Why travelling is important for us?

Traveling has so many benefits and can impact many areas of our life. It can open us up to seeing another culture’s way of life and perspective and allow us to connect with different people and places. We can learn to live more fully in the present moment and increase our resilience.

Let’s dive into the main three reasons why traveling is important in life.

1. Experience A Different Way Of Life And Shift Your Perspective
When we travel to different locations, whether it be within our own country or overseas, there is so much to be explored and experienced by us. Any new place you visit will have a different feel to it, it may be a total contrast to what you are used to or it may have similarities. Nonetheless, this new place can be a teacher for you.

The world is a big place, and there are so many different ways people live around the world. When we are so used to our current society’s structures, and way of living and being, we can become fixed in our current perspective and lack the awareness of how other people live and experience life.

When we experience something vastly different from what we are used to, we can then have a bit of a reality check. We recognize how blessed we are, how abundant we are, and how perhaps we take things like food, clothing, and housing for granted, as others are not so fortunate.

Being able to shift our perspective and have an open mind and experience a different way of life through the activity of travel, we can move forward living life to the fullest. We can have more appreciation for what we have and for life.

2. Learn To Live In The Present Moment And Be Resilient
When you are traveling, you give yourself permission to explore and experience places from a place of curiosity and wonder. You don’t dwell on the past or think too far ahead in the future. Instead, you are present with your now-moment experience.

Many people who go traveling overseas take time off work and perhaps take weeks, if not months, off from their normal day-to-day life. This gives them the freedom to not worry about anything but instead, to be living life day by day, exploring exciting places or experiencing the simplicity of being open to where they feel guided to go next.

When you travel, you tend to be up to trying new things. A trip far away may be a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for you, and so you want to experience all of it and say yes to what arises in the moment.

3. Connect Deeper With Yourself And With Others
Traveling can not only enable you to connect deeper with yourself but also with people that you meet along the way. If you always spend your time with the same people, you may find when you are traveling that connecting deeply with other travelers or the locals is truly fulfilling for you.

You can listen to the stories and lives of others and form great bonds. You also connect deeper to yourself as you learn about who you are, as you may face challenges or fears during your travels.

Traveling is important in life as it opens you up to more connections and deeper intimacy with life itself, other people, and cultures as well as with yourself as you break out of the box you have put yourself in.


How to celebrate eco-friendly Holi?

March is here and many are looking forward to celebrating the Holi festival. As per the calendar, this festival will be start on 20th March and end on 21st of March in the year 2019. It is a very exciting time especially for young children. Holi festival marks an onset of spring season and the end of winter.

As per Indian customs and traditions, Holi festival is celebrated with water, balloons and colours. However, due to more awareness in recent years, people have realized some of the health hazards due to harmful chemicals used during the festival. Hence, it is better to enjoy and have fun in an eco-friendly manner. Here are ten ways to celebrate an eco-friendly Holi festival.

1. Avoid Wastage of Water
As we all know, water conservation is the need of the hour. There is water shortage and scarcity in many places of Maharashtra and other parts of India. Play a dry Holi without wasting water. You can avoid the use of Pichkaris to spray water on others.

2. Use Natural Colours
There are many harmful chemicals in synthetic colours. Hence, you can use natural colours like henna, turmeric, chandan, beetroot powder and more. These would not cause damage to your skin or hair. They can be washed off easily and serve the purpose well.

3. Holi Bonfire Made Easy
Instead of using precious wood by chopping off the trees, one can burn eco-friendly waste for Holi bonfire which will not create pollution. Use ingredients like cow-dung cakes, coconut waste and camphor to light up. Pledge to protect trees and have a greener environment this Holi festival.

4. Respect the Ban on Plastic
As we all know, many states have completely banned the use of plastic. This has been done in order to protect the environment. Respect the rules and avoid the use of plastic bags. Teach your children to protect the environment by avoiding the use of plastic bags.

5. Focus on the Traditional Aspects
We all love food and parties. So why not celebrate Holi festival by organizing a party with traditional dishes like ‘puran polis,’ ‘malpuas’, and ‘gujiyas.’ Celebrate Holi with a colourful party involving traditional Holi dishes which are delicious and sumptuous.

6. Holi with Flowers
Did you know that decomposed flowers act as a great organic fertilizer for the soil? Instead of polluting the environment, play a gentle Holi using scented flowers. Avoid harsh and aggressive behaviour during the festival. Instead of troubling friends and forcibly playing with them, the use of flowers is calming and has a soothing effect.

7. Protect Animals
Many a time, people involve animals during festivities. Yes, Holi festival is fun however you must not become too excited and cross your limits. Applying colours on animals and spraying water on them is not at all required. We should love animals; so stay away from harmful behaviour and have an animal friendly Holi celebration.

8. Make Your Own Colours
Make your own colours using natural or herbal products only. You can mix and create your own combinations. Turmeric, sandalwood, fuller’s Earth, besan, soaked peels of pomegranate and beetroot juice, etc can all be used to create colours and add fun to your day.

9. Have a Safe Holi
Did you know that some people actually use items like sand, eggs, petrol and even oil paints during the Holi festival? You should definitely not spray or apply such stuff to your body as it is very harmful and absolutely not required.

10. Don’t Litter or Pollute the Environment
We should clean up the surroundings after celebrating Holi festival. Keep a separate area for playing and once you are done, avoid messing the place. Do not pollute the water or environment as it can damage the trees and surroundings.
We should celebrate Holi festival keeping in mind the spirit of this festival. Holi is more about the triumph of good over evil. Buy sweets from reputed shops only as many stores sell adulterated sugary sweets on the occasion of Holi. Following tradition is equally important along with protecting the environment. Celebrate an eco-friendly and see the benefits for yourself. You will enjoy and have a great time with family, relatives and friends. Stay healthy, safe and happy on this beautiful day!

Modern Indian History at a Glance

A fascinating and intricate topic, modern Indian history from the middle of the eighteenth century to the present spans more than two centuries of India’s rich cultural, social, economic, and political history. As India progressively transitioned from a colonial past to an independent nation-state, this time period saw tremendous changes in the social, political, and economic environment of the country.

British Colonial Rule (1757-1947)

India was colonized by the British East India Company in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey. The British gradually expanded their control over India until the country was formally ruled by the British Crown from 1858 to 1947. This period was marked by the exploitation of Indian resources, the introduction of Western education, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and the emergence of Indian nationalism.

Indian National Movement (1885-1947)

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 with the goal of achieving self-rule for India. Prominent leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Subhas Chandra Bose played a significant role in the movement. The movement gained momentum with the Salt Satyagraha in 1930, and India finally gained independence from British rule in 1947.

Partition of India (1947)

India was partitioned into two separate countries, India and Pakistan, in 1947, following communal violence and political unrest. This event led to the displacement of millions of people and marked the beginning of a long-standing conflict between India and Pakistan.

Post-Independence India

It was marked by the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India. Nehru’s socialist policies focused on central planning and state-led development. Land reforms, which aimed to redistribute land from wealthy landlords to landless peasants, were implemented during his tenure. Nehru also established institutions of higher education, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru’s foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment. India did not align with any major power bloc during the Cold War and played a significant role in the Non-Aligned Movement. Indira Gandhi, Nehru’s daughter, succeeded him as Prime Minister in 1966. Gandhi was a dynamic leader who pursued a socialist economic agenda and implemented policies such as nationalization of banks and industries. Her government was marked by authoritarian tendencies, and the period of Emergency from 1975-1977 was a significant event in Indian history. During the Emergency, civil liberties were suspended, political opposition was suppressed, and the press was censored. The period was marked by widespread human rights abuses, including forced sterilization programs. The post-Emergency period saw the rise of regional parties and the decline of the Congress party’s dominance in Indian politics. The 1990s saw the rise of The Bhartiya Janta Party. The BJP’s most significant electoral victory came in 2014 when Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat, was elected as Prime Minister. Modi’s government has pursued a range of policies including the Citizenship Amendment Act, which grants citizenship to non-Muslim refugees from neighbouring countries.

India’s Wars and Conflicts

India has been involved in several wars and conflicts since independence. The Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971, the Sino-Indian War of 1962, and the Kargil War of 1999 are some of the major conflicts that have shaped India’s modern history.

Economic Liberalization (1991-present)

The Indian economy underwent significant changes in the early 1990s when the government of P.V. Narasimha Rao initiated a process of economic liberalization. The liberalization program aimed to reduce government control over the economy and promote private sector growth. The reforms included measures such as the reduction of import tariffs, deregulation of industries, and privatization of state-owned enterprises. The economic liberalization program had a significant impact on the Indian economy, leading to an increase in foreign investment, a rise in GDP growth, and the emergence of a new middle class. However, the liberalization program also led to increasing income inequality and the marginalization of certain sections of society.

Contemporary Issues

India continues to face various contemporary issues such as corruption, communalism, casteism, terrorism, and environmental degradation. The country is also grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impact.

In conclusion, a number of important incidents, people, and problems have shaped contemporary Indian history and will continue to have an effect on how the nation develops. Conflicts with its neighbours, the fight for independence, the division of the country, economic liberalization, and other factors have all had a significant impact on India’s modern history.


Need of Intenational women’s day:

International Women’s Day offers a platform for the globe to recognise the accomplishments of women, increase awareness of gender inequality, and strengthen support for women. The day is a significant opportunity to recognise the social, cultural, economic, and political accomplishments made by women. Pay discrepancies and other forms of discrimination against women still exist. The celebration of International Women’s Day raises awareness of these problems and gives individuals a chance to participate in effecting change.

Aim of International women’s day:

International Women’s Day, observed on March 8, is dedicated to recognising the accomplishments of women and promoting gender equality. The campaign theme this year is Embrace Equity – whereas the United Nations’ theme is DigitALL: Innovation and technology for gender equality.

History of International women’s day:

On February 13, the day of Sarojini Naidu’s birth, we commemorate National Women’s Day. She was an accomplished poet, liberation warrior, and national leader. She was referred to as “Bharat Kokila” and the “Nightingale of India”. The day of her birth was chosen to honour Indian women and their contributions to the country in all walks of life.

The United Nations first observed it in 1975.
In support of women’s rights and global peace, the UN General Assembly declared March 8 as International Women’s Day in 1977. International Women’s Day was first celebrated by the UN in 1975. Since that time, the UN has recognised the day by selecting a theme each year.

Importance of international women’s day:

Over the years, International Women’s Day has transformed into a platform for women to advocate for change. It has been employed to call attention to issues such as gender-based violence, income inequality, lack of access to healthcare and education, and the underrepresentation of women in politics and leadership roles. One of the most notable successes of International Women’s Day is the global advancement of women’s rights. Women now have the ability to vote in many countries, and laws protecting them from workplace harassment and discrimination have been developed. Women have also made enormous strides in education and healthcare, with more girls attending school and receiving life-saving medical care than ever before. International Women’s Day is observed to increase awareness of the importance of ongoing advocacy on behalf of women. It is an appeal for everyone to work together to create a society where women are valued, given the chance to achieve, and empowered to reach their full potential. We can keep raising awareness of the issues that women face and promote positive change for upcoming generations by recognising International Women’s Day.

Is international women’s day is Holiday:

March 8th is International Women’s Day, a day dedicated to honouring the political, cultural, and historical accomplishments of women. The day was also marked in support of global efforts to combat gender inequality. Without women, we all know that the world would not function.


Indian colonial rule was overthrown after a protracted and difficult struggle for freedom. It started in the late 19th century and continued until 1947, when India attained independence. Many rallies, marches, and acts of civil disobedience were part of the movement, and all were directed towards bringing about India’s independence. The Indian Rebellion of 1857, commonly referred to as the Indian Mutiny, is the beginning of the Indian freedom fight. Widespread resistance to British authority was sparked by a number of grievances, including the imposition of British laws, excessive taxes, and the theft of Indian resources. Although the British brutally put down the revolt, it was a driving force behind the Indian independence movement.

One of the key figures in the Indian freedom struggle was Mahatma Gandhi. He was a leader of the Indian National Congress, and he advocated for non-violent resistance as a means of achieving independence. Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, known as Satyagraha, inspired many Indians to join the struggle for independence. Gandhi’s famous Salt March in 1930, in which he and his followers walked 240 miles to the Arabian Sea to make their own salt in defiance of British salt taxes, is one of the most iconic events of the Indian independence movement.

Another important figure in the Indian freedom struggle was Jawaharlal Nehru, who became the first Prime Minister of independent India. Nehru was a leader of the Indian National Congress, and he worked tirelessly to achieve independence for India. He was also a strong advocate for democracy and secularism, and his vision for India was one of a modern, democratic, and secular nation.

The Indian freedom struggle was marked by many important events, including the Partition of India in 1947, which resulted in the creation of Pakistan. The partition was a deeply divisive event that resulted in the displacement of millions of people and the loss of countless lives.

The Indian freedom struggle can be divided into several phases, each marked by a distinct set of events, movements, and leaders. These phases are as follows:

The Early Nationalists (1857-1905)

The early nationalist phase of the Indian freedom struggle was marked by the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which is also known as the First War of Indian Independence. Although the rebellion failed, it laid the groundwork for the nationalist movement that followed. The early nationalists were a diverse group of people who shared a common goal of achieving independence from British rule. Some of the prominent leaders of this phase were Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

The Extremists (1905-1918)

The extremist phase of the Indian freedom struggle was marked by the rise of the Indian National Congress and the emergence of a more militant form of nationalism. The Extremists, also known as the Swadeshi Movement, advocated for complete independence from British rule and launched several protests, boycotts, and agitations to achieve this goal. Some of the prominent leaders of this phase were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

The Gandhian Era (1919-1947)

The Gandhian era of the Indian freedom struggle is perhaps the most well-known phase of the struggle. Mahatma Gandhi, who was a key figure in this phase, advocated for non-violent civil disobedience and launched several mass movements to achieve India’s independence. The Salt Satyagraha, the Quit India Movement, and the Non-Cooperation Movement are some of the most significant movements of this era. Other prominent leaders of this phase were Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, and Subhas Chandra Bose.

The Post-Independence Era (1947-Present)

The post-independence era of the Indian freedom struggle saw India gain independence from British rule in 1947. This phase was marked by the challenges of nation-building, including the partition of India and the integration of princely states. The post-independence era also saw the emergence of new challenges, such as poverty, illiteracy, and communal tensions. Some of the prominent leaders of this phase were Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, and Rajiv Gandhi.

