrial Revolution, humans were able to advance further into the 21st century. Technology developed rapidly, science became advanced, and the manufacturing age came into view. With all of these came one more effect, industrial pollution. Earlier, industries were small factories that produced smoke as the primary pollution.

POLLUTANTS

Environmental pollutants are chemicals that have ended up in the environment as a result of human activities and that are hazardous to health. They can be classified into primary and secondary pollutants. Primary air pollutants that are formed and emitted directly from particular sources. Examples are particulates, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur oxide. Secondary air pollutant that are formed in the lower atmosphere by chemical reactions. The two examples are ozone and secondary organic aerosol (haze).Secondary pollutants are harder to control because they have different ways of synthesizing and the formation are not well understood. They form naturally in the environment and cause problems like photochemical smog.

TYPES OF POLLUTION

There are different types of pollution, which are either caused by natural events (like forest fires) or by man-made activities (like cars, factories, nuclear wastes, etc.) These are further classified into the following types of pollution: Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Soil Pollution ,Noise Pollution. Besides these 4 types of pollution, other types exist such as light pollution, thermal pollution and radioactive pollution. The latter is much rarer than other types, but it is the deadliest.

Air Pollution

Air pollution refers to any physical, chemical or biological change in the air. It is the contamination of air by harmful gases, dust and smoke which affects plants, animals and humans drastically. There is a certain percentage of gases present in the atmosphere. An increase or decrease in the composition of these gases is harmful to survival. This imbalance in the gaseous composition has resulted in an increase in earth’s temperature, which is known as global warming. In most cases, air pollutants cannot be seen or smelled. However, that does not mean that they do not exist in high enough amounts to be a health hazard! Additionally, a number of gases are linked to the so-called “greenhouse effect”, which means that those gases retain more heat and thus contribute to the overall global warming. The most common example of a greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide, which is emitted from many industrial processes. Another example is methane, which is also an explosive gas

Light pollution

Light pollution is artificial brightening of the night sky caused by man-made lightening sources, which has a disruptive effect on natural cycles and inhibits the observation of stars and planets. It is also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution and basically is the misdirected or obtrusive of natural light by excessive artificial light. More than 80% of humanity lives under skies saturated with artificial light. Light pollution is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial (usually outdoor) light. Too much light pollution has consequences, it washes out starlight in the night sky, interferes with astronomical research, disrupts ecosystems, has adverse health effects and wastes energy.

Noise pollution

Noise pollution above permissible limits in city

Noise pollution is unwanted or excessive sound that can have deleterious effects on human health, wildlife, and environmental quality. Noise pollution is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. Noise is more than a mere nuisance. At certain levels and durations of exposure, it can cause physical damage to the eardrum and the sensitive hair cells of the inner ear and result in temporary or permanent hearing loss, known as noise-induced hearing loss. Hearing loss does not usually occur at SPLs below 80 dBA (eight-hour exposure levels are best kept below 85 dBA), but most people repeatedly exposed to more than 105 dBA will have permanent hearing loss to some extent.

Water Pollution

Water pollution happens when toxic substances enter water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans and so on, getting dissolved in them, lying suspended in the water or depositing on the bed. This degrades the quality of water. Not only does this spell disaster for aquatic ecosystems, the pollutants also seep through and reach the groundwater, which might end up in our households as contaminated water we use in our daily activities, including drinking. Water pollution can be caused in a number of ways, one of the most polluting being city sewage and industrial waste discharge. Indirect sources of water pollution include contaminants that enter the water supply from soils or groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rain. Soils and groundwater contain the residue of human agricultural practices and also improperly disposed of industrial wastes.

INDO-PACIFIC ZONE: AN EMERGING POWER ZONE

The Indo-Pacific Zone, also known as the Indo-West Pacific or Indo-Pacific Asia, is a biogeographic region of Earth’s seas that includes the Indian Ocean’s tropical waters, the Western and Central Pacific Oceans, and the seas that connect them. Karl Haushofer, a German geopolitician, coined the phrase in 1920. However, Gurpreet Khurana was the first to utilize the phrase in current content. Since 2011, the term “Indo-Pacific” has become more popular in geopolitical discussions. The essence of this word was encapsulated in Shinzo Abe’s (then-Prime Minister of Japan) speech to the Indian Parliament in 2007, in which he referred to the confluence of the Indian and Pacific Oceans as “seas of freedom and prosperity.” Strategic analysts and high-level government/military leadership in Australia, Japan, and the United States have used the term often since roughly 2011.

With the United States’ growing involvement in Asia’s new growth sectors, the concept has gained traction. With the rising involvement of the US in the new growth areas of Asia, the idea of the Indo-Pacific economic corridor was conceptualized during the US India Strategic Dialogue of 2013. Indo-Pacific has also featured prominently in the top level US strategic documents such as National Security Strategy, the 2018 Nuclear Posture Review. In 2019, the US department published a document formalizing the concept of a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific”.

  • COUNTRIES IN THE INDO-PACIFIC

The Indo-Pacific region is a geopolitical zone that encompasses two ocean basins: the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Indo-Pacific is a 24-nation regional framework that stretches from the west coast of the United States to the west coast of India. Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Indonesia, Cambodia, India, Japan, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Singapore, and the United States are all key countries in the Indo-Pacific area.

  • ASIAN PIVOT THEORY

The thesis of the Asian Pivot was developed by US think tanks. The Asian Pivot theory was aimed primarily at China in order to maintain US hegemony. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is seen as the economic arm of the theory. Experts, on the other hand, believe that striking TPP under US leadership will have far-reaching effects. In the midst of these changes, US President Donald Trump’s recent decision to reject the 12-member Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) came as a shock to the international community. The TPP’s implementation may have resulted in yearly revenue gains of $295 billion, with $78 billion in the United States alone. It might also unlock $1.9 trillion in potential advantages for the Asia-Pacific region through free trade. However, in recent months, the situation has altered. Global trade is in crisis, with growth slowing and protectionism on the rise as governments turn to greater non-tariff barriers, regulatory measures, and stricter standards, among other things.

Similarly, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), a coalition of 21 Pacific Rim countries, seeks to promote regional free trade. The major goal of APEC is to tap into emerging countries’ potential while also taking advantage of developed countries’ progress in numerous fields. The increasing interdependence of these countries strives to ensure free trade and a strong economic collaboration among the members.

  • DIFFERENT SUPRANATIONAL ORGANISATION

South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Indian-Ocean Rim Association (IORA), Mekong Ganga Cooperation (MGC), and Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation are some other supranational organizations where India has taken the lead in fostering regional cooperation (BIMSTEC),

The fundamental disadvantage of all of these organizations, however, is that their member countries have competing interests in other organizations. Furthermore, these organizations’ goals have been wrecked due to a lack of capable leadership. SAARC has been less effective as a result of India’s negative perception by other smaller countries and Pakistan’s obstructionist attitude. IORA, promoting open regionalism for strengthening economic cooperation and social development, is similarly only partially successful due to its diffused objectives.

  • US Backing the Littoral States Over South China Sea

The conflict in the South China Sea is the manifestation of cartographic expansion of China. The littoral states of the region have staked claim over islands rich in mineral resources in the South China sea China with its superior naval power have been able to brow-beat the neighboring countries. However, US has backed the littoral states indirectly and has supported their claims over the islands, similarly, the theory of String of Pearls given by experts has been an irritant for India. Based on the theory of String of Pearls China has been surrounding India by developing infrastructure in its surrounding ports in Gwadar (Pakistan), Humbantota (Sri Lanka), Sittwe (Myanmar). These are the manifestation of String of Pearls theory. Some areas of South-East Asia are infested with drug trafficking and human trafficking countries like, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, etc. are the hub of such crimes. This creates law and order and security issues in these areas.

  • 2020 Indo-Australian Agreement

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Australian counterpart Scott Morrison held a virtual summit on June 4, 2020, to strengthen their bilateral partnership. They signed nine pacts during this virtual summit, including one to elevate their relationship to a comprehensive strategic partnership for greater and deeper cooperation in a variety of areas, from trade to defense. The united proclamation on a shared vision was one of the summit’s primary features.

For the Indo-Pacific region’s maritime cooperation. In order to strengthen security ties between the four nations, India is considering including Australia in yearly naval drills it holds with the United States and Japan in the Indo-Pacific Zone.

The long-awaited agreement on military logistics sharing will significantly boost cooperation and give Indian warships and aircraft greater reach in the Pacific. The agreed vision for maritime cooperation sent a subtle but unambiguous message to Beijing about future requirements for ready operations. As a result, proper cooperation and crackdowns on these cartels are required for the development of this region in order to make the Indo-Pacific zone the Europe of the twentieth century.

