The whole world is going to a rapid increase in population growth. The sudden increase in the number of individuals in a community is termed as population explosion. Studying world history, it can be said that in the past 200-300 years the world population has increased Tremendously. It has been predicted that the human population will increase by 1 billion in the next decade. The basic reasons for population explosion are accelerating birth rate, decreasing infant mortality and increasing life expectancy. There are different perspectives of looking at population explosion, some people believe it to be an opportunity for the country, whereas, others look at the same concept negatively. It is not incorrect to say that population growth can be considered as a blessing until it creates some sort of pressure on the resources of the nation.
STATUS OF POPULATION IN INDIA
India is the second most populated country in the world after China, as nearly a fifth of the world population resides in India. As per the census conducted in 2011, the population of India is 1.21 crores with 62.37 crores males and 58.6 crores females. However, The geographical area of India is not as large as compared to the population residing in the country; as a result the density of population in India is very high. The census shows that the density of population is 382 persons per square kilometer. Also, a UN report of “the world population prospects 2017” that has been revised by the department of economics and social affairs has predicted that India’s population will surpass the population of China by the year 2025.
CAUSES OF POPULATION EXPLOSION
Population growth and explosion is a multidimensional concept. It is not caused by some specific factor, rather, different factors affect the population in different ways. The Scholars suggest that the population explosion is highly impacted by various fields. The improvement in the Healthcare sector has also contributed to the increase in population. Various social, economic and political factors have their impact upon the growth of population in India.
- Social Causes: The highest literacy rate and lack of nationalism among the people has been the main reason for increasing birth rate. The Illiterate and conventional people are unaware of the consequences of high population growth and they fail to adopt a proper family planning method. The religious orthodox that compelled the people to believe in a certain manner also contributes to the increasing population. The families who desire to have a son continue to reproduce even after having many daughters. The other reasons can be emphasis on agriculture, dominance of the joint family system and high composition of the rural population.
- Economic Causes: The economic backwardness and Widespread poverty also causes higher population growth. The poor people believe that more children names more assets, however, They fail to analyse the maintenance cost of the children. Also, the weak social security system for the children is a factor ignored.
- Political Causes: India is a democratic polity where the political leaders are seen as the Patron in chief of the community. The representatives of people are selected on a majority of votes and the respective community leaders discourage population control measures. Even if such measures are enforced in the country, a complete application is not possible. The illiterate sector of the country will consider it as the infringement of their rights which will lead to riots or protests.
- Geographical causes: It is one of the most importantly contributing factors to the increasing population. Around 50% of India’s population is directly or indirectly indulged in agriculture which is their substance in nature, they consider more children to be helping hand in performing their agricultural operations. Also, The residential area for the people is comparatively very less then the growth of the population.
ADVANTAGES OF POPULATION GROWTH
- Increasing population contributes to a larger working population, larger population provides a greater man power which can be utilised to increase the efficiency of different sections of the nation to move towards prosperity.
- Also India’s population is termed as young population with the average age of 25-26 years which can be considered as a productive age and this kind of production can help the economy to grow.
- More population means more consumers for the industries so then dresses can focus upon increasing the production to meet the increasing demand which will consequently contribute to more demand of labour. Thus, the cycle between increasing production and increasing labour force goes on.
- Population explosion also provides us with the people of multi talents in different fields such as Sports, music, arts, etc. Therefore, countries’ investment on such human resources can provide enough opportunities to the people to outshine.
DISADVANTAGES OF POPULATION GROWTH
- Increase in population exerts pressure upon the natural resources of the nation. This can lead to an overall shortage of land, employment, capital, and help services in the country.
- a rapidly growing population has also affected the environment and resources negatively leading to their degradation.
- Providing the basic amenities and ensuring a good standard of living for all the individual citizens of the country becomes a difficult task with the growth of population.
- Large population requires more production of food even though the land under the agriculture remains static, increasing the production becomes a difficult task. the population increase and the production of food are unlikely to correspond to each other.
- increasing population causes employment issues in the country. India is already facing the problem of unemployment and such Rapid increase in the population will obviously contribute more to the issue.
- This will ultimately cause a decrease in the per capita income, standard of living of the people and lead to economic failure.
The population explosion can be seen as an opportunity for some and as a disgrace for others. Therefore, there is an immediate need to look upon the matter. The government needs to formulate laws and regulations that control population growth. Any disagreement to these laws and regulations should be dealt with strictness.