Throughout the freedom struggle, there were several important contributors and contributions from different parts of the country. In Bengal, leaders like Aurobindo Ghosh, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Surendranath Banerjee played a significant role in the nationalist movement. In Punjab, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh, and Udham Singh were important contributors to the freedom struggle. In Maharashtra, leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Gopal Krishna Gokhale played a significant role in the nationalist movement. In South India, leaders like C. Rajagopalachari, K. Kamaraj, and S. Satyamurthy played important roles in the freedom struggle. In the Northeast, leaders like Rani Gaidinliu and Tirot Sing played significant roles in the nationalist movement. In Kerala, leaders like K. Kelappan, T. K. Madhavan, and A. K. Gopalan played important roles in the freedom struggle.

In conclusion, today, India is a vibrant and diverse democracy, with a population of over 1.3 billion people. The Indian freedom struggle was a long and difficult journey, but it ultimately succeeded in achieving independence for India and paving the way for the country’s future as a democratic and secular nation.


Indian culture is a multifaceted, colorful tapestry that has evolved over many centuries. It is a culture that has been shaped by philosophy, art, architecture, and religion. India’s culture is renowned for its dynamism, mysticism, and unwavering adherence to tradition. The art forms of Indian culture are among its most remarkable aspects. The variety of Indian art includes everything from beautiful paintings to passionate dances. Hindustani and Carnatic music are two classical styles of Indian music that are renowned for their philosophical and spiritual undertones. In India, people also enjoy doing crafts like pottery, weaving, embroidery, and metallurgy.

Indian literature is another aspect of Indian culture that is deeply ingrained in its history. The Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, and the Bhagavad Gita are some of the famous works that have shaped the cultural heritage of India. These works are not just literary masterpieces, but they also hold great religious and philosophical significance.

The architecture of India is equally impressive. From the Taj Mahal to the Red Fort, the Lotus Temple to the Konark Sun Temple, Indian architecture is known for its intricate designs, vibrant colors, and spiritual themes. These structures reflect the deep respect that Indian culture has for tradition, as well as the innovative spirit that drives the country forward.


Indian art forms are as diverse as its people. They are inspired by religion, mythology, nature, and everyday life. Indian art forms are known for their vibrant colors, intricate details, and spirituality. Some of the popular art forms in India include:

Paintings: Indian paintings date back to the prehistoric era, and they are known for their intricate designs, bold colors, and detailed work. Some of the famous painting styles in India include Mughal paintings, Rajasthani paintings, Madhubani paintings, and Warli paintings.

Dance: Dance is an essential part of Indian culture, and it is performed on various occasions, such as weddings, festivals, and religious ceremonies. Some of the popular dance forms in India include Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, and Manipuri.

Music: Indian music is as diverse as its culture, and it is known for its spiritual and philosophical themes. Indian music has two main genres: Hindustani classical music and Carnatic classical music.

Handicrafts: Indian handicrafts are renowned for their intricate designs, colorful patterns, and traditional motifs. Some of the popular handicrafts in India include pottery, weaving, embroidery, and metalwork.


Indian literature dates to ancient times, and it is characterized by its rich oral tradition. Indian literature is known for its philosophical, spiritual, and mythological themes. Some of the famous literary works in India include:

  1. The Vedas: The Vedas are a collection of hymns, prayers, and rituals that were composed in Sanskrit. They are considered to be the oldest written texts in the world.
  2. The Ramayana: The Ramayana is an epic poem that tells the story of Lord Rama, a Hindu deity. It is considered to be one of the greatest works of Indian literature.
  3. The Mahabharata: The Mahabharata is another epic poem that tells the story of a great war between two families. It is considered to be the longest epic poem in the world.
  4. The Bhagavad Gita: The Bhagavad Gita is a philosophical text that is part of the Mahabharata. It is considered to be one of the most important texts in Hinduism.


Indian architecture is a reflection of its rich cultural heritage, and it is known for its intricate designs, vibrant colors, and spiritual themes. Indian architecture can be divided into two main categories: religious architecture and secular architecture. Some of the famous architectural works in India include:

  1. The Taj Mahal: The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum that was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is considered to be one of the greatest works of Mughal architecture.
  2. The Red Fort: The Red Fort is a fortress that was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. It is known for its intricate designs, vibrant colors, and historical significance.
  3. The Lotus Temple: The Lotus Temple is a Bahá’í House of Worship that was built in the shape of a lotus flower. It is known for its unique architecture and spiritual significance.
  4. The Konark Sun Temple: The Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century temple that is dedicated to the Hindu deity Surya. It is known for its intricate designs and unique architecture.

Thus, it may be said that Indian culture is a vast and varied fabric that has been stitched over many centuries. It is a culture that values innovation and originality while being firmly steeped in tradition. Indian culture is a monument to the resilient spirit of its people and includes literary works, architectural styles, and festivals.

A Brief Overview of English Literature

The body of literary works in the English language, such as novels, short tales, poetry, plays, and essays, is known as English literature. It has a lengthy and rich history that spans several centuries and has made a substantial contribution to the intellectual and cultural heritage of the English-speaking world. It has through various stages of growth, each with its own aesthetic, philosophical concerns, and literary strategies. The Medieval period, the Renaissance period, the Restoration period, the Romantic period, the Victorian era, and the Modernism era are among them. Some of the most renowned writers in English literature include William Shakespeare, Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Emily Bronte, Oscar Wilde, Virginia Woolf, and J.K. Rowling, among others. Their works continue to be widely read and studied today and are considered classics of the literary canon.

English literature is not only important for its literary value, but also for its insights into history, society, and culture. Through literature, readers can gain a better understanding of the world around them, as well as the human condition and the complexities of the human experience. It is a vast and diverse field that has contributed significantly to the cultural and intellectual heritage of the English-speaking world. Spanning over several centuries, it encompasses a wide range of genres, styles, and themes, from the epic poetry of Beowulf to the modernist novels of Virginia Woolf. One of the defining features of English literature is its ability to reflect and respond to the social, cultural, and historical contexts in which it was produced. From the medieval ballads and romances to the contemporary works of postcolonial writers, English literature offers a rich and complex tapestry of human experience that transcends time and place.


The earliest English literature dates back to the medieval period, which spans from the 11th to the 15th century. During this time, most literary works were written in Old English, a language that is very different from modern English. One of the most notable works from this period is the epic poem “Beowulf,” which tells the story of a heroic warrior who battles monsters and dragons. Other important works from the medieval period include the “Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer, a collection of stories told by a group of pilgrims on their way to Canterbury, and the anonymous poem “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” which tells the story of a knight who must face supernatural challenges to uphold his honor.


The Renaissance period, which began in the 16th century, marked a significant shift in English literature. This was a time of great intellectual and artistic growth, as writers began to explore new forms and styles of writing. One of the most significant figures of this era was William Shakespeare, whose plays continue to be performed and studied today. Shakespeare’s plays, including “Hamlet,” “Macbeth,” and “Romeo and Juliet,” explore complex themes such as love, power, and mortality, and are known for their masterful use of language and poetic imagery. Another important writer of the Renaissance period was John Milton, whose epic poem “Paradise Lost” tells the story of Adam and Eve and their fall from grace. Milton’s work is known for its complex themes and use of classical allusions and is considered one of the greatest works in the English language.


The Romantic period, which began in the late 18th century, marked a return to emotion and imagination in literature. Romantic writers, such as William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and John Keats, were interested in exploring the natural world, individualism, and the power of the imagination. Their works, including Wordsworth’s “Lyrical Ballads” and Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale,” are known for their beautiful language and vivid imagery.


The Victorian era, which began in the mid-19th century, was a time of great social and cultural change. Many writers of this period, such as Charles Dickens and Jane Austen, explored issues related to class, gender, and morality. Dickens’s novels, such as “Oliver Twist” and “Great Expectations,” exposed the harsh realities of life in Victorian England, while Austen’s works, such as “Pride and Prejudice” and “Sense and Sensibility,” explored the lives of women in a male-dominated society. The 20th century saw a great deal of experimentation and innovation in English literature. Modernist writers, such as Virginia Woolf and James Joyce, were interested in exploring the interior lives of their characters and experimenting with form and style. Woolf’s “Mrs. Dalloway” and Joyce’s “Ulysses” are known for their complex narrative structures and stream-of-consciousness writing.


The Modernist period, which spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was marked by a radical break with traditional forms and styles, as well as a deep sense of disillusionment and fragmentation. Some of the most notable writers of this period include Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, and T.S. Eliot, who produced works that challenged conventional notions of narrative and language.

English literature has also been shaped by the diverse cultural influences of the English-speaking world. From the colonial literature of the Americas, Africa, and Asia to the postcolonial literature of the 20th century, English literature has been enriched by a wide range of perspectives and voices. In addition to its literary value, English literature offers insights into history, society, and culture. Through literature, readers can gain a better understanding of the world around them, as well as the complexities of the human experience. Whether exploring themes of love, loss, identity, or power, English literature offers a timeless and universal language that speaks to the human condition. English literature has also played a crucial role in shaping the English language itself. From the Anglo-Saxon chronicles to the modernist experiments of James Joyce, English literature has been instrumental in the development and evolution of the English language, as well as its global spread and influence. In conclusion, English literature is a vast and diverse field that continues to captivate and inspire.


Meaning of poverty:

Lack of resources to meet necessities like food, clothing, and shelter constitutes poverty. Yet poverty goes far beyond simply not having enough money. According to the World Bank Group, hunger is a defining characteristic of poverty. Absence of shelter is poverty.

Types of Poverty:

1.Absolute poverty.

2.Relative poverty.

3.Situational poverty.

4.Generational poverty.

5.Urban poverty.

6.rural poverty

1.Absolute poverty:

When a household’s income falls below a given threshold, absolute poverty results. Due to this, it is impossible for the individual or family to meet their fundamental needs, such as those for food, shelter, safe drinking water, healthcare, and other necessities of life.

2.Rural poverty:

When someone cannot afford to actively engage in society and gain from the experiences and activities that most others take for granted, they are said to be living in relative poverty. It is typically described as 40, 50, or 60% of the median disposable income for the country.

3.Situational poverty:

When a person’s or family’s income and support are reduced because of a specific change. job loss, divorce, death, etc.it can have a domino effect, but families in situational poverty typically maintain hope because they understand that this is only a temporary setback.

4.Generational poverty:

Families that have been impoverished for at least two generations are said to be living in generational poverty. It can have an impact on a person’s physical, social, emotional, and mental well-being.

5.Urban poverty:

Urban poverty is the term used to describe a group of economic and social issues that are present in industrialised cities and are brought on by a number of processes, including the development of comfortable living standards, the rise of individualism, social fragmentation processes, and the dualization of the labour force.

6.Rural poverty:

Rural poverty is defined as poverty in rural areas, including the social, economic, and political aspects that contribute to such poor.

Poverty in India:

Poverty refers to a situation in which a person remain underprivileged from the basic necessities of life. In addition, the person does not have an inadequate supply of food, shelter, and clothes. In India, most of the people who are suffering from poverty cannot afford to pay for a single meal a day. Also, they sleep on the roadside; wear dirty old clothes. In addition, they do not get proper healthy and nutritious food, neither medicine nor any other necessary thing.

Main causes of poverty in India:

1.Increse the rate of population.


3.Increasing the price of goods.

4.Reducing the productivity in Agriculture.

5. A quick rate of economic growth.

6.Income distribution that is not equal.

7.Provision for minimum requirement of poor.

Reduce poverty in India:

1.Speed of human resource developement.

2.Income distribution is equal.

3.Improving the economic growth.

4.Eliminating poverty through equity.

5.Education is one of the major source to reduce poverty.

6.Ensure Basic health care to the people.

These are some of the points to control poverty in India.


Definition of satellite:

A satellite is a body that orbits a planet, star, or moon. For instance, the fact that Earth orbits the sun makes it a satellite. The moon is a satellite as well because it revolves around Earth. The term “satellite” typically refers to a device that is launched into space and orbits the Earth or another celestial body.

Satellite communication:

Using a communication satellite in orbit around the Earth, satellite communication is the transfer of information from one location to another. An artificial satellite called a communication satellite establishes a channel between a transmitter and a receiver at various points on Earth in order to transmit a signal using a transponder.
Satellite communications are used in telephone, radio, television, internet, and military applications.

Types of satellite communication:

There are various types of satellite communication, depending on the service offered. Mainly there are three types of satellite communication services are there.

1.Fixed satellite communication services

2.Mobile satellite communication services.

3.Broadcast communication services.

1.Fixed satellite communication services:

Fixed Satellite Services (FSS), which receive and broadcast satellite signals using ground-based equipment at predetermined locations. Most of our domestic and international services, including private business networks and global internet connection, are supported by FSS satellites.

2.Mobile satellite communication services:

Mobile satellite services (MSS) offer two-way voice and data communications to people all over the world who are travelling or residing in remote areas; terminals come in a variety of sizes, including handheld and laptop-sized devices. Moreover, terminals positioned inside of a moving vehicle can continue connections.

3.Broadcast satellite communication services:

Using broadcast signals transferred to and from communication satellites, satellite broadcasting is a method of distributing content. Satellite dishes, also known as parabolic antennae, are used to receive the broadcast signals. The signals are then conditionally sent through a low-noise block converter.

How satellite communication works:

The communication satellites are comparable to the space mirrors that assist in bouncing communications from one side of the globe to the other, including radio, internet data, and television. There are three steps that are necessary to understand how satellite communications function. Which are:




Have a look at a television signal as an example. The first stage begins with the ground station on Earth beaming the signal from the television broadcast on the other side of the planet up to the satellite. Uplink is the term for this procedure. Transponders such radio receivers, transmitters, and amplifiers are used in the second stage. These transponders modify the frequency of the incoming signal and amplify it in order to prevent interference with the outgoing signal. In light of the upcoming signal sources.The data is transmitted through a downlink in the final step to the receiver’s opposite end on earth. It is crucial to realise that there is typically just one uplink and many downlinks.

Advantages of satellite communication:

1.Each and every side of the earth can be covered.

2.New circuits can be easily installed.