The focus of the countries of the Indo-Pacific region is on connectivity, enhancing maritime security, counter terrorism, non-proliferation and cyber issues. All nations of the Indo-Pacific region always affirmed a shared commitment to maintain and strengthen a rule-based order in the Indo-Pacific in which all nations are sovereign, strong and prosperous.

INDIAN CINEMA AND ITS IMPACT ON SOCIETY

The Indian society has been actively developing in different fields including; business, industries, education, health as well as entertainment. With concern to the development for the entertainment purpose, the Indian Cinema has played a vital role. The emergence of Indian cinema is marked in the post-independence era. During the pre-independence times, only the films like, Dada Saheb Phalke’s Raja Harishchandra it was the first silent film and Alam Ara was the first talking film; these proved to be super hit films. Later, the movies are also made in different regional languages like, Bengali, Telegu, Tamil, Gujrati, Malayalam, Oria, etc.

The period between 1940s and 1960s was regarded as the golden age of Indian cinema, as many emotional, intellectual and thought-provoking films were produced during this time. These films gained a lot of popularity through the delivery of new and innovative ideas to the audience. Gradually, the films became an important part of the society, as it would reflect the social issues, real-life situations and general problems that were easily connectable and relatable for the audience and thus, grabbed their attention.

The policies change brought an evolution in the Film-making industry. The new economic changes of 1991 such as, liberation, globalization, etc. encouraged the entry of new technology in the nation. The introduction of Satellite Television in 1992 changed the Indian Cinema and transformed it into more liberal version, that was inclined towards the western culture and criminality etc. The Indian cinema now started representing the true picture of every event rather than the haze image.

POSITIVE VALUES OF THE CINEMA

The cinema is not only a mode of entrainment, it has transformed itself into a system that provides diverse benefits. For instance, it holds immense educative and informative values for the society. The mass of the audience is youngsters and the educational films can prove to be a great way of grooming the young minds. Thus, the cinema can help compassing the education through teaching various subjects through the movies. The basic subjects like History, Geography can be easily depicted through the movies, also, the moral duties, responsibilities, need for hygiene, civil sense, respect for women, etc. can also be convoyed through the picturization effect. This can prove to be a complete package of entrainment with education.  

How Do Movies Impact The Youth? | Youth Ki Awaaz

The films and stories have a deep influence over the minds and activities of the people. It has the power to act as a reformative instrument and expose the evils prevailing in the society, such as human trafficking, domestic violence, corruption, poverty, social exclusion, other discriminatory activities, etc. Movies and the actors have changed the minds and actions of the people, they are the paths to set new trends that have direct impacts over the social lives of the people. The audience and fans make attempts to replicate their favorite artists and aspire to build a life like them.

Several movies are based upon the lives of the renowned personalities and prove to be a mode of motivation and inspiration for many people. Also, the filmmakers make movies from the writings or literary works. They picturized and visible aspect to these writings and at the same time spread the good literature values. It imparts the knowledge and understanding of different cultures, traditions and lives of the people from the past, present and the expected future. The movies are an amazing mode to learn about the history, civilization, practices, religions, evolution, issues and methods of the society.

NEGATIVE IMPACT OF THE CINEMA

However, every coin has two faces. The negativity is complementary to the positivity, the Indian cinema is marked by certain setbacks and flaws that can adversely affect the Indian Society as a whole. Given below are certain negative effects of the cinema:

  • In an attempt to expose the bitter reality, the Indian cinema has increasingly involving itself in the promotion of violence, nudity, racial discrimination, injustice, inequality, etc. The action films often involve violence at a large extent and influence the young minds in a negative and insensitive manner.
  • The highlight of the stereotype religious practices, conventional ideologies, gender roles, etc. creates a tension among the members of the same society. At times, certain scenes can be abusive against a particular group or community in the society. Thus, it infringes their basic rights and also hurt their sentiments.
  • Commercialization of the cinema has led to the loss of values and informativity. The Indian cinema is looked upon as a mode of profit by the filmmakers as well as the artists, thus, they are making no attempts to increase the extent of the content and are concerned only to the profitability.

Thus, there is a need to govern the activities of the cinema and review the movies made by them so that the basic purpose of the films is fulfilled. The audience should choose their content wisely and select the films that can brings positivity and knowledge in their lives rather than disturbance and negativity.

FLOODS IN INDIA: CAUSES AND CONTROL

Floods are natural disasters affecting the crops, livestock, infrastructure and floods a human beings Floods occur when water bodies like rivers carry more amount of water than their capacities and when this additional water cannot be drained in a proper manner. Floods are not a recent phenomenon; it has been occurring since ages. However, today the destruction caused by floods is immense because of creased population density and spread of people in every part of the country.

Types of Floods in India

Floods in India are not restricted to any one place. There are several different kinds of flood, and each one bears a different impact in terms of how it occurs, the damage it causes, and how it is forecasted. In this section we will discuss about the different types of floods.

  • Coastal (Surge Flood) It occurs in areas that lie on the coast of a sea, ocean, or other large body of open water. It is typically the result of extreme tidal conditions caused by severe weather Eastern coast of India is vulnerable to this type of floods due to frequent cyclonic activities. Further, rising sea level due to climate change can put many coastal cities of the world at risk of being overrun by sea water.
  • Fluvial (River Flood) It occurs when excessive rainfall over an extended period of time causes a river to exceed its capacity It can also be caused by heavy snow melt and glacial level outburst. The damage from a river flood can be widespread as the overflow affects smaller rivers downstream, often causing dams and dikes to break. This type of flood usually occurs in Himalayan rivers and cause massive destruction including landslides.
  • Pluvial (Surface Flood) It is caused when heavy rainfall creates a flood event independent of an overflowing water body. It can happen in any urban area Apart from these, floods may also be caused due to upsurge in groundwater and even higher elevation areas that lies above coastal and river floodplains. burst of drain and sewer.

Major Flood Prone Areas of India

The major flood prone regions in India according to National Commission on Floods comprises of Ganga River basin which includes state of Uttar Pradesh, North Bihar and West Bengal. The heavy rainfall and huge siltation make flood yearly affair in Brahmaputra River system also. The inadequate surface drainage which causes inundation and water-logging over vast areas is the main cause of floods in North-Western part of India.

Cloudburst and torrential rainfall have caused flood in Uttarakhand and Kashmir. The small rivers of Kerala, originating in Western ghats and flowing to the Arabian sea, cause considerable damage when in spate. The deltaic region of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri suffer from occasional food owing to the large-scale silting and consequent change in the river course.

Cause of Flood

Floods are caused by natural, ecological or anthropogenic factors either individually or as a combined result Earthquake, landslide and cloudburst are among other natural causes of flood Man made causes include collapse of dams, embankments and efficient sewerage system in cities. The various causes of floods in India are Causes of Flood as follows:

  • Rainfall of about 15cm or more in single day, sometimes are beyond the carrying capacity of the river causes the spilling of river over natural banks West coast f Western Ghats, Assam and Sub-Himalayan West Bengal and Indo-Gangetic plains faces flood due to heavy precipitation almost every year.
  • The Himalayan rivers carry a lot of silt with them due to erosive action of the rivers. Because of the amount of silt carried by the rivers, the level of river bed rises and the water carrying capacity of the rivers gets reduced. This causes floods in the nearby areas of hill slopes. The water level in river rises because of greater run off Floods in Western ghats, Shiwaliks and Chotanagar plateau region occurs due to this reason.
  • Excessive sand mining comes at a huge cost to the river and those living around it. Excessive sand mining can alter the river bed, force the river to change its course, erode banks and lead to flooding. It also destroys the habitat of aquatic animals and micro-organisms besides affecting groundwater recharge.
  • In the flat terrain especially in plain areas, rivers have tendency to meander or change the course within a specific boundary. Because of this, frequent flood occurs in lower reaches of Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
  • Tropical cyclone accompanied by strong winds, huge torrential rain and high tidal bores causes inundation of Eastern coastal regions of India. Floods due cyclone are common in the East coasts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal.
  • In coastal areas sea rides deposit silt in the river mouths and discharge channels leading to steady deterioration of their discharge capacity, it causes floods in deltaic areas of India.
  • Due to inadequate drainage, floods have occurred in Punjab, Haryana and Western UP After introduction of irrigation in these areas, the sub-soil water table rises fast leading to widespread flooding.
Top Ten Disastrous Floods and Major Flood Prone Areas In India

Control Measures

Being a natural phenomenon, the total elimination or control of floods is neither practically possible nor economically viable. Hence, flood control measures aim at providing a reasonable degree of protection against flood damage at economic costs in the section we will discuss various control measures of flood adopted by government and citizens.