3.Since satellites are powered by solar energy, energy is conserved.

4.The system can be managed by users.

Disadvantages of satellite communication:

1.Initial cost is very expensive.

2. due to the interference of frequencies communication services may be disrupted.

3. Interference and expansion.

Applications of satellite communication:




4.Digital cinema.

5.Internet access.

International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research (ICMR) 2023

International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research (ICMR) 2023 will cover a wide range of issues related to the Engineering, Technology, and Management Problems. It will conduct research for working in universities, colleges, and industry who are interested in enhancing skills.

Submission Guidelines

All papers must be original and not simultaneously submitted to another journal or conference. All papers must be submitted via mail to icmr2023@edupub.org

List of Topics & Tracks

  • Track 1 : Engineering & Technology (Computing, Communication Technology,Technological Development,Biomedical Technologies,m-Commerce,Urban Transportation,City planning,e-Governance,Internet of things,Distance Education & E-Learning,Smart Cities,Energy)
  • Track 2 : Science(Coastal Towns and Small Cities,Environmental Sustainability,Renewable Energies,Energy resources and savings,Bio-Energy,Agro – Sciences,Science Education,Atmospheric Physics,Resilience Building in Agriculture,Water and Soil conservation)
  • Track 3 : Management(Management Information System,Entrepreneurship Management,Collaborative Arts & Culture, MicroFinance, Financial Sustainability,Supply Chain Management,International Trade,SMEs,Customer Relationship Mgt., Economics and Demography)
  • Track 4 : Multidisciplinary (Advanced computing architectures,Big data representation,Data Analytics,Data Science,High performance computing,Wireless Sensor Networks,Image processing interpretations,Database and Data Mining)


All Selected and presented papers will be published in IJR (International Journal of Research) Indexed Journal. Zoom presentation is allowed for authors.


Online Mode


Conference Chair
send mail to icmr2023@edupub.org


One of the most crucial things you can do for your health is to exercise regularly. Physical activity can strengthen your bones and muscles, help you maintain a healthy weight, increase your ability to carry out daily tasks, and improve your cognitive health.

Is it good exercise for everyday?

Working exercise every day is great as long as you’re not overdoing it or becoming obsessed with it. Make sure you enjoy it without being too hard on yourself, especially when you’re sick or injured.

Best exercise for health and fitness:







7.Abdominal crunches.

8.Bent over row.


These are commonly used exercises for health and fitness.


The easiest exercise may be walking. Put one foot in front of the other to get started, and you can do it practically anywhere.

There are many wonderful benefits of walking. Your blood pressure will drop, your heart will become stronger, and your bones will become more durable. Also, walking reduces stress, improves sleep quality, and can improve your view on life.


One common physical activity is running. At some point in their lives, about one in five Australians try running .Running is a desirable workout because it is inexpensive to participate in and you may run whenever it is convenient for you.


Swimming is a terrific all-around exercise since it both raises heart rate and lessens impact load on the body. increases cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and endurance. maintains your heart and lungs’ and weight’s wellness.


Squats may aid in weight loss because they burn calories. Moreover, they reduce the possibility of knee and ankle injuries. Your tendons, bones, and ligaments around your leg muscles get stronger as you move. Your knees and ankles are relieved of some weight as a result.

5.Push ups:

Pushups done the old-fashioned way are good for developing upper body strength. They exercise the shoulders, pectorals, and triceps. By contracting (drawing in) the abdominal muscles, when performed with perfect form, they can also strengthen the lower back and core. Pushups are a simple and powerful exercise for increasing your strength.


Place your feet hip-width apart as you stand. Walk forward while bending both knees, lowering yourself until your knees are 90 degrees bent. Onto the lead leg, advance. Lifting your back leg and pushing it forward will cause your back foot to land in a lunge position in front of you as you step through and push off with both of your legs.

7.Abdominal crunches:

The purpose of abdominal crunches is to tone the body’s core muscles. The exercise helps to build up the core muscles, enhance posture, and make the muscles more mobile and flexible.

8.Bent over row:

One of the best exercises for increasing strength and muscular mass is the bent-over barbell row. Compared to other rowing exercises, it enables the lifter to employ more weight. Moreover, it activates the biceps and forearm muscles, strengthening the grip.


By burning calories and causing weight reduction, cycling can assist alter body composition. It can also aid in the development of lower and upper body muscles. Cycling enthusiasts must, however, incorporate strength training if they want to see a significant change in their body form, especially if they want to boost their power for speed over shorter distances.

Benefits for doing exercises:

1.It maintains good for health.

2.Readuce for health related problems.

3.Lose weight for doing exercises.

4.control high blood pressure.

5.Improve your heart rate.

6.Improve your quality of sllep.

7.Maintain muscle strength and balance.

8.protect against chronic diseases.

9.keep your brain fit.

10.Exercise boost up mental health.

so many advantages of doing exercises for your healthy body .


Biodiversity definition:

The variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural environment are all included in what is known as biodiversity. These various species and critters collaborate in complicated web-like ecosystems to keep things in balance and support life.

Classification of Biodiversity:

1.Species diversity.

2.Ecological diversity.

3.Genetic diversity.

1.species diversity:

The number of distinct species present in an environment and the relative abundance of each species are the two components that make up species diversity. When every species present is equally plentiful in the area, diversity is at its highest.

Importance of species diversity:

The importance of species diversity can be argued for a variety of reasons. The environment depends on each species in some way. Bees are a perfect example of a primary pollinator. Consider the consequences if bees become extinct. Next may come fruits and vegetables, then the animals that consume them, and so on all the way to us. Many species not only give us food but also clean water, breathable air, fertile soils, a stable climate, the ability to absorb pollution, building materials for our homes, the ability to prevent disease outbreaks, the availability of therapeutic resources, and much more.

2.Ecological diversity:

The broadest definition of biodiversity is ecological diversity. Ecological diversity on a global scale would examine the variety in habitats like wetlands, deserts, grasslands, forests, and oceans. There is a substantial amount of species and genetic diversity within each ecosystem.

Importance of Ecological diversity:

Ecosystem diversity describes the variety of organisms in a specific environment and the biological processes that give them meaning. The variety of the species that make up an ecosystem is frequently measured, along with the relative abundance of various species and consideration of the type of species. The ecosystem is the conglomeration of populations of living creatures and the environment they inhabit. The variety of biological communities that interact with one another, with their physical and chemical environments, is referred to as ecosystem diversity.

3.Genetic diversity:

The biological variation that exists within species is known as genetic diversity. It enables species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Under conditions of rapid environmental change, such as those found in the Baltic Sea, genetic diversity is particularly crucial.

Importance of Genetic diversity:

It is possible for organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions and prevent inbreeding by maintaining significant genetic variety. When there are limited, isolated populations, inbreeding takes place, which might make a species less able to endure and procreate.

Biodiversity in India:

One of the twelve countries with the most biodiversity is India. India ranks fourth in Asia and tenth in the world for plant diversity, with over 47 000 plant species. Around 15 000 flowering plants, or 6% of all flowering plants worldwide, may be found in India.India is one of the world’s most diversified countries. In terms of the diversity of plant species, it comes in tenth. India is home to two of the top 25 biodiversity hotspots on earth. Important agricultural species like the pigeon pea, eggplant, cucumber, cotton, and sesame are descended from it. Many domesticated species, including millets, grains, legumes, vegetables, medicinal and aromatic crops, etc., are also widely grown in India.



An ecosystem is a region where a bubble of life is created by plants, animals, and other organisms interacting with the weather, environment, and other factors. Abiotic variables, or nonliving components, coexist with biotic components in ecosystems. Plants, animals, and other species are biotic factors.

Types of Ecosystem:

1.Terrestrial ecosystem.

2.Aquatic ecosystem

1.Terrestrial ecosystem:

A terrestrial ecosystem is a population of land-based species and the relationships between biotic and abiotic elements in a specific space. The tundra, taigas, temperate deciduous woods, tropical rainforests, grasslands, and deserts are a few examples of terrestrial ecosystems.

The terrestrial system classified into four types.

1.Forest Ecosystem.

2.Desert Ecosystem.

3.Thundra Ecosystem.

4.Grassland Ecosystem.

1.Forest Ecosystem:

Biologically integrated communities of plants, animals, and microbes, as well as the regional soils and atmospheres with which they interact, make up forest ecosystems, which are regions of the landscape where trees predominate.

2.Desert Ecosystem:

Deserts are arid regions of terrain with little to no vegetation, extremely high or low temperatures, and little to no rainfall. Terrestrial ecosystems, which can be found all over the planet, include deserts as examples. Not all deserts are level, nor do they all have cacti or oases.

3.Thundra Ecosystem:

The Arctic and the summits of mountains are home to tundra ecosystems, which are characterised by their lack of trees and harsh climates with little rainfall. Snow covers tundra lands for the majority of the year, but summer provides bursts of wildflowers. Tundra plants and animals.

4.Grassland Ecosystem:

Large open grassy areas make up grassland biomes. There may be trees, but they are uncommon. Elephants from Africa are among the creatures that inhabit grasslands. to several prairie dog species.

2.Aquatic Ecosystem:

An aquatic ecosystem encompasses marine and freshwater habitats such as the ocean, intertidal zone, reefs, seabed, and freshwater habitats such as lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands, and swamps. The habitat for all living things that require water, such as animals, plants, and bacteria, is the aquatic ecosystem.

The Aquatic Ecosystem classified into two types.

1.Fresh water Eco system

2.Marine Ecosystem.

1.Freshwater Ecosystem:

On the surface of the Earth, freshwater is a valuable resource. Also, it supports a wide variety of fish, plant, and crab species. Lakes, rivers, ponds, wetlands, streams, and springs are just a few of the habitats that freshwater environments offer.

2.Marine Ecosystem:

Aquatic environments with high levels of dissolved salt make up marine ecosystems. They comprise the deep ocean, the open ocean, and the coastal marine ecosystems, each of which has unique biological and physical properties.

Ecosystem services:

Any advantageous benefit that people receive from wildlife or ecosystems is referred to as an ecosystem service.

Ecosystem services are four types.

1.Provisioning services.

2.Regulating services.

3.cultural services.

4.supporting services.

1.provisioning services:

The material advantages that people receive from ecosystems are referred to as “provisioning services,” and include water, food, timber, and other items. Markets are used to trade a variety of provisioning services. Nonetheless, rural households in many areas also rely directly on the provision of services for their means of subsistence.

2.Regulating services:

The uses offered by ecosystem processes that control natural phenomena is referred to as a regulatory service. Pollination, decomposition, water filtration, erosion management, flood mitigation, carbon sequestration, and climate regulation are all examples of regulating functions.

3.Cultural Ecosystem:

The non-material benefits that people derive from ecosystems through leisure, tourism, intellectual advancement, spiritual enrichment, introspection, and creative and aesthetic experiences are known as cultural ecosystem services.

4.Supporting services:

All ecosystems and their benefits depend on “supporting services,” which are the provision of habitat for living things and the preservation of their diversity. Many kinds of ecosystem services are influenced by and are influenced by forestry, fishery, and agriculture.

Importance of Ecosystem services:

For instance, supplying wholesome food and clean water, controlling illness and the climate, assisting in crop pollination and soil formation, and offering recreational, cultural, and spiritual advantages, ecosystem services enable human life.

1.With addressing biodiversity as “natural capital” in recent years, acknowledging the importance of biodiversity protection has grown significantly.

2.They support a wide variety of creatures, particularly bird species, and are hotspots for biodiversity.

3.The interplay of living like plants, animals, and bacteria and non-living species creates ecosystems, which are communities like air, water, mineral soil.


We’ve all been there, the deadline is looming , time is running out yet we find ourselves scrolling endlessly through Tick Tok or Instagram we know that we have work to do, that sense of fear is slowly crawling into the back of our mind yet we still don’t feel like doing anything why is that? what makes us feel like that? In this article let’s take a deeper look at procrastination.

Photo by freestocks.org on Pexels.com

What is procrastination?

From a psychologist’s point of view procrastination can be defined as an intentional, self-imposed delay in initiating or completing a task that needs to be done. It is a complex behavior that involves delaying or avoiding a task despite the fact that there will be negative consequences, and usually human beings try to avoid negative consequences. This behavior is often linked to factors like low self-esteem , lack of motivation and perfectionism. People who procrastinate can go through feelings like shame, guilt, stress and frustration which can further fuel the cycle of procrastination. But its important to remember that not all procrastination is bad, sometimes procrastination is good as it can bring creative solutions to problems. This is because even when we are procrastinating and doing nothing our brain is still working on the solution sub consciously and this can lead to unexpected solutions and breakthroughs. So the key is to find a balance between procrastination and productivity.

Why procrastination can be helpful and harmful

Procrastination can be viewed from two different perspectives, It can be viewed as negative and harmful or positive and helpful. From a negative point of view procrastination can be seen as a destructive habit that can lead to missing deadlines, low quality of work, increase in stress, anxiety and frustration and feeling of low self-worth and confidence. All these are negative results of procrastination.

But on the other side procrastination can be seen as natural and even beneficial to creativity. This is because when we procrastinate we allow our mind to wonder endlessly, this can help us bring “out of the box” solutions to the problem at hand or approach the problem from a different perspective. In this sense procrastination can be seen as a tool for fostering creativity and innovation.

So procrastination has two sides to it’s coin. There is a fine line between healthy procrastination and harmful procrastination. Healthy procrastination involves taking breaks and allowing your mind to wonder, rest and recharge. This gives your brain time to get inspired and come up with original and innovative ideas like a funny name or a thought provoking article. For most procrastinators their best ideas come when they are under pressure. On the other hand harmful procrastination involves constantly putting off work and failing to meet our responsibilities.

Why do we procrastinate?

Ok, so now that we know the meaning of procrastination and the two perspectives of procrastination, lets answer the next question, why do we procrastinate? One main reason for why people procrastinate is, because our brains are wired that way. We always tend to prioritize short term rewards over long term rewards i.e. we naturally look for immediate gratification even if we are putting off something that’s more important in the long run. Neurologically procrastination is linked to prefrontal cortex, which is the part responsible for decision making, planning and impulse control. So reduced activity in this region can make it harder for us to prioritize and make decisions. At the same time procrastination is also linked to increased activity in the limbic system, this is the part responsible for emotion and pleasure. during procrastination we often engage in activities that provide immediate gratification like scrolling through social media, which gives us a dopamine rush and makes us happy.

Another factor that contributes to procrastination is “analysis paralysis”. This is the tendency to overthink and overanalyze a task to a point where it becomes overwhelming and we don’t know where to start. Whenever we have to do a daunting task its natural for us to avoid it altogether.

The reason behind why we procrastinate is multifaceted but by understanding the underling factors that contribute to procrastination we can develop strategies that reduce negative procrastination and find the balance to become more productive in our everyday life.

Strategies to reduce procrastination.

Identify the root cause: Understanding why we procrastinate can help us develop strategies for overcoming it. Some common causes for procrastination includes fear of failure, lack of motivation, and feeling overwhelmed. By identifying and addressing these issues we will be able to reduce procrastination.

Breaking tasks down to simpler steps: Large complex steps can be overwhelming so by breaking them into smaller simpler and manageable steps the task would look doable and procrastination reduces.

Set realistic deadlines: Setting deadlines can keep us on track and hold us accountable. However it is important to set realistic deadlines so that we don’t feel pressured or overwhelmed.

Eliminating distractions: Distractions like social media ,TV programs and so on can contribute to procrastination. By eliminating these distractions we can be focused on making progress in our work.

Focus on benefits: Always focus on the benefits of completing a task, for example completing a work project on time can help you get promotions or other incentives. Similarly finishing a school work early can give you more freedom to go out and play.

Practice self-compassion: Negative self -talk and and harsh self criticism can lead to negative procrastination. Practicing self compassion and developing the ability to forgive ourselves for minor mistakes and imperfections can help build a positive mindset and help progress towards our goals.

In conclusion, finding a balance between healthy and unhealthy procrastination is like walking a tightrope, it requires planning, skills, focus and a safety net. While it is important to understand the negatives of procrastination we shouldn’t overlook its positive sides. So let’s procrastinate strategically.

And if all else fails remember the wise words of author Douglas Adams: “I love deadlines. I like the whooshing sound they make as they fly by.” Happy procrastinating!



The Internet, sometimes known as the Net, is a global system of computer networks. It is a network of networks that allows users at any one computer to obtain information from any other computer with permission.

History of internet:

In the 1970s, Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf created the Internet. They started the process of creating what is now known as the “internet.” It was the outcome of a different research project known as ARPANET, or Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. The Defense Team of the United States of America originally intended for this to be a communications network that could withstand a nuclear attack. It eventually became a successful nationwide experimental packet network. But when was the first Internet started? It is believed that on 6 August 1991, when the World Wide Web opened to the public.

Types of internet connections:


2.Broad band.

3.Digital subscriber line.



Computers, tablets, cellphones, and other devices are linked to the internet using Wi-Fi, a wireless technology. Wi-Fi is the radio signal that a wireless router transmits to a device in the area, which then converts the signal into information you can see and use.

2.Broad band connection:

Broadband is a phrase used to describe high-speed Internet connectivity that is always active and quicker than dial-up access. Several high-speed transmission techniques are part of broadband, including: Cable modem for digital subscriber lines (DSL). Fiber.

3.Digital subscriber line:

A digital subscriber line, often known as DSL or a digital subscriber loop, is a type of internet connection that transmits and receives data and traffic via telephone lines using the voice frequency. High-speed downloads are possible with this connection type when the user is close to the DSL provider.


Broadband access can take the form of a cable Internet connection. Users can access the Internet using cable TV lines by using a cable modem. Many people may find a cable connection to be a realistic alternative because cable modems can deliver incredibly quick access to the Internet.

why should students get access to the limited internet?

The biggest issue facing kids today is this. They contact with their family members very little and spend the majority of their day online. Family ties become weak as a result. Students that spend most of their time online suffer from poor academic performance owing to their lack of physical activity, bad grades since they merely keep browsing pointless websites, and a distance from their families because they don’t have time to spend quality time together.

Students disregard their social, personal, financial, and physical well-being. They are just concerned about being online. We have examples of students becoming physically and mentally ill as a result of internet addiction. For instance, a Vietnamese girl became addicted to Facebook in 2018 and ended up in a mental hospital. She is currently receiving care. Another incident involving a student who played an internet game nonstop for two days without eating anything happened in Taiwan. Due to the overuse of the internet, there are countless instances where kids experience problems like this, which serves as a reminder of the significance of restricting internet access for students.

Benefits of internet:

1.Online education use internet.

2.Develope communication system.

3.Extra information for any topic by using internet to collect the information.

4.Shopping and paying bills flexibility by use of internet

5.online entertainment sources

6.new ideas for business by the use of internet.

7.Online shopping.

8 Smart phones and mobile connectivity.

9.expansion of business developement.

10.improving of business efficiency.

so many advantages by using internet.

Disadvantages of internet:

1.Spending many time while the use of internet.

2.Hacking of the personal information.

3.too much addiction to internet leads to time wastage, affecting our productivity and health.

4. data and information may be harmed by online virus attacks.

5.Social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter are a huge target for hackers.

6.Only when supervised by parents should children use the internet.

7.There are a lot of audio and video materials that are inappropriate for particular age groups.

8.Social media posts of images and videos are inherently unsafe.


What is food?

After air and water, food is the next most crucial element for sustaining life, promoting growth, and providing energy. In actuality, it’s one of the most intricate chemical combinations.

Food is crucial in the promotion of health and the prevention of disease.
In general, it is made up of vital nutrients like carbs, proteins, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that are taken to support an organism’s nutritional needs. These nutrients are also swallowed by an organism and used by its cells to maintain health. Grains, pulses, fruits, vegetables, oils, and other types of produce make up these nutrient-dense diets.

Importance of food in our life:

The vitality you need to be busy all day. nutrients you require for growth and repair, ensuring your strength and health and assisting in the prevention of diet-related diseases like certain cancers.

1.All the components our bodies require, including protein, vitamins, lipids, and carbohydrates, are present in healthy foods.

2.Healthy food is the requirement of our body.

3.It prevents us from feeling dull and sluggish.

4.Any food closest to its natural form is healthier than those one cooked.

sources of food :

All living things on earth primarily obtain their sustenance from plants and animals. Animal-derived foods, such as fish, milk, meat, chicken, and cheese, are the primary source of protein. Fruits and vegetables, which constitute a significant source of fibre, protein, and carbohydrates, are produced by plants for us.

mainly two types of food sources are there.they are



1.plants are the sources of food:

Plants are the sources of food ingredients like grains, cereals, vegetables and fruits. which are an important source of fibres, proteins and carbohydrates.

2.Animals are the sources of food:

Animal-derived foods, such as fish, milk, meat, chicken, and cheese, are the primary source of protein.

Benefits of eat healthy food:

1.It gives a healthy life to eat good food.

2.Help the digestive system function.

3.Keep the healthy body.

4.Helps one reach and keep a healthy weight.

5.Boosts immunity.

6.control levels of blood pressure and cholesterol levels

7.Decrease the risk of diabates.

8.Decrease the cancer risks.

9.Strenghthen teeth and bones.

10.Delay age.

11.Increase productivity.

What should we eat food for a healthy life style:

1.We must eat fruits and vegetables for a good health.

2.Drink minimum 3 liters of water daily.

3.Eat whole grains at two times once in aweek.

4.Eat a bean-based meal at least once a week.

5.Eat protein food like chicken, Fish.

6.Bananas are one of the healthiest fruits loaded with fiber and potassium.

What is Cyber Security and important of cyber security in future.

Learning about cybersecurity is becoming increasingly important in today’s world, where technology is integrated into every aspect of our lives. Here are some reasons why it’s essential to learn about cybersecurity:

  1. Protecting personal information: As we rely more and more on digital devices and platforms to store and share our personal information, it’s crucial to learn how to protect it from cyber threats such as hacking, identity theft, and phishing.
  2. Safeguarding business information: Companies face serious risks if their information is compromised. By learning about cybersecurity, businesses can protect their sensitive data and prevent breaches that could lead to significant financial losses.
  3. Preventing cyber attacks: Cyber attacks can cause significant damage to individuals and organizations alike. By learning about cybersecurity, we can identify vulnerabilities in our systems and take steps to prevent attacks before they happen.
  4. Developing a career in cybersecurity: The demand for cybersecurity professionals is rapidly growing as more businesses and individuals look to protect themselves from cyber threats. By learning about cybersecurity, you can develop the skills necessary to pursue a career in this field.
  5. Staying ahead of emerging threats: The cybersecurity landscape is constantly evolving, with new threats emerging all the time. By staying up-to-date with the latest cybersecurity trends and technologies, we can better protect ourselves and our businesses from potential attacks.

Overall, learning about cybersecurity is essential for both individuals and organizations in today’s digital age. It helps protect personal and business information, prevent cyber attacks, develop cybersecurity careers, and stay ahead of emerging threats.


What is called natural resources?

Without human assistance, natural resources are present on planet. We can get water, wood, food, and energy from natural resources. Without natural resources, life is not conceivable.Oil, coal, natural gas, metals, stone, and sand are examples of natural resources. Other natural resources include water, soil, sunlight, air, and so on.

Types of Natural resources:

two types of natural resources.

1.Renewable resources

2.non renewable resources.

1.Renewable resources:

A resource that can be used repeatedly and does not run out because it is naturally replaced.

examples of renewable resources are:

1.solar energy.

2.wind energy

3.GeoThermal energy.

4.Hydro power

5.Tidal energy

6.Biomass energy

1.Solar energy:

One well-known renewable resource is sunlight. In fact, throughout human history, it has been used to heat water, dry and prepare food, and warm habitations. In order to gather and transform solar radiation into heat energy that can be used for a variety of purposes, different technologies already exist and are being developed.

2.Wind energy:

The sun and wind are in a direct interaction. When the sun’s heat is absorbed unevenly by the various surfaces of the earth, including oceans and other water masses, daily winds are created. When the sun is shining during the day, air above land warms up more quickly than air above water. The warm air rises and expands. It is replaced with cooler air. The result is wind.In earlier years, windmills were used across the U.S. to capture energy and pump water from wells. They still exist in some farming areas to provide livestock with water.

3.GeoTheramal energy:

Geothermal energy uses the heat of the earth to produce electricity and is a renewable resource. For millennia, people have taken baths in hot springs that are heated by the ground. District heating systems have also utilised and continue to employ geothermal energy. Moreover, geothermal energy is used to produce power. Underground power plants are constructed for this purpose within a mile of the earth’s surface.

4.Hydro power:

A dam or other construction that alters the natural flow of a river or other body of water is used to generate hydropower, often known as hydroelectric power.Water in motion generates hydroelectricity, namely the winter and spring runoff from mountain streams and crystal-clear lakes. Water can be utilised to turn turbines and generators that produce power when it is falling due to gravity.

5.Tidal energy:

Tidal energy is a renewable source of power generated by the tidal movements and ocean currents that occur naturally. These technologies include paddles and turbines, among others. The rush of ocean waters during tide changes is what generates tidal energy. A renewable energy source is tidal energy.

6.Biomass energy:

A clean, renewable energy source is biomass. Plant or algae biomass may regenerate quickly since it receives its initial energy from the sun. Municipal solid trash, trees, and crops are all readily available and may be managed responsibly.

Advantages of renewable resources:

1.Low cost

2.clean,safe and efficient

3.numerous methods to create renewable power

4.Reliability and resilience

5.Less global warming.

Disadvantages of renewable resources:

1.Renewable resources need recycling.

2.initial cost is very high

3.renewable resources is not available at any time

4.It is difficult to generate the quantity of electricity.

Non Renewable resources:

The sources of non-renewable energy will deplete or not be renewed within our lifetimes, or perhaps within many, many lifetimes.

Examples of non renewable resources are:

1.Fossil fuels: coal, crude oil, natural gas

2.nuclear energy.

1.fossil fuels:


A flammable sedimentary rock with a high concentration of carbon and hydrocarbons, coal is often black or brownish-black in colour. Because it takes millions of years for coal to develop, it is categorised as a nonrenewable energy source. Coal is made up of the energy that was once locked up in plants that inhabited marshy forests hundreds of millions of years ago.

crude oil:

Only one non-renewable resource, crude oil, commonly known as petroleum oil, is extracted in liquid form. It is extracted by drilling a vertical well into the ground or ocean floor and is discovered between the layers of the earth’s crust or between rocks.

natural gas:

There are no renewable energy sources like natural gas. It takes millions of years for a fossil fuel to form. We can only manufacture more till a finite amount of it remains in the ground.

2.Nuclear energy:

The element uranium is the one that is most frequently employed in nuclear power reactors. Despite the fact that uranium may be found in rocks all over the world, nuclear power plants typically use U-235, a highly uncommon form of uranium. A non-renewable resource is uranium. Over the world, generating power via nuclear energy is a common practise.

Advantages of non renewable resources:

1.Non renewable resources are abundant and affordable

2.it is more effective and easier to produce and use then renewable energy

3.Non renewable resources are significant source of energy.

Disadvantages of non renewable resources:

1.These resources are used once.it can not be replaced.

2.once fossil fuels are burn.it creates pollution.

3.heavy uses of fossil fuels .it creates global warming and green house effect.


Most people know hypnotism or hypnosis as a party trick or a magic trick that magicians use to control you and make you cluck like a chicken or walk like a monkey. But what is hidden behind this facade is a rich history that dates back to ancient civilizations such as Greeks, Egyptians and Romans. In this article lets look at the science behind hypnotism.

[Hypnotism] by John Adams Whipple is licensed under CC-CC0 1.0

The Beginning

Hypnotism is a practice that has been around for centuries. However it was during the 18th and the 19th century that hypnosis began to be studied and developed as a formal practice. The person to thank for bringing hypnotism to mainstream medical practice is Franz Anton Mesmer. He was an Austrian physician who believed that there was a magnetic fluid or force that flowed through the body and this force could be used to treat various medical conditions. He used techniques such as magnetic passes and “mesmeric” fluids to induce a trance like state in his patients, which he believed would help heal them.

In the 19th century another Scottish surgeon James Braid coined the term “hypnotism”. He was able to develop a more scientific approach to the practice. He developed techniques like eye fixation and verbal suggestion to induce a hypnotic state, similar to what we see and use in the present day. His belief was that hypnosis is a form of self induced concentration rather than a result of external forces and influences.