  • For controlling the flood, the government has constructed many dams and authorities which includes Damodar Valley Corporation for Damodar river, Narmada Control Authority for Narmada River, Hirakund dam on Mahanadi, Ukai dam on the Taps and the Bhakra dam across Sutlej. The Central Water Commission and National Flood Control Board in partnership with the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has taken many steps for flood control.
  • Among other structural measures, flood embankments, flood banks and levees have been constructed all along the major rivers, so that excess water in their channel does not cause havoc a nearby areas.
  • Surface water drainage congestion due to inadequacy of natural or manmade drainage channels results in flooding in many areas in this regard government has started many drainage improvements programs.
  • Diverting all or a part of the discharge into a natural or artificially constructed channel, lying within or in some cases outside the flood plains is a useful means of lowering water levels in the river to control the flood The flood spill channel skirting Srinagar city and the Supplementary Drain in Delhi are examples of diverting excess water to prevent flooding of the urbanized areas.
  • Among the non-structural measures which strive to keep people away from flood waters, the flood-plain zoning and flood proofing have been adopted by the government. These are non-structural changes, adjustments or additions to reduce and prevent flood. Similarly, India Meteorological Department (IMD) issues flood forecasting and warning which are of immense help in relocation of the vulnerable section of population.
  • Watershed management measures such as developing the vegetative cover i.e., afforestation and conservation of soil cover in conjunction with structural works like check dams, detention basins etc. serve as an effective measure in reducing flood peaks and controlling the suddenness of the runoff Government under National green mission aims at massive afforestation all along the channels of major rivers. Further many watershed developments projects have been taken up under MGNREGA, which will eventually help in controlling the flood.

LIFESTYLE DISEASES IN INDIA

The nature of disease incidence has changed in India over decades A few decades ago, infectious diseases affected and allied millions of people in India. But increasing medical improvements and health facilities have led to improvements in the people’s living standards as it has considerably reduced infections and death. With improvements in the standards of living due to rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization, and the consequent change in lifestyle and dietary choices, there is now greater risk of non-communicable diseases or lifestyle diseases. These diseases significantly affect people of all age groups Lifestyle diseases include conditions such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis and even cancer. 21st century rapid and unhealthy lifestyle is responsible for the occurrence of lifestyle diseases. This includes tobacco use, alcohol, fast food diet, insufficient physical activity, extended office working hours, lack of proper sleep etc.

EXTENT OF LIFESTYLE DISEASES IN INDIA

India has undergone a major epidemiological transition in consonance with socio-economic development. The share of non-communicable lifestyle diseases has increased in India from 37.6 to 618% The major lifestyle diseases in India are heart disease, pulmonary disease and stroke. It is estimated that more than 1.78 million cases of cancer are likely to be added each year by the year 2022. Every 12th person in India is suffering from diabetes India ranks second in the list of countries having diabetes patients Children are suffering from asthma, strokes, heart diseases etc. The following are the major lifestyle diseases of India:

  • Obesity: The number of overweight and obese people in India have doubled between 2005 and 2015 Among the individuals aged between 15-50 years, 21% of women and 18.6% of men have been found overweight. The presence of obesity is mainly due to obesogenic chemicals such as MSG, Bisphenol etc. Marketing of processed foods need to be regulated Presently, lower taxes on unhealthy foods, inadequate health labelling and lower physical activity among the people has led to higher incidence of obesity.
  • Mental Health: More than 12% of country’s adult population suffers from some kind of mental illness. At least 150 million people in the country are in active need of medical intervention due to mental illnesses. The main reasons for higher incidence of mental illness are changing diets, lack of social support, stress, fatigue and sometimes intake of large amount of sugar has also been linked to mental diseases
  • Cancer: More than 1.73 million cases of cancer are likely to be recorded each year in India Commonly used household items including chemicals and cosmetics containing cancer causing compounds are responsible for cancers Many cases of cancer have been linked to environmental exposure of toxins The main triggers responsible for cancer are tobacco, alcohol, air pollution and diets rich in meat and low in vegetables. These are relatively unaddressed as compared to other diseases.
5 lifestyle diseases that are common in India | TheHealthSite.com
  • Heart Diseases: Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for a large number of deaths in India each year. In urban areas, young and middle-aged people are at risk of cardiovascular diseases. The main cause of heart diseases is lack of physical activity and absence of green spaces in many areas. Pedestrian and cycling tracks are not adequate. Depression has been found to be a risk factor causing cardiovascular diseases. Heart rhythm is also affected due to changes in central nervous system and other hormonal changes.
  • Food Allergies: Food allergies are caused by various packed and unpacked food in India. Almost 25-40 million people suffer from food allergies in India. Food products are not adequately labelled and there is no adequate information about allergy causing substances on food items. Also, genetically modified foods (GMF) are not labelled adequately in India. There needs to be mechanisms to ensure that allergy causing foods are labelled so that allergic reactions can be prevented.
  • Hormonal Disorders: One-twelfth of India’s population is diabetic Hyperthyroidism cases are also on the rise in India. Data is not available yet for several hormonal disorders. Hormonal disorders can occur due to exposure to toxins, air pollution and foods rich in fats, sugar and salt. There is poor understanding of hormonal disorders in India. There are currently no policies that reduce consumption of processed foods, increase physical activity among people of all ages and reduce exposure to certain chemicals changing the hormonal balance.
  • Respiratory Diseases: Asthma and COPD are the main respiratory diseases affecting people in India. Global warming, air pollution from vehicles smoking tobacco and pollution from industry as well as global warming increases the risk of contracting respiratory illnesses. Global warming has extended the duration of pollens in the air and altered the timing, production and distribution of aeroallergens in the environment. There has been increased airway inflammation that increases frequency of respiratory allergy.

CAUSES OF LIFESTYLE DISEASES

The causes of lifestyle diseases can be categorized into three broad categories:

  • Modifiable Risk Factors: Behavioral risk factors such as excessive use of alcohol, bad food habits, eating and smoking tobacco, physical inactivity. prolonged wrong body posture and disturbed biological clock has increased the likelihood of contracting non-communicable lifestyle diseases. Stress related work, modern occupational desk jobs is seen as a potential risk factors associated with lifestyle diseases. Excessive use of sodium and sugars in the diet has resulted in increased rate of death due to lifestyle diseases. Use of tobacco and alcohol are also causing rising incidences of deaths among the vulnerable population.
  • Non-modifiable Risk Factors: It leads to major changes in the ability of the body to keep away diseases. Age, race, gender and genetic makeup are major factors that affect the immunity of a person. Different races have different genetic makeup. Males and females are affected separately due to differences in physical and mental setups. As the age increases, people tend to be less immune to various diseases. Increasing physical activity reduces chances of contracting lifestyle diseases.
  • Metabolic Risk Factors: Metabolic risk factors include increasing blood pressure, obesity, increasing blood glucose levels and increasing levels of fat These factors aggravate the harmful effects of lifestyle diseases as people become more vulnerable to lifestyle diseases Slow metabolism because of these risk factors weakens the ability of the body to fight against regular disease incidence or seasonal diseases that occur due to change in the environment and conditions.

HOW TO KEEP INDIA HEALTHY AND FREE FROM LIFESTYLE DISEASES?

Access to low quality and poor in nutrition fast food, affordable sugary foods, lack of physical activity has increased the growth of lifestyle diseases.

Awareness Alone Not Enough To Address Lifestyle Diseases - The India Saga

Hence, there needs to be healthy lifestyle approach and policies should be created which keeps lifestyle diseases under control. There needs to be focus on the following aspects to keep India free from lifestyle diseases:

  • Improving Food Habits: There should be strict regulation of low-quality fast food. A national policy can be formulated that promotes lower intake of sugars and salty foods: People should be motivated to consume less fat rich food instead of foods that have more fats.
  • Exercise Habits: Regular exercising and physical activity should be promoted among the people so that the incidence of lifestyle diseases can be reduced Regular exercise keeps the metabolism fast and prevents occurrence of diseases as it improves immunity.
  • Mental Support: There should be regular mental and social support to mental patients so that no individual feel dejected and depressed Lack of mental and socio-economic support aggravate lifestyle disease incidence among the vulnerable population. Regular mental health services should be provided to mental health patients.
  • Avoiding Tobacco and Alcohol Use: Avoiding smoking and alcohol use is an important step in preventing non-communicable lifestyle disease Alcohol, smoking and eating tobacco also increases the likelihood of contracting of lifestyle diseases.
  • Educational Interventions: People should be made more aware about healthy lifestyle and good food habits Intervention should be made at the schools and college levels to make students aware about the changing lifestyle and increasing physical activities.