The use of hypnosis continued to grow throughout the 19th and the 20th centuries ,with many physicians and psychologist studying about it’s potential and using it to treat many mental issues such as anxiety and depression. Even Sigmund Freud who is regarded as the father of psychoanalysis was initially trained in hypnosis and he was a prominent figure in the field as well. But eventually he moved away from hypnosis as a primary tool in his practice and focused on developing his own method of psychoanalysis. Nevertheless, Freud’s early work in hypnosis paved the way for the use of hypnosis psychotherapy. However during the mid 20th century partly due to the rise in psychoanalysis and behavioral therapy the prominence of hypnosis reduced.

Again the 1950s and 60s saw the resurgence of hypnosis as a tool for managing pain and anxiety during medical procedures. Today it is widely used in clinical setting for a variety of purposes including weight loss, quitting alcohol and smoking, phobias, anxiety and stress.

The Science Of Hypnosis

The science behind hypnotism has been the topic of discussion and study for centuries but the exact mechanism of how hypnotism works is not yet fully understood. There are several theories that tries to explain the mechanism of hypnotism.

One main theory is the social – cognitive theory, this theory assumes that hypnotic state is a result of , a person’s willingness to be hypnotized and their level of suggestibility which is influenced by their beliefs and expectations about hypnosis as well as the social context in which the hypnotism takes place.

Another theory of hypnotism is the dissociation theory, it suggest that hypnosis involves a split or dissociation of consciousness, in which the hypnotized person is able to separate their conscious awareness from their unconsciousness. This allows a person to address their unconscious or underlying issues.

Resent research into the neuroscience of hypnotism suggests that hypnotic states are associated with changes with brain activity and connectivity , particularly in the areas of the brain that involves attention, perception and self-awareness. Some key areas of the brain involved in hypnotism are prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for functions like planning, attention and decision making, anterior cingulate cortex which is involved in attention and emotional processing and the parietal cortex responsible for spatial awareness and sensory integration. Neuroscience is a rapidly evolving field and ongoing research is helping shed light on the brain areas and network that is involved in maintaining and inducing hypnotic states.

There you go guys, hypnotism is more than just a party trick there is a long history and a clear science behind it. Through on going studies and researches scientists continue to explore and expand the potential of hypnotism as a tool for improving health, well-being and unlocking the mysteries of the mind.

Meditation – An important lifestyle

Meditation is the habitual process of training your mind to focus and redirect your thoughts.

The popularity of meditation is increasing as more people discover its many health benefits.

You can use it to increase awareness of yourself and your surroundings. Many people think of it as a way to reduce stress and develop concentration.

People also use the practice to develop other beneficial habits and feelings, such as a positive mood and outlook, self-discipline, healthy sleep patterns, and even increased pain tolerance.

1. Meditation reduces stress

2. Controls anxiety

3. Promotes emotional health

4. Enhances self- awareness

5. Lengthens attention span

6. Reduce age- related memory loss

7. Generate kindness

8. Improves sleep

9. Helps control pain

10. Control blood pressure

Meditation is something everyone can do to improve their mental and emotional health. You can do it anywhere, without special equipment or memberships. Alternatively, meditation courses and support groups are widely available. There’s a great variety of styles too, each with different strengths and benefits. Trying out a style of meditation suited to your goals is a great way to improve your quality of life, even if you only have a few minutes to do it each day.

Get a proper sleep at night

Many factors can interfere with a good night’s sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to illnesses. It’s no wonder that quality sleep is sometimes elusive.

You might not be able to control the factors that interfere with your sleep. However, you can adopt habits that encourage better sleep. Start with these simple tips.

1. Stick to a sleep schedule:- Set aside no more than eight hours for sleep. The recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult is at least seven hours. Most people don’t need more than eight hours in bed to be well rested.

Go to bed and get up at the same time every day, including weekends. Being consistent reinforces your body’s sleep-wake cycle.

If you don’t fall asleep within about 20 minutes of going to bed, leave your bedroom and do something relaxing. Read or listen to soothing music. Go back to bed when you’re tired. Repeat as needed, but continue to maintain your sleep schedule and wake-up time.

2. Eat and drink:- Don’t go to bed hungry or stuffed. In particular, avoid heavy or large meals within a couple of hours of bedtime. Discomfort might keep you up.

Nicotine, caffeine and alcohol deserve caution, too. The stimulating effects of nicotine and caffeine take hours to wear off and can interfere with sleep. And even though alcohol might make you feel sleepy at first, it can disrupt sleep later in the night.

3. Creating a restful environment:- Keep your room cool, dark and quiet. Exposure to light in the evenings might make it more challenging to fall asleep. Avoid prolonged use of light-emitting screens just before bedtime. Consider using room-darkening shades, earplugs, a fan or other devices to create an environment that suits your needs.

Doing calming activities before bedtime, such as taking a bath or using relaxation techniques, might promote better sleep.

4. Limiting daytime naps:- Long daytime naps can interfere with nighttime sleep. Limit naps to no more than one hour and avoid napping late in the day.

However, if you work nights, you might need to nap late in the day before work to help make up your sleep debt.

5. Including physical activity in daily routine:- Regular physical activity can promote better sleep. However, avoid being active too close to bedtime.

Spending time outside every day might be helpful, too.

6. Manage your worries:- Try to resolve your worries or concerns before bedtime. Jot down what’s on your mind and then set it aside for tomorrow.

Stress management might help. Start with the basics, such as getting organized, setting priorities and delegating tasks. Meditation also can ease anxiety.

Nearly everyone has an occasional sleepless night. However, if you often have trouble sleeping, contact your health care provider. Identifying and treating any underlying causes can help you get the better sleep you deserve.


The definition of Art:

something that is attractive or reflects important ideas or sentiments, and was made with imagination and talent that is called “Art”.

The study of the nature of art, including ideas like interpretation, representation, expression, and form, is known as philosophy of art. Aesthetics, the philosophical study of beauty and taste, and it are intimately related.

Types of Art:

There are number of types in art. when it comes to visual arts. but. finally there are three types in art.

they are:

1.Decorative art.

2.Commercial art.

3.Fine art.

1.Decorative art:

Any form of art that focuses on designing and embellishing items that are valued more for their functionality than their merely aesthetic features is referred to as decorative art.

Examples of Decorative art:


2.Glass ware.


4.Wood work.


Importance of Decorative art:

The programmed lifestyle of the upper classes of society, which was followed by others, was heavily influenced by ornamental arts. Records of an object’s location and careful descriptions highlight their variety of uses.

2.Commercial Art:

Art produced for business objectives, typically advertising, is referred to as commercial art or the art of creative services. To encourage the sale and interest in goods, services, and ideas, commercial art use a range of venues for spectators.

Examples of commercial art:


2.magazines and news papers.

3.Bill boards and sign boards.

4.telivision commercials.

5.Internet ads

6.Package and labeling goods

Importance of commercial art:

It is their duty to produce visual materials, such as presentations, photographs, and designs, to engage customers with the company’s offerings. For the creation of billboards, book jackets, presentations, Windows displays, and technical catalogues, businesses hire art directors.

3.fine art:

The fine arts—commonly referred to as the performing and visual arts—are distinctive and significant in the academic programme.

examples of fine art:





Importance of fine art:

Students have a creative outlet through arts education, which can help them become better problem solvers. They gain the ability to think creatively and investigate ideas in novel ways. Several of these subjects, including feelings, time, and space, are frequently challenging to teach in a classroom.

The most common elements in art:







principles of Art:

The nine design principles—contrast, emphasis, movement, repetition, proportion, metre, rhythm, balance, unity, and variety—are the cornerstones of artistic creation and the guidelines by which artists must arrange the components of an artwork.



Children participating in nutrition education by U.S. Department of Agriculture is licensed under CC-CC0 1.0

Today lets take a peek into the life of Anna Freud. She us born in Vienna in 1895. As you might have guessed already she is the daughter of the world renowned psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. She was a pioneer in the field of psychoanalysis and her contributions to the field of child development was unparalleled. You might have thought that growing up with the “father of psychoanalysis” himself would have given her advantage over the field but that was never the case. Lets take a trip down the memory lane.

Early life of Anna Freud

Anna Freud us the youngest of the six children born to Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha Freud. Although her father was a world famous psychologist, her life was far from idyllic. Anna often felt neglected by her father who was always preoccupied with his work. She later wrote that she had to wait until she was an adult to have her father’s attention. Despite these challenges she had a close relationship with her father serving as his secretary and collaborator in the development of psychoanalytical theories. Anna was known to disagree with her father on certain points but she had deep respect and admiration for his work.

Anna was an excellent student and she showed an early interest to the field of psychology. She joined the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society to begin her training from some of the most prominent psychoanalysts of her time. She was particularly interested in working with children and began working with them at a clinic for psychoanalytic treatment.

In 1922 she moved to Berlin to continue her studies and work. It was here that she developed her theories of child psychoanalysis. Her work there was cut short by the Nazi party and she was forced to flee the country in 1938, and settle in London. Here, she established the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic which later became a leading center for the treatment of children with mental illness. Her whole life was dedicated to the advancement of child psychoanalysis and improving the lives of children with mental illness.

Contributions of Anna Freud to the field of Psychology

Anna Freud have made several significant contributions to the field of psychology lets see a few,

Development of child psychoanalysis: She is widely regarded as one of the pioneers of child psychoanalysis. She developed a unique approach that emphasized on the importance of early childhood experiences and relationship in shaping psychological development. Her work was instrumental in the development of effective treatment methods for children with mental illness.

Establishment of child focused therapy and clinics: She developed the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic in London, which became a leading center for the treatment of child mental illness. Her clinic became a model for similar institutions all around the world.

Advancement of the Theory of defense mechanism: Defense mechanism is the unconscious process that people use to avoid the feeling of stress and anxiety to protect themselves. The theory was initially founded by Sigmund Freud but it was refined by her. Her works on defense mechanism was groundbreaking at the time and it sill is influential to this day.

The life of Anna Freud is a story of resilience and her passion for psychology led her to becoming one of the most influential figures in modern psychology. Today her work and life continues to inspire and influence mental health professionals across the world.

Gardening – A great hobby

Gardening may be a fun and relaxing way to get in touch with nature, but did you know that it also has plenty of health benefits? Gardening is an activity that’s good for both the mind and body, and can be enjoyed by people of all ages. Plus, you get to eat the delicious fruits, vegetables and herbs that you grow. So, grab your tools and get in the dirt!

It only takes a little bit of gardening to work up a sweat. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, just 2.5 hours of moderate activity each week can help reduce the risk of many health problems, including heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure and Type 2 diabetes.

You may not think of gardening as exercise, but all the lifting, shoveling and raking involved definitely counts, says Raychel Santo, MA, senior research program coordinator for the Center for a Livable Future at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Your brain also benefits from time spent in the garden. Being outside in the fresh air and sunshine is an effective way to boost your mood and de-stress. In fact, gardening has shown to be helpful in reducing the risk of depression. If something is weighing heavily on your mind, gardening can allow you to focus on an activity that will bring you joy.

Don’t forget the health benefits that come from the produce you grow. Gardening is a simple way to get more fresh fruits and vegetables into your diet, and you’re sure to appreciate them even more because you grew them.

When it comes to deciding what to plant, it may be hard to know where to begin. But if you’re new to gardening, keep it simple with produce that’s easy to grow. Santo recommends herbs and greens such as lettuce, kale and collards.

Santo says these foods are not only easy for first-time gardeners, they are also full of important nutrients.

Gardening is also an excellent opportunity to try new healthy foods that will help you and your family become more adventurous eaters. Growing a variety of produce is as fun as it is healthy. Don’t get discouraged if you don’t get it right the first time. Gardening requires some patience, but it’s worth it when you get to dig into a plate of your own fresh produce.

Make sure that you have the proper tools and gear for a safe gardening experience. Santo recommends wearing light, long-sleeved shirts and pants and a hat for protection from the sun, as well as slathering on sunscreen. Wearing gardening gloves is a must to keep yourself safe when pulling weeds and carrying out other tasks that could hurt your hands. And don’t forget to wear mosquito repellent.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons encourages gardeners to take regular breaks and drink enough water. Remember, this is exercise. The organization also suggests making the physical activity in gardening as easy as possible, from sitting on a garden stool to getting close to the objects you want to lift to reduce strain. Using a wheelbarrow is helpful for these kinds of tasks. Ask for help if something is too big or heavy to move by yourself, or if you’re unfamiliar with certain tools.

Soil safety is another thing to keep in mind. Santo notes that especially in urban and suburban areas, soil may be contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants. Soil could also have tetanus bacteria, which is why it’s so important to wear gloves and stay up on vaccinations. That way, any cuts on your hands won’t get infected. It’s a good idea to get your soil tested before you start gardening.

How to avoid pimples from air pollution?

The air pollution index has reached the ‘severe’ mark in Delhi and neighbouring cities are enveloped in a blanket of smog. It is not easy to avoid skin problems like acne when surrounded by poor air quality. Lets have a quick lookout on how to save yourself from having pimples while traveling and working in such a harsh polluted environment.

1. Water is Life! For glowing skin, drinking a glass of water every hour is key. Try to consume eight to 10 glasses of water a day. This will remove toxins from your body, accelerating a healthy blood flow. This also helps in boosting metabolism.

2. Switch to eating healthy and clean! Keeping your skin healthy is as simple as eating right. Avoid oily snacks and trans-fat food. Adding fresh fruits, green vegetables, nuts and omega-3 fatty acids to your diet will help detoxify skin.

3. Don’t skip fitness! Don’t take fitness lightly. Regular exercise can help reduce stress and delivers the right amount of oxygen to the skin cells. Perspiring during workout will keep toxins away, and make your skin healthy and acne-free.

4. Skincare routine to follow! Avoid touching your pimples and breakouts as it triggers infection. Popping a pimple will cause skin irritated or inflamed resulting in swelling, scarring and redness. Wash hands regularly with anti-bacterial soap/hand wash before touching your face.
Apart from that, keep your face clean with facial scrubs, moisturisers and masks. Opt for an acne medication that has a potent pimple/acne reduction activity or the ability to prevent occurrence of pimples/acne.