 Lifestyle diseases can be prevented easily with minimal interventions Regular exercise, eating green leafy vegetables, good food habits etc. can be simple preventive techniques to fight against the lifestyle diseases.

NUCLEAR HAZARDS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON ECOLOGY

Nuclear energy is a major source of clean power everywhere in the world. It is considered to be an efficient power source, as it produces lesser carbon dioxide and operate for a longer period of time. a strong nuclear energy program of a country is essential for energy security and national prosperity. Nuclear power plants are fitted with complex set of safety and security features but an uncontrolled reaction can result in widespread air and water contamination. In the nuclear waste is not disposed off properly, it could also result in hazardous land pollution.

As Nuclear power plants create a lot of hazardous waste in the form of radioactive wastes such as uranium tailings, spent reactor fuel and other such radioactive materials, these wastes can remain radioactive for thousands of years and pose dangers to human health. There are always concerns associated with transportation, storage and disposal of nuclear wastes and even nuclear fuels nuclear disasters are capable of producing large damages to human health and the environment. The radiation release associated with nuclear disaster causes significant acute and chronic problems in the immediate environment as well as over a wide geographic area over longer periods of time.

WHAT ARE NUCLEAR HAZARDS?

Nuclear hazards refer to the incidents involving the release of significant levels of radioactive materials and exposure of general public or the natural environment to nuclear radiation. The nuclear hazards primarily affect public health due to direct exposure to radioactive materials, inhalation of radioactive waste, ingestion of contaminated food, water etc. and long-term exposure to radioactive materials in the environment that leads to acute or chronic health and environmental damage.

Due to radioactivity, even a small amount of radiation exposure can have serious biological consequences due to nuclear hazards The radioactive elements emit high energy particles that cause damage to environmental resources. Radiations emitted due to hazards in nuclear facilities can result in mutations in DNA, burns and radiation sickness, weakness, nausea, hair loss etc. Contamination of natural resources further aggravates the potential of nuclear hazards nuclear hazards can be created by man through the mining of radioactive materials, careless handling and processing of nuclear fuels, storage of radioactive wastes, carelessness in safety protocols while operating reactors, as well as improper use of devices that are used to give radiation therapies in hospitals, clinics etc.

CAUSES OF NUCLEAR HAZARDS NUCLEAR HAZARDS OCCUR DUE TO THE FOLLOWING REASONS:

  • Nuclear Accidents Nuclear energy has been considered as environmentally safe and potential source of energy. If nuclear facilities producing nuclear energy are not put under strict safety measures, there are chances that nuclear accidents may occur. Nuclear plants have huge amount of radioactive maternal for generation of nuclear energy The radioactive elements if escape into the environment, proves most harmful for the immediate land, air and water resources as well human health. If nuclear power plants are operated with flawed design, then too nuclear power plant accidents occur. For e.g., Chernobyl Nuclear accident, 1986, Ukraine.
  • Nuclear Waste Handling Radioactive nuclear wastes are categorized as low level and high level wastes the handling and disposal of these wastes if not performed according to standards prescribed for handling wastes, then nuclear hazards can take place because of leakage of this radioactive material. Radiation waste cannot be degraded or treated biologically or chemically. The only options are either to contain the waste by storing them in closed containers, having radioactive protection or disposing them at remote locations.
  • Mining of Nuclear Fuels Mining and extracting nuclear fuels such as thorium, uranium can turn into a nuclear hazard if safety precautions are not taken Mining increases exposure to humans by moving radio materials from below the Earth’s surface to the top These substances are usually mined with safety gears and protective equipment Exposing the natural environment such as trees, plants, water, animals to radioactive elements during mining also increases hazard risks.
  • Spilling of Radioactive Elements Spilling occurs due to marine accidents which are due to accidents of ships carrying nuclear materials and radioactive elements Spilling in water bodies causes harmful effects on marine life, contaminate water resources and ends up killing thousands of marine florals as well as faunal species Contaminated water supply in households can have drastic effects on human health.
  • Radiation Based Tests Radiation has been used in several medical therapies such as Chemotherapies for cancers Exposure to medical based radiotherapies leads to deaths and other complications Radioactive elements leaking out of medical facilities can cause fatal nuclear hazards.
Nuclear power: how might radioactive waste water affect the environment?

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR HAZARDS

Nuclear hazards cause large amounts of nuclear wastes to be released in the environment this contaminating air, water and land resources. It is essential to contain nuclear material and facilities having nuclear materials safely. The harmful effects of nuclear hazards include:

  • Radioactive materials released from nuclear hazards cause mutations in the DNA thereby affecting genes and chromosomes. The genetic makeup of future generation is affected due to these mutations. It leads to several incurable birth defects.
  • Radiations can kill essential flora and fauna, important environmental species and can make land and plants etc. toxic and critical species are also affected. It results in huge damage to biodiversity.
  • Damages caused by different kinds of radiations also include direct physical harms such as burns miscarriages, cancer, bone defects, eye diseases etc. Even a small exposure to radiation can cause adverse effects. Damages that occur over longer periods are spread over for generations.
  • Natural resources such as land, soil, forests, water bodies like rivers, ponds, oceans get affected by nuclear wastes and nuclear elements. Contamination of natural resources affects large number of people living in urban as well as rural areas.
  • If nuclear accident sites are not treated and managed properly, it could result in human infectious diseases due to contaminated water and soil in a region.
  • Children are at particular risk from nuclear radiations. High doses of radiation increase cancer risk early in the life of children. Lifetime cancer risk significantly increases among children due to exposure to radiation.
  • Nuclear hazards increase the pressure on land as soil and water resources are contaminated and therefore lesser land is available for agricultural purposes. The microorganisms present in land and soil also pet killed due to insufficient oxygen which reduces soil fertility.
  • Nuclear hazards also reduce human immunity to fight against diseases and infections. This makes people vulnerable to infections. It further increases the chances of disease risk in the population.
Looking for a Trash Can: Nuclear waste management in the United States -  Science in the News

WAYS TO MITIGATE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR HAZARDS

Nuclear hazards can pose serious risks to environment, humans and animal and plant life. Nuclear hazards can be mitigated by taking following measures:

  • There must be robust design and construction of nuclear reactors so that any fault does not occur during operation of the reactor.
  • Medical devices involving nuclear fuel and its use sold be used with caution to prevent any undesirable exposure to nuclear material.
  • Leakage of nuclear materials, radioactive elements, careless handling of radioactive elements must be fully ensured before carrying out any operations in nuclear facilities.
  • There should be regular monitoring of areas that are prone to nuclear hazards.
  • Nuclear wastes should be disposed properly as to prevent any long-term presence of radioactive material. Long term presence of radioactivity results in hidden and unwanted effects on human lives for longer periods of time.

SOCIAL MEDIA: A DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD

The current age of science and technology has impacted the individual in every sphere, the expansion of social networking and media has led to huge spread of socialization digitally. Basically, the social networking site is defined as an online platform which provides people with an opportunity to build social relationships with different people around the world, and match the people with common interests and connections. Social media has facilitated a lot of people in reshaping and enhancing their expressing and communication skills, thus, it has the potential of engaging the people constantly.

Gradually, social media has became an integral part of the individual life, as it has the potential to boost the personality of the user. It is no more a medium of informal communication a rather became a significant mode to promote one’s business, organization, etc. it is an excellent instrument to attract and advertise one’s talent and activities as social media allows consistent engagement of the people of the society.

However, every type and site of social media has two sides- Bright and Dark. It can be regarded as helpful or disturbing on the basis of the manner of the usage. India has around 400 million people that make use of one or other social media platform, and most of these users operate through their phones that cam be mentally stressful as well as is prone to hacking and malicious activities. The heavy usage of social media among the children and youngsters has led to certain hostile incidents like, Mental disorder or instability, attempts to suicide, Self-injurious behavior, etc. It is worth noting that introduction of social media has brought a kind of reformation and modernization in the society; yet, on the other hand, excessive usage of this blessing has also brought various negative consequences and transformed it into a curse.

Thus, it becomes necessary to analysis the advantages and disadvantages of social media to know the positive or negative impact of this Double-edged Sword.