5. Shavers beware! Make sure you thoroughly clean your razors, blade and electric shaver. Before shaving, always soften skin with lukewarm, soapy water.

6. Haircare is very important! It is extremely important to keep your hair clean and dandruff-free. Negligence can result in acne.
To protect your hair against pollution, always wear washed caps, headbands and scarves. When visiting a salon, avoid using another person’s towel as it may carry infections resulting in risk of acne, redness and skin inflammation.

7. Aiming for a minimal makeup look! Remove make-up before going to bed as this lowers the risk of breakouts. Also, go for the minimal make-up as it lets the skin breathe and look natural.
Essential oils help in treating skin inflammations and acne. A combination of various essential oils like tea tree oil, moringa oil, lemon oil, chamomile oil and lavender oil will treat the acne effectively.

Best Yoga for PCOS

Lets start with what is PCOS…

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6 to 12 percent of women during their childbearing years, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This common female endocrine disorder causes your ovaries to produce an excess of male hormones, resulting in irregular periods, weight gain, and problems with fertility and ovulation.

But recent research points to a regular practice of yoga as an effective way to manage PCOS symptoms.

There are five easy yoga asanas that can actually help to deal with this issue as yoga helps to decrease testosterone levels in women and increase estrogen and also opens up the uterus and ovaries that makes ovulation much easier to occur. It even controls stress!

Asana 1:- Bridge Pose or Setu bandhasana

Asana 2:- Cat- Cow Pose or Chakravakasana

Asana 3:- Garland Pose or Malasana

Asana 4:- Sun Salutations or Surya Namaskar

Asana 5:- Head to Knee Pose or Janusirasana

Remember that always start from a beginning stage. You don’t need to be perfect and accurate from the very beginning as it always happens gradually. Practicing makes it easier and perfect. Consistency is the key!



A system of techniques utilised in ancient times to harmonise the mind and body through physical activity, mindfulness meditation, and emotional and breathing regulation.

yoga can be defined in many ways, every one has there own meaning.

Photo by Felipe Borges on Pexels.com

Importance of Yoga in daily life:

People’s minds can be calmed by using the many breathing techniques used in yoga. Also, it increases your capacity for awareness and stillness. Also, you can find inner calm through meditation. It also aids in instilling commitment and discipline in one’s life. And Yoga promotes mental health, mindfulness, healthy eating, weight loss, and restful sleep in addition to stress management.While the sole purpose of yoga is to challenge the mind and body through a series of yoga asanas, the overall goal of yoga is to cultivate self-reflection, control the breath, achieve profound relaxation, and progress through meditation.

Types of yoga:

There are six types of yoga.

1.Karma yoga

2.Bhakti yoga

3.Jnana yoga

4.Raja yoga

5.Tantra yoga

6.Hatha yoga

1.Karma yoga:

A route to moksha through employment is karma yoga. A commitment to one’s duty, making the best effort but being unattached to rewards or outcomes like success or failure, are all examples of righteous activity without being swayed by what the results may be.

2.Bhakti yoga:

Bhakti yoga, also known as Bhakti marga, is a Hindu spiritual path or practise that is centred on adoring devotion to any particular deity.

3.Jnana yoga:

One of the three traditional Hindu paths to moksha, jnana yoga, also known as the jnana marga, emphasises the “road of knowledge,” also known as the “path of self-realization”.

4.Raja yoga:

Raja yoga describes both the end result of yoga and the path to getting there. As a result, it is also regarded as the feeling of tranquilly and contentment that results from regular yoga and meditation practise. Raja yoga is essentially the practise of controlling one’s mind and body, with an emphasis on meditation and energetics.

5.Tantra yoga:

Tantra is a branch of yoga that combines a variety of practises, including pranayama, mudras, visualisation, mantra meditation, and initiation to study the inner world through the human body. These Tantric practises and rituals are primarily concerned with kundalini energy development and accumulation.

6.Hatha yoga:

In order to achieve a condition of spiritual purity in which the mind is detached from the outside world, Hatha yoga emphasises physical control.

Benefits of Yoga:

1.yoga reduce the mental stress.

2.It improves strength, balance and flexibility.

3.yoga releases to you, to help you sleep better.

4.yoga gives more energy in positive vibration.

5.yoga control the mental stress.

6.It improves heart health

7.It can melt away tension.

8.Gain muscle strength.

9.It improves the quality of life.

Is yoga and meditation both are same:

No, meditation and yoga are not the same thing. Yoga is a form of exercise that uses specific body postures to achieve physical and mental health benefits, while meditation is a practice that can be done with or without movement in order to focus and calm the mind.


Definition of Feminism:

Feminism advocates for equal rights and opportunities for people of all genders. It involves valuing the different experiences, identities, skills, and strengths of women and working to ensure that every woman has the opportunity to exercise all of her legal rights.

Types of Feminism:

1.Liberal feminism.

2.Radical feminism.

3.Marxist and Socialist feminism.

4.Cultural feminism.

5.Eco feminism.

1.Liberal feminism:

The primary goal of liberal feminism, often known as mainstream feminism, is to achieve gender equality within the framework of liberal democracy through political and legal reform. It is frequently regarded as economically centrist and culturally progressive.

2.Radical feminism:

Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reorganisation of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts while acknowledging that other social divisions, such as those based on race, class, and sexual orientation, also have an impact on women’s experiences.

3.Marxist and Socialist feminism:

Marxism is one of the main sources of inspiration for socialist feminists, who contend that patriarchal hierarchies and the subjection of women were intended purposes of capitalism. Marxist and socialist feminism holds that overthrowing capitalist economic structures that exploit and undervalue women’s work is necessary to achieve gender equality.

4.Cultural feminism:

A subset of feminism known as cultural feminism emphasises the fundamental distinctions between men and women that are based on their biological capacities for procreation. Cultural feminism credits these distinctions with giving women special and superior qualities.

5.Eco feminism:

Like the social movements it arose from, ecofeminism is a combination of political activism and intellectual critique. Ecofeminism unites feminism and environmentalism in its claim that patriarchy and capitalism are to blame for capitalism’s environmental damage and the dominance of women.

History of feminism:

The history of feminism comprises the narratives of movements and ideologies which have aimed at equal rights for rights.

history of feminism can be divided in three waves.

1.First wave of feminism:

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a climate of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics gave rise to the first wave of feminism. With a focus on suffrage, this wave sought to increase possibilities for women.

2.Second wave of feminism:

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, there was a second wave of feminism that concentrated on concerns of equality and prejudice. The feminist liberation movement first gained popularity among American women, and it quickly expanded to other Western nations.

3.Third wave of feminism:

The Third Wave of Indian Feminism began in 1980 with the Five-Year Plan’s decision to prioritise women’s health, work, and education. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) run by women have multiplied in an effort to support other women. The Dalit and marginalised women’s rights were also championed by the movement.

Future of feminism:

The struggles for equality of opportunity in the workplace, political influence, and representation will be at the centre of the next wave of feminism. It will be about imagining and building a democracy and economy that works for all of us, safeguarding the weakest among us, and holding those responsible for our safety accountable.


“Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is probably the reason so few engage in it.” – Henry Ford

Photo by Polina Zimmerman on Pexels.com

Thinking requires effort and in a world where every thing is just a click away, it’s no wonder that so many people would indulge in instant gratification rather than take time to engage in impactful thinking. Why bother with thinking when one can scroll endlessly through social media feed and Tik Tok videos? I mean let’s be real, who has time to sit down and ponder the mysteries of the universe when there are new episodes of your favorite shows to binge-watch?

In fact thinking can be exhausting. It requires concentration, mental energy and the willingness to question one’s own beliefs and assumptions. Let’s not forget that thinking also requires a certain type of intelligence, not every person has the ability to come up with coherent thoughts or ideas, and the effort required to do so can be overwhelming but not impossible.

What Is Thinking?

Psychologist define thinking as a cognitive process that involves mental processes such as perception, attention, memory, problem solving to generate new ideas, form judgements, and make decisions. Thinking can be broadly divided into two categories, controlled thinking which is slower and effortful and automatic thinking which is fast, effortless and largely unconscious. Then there is divergent and convergent thinking. A person who thinks divergently will be able to generate multiple solutions or ideas to a single problem where as a person who thinks convergently will focus on one single solution or idea that is the most logic or efficient.

Another important aspect of thinking is metacognition, it refers to our ability to monitor and control our own thinking process. It includes our ability to recognize when we don’t know about something, self evaluating our own thinking and problem solving strategies and also being able to adjust our thinking as needed. For example metacognition practices have shown to increase a student’s ability to transfer or adapt their learning to new concepts and tasks fast by gaining a level of awareness about their subject matter. So if you want to simply put it metacognition is thinking about one’s own thinking.

How to develop the habit of thinking fast?

Make minor unimportant decisions fast : For example, challenge yourself to choose your next meal in less than a minute, or when you go to a clothing store decide that you would buy what you want in half an hour and leave the store.

Practice doing the things you are good at faster: If you are an artist decide that you will finish a painting in 2 hours. See how fast you can do the things you are good at and take it as a challenge.

Practice meditation: There are many benefits to practicing meditation on a daily basis. It calms our body and mind and also build a more efficient brain by stimulating the formation of new brain cells and neural connection. Meditation also helps strengthen the communication between the brain cells which in turn speeds up mental processes such as the ability to think, learn and concentrate.

Stop multitasking there are many researches that suggest that it is less efficient to multitask. This is because multitasking can interfere with our working memory, reduce our concentration on each task hinder our performance and increase the time that we take to do each task. So watching TV when doing your homework may not be a good idea after all.

Being someone who likes to take time with thinking and making decision in not always a bad trait to have but there are situations where fast thinking and decision making can lead to a number of advantages like being able to do your work faster and avoid procrastination or it can help you seem smarter, confident and help you feel comfortable around others without the feeling of being left out. Even though there are genetical factors and natural talent that can make some people faster thinkers than others, there are plenty of ways to improve your thinking speed. But always remember that it won’t happen overnight, but with a little bit of effort and daily practice fast thinking is a skill that everyone can develop.


Early life of Mahatma Gandhi:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, into a Hindu Modh family in Porbanadar, Gujarat, India. His father, named Karamchand Gandhi, was the Chief Minister (diwan) of the city of Porbandar. His mother, named Putlibai.

At the age of 13, Mahatma Gandhi was married to Kasturba which is an arranged marriage. They had four sons namely Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas and Devdas. She supported all the endeavors of her husband until her death in 1944.


Gandhi attended a neighbourhood school in Rajkot when he was nine years old, where he learned the fundamentals of math, history, geography, and languages. He attended a high school in Rajkot when he was eleven years old. His studies were disrupted by his marriage for at least a year, after which he rejoined the school system and finished his education. In 1888, he enrolled in Samaldas College in Bhavnagar, Gujarat. Mavji Dave Joshi, a family friend, then sought higher education, including law, in London. Gandhiji, who was dissatisfied with his academic performance at Samaldas College, became thrilled about the London plan and persuaded his mother and wife that he would not touch non-vegetarian food, alcohol, or women.

Contribution of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian freedom struggle:

The Champaran Movement in 1917, the Kheda Movement in 1918, the Khilafat Movement in 1919, the Non-Cooperation Campaign in 1920, the Quit India Movement in 1942, and the Civil Disobedience Movement are all part of Mahatma Gandhi’s freedom movement.

Champaran Movement:

Being Gandhi’s first Satyagraha movement in India, the Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 is regarded as a pivotal uprising in the history of the Indian Independence Movement. During the British colonial era, there was a farmer’s uprising in the Champaran area of Bihar, India.

Kheda Movement:

Mahatma Gandhi organised the Kheda Satyagraha of 1918, a satyagraha movement in Gujarat, India, during the reign of the British Raj. In the fight for Indian independence, it was a significant uprising. It was the third Satyagraha movement, and it began four days after the mill strike in Ahmedabad. Gandhi organised the effort to aid peasants who were unable to pay the tax because of starvation and plague epidemic after the successful Satyagraha staged in Champaran in Bihar.

Khilafat movement;

In addition to advocating for a larger campaign of non-cooperation at the same time, Mahatma Gandhi had supported the movement as part of his opposition to the British Empire. Several prominent members of the Congress, such as Vallabhbhai Patel and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, also backed the initiative.

Non co-operation campaign:

The leading proponent of the non-cooperation movement was Mahatma Gandhi. He published a manifesto in March 1920 outlining the movement’s nonviolent noncooperation stance. Follow swadeshi ideals is what Gandhi urged people to do in his manifesto. Leaders.

Quit india Movement:

On August 8, 1942, during World War II, Mahatma Gandhi began the August Kranti Campaign, also known as the Quit India Movement, calling for the end of British rule in India at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee.

Civil disobedience Movement:

Civil disobedience, also known as passive resistance, is the act of refusing to comply with the requests or orders of a government or occupying power without using force or other aggressive forms of resistance. Its typical goal is to pressure the government or occupying power into making concessions.

Mahatma Gandhi as Father Of Nation:

Mahatma Gandhi is the common name for Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Gandhi was a nationalist, lawyer, and opponent of colonialism. In opposition to British control over India, he organised a nonviolent mass movement that eventually led to the country’s independence. In India, Mahatma Gandhi is regarded as the founding father of the country.

The Eleven vows of Mahatma Gandhi:









9.Sarva Dharma Samanatva

10.Asangraha non posession


these are the 11 vows of Mahatma Gandhi.


What is motivation?

The word “motive,” which refers to a person’s needs, wishes, wants, or drives, is the root of the word “motivation.” It is the process of inspiring people to act in order to accomplish a goal. In the context of career aspirations, psychological factors influencing people’s behaviour may include a desire for money.

How will you motivate yourself to achieve your goals:

1.Keep an ongoing review of your objectives and results. Making improvement is incredibly motivating in and of itself, and it also raises your self-esteem.

2.Continue to set new goals. Think about what you want to achieve next week, next month and next year. Tackle one goal at a time so you don’t feel overwhelmed.

3.Maintain the momentum. The average person needs  months to form a new habit, but it might take considerably longer for other people. Over time, it becomes increasingly automatic as long as the momentum and pattern are maintained.