Top 20+ Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Media

ADVANTAGES:

  • The social media is a great medium to establish connectivity among different individuals. The people from all around the world can communicate and connect with each other very easily. The distance among the individuals feels to be reduced even if they are a continent apart, they feel close by having a communication through any social media site.
  • Also, the people can share their views and ideas on a specific issue and get to hear other’s perspective. For example, if someone publish something on their social media profile, the other visiting users have the liberty to comment upon the same.
  • The social websites can be a mode of helping the people around you and resolving the prevailing social issues. Even during the pandemic situation, the social media platform has helped the individuals in need to approach others for help and vice versa. Thus, the connections can be viable if it simplifies the things.
  • The businesses and organizations now have the opportunity to know the need of the people through the social media websites and produce the necessary product. Also, the existing businesses can easily accept the consumer review and enhance their product accordingly. It has helped the individuals certainly in expanding their businesses.
  • Various small businesses have come up, these people might not have a specifically built infrastructure, they are operating from their residence through their social media accounts and are receiving overwhelming responses.
  • The technological improvement and establishment of social media platform has been educational for the young generation and its significance has drastically increased during the pandemic and lockdown situations.

DISADVANTAGES:

  • The social media is prone to certain setbacks and lacking, the sharing of ideas and news on the social media has led to various sites coming up and posting contradictory news on the same issue. Thus, there is wide spread of fake and misleading information on the social media, this creates confusion among the people and can lead to adverse instances.
  • The social media has given birth to a whole new term of Cyber-bullying, some immoral people feel pleasure in attacking the other individuals. As, the individuals can chose to hide their real identity and misrepresent themselves, this causes a lot of difficulties in identification of the user. This problem is more common among the young users of social media, who do these mischiefs for fun without knowing the future consequences of the same.
  • Social media is quite addictive and at the same time it is damaging for the mental, physical as well as social well-being of an individual. Excessive use of anything is dangerous and the same phrase is applicable to the social media platforms. The harmful radiations coming from the electronic devices can affect the mental health of the operator and thus, it can cause a decline in the ability to think and function of an individual, it increases complication and complexities.

Thus, the negative impact of the social networking sites should be kept in mind while making use of these platforms. Communication is a vital part of the human society, however, the increase in penetration of social media affects the individual practical skills adversely. There is an urgent need to keep a check upon the social activities of the young children by the parents to ensure that they learn good things and to avoid their involvement in wicked activities.

BHOPAL GAS LEAK CASE WITH REFERENCE TO THE NO- FAULT LIABILITY

It’s a very general notion that law of torts work on fault based liability means whenever there is a wrongful act or omission, liability would be there. But what about the no fault liability? Have you heard about that? In this article, I’ll be dealing with the major judgments explaining what a no- fault liability is and how it helps the plaintiff or the victims.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED?
2. LEGALITIES
3. IS STRICT LIABILITY DIFFERENT FROM NO-FAULT LIABILITY?
4. CONCLUSION

WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED ON 3RD DECEMBER, 1984?

It was midnight of 3-4 December, 1984 when nearly 3000 thousand lost their lives just due to a gas leak called methyl Isocyanate which mixed with air causing breathing problems to the people who inhaled it. It affected plant and animal species as well. These symptoms and injuries continued to persist even after 30 years of this incident. The leak was happened because of negligence on the part of company as no proper maintenance was given to the plant.

LEGALITIES

Many people suffered due to this gas leak so, they moved to court filling their petitions against Union Carbide Corporation. As a result, Union of India taking into consideration all the complaints passed an ordinance and filed a petition in Bhopal district court and in US district court as well. US court directed Union of India to approach in India only for convenience. Bhopal court ordered Union Carbide Corporation to pay 3.3 Billion dollar, then Union Carbide Corporation moved to High Court to reduce the amount and as a result, the amount was reduced but the conflict wasn’t solved yet.

So, the parties decided to approach SC who evolved the concept of no-fault liability and ordered the Union Carbide Corporation to pay 470 million by 31st march, 1989.

IS NO- FAULT LIABILITY DIFFERENT FROM STRICT LIABILITY?

No- fault liability is also known as absolute liability evolved in 1989 with 100% liability. It is a liability when the defendant is held liable and he doesn’t have any remedies or defenses as compared to the strict liability. In case of no- fault liability, person will be held liable whether he has any intention to commit the crime or not, whether he took all reasonable care or not. Even act of god and plaintiff’s own fault can’t save him. Absolute liability is just a modified version of strict liability.  Earlier defendants used to make excuses and take advantage of defenses available that’s why govt. introduced absolute liability to make them held liable.

CONCLUSION

No matter government has introduced many new laws after this incident but its effects are still seen in the lives of people living there having breathing problems still going on from one generation to another. But this principle of absolute liability proves to be beneficial in cases when the harm caused is serious and threatening to the lives of many people.


CASTE DISCRIMINATION AND EXCLUSION IN INDIA

India is a land of diversity as there are diverse variety of people co-existing on the same land. The Indian society is remarked with the presence of different people belonging to different religions and caste, following different traditions, practicing different culture, speaking different languages, eating different kinds of food, wearing different types of clothes, etc. these diversities result in disparities among the people. These inconsistencies result in discrimination and exclusion of various individuals and groups from the society at many points of time.

The people in the society are highly discriminated on the basis of the caste that they belong to and family they are born in. just because someone is born in a family belonging to a lower caste, they are considered to be lower than the others members of the society and are discriminated. The country is dominated by Hindus and the Hindu culture divides and sub-divides the individuals in different castes; certain castes are awarded the states of supreme whereas others like Shudras are regarded as the untouchables. This discrimination was highly based upon the type of work or occupation that is performed by the members of a particular caste. Also, in the later stages, if a particular caste is considered to be lower, the members of the caste are discriminated and excluded irrespective of their occupation. This was a worse situation as it affected the development and modernization of the society as well as the individuals, and also depicts the narrow and conventional ideologies prevailing the nation.

This kind of Discrimination and the practice of untouchability are hereditary in India. The society rank the people as per the purity of their occupation and justify their action through the concept of Karma. the traditional people believed that a certain individuals belong to a particular caste as a result of their deeds of pervious birth. However, the above concept is completely illogical and unjustified, the Indian society has undergone various reforms to eliminate this discrimination. The Indian Constitution observes the application of the principle of Equality and Justice for every individual citizen of the nation. Thus, the practice of Untouchability has been nearly abolished from the society and equal recognition has been provided to all the individuals.

Yet, there is some extent of discrimination and exclusion taking place on the basis of different traits and characteristics of an individual or group. The extent of this problem is much wider and deeper than what is supposed. That’s the reason why the strict legislations and regulations have also failed to eradicate the problem completely. This discrimination and exclusion manifest itself in several forms, whether socially, economically or politically.

SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION: The society divides itself into different castes and creeds, there is a hierarchical relationship formed that grades the different castes as high or low. It depicts that people belonging to some specific castes are considered to be unholy, impure and polluting, thus, they are ordered at the lowest position in the list. The people belonging to the upper caste would consider them and even their touch to be impure. Hence, they were exploited and discriminated and often beaten if they come in contact with the people of higher caste. The social exclusion was practiced as they were excluded from the social gatherings and other social activities, they were not allowed to make use of the public properties or spaces like Wells, ponds, temples, schools, hostels, hospitals, etc. Even after the enforcement rules and legislations, they are forced to live outside of the town and village during the day time and their homes are physically separated from that of the upper caste. Along with these discriminations, they are also discriminated religiously; they are not allowed to practice their religion and culture, worship their gods or even perform their burial rituals.

ECONOMIC DISCRIMINATION: The people belonging to the lower caste commonly lack financial resources, they were not allowed to purchase their own piece of land or build their own homes. It is only after the establishment of a democratic form of government and enforcement of the Constitution that these people are allowed to own some property under their Right to Property. However, many of the Dalits are still landless labors working on the farmers of upper caste Zamindars and land owners, even the one owning a land has a small insignificant piece of it.

POLITICAL DISCRIMINATION: The lower caste people were not even recognized in the society; thus, they were definitely not allowed to participate in the political matters. Even, their constitutional right to vote is violated, as the people of the upper caste didn’t agree to share the polling booth with them. This kind of discriminatory behavior results to them losing their self-confidence and ignorance of their Self-esteem. Thus, they were not confident enough to raise any voice or represent themselves to the nation and the authorities.

Therefore, it can be concluded that even after many reforms and governmental regulations, the Indian system has miserably failed to help the lower caste earn their self-identity. We as a responsible citizens uphold discrimination as immoral and make attempts to eliminate it.

5 WAYS TO KEEP YOURSELF MOTIVATED

The busy and hectic lifestyle demand complete concentration and devotion towards the works, the human beings are prone to feel unproductive and unmotivated. At times, the individual feels that they ae not making enough efforts or their efforts are not bearing the desired results, they compare their progress with other and get disappointed. As a result, they lost their motivation to work and doubt their ability to achieve the goals. We need to have self-confidence and should always make attempts to stay motivated.

Indeed, it is not possible to stay motivated or enthusiastic all the time, especially when there is nothing desirable or enthusiastic happening in your life. For instance, this pandemic and nationwide lockdown has compelled the individuals to stay at home and work from their residence. This has affected the mental health of the individuals as they have lost the motivation or inspiration to work from their home. The specific place and the environment that is created in the work space is different from working from the comfort of their home.

This article includes certain basic ways and tips that might help you to stay motivated and adopt a vigorous and productive lifestyle that make you want to work.

ACHIEVE YOUR GOALS: It is very important to set goals, your goals can be personal, financial, professional, academic, etc. The individuals who set goals have an objective to do certain work and have aim to achieve. Setting up goals motivates you to work for fulfilling your goals. Often, the individuals set up goals that are difficult to achieve, it is good to challenge yourself, but we should begin with completing small tasks so that it motivates us and encourage us to take up big things in life. It is advisable to divide you task into small parts and then set up your goals accordingly, start with completion of the short-term goals to achieve long-term success. Write down your goals and schedule your day in such a manner that you’re able to give enough time to achieve every goal and also perform other day-to-day activities.

It is difficult and demotivating when we are unable to achieve our goals, we end up giving up and doesn’t try anymore. There are few tricks that can motivate you to keep working to achieve the goals. Vision your life when you achieve your goals, imagine what would your life look like once to achieve your goals and achieved what you desire. This shall encourage you to work harder to achieve the goals. Always prepare well for the task you have to complete, even for the smallest thing.

AVERTISING YOURSELF: Advertise yourself and your work among your family and friends. The way you dress up, speak, walk, address, everything makes a great impact on your actions and achievements. However, it is not always necessary to dress up formally to work, dress simply and make up your mind in such a manner that you feel to work. The choice of your cloth accommodates your mood at a particular point of time. The way you speak and the ideas that your mind come up in your mind while a conversation also defines your personality. Talking with your friends or other people around you and able to respond to them wisely also provides motivation to an individual. Advertise the things that you learned whether through your educational institutions or the self-learned things, also talk about your talents and hobbies. It helps others to know you more and decide what kind of person are you.

BRAINSTROM YOURSELF: There are very effective ways to brainstorm yourself all at your own without any assistance from any person or group. That means you can conduct brainstorming sessions for yourself at any time of the day and as many times as you want.

Through brainstorming you work by yourself and for yourself, there are few tips to use advanced brainstorming techniques:

  • Use creative thinking to start off your approach from a different angle.
  • Spark off new ideas by getting stimuli from brainstorming and not people.
  • Challenge your current way to thinking to expand your approach.
  • Ask questions to yourself and try to answer themselves of your own. In case you’re able to answer, try to figure out the reason.
  • Don’t bound yourself with only one single idea or thought.

COMMUNICATE WITH YOURSELF AND TRY TO CONTROL YOUR EMOTIONS: No-one knows you better than you yourself do. Thus, always spend some time alone without any gadgets, communicating with yourself and doing your favorite activity or hobby. The individual should possess complete knowledge about oneself and know your weaknesses to work upon them. The first step of self-communication starts with the inner self, know yourself to know the world around you. No-one is perfect, however, self-introspection and lead to near perfection. In case you don’t have anyone around to talk to you about how you feel, try talking to yourself. You can also write down your thoughts both positive as well as negative, this helps to analyses how positive or negative ideas are staying in your mind. Later, you have to train your mind to avoid all the negative ideas or thoughts around yourself. Learn to control your emotions, getting sad at small thinks can cause overthinking and brings negative thoughts to your mind. Try to speak up the things that trouble you in spite of keep thinking about them continuously. This might be difficult but prove to be worth it when you started feeling more joyful and happy as you no more allow any negativity to bother you.

GET RID OF THE BAD HABITS: Change your habits for a better and healthy lifestyle. The human gets attracted to the things that are easy to do without knowing about there after effect. Thus, it is very important to differentiate between the good and bad habits to evaluate their effect upon our lives and control the bad activities. Here are some tips to break the bad habits and bring a long-lasting change in individual life:

  • Be clear about the habit that you feel is bad and causes ill-effect and prepare your mind to overcome that activity.
  • Set yourself a goal. For instance, if you plan to reduce your screen time, set a time limit and adhere to that strictly.
  • Try to adopt more good habits and divert your mind from the bad habits,

It gives immense satisfaction and pleasure to adopt a healthy lifestyle with good habits and a positive schedule, therefore, start from today and motivate yourself to be a better version of yourself.

INDIAN POPULATION AND THE TABOO OF ILLITERACY

The Indian economy is a developing economy, thus, the educated as well as educating population is the future of the nation. However, the future of the nation stays in blue when the citizens are not provided with the facility to educate themselves. The different nations are building themselves under the supervision and employment of the educated and skilled workforce. Whereas, India is facing a serious problem of illiteracy amongst its citizens. The large population of the country doesn’t posses enough knowledge about certain subjects, at times, people are just enjoying incomplete knowledge on something in particular.

A report by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) highlights that India has highest population of illiterate adults, i.e., 287 million. It shows that the number is huge and around 37% of the world’s illiterate people are India. The literacy rate in India is calculated with regards to the people aged between 15-24 years. The literacy level of any nation is a determinant of its socio-economic status, and the level of literacy in India has been increasing at a very slow pace. The 2011 census depicts that the literacy growth in the decade 2001-2011 has been as low as 9.2%. Thus, the problem of illiteracy continues to prevail in the country at a very large level.

Illiteracy is basically defined as the inability to read or write, that means the individual has lack of knowledge in a particular subject. It is a wider concept and includes the individual ability to adapt to the subject and visualizes the content matter. However, the extent of illiteracy in India is different, the people residing in the villages or rural areas have remained familiar to there native language and are ignorant towards the other languages or subjects. These people are mostly the adults, including women who are now unwilling to learn something new due to lack of time or other priority work to do. The women community is largely affected by the illiteracy around the nations, as the aggregate percentage of girls enrolling in schools is just 47.78%. Overall, 60 lakhs children in India are still not able to prevail the facilities of education. The state of Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh are at the bottom in the terms of Dalit Literacy level.

Literacy is not just the ability to read or write, but also includes the individual’s capacity to comprehend a piece of information and further communicate it with others effectively. Literacy is a significant element to enhance the individual social and personal standards, as it is the tool to help them to represent themselves among the people and share a common surrounding with the people around us. It severs as the foundation of the basic education for all the individuals in the nation. Thus, provision of basic education to all the citizens of the nation becomes a necessity. The Constitution of India recognizes this need and had laid down certain provisions and laws to ensure proper and impartial availability of educational rights to all the citizens.

  • The Article 30 of the Indian Constitution gives right to the minorities to establish their own educational as well as administrative institutions. Also, they have been given the fundamental right to protect their culture and teachings.
  • The Directive Principles of State policy also instructs the state to ensure free education to all the citizens under the sections 41, 45 and 46.
  •  Article 21 (A) was also amended to include the provision of free and compulsory education to all the children between the age group of 6-14 years, as a fundamental right.
  • The weaker section of the nation; comprising socially, economically, and educationally backward sections belonging to the Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are also provided educational rights through the Article 15, 17 and 46 of the Indian Constitution.

Along with these constitutional or legal provisions, there are other schemes and programs that are initiated with the aim and objective to promoting educational awareness among all the citizens in the nation.

  • The Mid-day meal scheme has been launched by the government in 1995 with the aim to improve the enrolment and attendance rate of the students. The poor people will be willing to enroll their children to the government schools which provide free food to the students.
  • There are regular updates on the scholarship programs for the students in order to provide fee concession as well as other necessary items. Also, the aim is that a potential and deserving student should not be deprived of the education due to lack of resources.
  • Samagra Shiksha Programme was launched by the government with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness. This will be measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes.
  • Awareness campaigns were launched in rural areas to create awareness among people about the importance of education. They were encouraged to attend or send their children to schools.

It can be observed that continuously efforts have been made by the government to improve the condition of the educational sector and promote the level of literacy in the country. However, the efforts cannot bear results without the support and coordination of the citizens of the country. At the individual level, the people are responsible to make efforts to educate themselves, their children and other encourage other acquaintances as well.

  • The individuals must indulge themselves in some or other awareness campaign to learn and share the knowledge with their peers.
  • They should expose themselves the different kinds of reading material and adopt good reading habits.
  • There is a need to explore more and know your interests to involve in the same kind of areas.