4.Identify role models who have experience in the habit you want to change, such as someone you look up to. You might find a mentor by looking for social or support groups with a similar interest.

5.Be in the company of uplifting individuals. Your positive self-talk is strengthened by supportive friends and relatives. Moreover, it aids in the management of anxiety and depression symptoms.

6.Make exercising a daily priority to enhance your mental well-being.

Types of Motivation:

Motivation is four types.

They are:

1.Incentive motivation.

2.Fear motivation.

3.Power motivation.

4.Social motivation.

Importance of Motivation:

The general growth of a person’s personality and thinking depend greatly on their level of motivation. Together with that, it makes a person active and competitive. The efficiency and motivation to accomplish the goal both increase as a result. Stability and progress at work follow from it.

Self Motivation:

Self-motivation is the ability to remain motivated despite the impact of outside circumstances and individuals. Also, self-motivated people always find the strength and logic to finish a task. Also, they do not require outside motivation to complete a difficult activity.

Importance of Self Motivation:

In whatever task they are performing, they learn how to show their best selves. Because accomplishing their goals requires time and work, they grow more resilient. They are driven by passion, which gives them a desire to succeed. When they fail, they view the criticism as a teaching moment.

Types of Self Motivation:

1.Extrinsic Motivation.

2.Intrinsic Motivation

3.Family Motivation.

Self motivation is the key to success:

The capacity to inspire oneself to take initiative and action in pursuit of objectives and task completion is known as self-motivation. It’s an innate desire to act, to create, and to accomplish things. It is what motivates you to continue working on projects, especially those that you are pursuing for personal reasons rather than because someone else ordered you to.

The role of the Vice –President of India as the chairman of the Rajyasabha

The Vice-President of India holds a unique position in the country’s political landscape. Not only is the Vice-President the second-highest-ranking official in the government, but they also serve as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha, one of the two houses of Parliament. This dual role gives the Vice-President a significant responsibility in shaping the legislative agenda of the country.

Jagdeep Dhankhar, the 14th Vice-President of India

The Role of the Vice-President as Chairman of the Rajya Sabha:


As the chairman of the Rajya Sabha, the Vice-President presides over its proceedings and ensures that they are conducted in an orderly and efficient manner. They have the power to maintain order and decorum in the house and can expel members who engage in disruptive behavior.

One of the key responsibilities of the chairman of the Rajya Sabha is to ensure that the house functions smoothly and efficiently. This involves managing the time allotted for various debates, ensuring that all members get a chance to speak, and resolving any disputes that may arise during the proceedings.

The chairman of the Rajya Sabha also has the power to decide which bills and motions will be taken up for discussion and when. They work closely with the leaders of the various political parties in the house to ensure that the legislative agenda is balanced and reflects the interests of all sections of society.

In addition to their role as the presiding officer of the Rajya Sabha, the Vice-President also plays a critical role in the functioning of the Indian government. They serve as the backup to the President of India and assume the role of acting President in the event of the President’s absence or incapacity.

The Importance of the Vice-President’s Role:

The role of the Vice-President as chairman of the Rajya Sabha is critical to the functioning of India’s democracy. The Rajya Sabha plays a vital role in the legislative process, serving as a forum for debating and passing laws that impact the lives of millions of people across the country.

The chairman of the Rajya Sabha is responsible for ensuring that the proceedings of the house are conducted in a fair and impartial manner, allowing all members to voice their opinions and concerns. They must balance the interests of different political parties and ensure that the legislative agenda reflects the needs of the country as a whole.

Moreover, the Vice-President’s role as the backup to the President of India is equally important. In the event of a crisis or emergency, the Vice-President must be ready to step in and assume the responsibilities of the President, ensuring that the government continues to function smoothly and effectively.


In conclusion, the role of the Vice-President of India as chairman of the Rajya Sabha is critical to the functioning of the country’s democracy. They must manage the proceedings of the house, ensure that all members have a chance to speak, and balance the interests of different political parties. Moreover, as the backup to the President of India, the Vice-President must be ready to assume the responsibilities of the presidency in the event of a crisis or emergency. The Vice-President’s dual role gives them a unique position in India’s political landscape, and their contribution to the functioning of the government is invaluable.

The significance of the lion and bull figures in Indian mythology, art, and architecture.

India is a land of diverse cultures, traditions, and mythology. Its ancient texts, such as the Vedas, Puranas, and the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, are replete with tales of gods, goddesses, and mythical creatures. Among these creatures, two of the most significant are the lion and the bull, which have been depicted in Indian mythology, art, and architecture for centuries.

Popular Indian Epics

The Lion in Indian Mythology:

In Indian mythology, the lion is a symbol of power, strength, and courage. It is associated with various deities, such as Lord Vishnu, who is often depicted with a lion as his mount. Similarly, goddess Durga, the embodiment of feminine power, is depicted riding a lion or tiger. It is believed that the lion’s roar is so powerful that it can shake the foundations of the earth, and its strength can overpower any foe.

Lord Vishnu

One of the most famous stories involving a lion in Indian mythology is the tale of Narasimha, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. The story goes that the demon king Hiranyakashipu had received a boon from Lord Brahma that made him invincible. He became arrogant and began to torment the gods and humans. However, his son, Prahlada, was a devotee of Lord Vishnu and refused to worship his father. This enraged Hiranyakashipu, and he tried to kill Prahlada several times.

Lord Narasimha

Finally, he challenged Prahlada to show him where his God was, and when Prahlada pointed to a pillar, Hiranyakashipu smashed it open. To his surprise, a half-man, half-lion creature emerged from the pillar and killed him. This creature was Narasimha, who had been created to defeat Hiranyakashipu and restore peace to the world.

Lord Narasimha killing Hiranyakashipu

The Bull in Indian Mythology:

The bull, or Nandi, is another significant creature in Indian mythology. It is considered to be the vehicle of Lord Shiva and is often depicted kneeling in front of him. The bull symbolizes strength, fertility, and prosperity and is worshipped in many parts of India.

Nandi, Lord Shiva’s vehicle

According to Hindu mythology, the bull is said to have been created by Lord Shiva himself. The story goes that once when Lord Shiva was meditating, a demon named Jalandhara appeared before him and began to attack him. To defeat the demon, Lord Shiva created a bull from his own body and sent it to fight Jalandhara. The bull was successful in defeating the demon, and Lord Shiva was able to continue his meditation in peace.

The Significance of Lion and Bull in Indian Art and Architecture:

The lion and the bull are not only significant in Indian mythology but also in Indian art and architecture. They can be found in various forms, from sculptures to paintings and even on currency notes. These figures are often depicted in temples, palaces, and other important buildings, symbolizing the power and strength of the gods and kings.

One of the most famous examples of the lion’s significance in Indian architecture is the Ashoka Pillar, which was erected by Emperor Ashoka in the third century BCE. The pillar features a sculpture of four lions standing back to back, with the wheel of dharma between them. This sculpture has become an iconic symbol of India and can be found on the Indian national emblem.

Ashok Pillar: Sarnath

Similarly, the bull is also a common feature in Indian architecture, particularly in temples dedicated to Lord Shiva. One of the most famous examples of this is the Nandi Bull sculpture at the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. This sculpture is one of the largest in India, measuring over five meters in height and seven meters in length.

Brihadeeshwara temple: Thanjavur


In Indian mythology, the lion and the bull hold great significance as symbols of power, strength, and courage. These creatures have been depicted in Indian art and architecture for centuries, serving as reminders of the gods and kings who embody their qualities. From the Ashoka Pillar to the Brihadeeswarar Temple, the lion, and the bull continue to inspire and awe people with their majestic presence. They remain an integral part of India’s rich cultural heritage, reminding us of the enduring legacy of the country’s mythology and artistic traditions.

Has the formation of linguistic states strengthened the cause of Indian unity?

India, as a nation, is characterized by its diversity in terms of culture, religion, and language. The linguistic diversity of India has been a critical factor in the evolution of the Indian state. The formation of linguistic states in India was an effort to provide representation and autonomy to linguistic minorities in the country. The question that arises is whether the formation of linguistic states has strengthened the cause of Indian unity or not.

The idea of linguistic states was first proposed by the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) in 1955, which recommended the formation of states on the basis of linguistic and cultural identity. The commission’s recommendations were implemented in 1956, leading to the formation of states based on linguistic identity.

The formation of linguistic states was seen as a necessary step toward promoting the linguistic and cultural diversity of the country. The idea was to provide linguistic minorities with a voice in the political process and to give them a sense of identity and belonging. The formation of linguistic states was also seen as a way to address the concerns of regionalism and separatism, which were seen as a threat to the unity and integrity of the country.

Indian Map

The formation of linguistic states has had both positive and negative consequences for the cause of Indian unity. On the positive side, the formation of linguistic states has helped to preserve and promote the cultural diversity of the country. It has given linguistic minorities a sense of identity and has provided them with a voice in the political process. The formation of linguistic states has also helped to address the issue of regionalism and separatism by giving regions greater autonomy and representation.

On the negative side, the formation of linguistic states has led to the emergence of linguistic chauvinism and regionalism. It has led to the creation of linguistic and cultural silos, where people identify more with their linguistic and cultural identity than with the larger Indian identity. This has resulted in the emergence of regional political parties, which often focus on narrow regional interests rather than the larger national interest.

How British Imperialism Influenced the Creation of Linguistic States

The formation of linguistic states has also led to the emergence of language-based conflicts, such as the demand for separate statehood by linguistic minorities. This has led to violence and disruption in some parts of the country, such as the demand for Gorkhaland in West Bengal and the demand for Telangana in Andhra Pradesh.

In conclusion, the formation of linguistic states has had both positive and negative consequences for the cause of Indian unity. While it has helped to preserve and promote the cultural diversity of the country, it has also led to the emergence of linguistic chauvinism and regionalism. The challenge for India is to find a balance between promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and maintaining the unity and integrity of the country. It is essential to recognize that India’s strength lies in its diversity, and linguistic diversity is an essential part of that diversity. By recognizing and celebrating this diversity, India can strengthen its unity and emerge as a strong and vibrant nation.

The Sharabha Avatar

Sharabha is an avatar of Lord Shiva which is not commonly known. This is considered as the most powerful appearance taken by Shiva to protect the universe. His manifestation as Sharabeshwara was to dominate over the fierce embodiment of Lord Vishnu as Narasimha which was the combination of half human and half lion. The objective of Vishnu’s incarnation was to save his favorite devotee prince Prahalada from the demon king Hiranyakashipu who was his father too. After killing him, Narasimha seemed to be very furious in nature. He created an awful situation in the Universe by roaring dreadfully and continuously. By foreseeing the negative outcome of this, other Gods and sub-gods sought help from Mahadeva who then decided to take the Sharaba form to pacify the angry Narasimha and convert him to normal Vishnu.

The Sharaba form of Shiva was the structural blend of human, animal and bird with gigantic as well as blistering look. It had so many hands, claws and legs, and almost resembled a huge dragon. The entangled tresses in the body highlighted the ferocity of the structure to a greater extend. In the head there was a massive crest which looked like a dome. There were well spread wings on the back side of the body with a long tail. The extremely sharp incisors in the mouth and inflexible claws were its main weapons. Its thunder like voice created echo in the environments and was horrible to hear. It had three eyes which were glowing like fire balls. Its teeth and lips were well formed and can be seen properly. It produced awful hissing sounds throughout.

Narasimha is often visualized as having a human torso and lower body, with a lion face and claws. This image is widely worshiped in deity form by a significant number of Vaishnava groups. Vishnu assumed this form on top of Himvat Mountain (Harivamsa). He is known primarily as the ‘Great Protector’ who specifically defends and protects his devotees in times of need. Vishnu is believed to have taken the avatar to destroy the demon king Hiranyakashipu. The Puranas describe Lord Narasimha deva’s pastime of killing the demon, saying that the Lord consumed every drop of Hiranyakasipu’s blood, then wore the demon’s mangled body as a garland to make sure that none of the demon’s physical remains made contact with the universe.

So how did lord Narasimha died?

After the destruction, Prahlada, Laksmi and various demigods attempted to soothe the Lord’s anger, but without success. At first Lord Shiva took the form of Veerabhadra and asked Narasimha to cool down. But Narasimha ignored this appeal. So he himself transformed to colossal Sharabha which outclassed Narasimha both in structure and power. Then Sharabha lifted Narasimha with its long tail and was about to throw him. Narasimha realized this and prayed Sharabha to forgive him with beautiful epithets, which later became the Ashtothra (108 Names) of the victorious Lord.

Lord Shiva then revealed to all the Devas that: “To annihilate the Asura, Lord Narasimha came, and to appease Lord Narasimha, I have come as Sarabeswara. Be aware that we are both one and the same like water and water, milk and milk, ghee and ghee, both inseparable and to be worshipped as one”.

Lord Shiva ensured the recovery of Lord Vishnu from his ferocious nature and hence did not hurt him. As a mark of respect to Lord Shiva, Narasimha removed the skin of lion from his body and presented to Sharabeshwaramurti. Thus the incarnation as Sharabha by Lord Shiva pacified the Narasimha manifestation of Lord Vishnu. This embodiment of Shiva is referred as Sarabeswara. In Shiva temples idols of two Sharabheswara are found at the entrance of sanctum sanctorum. He embraced Sri Narasimha, cooled Him down and made Him accessible to all beings. This Sri Sharabhesvara is Lord Shiva’s universal Omkara form.

While numerous temple deities, painted images and sastric references are found to Lord Shiva’s Sharabha form, the major Puranas like Srimad Bhagavatam do not mention the Sharabha form of Lord Shiva. Likewise, no mention appears to have been made in the Upa Puranas like the Narasimha Purana, or other Upanishads associated with Sri Narasimha dev. Rather, they stop at the point in the lila pastime with the destruction of Hiranyakasipu and the pacification of the Lord’s anger by Bhakta Prahlad and the demigods and goddesses.

Although the post-destruction pastimes are not mentioned in the primary shastra, there are many references found to Shiva Sharabha and to Lord Narasimha deva’s own Sharabha Form – Gandaberunda. Included amongst them are references to Sri Narasimha’s Form as Gandaberunda, a rare two-headed bird incarnation worshipped in South India, as well as to versions of a pastime wherein Shiva Sharabha actually fought with and killed Lord Narasimha dev. Some have concluded that this incarnation of Shiva was simply created by a group of South Indian Shaivites as a means to position Shiva as being greater than Vishnu, and that question seems left to the discussions of academics and pandits.