Thus, it can be concluded that the problem of illiteracy is huge but requires coordination between the authorities and the citizens to improve the level of literacy of the nation.

ROLE OF MEDIA IN INDIAN DEMOCRACY

Media is considered as an important element of a free and independent society, as it is the mode of provision of all the necessary news and information to the general citizens of the country. Basically, media refers to the communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver the information or data. The above statement explains the basic role of the media, and further the components are communication industry, the news media, print media publishing, photography, cinematics, broadcasting, advertising etc. Thus, media is a vast field and has the responsibility of communicating each and every necessary information to the lowest most level of the hierarchical structure.

Downsizing and shutting down of Indian media: Worst phase until now

In India, the media is considered as the fourth pillar of democracy, as it supplies all the political news to the citizens and help the voters to make a fair and reasonable decision. Also, they identify the problems in the society and serve as a medium for deliberation. Media also work as a representative of the group to raise voice for their well-being and keep a check upon the different activities in the country to analysis the quality of the services being provided to the citizens. Therefore, it can be said that the media plays an important role in the free and fair play of the government and other authorities and ensure the equal application of the principles of a democratic nation in the country like India.

The media is regarded as an important part of the Indian Democracy because, it is an ideal illustration to strengthen the concept/Right of freedom to speech and expression. The media helps the citizen to be an active participant in the political, economic as well as social happenings of the nation, through the dissemination of the necessary information to them on timely bases. As stated in the above paragraph, the media acts as a representative of the citizens and stand for their needs and demands in front of the government. In the similar manner, the media informs the government about the current requirements of the citizens and help them to design their public welfare policies accordingly. Media has a huge contribution in bringing up the reforms in the nation, through raising voice against the unjustifiable and illegal actions of certain individuals, whether the political leaders or a normal citizen. The media helps in exposing the corrupt individuals in public and private agencies and allow the deserving hard working individuals to come forward and avail the opportunities. The media is the voice of the marginalized people of the nation, they empower the poor and vulnerable people by providing them with a platform through which they can approach to the specific authority.

However, the deficiencies and shortcomings of the media industry cannot be overlooked; the Indian Media is considered to be an important part of the democratic system, whereas, it is characterized by corruption. The World Press Freedom Index 2020 puts India at 142nd rank with respect to the freedom and fairness of the media, this highlights that Indian Media still has to go on a long track to achieve complete transparency. The corruptive and biased actions of the Media hamper the smooth functioning of the democracy. The media industry in India is easily controlled by the political leaders, the authoritative heads, cooperates, etc., this leads to spread of fake news and misleads the viewers/readers. Media accountability has been reducing and there is no coverage of any issues in a holistic or comprehensive manner, the weightage is given to only a favorable part of the news and no complete knowledge is provided to the citizens.

Fake News and Indian Media

The Indian Media has been facing certain issues that is causing corruption and biasedness in the country. On of the problem is Paid News, the Press Council refer it as any news or analysis that appears in the newspaper or media in return of the price or consideration paid for the printing of the same. In the last few decades, the cooperates, political leaders and other influencing personalities have started viewing news and media as an advertising agency, they have been making continuous attempts to get their new printed through payment of some nominal amount. Also, due to increasing number of news channels and outlets, some of them are falling prey to these corruptive activities, this is affecting the reality and truthfulness of the news and also misleading the innocent citizens. Other than this, the media industry is also prone to other issues like Fake News, Sensationalisation of news, declining press freedom, etc.

Therefore, it is the need of the hour to make policies and enforce laws to regulating and diagnoses the working of the media industry to help ensure necessary development and application of the principle of free democratic society. The media needs to perform their duties and responsibilities with honesty and commitment to gain and maintain the confidence of the citizens on them. The corrupt and biased media will eliminate the necessary moral principles and become problematic for the society.

NEED FOR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

Biodiversity is a significant element for the subsistence of life on earth. It maintains the ecological stability and assists the functioning of the ecosystem, which is necessary to provide support and regulation to the environment. Basically, Biodiversity is the variation among the living organisms, including plants, animals, fungi as well as bacteria from different sources including terrestrial, marine and desert ecosystems; it describes the richness and diversity of life on earth. The term biodiversity was coined in 1985, it includes both the natural as well as artificial ecosystems. Thus, it is of immense ecological and economic significance, biodiversity is an important feature of the planet and there will be no life without it. It provides us with necessary nourishment, fulfills our needs of housing, fuel, clothing, etc. and also help the nation to extract monetary benefits through tourist activities.

E11G - Awareness Campaign for Biodiversity - Home | Facebook

The research studies highlight that there are around 8.7 million species of plants and animals that are currently existing on the earth, however, we have been able to identify only 1.2 million species so far. It is an astonishing discovery that a number of species are found co-existing in a single ecosystem, it includes smallest creatures to the largest that can be seen through naked eyes. All these species work in a chain to ensure their survival, maintain the ecosystem and also provide certain benefits to the human begins.

However, the increasing human population and rapid rise in the consumption and other activities has disturbed and even destroyed the ecosystem. The pollution, climate changes, continuous changes in the consumption patters has threatened the ecological balance and also affected the biodiversity of the planet. It is predicted by the expert scientists and researchers that, with this pace, half of the species will go extinct with the next century and this is adversely affect the interrelation between the different creatures. Over the last years, Australis has witnessed the largest decline in the biodiversity of the continent. The world’s biodiversity is facing the threat and pressure of fragmentation and degradation, spread of invasive species, climate change, inappropriate fire regimes, etc. Therefore, it becomes necessary to conserve and preserve the biodiversity and protect the endangered species.

Biodiversity: Conservation of Biodiversity in India

The Biodiversity Conservation refers to the protection, preservation and management of the ecosystem and natural habits to ensure the health functioning. The basic aims of biodiversity conservation are to protect and preserve species diversity, to ensure the sustainable management of the species and to prevent the ecological imbalance. Given below is a list of some general steps that can be taken towards the conservation of the biodiversity and maintenance of the ecological balance:

  • Government Legislation

Government is the regulatory body of the nation and has the supreme power to control the activities that can be a threat to the biodiversity. Thus, the government should understand its responsibility and distribute its power with the other authorities to adopt measures to conserve the biodiversity. Also, the government can enforce lays and regulations to regulate the activities in a manner that is doesn’t cause any harm to the environment.

For the same, several bills and action plans have been passed by the Parliament in India as well as the need for biodiversity conservation has been understood and the National Mission on Biodiversity and Human Well-Being has been set to bring the society’s attention to the biodiversity conservation. The efforts can be made in setting up the nature preserves, i.e., national parks to protect the regions and the organisms living there. It can be also economically beneficial by allowing the tourists to visit these areas and understand the ecosystems from nearby.

  • Reducing the amount of Invasive Species

Invasive species are sometimes introduced to an area on purpose, but also sometimes by accident. To limit the number of invasive species moved by accident planes, ships, and cargo must be thoroughly checked before it is offloaded in a new country. Additionally, people should not bring new species of animals or plants to an area without consulting ecologists knowledgeable on the region.

  • Habitat Restoration

The human lifestyle and their expansion activities have affected the area available for other living organisms on the earth. Thus, the improvement can be made by returning or retransformation of an area into its natural state. This means the plants and animals that have being naturally found and lived there, are provided back with their homes. This can be a great way to restore the harm done to the biodiversity and also help in reducing the further threat. These projects can be undertaking by government authorities or the local NGOs along with the assistance to the citizens.

  • Sustainability and Sustainable Development

The society should adopt the habit to consume naturally made eco-friendly products and avoid the usage of harmful chemically made products and goods. This will be beneficial for the biodiversity as well as ensure good health to the human begins. Thus, the individuals should promote the consumption of the eco-friendly products, so that it can support its production at a large scale.  

Development and expansion are necessary; however, the present development should be planned in such a manner that it doesn’t affect the future living standard, it is called sustainable development. The development done with keeping in mind the availability of sufficient resources for the future generation, is the best form of development.

Thus, it can be concluded that the need for Biodiversity Conservation is necessary and it can be done only through the collective efforts of every member of the society. It is not the sole responsibility of the government or governmental authorities and demands complete support and cooperation of the citizens of the nation.

5 WAYS TO KEEP YOURSELF MOTIVATED

The busy and hectic lifestyle demand complete concentration and devotion towards the works, the human beings are prone to feel unproductive and unmotivated. At times, the individual feels that they ae not making enough efforts or their efforts are not bearing the desired results, they compare their progress with other and get disappointed. As a result, they lost their motivation to work and doubt their ability to achieve the goals. We need to have self-confidence and should always make attempts to stay motivated.
Indeed, it is not possible to stay motivated or enthusiastic all the time, especially when there is nothing desirable or enthusiastic happening in your life. For instance, this pandemic and nationwide lockdown has compelled the individuals to stay at home and work from their residence. This has affected the mental health of the individuals as they have lost the motivation or inspiration to work from their home. The specific place and the environment that is created in the work space is different from working from the comfort of their home.
This article includes certain basic ways and tips that might help you to stay motivated and adopt a vigorous and productive lifestyle that make you want to work.

1. ACHIEVE YOUR GOALS: It is very important to set goals, your goals can be personal, financial, professional, academic, etc. The individuals who set goals have an objective to do certain work and have aim to achieve. Setting up goals motivates you to work for fulfilling your goals. Often, the individuals set up goals that are difficult to achieve, it is good to challenge yourself, but we should begin with completing small tasks so that it motivates us and encourage us to take up big things in life. It is advisable to divide you task into small parts and then set up your goals accordingly, start with completion of the short-term goals to achieve long-term success. Write down your goals and schedule your day in such a manner that you’re able to give enough time to achieve every goal and also perform other day-to-day activities.
It is difficult and demotivating when we are unable to achieve our goals, we end up giving up and doesn’t try anymore. There are few tricks that can motivate you to keep working to achieve the goals. Vision your life when you achieve your goals, imagine what would your life look like once to achieve your goals and achieved what you desire. This shall encourage you to work harder to achieve the goals. Always prepare well for the task you have to complete, even for the smallest thing.

2. AVERTISING YOURSELF: Advertise yourself and your work among your family and friends. The way you dress up, speak, walk, address, everything makes a great impact on your actions and achievements. However, it is not always necessary to dress up formally to work, dress simply and make up your mind in such a manner that you feel to work. The chose of your cloth accommodates your mood at a particular point of time. The way you speak and the ideas that your mind come up in your mind while a conversation also defines your personality. Talking with your friends or other people around you and able to respond to them wisely also provides motivation to an individual. Advertise the things that you learned whether through your educational institutions or the self-learned things, also talk about your talents and hobbies. It helps others to know you more and decide what kind of person are you.

3. BRAINSTROM YOURSELF: There are very effective ways to brainstorm yourself all at your own without any assistance from any person or group. That means you can conduct brainstorming sessions for yourself at any time of the day and as many times as you want. Through brainstorming you work by yourself and for yourself, there are few tips to use advanced brainstorming techniques:
• Use creative thinking to start off your approach from a different angle.
• Spark off new ideas by getting stimuli from brainstorming and not people.
• Challenge your current way to thinking to expand your approach.
• Ask questions to yourself and try to answer themselves of your own. In case you’re able to answer, try to figure out the reason.
• Don’t bound yourself with only one single idea or thought. 


4. COMMUNICATE WITH YOURSELF AND TRY TO CONTROL YOUR EMOTIONS: No-one knows you better than you yourself do. Thus, always spend some time alone without any gadgets, communicating with yourself and doing your favorite activity or hobby. The individual should possess complete knowledge about oneself and know your weaknesses to work upon them. The first step of self-communication starts with the inner self, know yourself to know the world around you. No-one is perfect, however, self-introspection and lead to near perfection. In case you don’t have anyone around to talk to you about how you feel, try talking to yourself. You can also write down your thoughts both positive as well as negative, this helps to analyses how positive or negative ideas are staying in your mind. Later, you have to train your mind to avoid all the negative ideas or thoughts around yourself. Learn to control your emotions, getting sad at small thinks can cause overthinking and brings negative thoughts to your mind. Try to speak up the things that trouble you in spite of keep thinking about them continuously. This might be difficult but prove to be worth it when you started feeling more joyful and happy as you no more allow any negativity to bother you.

5. GET RID OF THE BAD HABITS: Change your habits for a better and healthy lifestyle. The human gets attracted to the things that are easy to do without knowing about there after effect. Thus, it is very important to differentiate between the good and bad habits to evaluate their effect upon our lives and control the bad activities. Here are some tips to break the bad habits and bring a long-lasting change in individual life:
• Be clear about the habit that you feel is bad and causes ill-effect and prepare your mind to overcome that activity.
• Set yourself a goal. For instance, if you plan to reduce your screen time, set a time limit and adhere to that strictly.
• Try to adopt more good habits and divert your mind from the bad habits. 


It gives immense satisfaction and pleasure to adopt a health lifestyle with good habits and a positive schedule, therefore, start from today and motivate yourself to be a better version of yourself.

INDIAN POPULATION AND THE TABOO OF ILLITERACY

The Indian economy is a developing economy, thus, the educated as well as educating population is the future of the nation. However, the future of the nation stays in blue when the citizens are not provided with the facility to educate themselves. The different nations are building themselves under the supervision and employment of the educated and skilled workforce. Whereas, India is facing a serious problem of illiteracy amongst its citizens. The large population of the country doesn’t posses enough knowledge about certain subjects, at times, people are just enjoying incomplete knowledge on something in particular.
A report by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) highlights that India has highest population of illiterate adults, i.e., 287 million. It shows that the number is huge and around 37% of the world’s illiterate people are India. The literacy rate in India is calculated with regards to the people aged between 15-24 years. The literacy level of any nation is a determinant of its socio-economic status, and the level of literacy in India has been increasing at a very slow pace. The 2011 census depicts that the literacy growth in the decade 2001-2011 has been as low as 9.2%. Thus, the problem of illiteracy continues to prevail in the country at a very large level.

Illiteracy is basically defined as the inability to read or write, that means the individual has lack of knowledge in a particular subject. It is a wider concept and includes the individual ability to adapt to the subject and visualizes the content matter. However, the extent of illiteracy in India is different, the people residing in the villages or rural areas have remained familiar to there native language and are ignorant towards the other languages or subjects. These people are mostly the adults, including women who are now unwilling to learn something new due to lack of time or other priority work to do. The women community is largely affected by the illiteracy around the nations, as the aggregate percentage of girls enrolling in schools is just 47.78%. Overall, 60 lakhs children in India are still not able to prevail the facilities of education. The state of Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh are at the bottom in the terms of Dalit Literacy level.

Literacy is not just the ability to read or write, but also includes the individual’s capacity to comprehend a piece of information and further communicate it with others effectively. Literacy is a significant element to enhance the individual social and personal standards, as it is the tool to help them to represent themselves among the people and share a common surrounding with the people around us. It severs as the foundation of the basic education for all the individuals in the nation. Thus, provision of basic education to all the citizens of the nation becomes a necessity. The Constitution of India recognizes this need and had laid down certain provisions and laws to ensure proper and impartial availability of educational rights to all the citizens.

  • The Article 30 of the Indian Constitution gives right to the minorities to establish their own educational as well as administrative institutions. Also, they have been given the fundamental right to protect their culture and teachings.
  • The Directive Principles of State policy also instructs the state to ensure free education to all the citizens under the sections 41, 45 and 46.
  • Article 21 (A) was also amended to include the provision of free and compulsory education to all the children between the age group of 6-14 years, as a fundamental right.
  • The weaker section of the nation; comprising socially, economically, and educationally backward sections belonging to the Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are also provided educational rights through the Article 15, 17 and 46 of the Indian Constitution.

Along with these constitutional or legal provisions, there are other schemes and programs that are initiated with the aim and objective to promoting educational awareness among all the citizens in the nation.

  • The Mid-day meal scheme has been launched by the government in 1995 with the aim to improve the enrolment and attendance rate of the students. The poor people will be willing to enroll their children to the government schools which provide free food to the students.
  • There are regular updates on the scholarship programs for the students in order to provide fee concession as well as other necessary items. Also, the aim is that a potential and deserving student should not be deprived of the education due to lack of resources.
  • Samagra Shiksha Programme was launched by the government with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness. This will be measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes.
  • Awareness campaigns were launched in rural areas to create awareness among people about the importance of education. They were encouraged to attend or send their children to schools.

It can be observed that continuously efforts have been made by the government to improve the condition of the educational sector and promote the level of literacy in the country. However, the efforts cannot bear results without the support and coordination of the citizens of the country. At the individual level, the people are responsible to make efforts to educate themselves, their children and other encourage other acquaintances as well.
The individuals must indulge themselves in some or other awareness campaign to learn and share the knowledge with their peers.
They should expose themselves the different kinds of reading material and adopt good reading habits.
There is a need to explore more and know your interests to involve in the same kind of areas.
Thus, it can be concluded that the problem of illiteracy is huge but requires coordination between the authorities and the citizens to improve the level of literacy of the nation.