In the Atharva Veda, the tenth of thirty-one Upanishads is the Sharabha Upanishad, which glorifies Lord Shiva in his fierce Sharabha manifestation. Verse 3 of this Upanishad states that Maheswarah took the form of Sharabha and killed Narasimha.


What is computer?

A computer is a programmable electronic device that accepts data, performs mathematical and logical processes as directed quickly, and displays the outcomes. There are many distinct kinds of computers, including mainframes, desktop and laptop computers, tablets, and cellphones.

The Basic components of a computer Hardware:

1.CPU(central processing unit)

2.RAM(Random Access Memory)

3.ROM(Read Only Memory)

4.Mother board



1.Cental Processing Unit:

The part of a computer that obtains and executes instructions is called the central processing unit (CPU). A CAD system’s CPU can be thought of as its brain. It is made up of a control unit, a number of registers, and an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). The term “processor” is frequently used to refer to the CPU.

2.Random Access Memory:

A computer’s short-term memory, or RAM (random access memory), is where the data that the processor is presently using is kept. RAM memory capacity is essential for system performance since your computer can access RAM memory data more faster than data on a hard drive, SSD, or other long-term storage device.

3.Read Only Memory:

A type of computer storage called read-only memory, or ROM, contains non-volatile, permanent data that typically may only be read from, not written to. The software that enables a computer to boot up or regenerate each time it is turned on is stored in the ROM.

4.Mother Board:

The primary printed circuit board in all-purpose computers and other expanding systems is called a motherboard. It provides connectors for additional peripherals and retains and enables communication between many of the critical electronic parts of a system, including the memory and central processing unit.


A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or textual form. A discrete monitor comprises a visual display, support electronics, power supply, housing, electrical connectors, and external user controls.


A computer mouse is a tiny, movable object that you can use to operate a variety of things. Most mouse types have two buttons, while some may also have a wheel positioned in the middle of the buttons. The majority of mouse models utilise the computer’s power and a cable connection to connect to it. Wireless mouse come in a few varieties.

versions of a computer:

On the basis of data handling capabilities. Three types of versions are there. they are

1.Analog computers.

2.Digital computers

3.Hybrid computers

1.Analog computers:


A computer that uses continually changing components, such as mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, etc. is known as an analogue computer. They originally saw use in the 1950s and 1960s. They employ continuous values rather than discrete ones. These computers therefore operate on an analogue signal.

2.Digital computers:


A digital electronic computer is a type of computer that is both an electrical computer and a digital computer, according to computer science. Digital electronic computers include devices like the Apple Macintosh, the IBM PC, and contemporary smartphones.

3.Hybrid computer:


Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit features of analog computers and digital computers. The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical and numerical operations, while the analog component often serves as a solver of differential equations and other mathematically complex problems. 

History of computer:

An abacus was one of the earliest and most well-known tools. The first mechanical computer was then being developed by Charles Babbage, the inventor of computers, in 1822. Finally, he created an analytical engine, a general-purpose computer, in 1833.

Top ten Universities Proving MBA

There many universities in the world and some of them have earned reputation of global standard.

Every year, many students plan to study abroad at top-ranked universities. The decision of selecting top-ranked universities in the world for your higher studies plays an important role in your academic and professional quest. You will get the best education with lots of international exposure at top universities. The ranking of the universities is measured through their global reputation, academics, teaching performance, research opportunities, etc. This article will bring a comprehensive list of top universities in the world as well as the popular study destinations for abroad study.

Are you looking for the world’s top universities? Following is the list of top universities in the world ranked by QS World University Ranking 2023 and Times Higher Education Ranking 2023.

List of Top 10 Universities in the World

UniversitiesQS World University Rank 2023THE World University Rank 2023
Massachusetts Institute of Technology15
University of Cambridge2=3
Stanford University3=3
University of Oxford41
Harvard University52
California Institute of Technology66
Imperial College London610
ETH Zurich9=11
University of Chicago1013

Harvard University

Ranked among the top universities in the world, Harvard University is one of the oldest universities in the USA founded in 1636. Almost 30% of the total students are from over 150 countries in the world. Some of the popular majors offered by Harvard are Computer Science, History, Social Sciences, Biological Sciences, Law, and Mathematics. Harvard University’s acceptance rate is 5%, so it is difficult for international students to get into this university.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private university based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This top-ranked university in the world and founded in 1861 to provide the best research program to students. Sloan School of Management and School of Engineering are some of its highly ranked graduate schools. Apart from this, its popular programs include Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, Psychology, and Economics. The acceptance rate of MIT is 7.3% because of which the Massachusetts Institute of Technology admissions are selective. 

Stanford University

Stanford University is a private research university founded in 1891. This university is placed among the top 5 universities in the world. The students to faculty ratio of Stanford is 7:1 better than other universities in the world. Stanford University is located in the heart of Northern California’s Silicon Valley, which is home to top tech giants and multinational companies like Yahoo!, Google, Microsoft, and Hewlett-Packard.

California Institute of Technology

California Institute of Technology is among the best university to study engineering in USA. It is the leading private university in the world. Caltech has five institutes namely Beckman Institute, Kavli Nanoscience Institute, Rosen Bioengineering Center, Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience, and the Resnick Sustainability Institute. Caltech is known for offering excellent science and engineering-related programs in the USA.

University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge is the world’s fourth oldest and most respected university with its origin going back to 1209. The research university is the second-oldest English-speaking University. Cambridge specializes in offering high-quality education in social sciences, arts, humanities and sciences, and engineering. It is extremely difficult to get into Cambridge and share the experience of studying with some of the brightest minds.

Popular Universities among Top 100 in the World

UniversitiesTHE World University Rank 2023QS World University Rank 2023
Columbia University, US=1122
University of Pennsylvania1413
Rockefeller UniversityNANA
Johns Hopkins University, US1524
Cornell University, US2020
University of California – Los Angeles Campus2144
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor2325
Duke University, US2550
Northwestern University, US=2632

Note: The order of the universities is not based on their rankings.

As we see Universities in USA dominate in top-ranked universities in the world. Therefore, we can conclude that the USA is the top study destination in the world followed by the United Kingdom (UK). The regular contenders Australia and Canada have proved their mettle in the field of higher education. In addition, Singapore has emerged as the top-most study destination for international students in Asia. China is also emerging as a preferred destination for international students.

Factors for Calculating World University Ranking

1. Academic reputation (40%)

2. Employer reputation (10%)

3. Faculty/student ratio (20%)

4. Citations per faculty (20%)

5. International student ratio (5%)

6. International faculty ratio (5%)


In every nation on earth, women are the primary kid and elder caretakers. Worldwide studies show that women take the lead in assisting the family in adjusting to new realities and problems as a society’s economy and political structure change.

These are the fundamental building blocks of society; they form a family, which in turn forms a home, which in turn forms a society, which in turn forms a nation. Hence, from giving birth and caring for a child throughout their entire life, women contribute in many different ways.

They are portraying a professional, a competent housewife, and a proud mother and daughter. In the past, women were only thought of as caring for the home and young children. Yet these days, people work in many industries to discover their hidden skills as well as to get independence and make money for themselves

Women’s role as a family guide:

The success of sustainable development and family life depends on women. The different roles that women play in the family include those of wife, head of the household, administrator, manager of finances, and last but not least, mother.

women’s role in education system:

Women with education can contribute significantly to society’s socioeconomic growth. Inequalities and disparities are eliminated through education as a way to regain one’s standing both inside and outside of one’s family. It is essential to women’s empowerment, prosperity, growth, and wellbeing.

In addition to encouraging their girl children’s education, educated women are better able to guide their entire family. Moreover, educated women can contribute to population increase and a decline in infant mortality.

women’s role in politics:

In terms of the percentage of women in Parliament, India comes in twenty-first from the bottom. In India, women have served as president, prime minister, and chief ministers of several different states. Women have long been elected by Indian people to various state legislative bodies and the national parliament.

As a working women:

Working women typically view their employment favourably because it has a significant impact on their status. Notwithstanding the impact that stress and family issues play, employment inevitably improves her status, boosts her feeling of self-worth, and gives her higher psychological well-being.

Women’s role in sports:

Sports have long been recognised for their beneficial effects on young girls’ and women’s liberation. Sports participation can help dispel gender stereotypes, boost women’s and girls’ self-esteem, and promote the growth of leadership and strategic thinking abilities.

The role of women in society:

1.A women should be given equal opportunities i socially and economically.

2.Because they are women, they must always be respected and never treated with disrespect.

3.Schooling should be made available for the girls in the rural area

4.Women should be headstrong and believe in them. They must voice their option without any fear.

5.During the middle ages, the women’s position in the society became inferior as compared to men, and the condition of the deteriorated.

6.We should remember the contribution of woman leaders and have a positive attitude towards woman controlling the government.

To what extent globalization has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India?

Globalization has become an increasingly influential force in shaping the world we live in today. Its impact can be seen in every aspect of our lives, from the way we communicate to the products we buy. India, with its rich cultural diversity, has also been significantly influenced by globalization. The question that arises is to what extent has globalization influenced the core of cultural diversity in India?

India has always been a diverse country, with a rich tapestry of cultures, traditions, and languages. Globalization has undoubtedly had an impact on this diversity, both positive and negative. On the one hand, it has led to the spread of Indian culture and traditions across the world, as well as the adoption of foreign cultures in India. On the other hand, it has also led to the erosion of some traditional cultural practices and values.

One of the most significant impacts of globalization on India’s cultural diversity has been the spread of Western culture. The influence of Western culture can be seen in the way people dress, the music they listen to, and the food they eat. The rise of globalization has led to the proliferation of Western-style malls and fast-food chains in India, leading to the displacement of traditional markets and food vendors. This has led to concerns about the homogenization of cultures, as traditional practices and values are replaced by Western ones.

Globalization has also had a significant impact on the entertainment industry in India. Bollywood, India’s film industry, has become increasingly global in its outlook. It has led to the spread of Indian cinema across the world, with Bollywood films becoming popular in countries such as the United States, China, and Japan. This has helped to promote Indian culture and traditions across the world.

Bollywood as a means of globalization

However, the rise of globalization has also led to the erosion of some traditional cultural practices in India. The spread of Western values and lifestyles has led to a decline in traditional practices such as joint families, arranged marriages, and the caste system. This has led to concerns about the loss of cultural identity and the impact of globalization on India’s social fabric.

Traditional way of farming

In conclusion, globalization has undoubtedly had an impact on India’s cultural diversity. While it has led to the spread of Indian culture across the world, it has also led to the erosion of some traditional cultural practices and values. The challenge for India is to find a balance between embracing the benefits of globalization and preserving its rich cultural diversity. It is essential to recognize the importance of preserving traditional practices and values while also embracing the opportunities that globalization presents. India’s cultural diversity is a source of its strength, and it is important to ensure that it remains an integral part of its identity in a globalized world.

How clean energy is the order of the day?

The world is rapidly moving towards a clean energy revolution. As concerns about climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on the environment continue to grow, governments, businesses, and individuals are increasingly turning to clean energy sources such as wind, solar, and hydropower.


Clean energy is the order of the day because it is essential to combat climate change. Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of energy for the world. However, their use has led to the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming and climate change. The transition to clean energy is critical to reducing these emissions and mitigating their impact on the environment.

Clean energy is also becoming increasingly cost-competitive. In the past, renewable energy sources were more expensive than traditional fossil fuels. However, as technology has improved, the cost of renewable energy has decreased significantly, making it a more affordable and viable option for many countries.

Countries using clean energy

The benefits of clean energy go beyond environmental and economic advantages. It also has social benefits. Many communities around the world do not have access to reliable electricity, and the use of traditional fossil fuels such as kerosene for lighting and cooking can have serious health implications. The use of clean energy sources such as solar and wind can provide these communities with reliable and clean energy, improving their health and quality of life.

Renewable sources of energy

The transition to clean energy is not without its challenges. The infrastructure required to support clean energy is still developing, and the intermittency of some renewable sources such as solar and wind can make it challenging to maintain a stable energy supply. However, with continued investment in research and development, these challenges can be overcome.

Research on clean energy

Governments, businesses, and individuals all have a role to play in the transition to clean energy. Governments can provide incentives and policy frameworks to encourage investment in clean energy sources, while businesses can invest in research and development and the deployment of renewable energy systems. Individuals can make lifestyle changes such as reducing energy consumption and investing in rooftop solar panels.

Government of India supporting clean energy

In conclusion, clean energy is the order of the day. It is essential to combat climate change, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve access to energy for all communities around the world. The transition to clean energy is not without its challenges, but with continued investment and commitment from governments, businesses, and individuals, we can build a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable future for ourselves and future generations.

Is boredom only a perspective?

What is the most ridiculous thing you’ve ever done to pass time?

Depressed musician vintage drawing by The British Library is licensed under CC-CC0 1.0

Francis Bacon , the famous English philosopher once said “I don’t think there is any truth. There are only points of view. Boredom, for example, is a point of view. So is total exaltation.” well if that is the case we have been viewing boredom all wrong! For most people, boredom is a dreaded feeling we all try to avoid at all costs. it’s that moment we are stuck in a meeting or in traffic, and we feel like our brain is slowly turning to mush. but according to Francis Bacon, its all just a matter of perspective. boredom is a point of view which means we can choose to see it in a different light.

What is boredom?

Boredom is a universal experience that we all encounter. It’s that feeling of restlessness, dissatisfaction, and the disinterest that creeps in every now and then when we have nothing to do or when we are doing something that fails to engage us. While boredom is a common human experience it’s also a complex and multifaceted emotion that has intrigued psychologists for decades. While most people view boredom as a negative emotion, it can also be seen as a signal that something is amiss in our lives. For example if we are bored at work it could mean that we need more challenging projects or that our values and interest don’t align with our work anymore. As Salvador Dali one said “Boredom is the mother of all creativity.” Boredom can motivate us to seek out new experiences, learn new things or make changes to our environment.

What causes boredom?

There are many factors that leads to the feeling of boredom, including

Monotony: Doing the same thing over and over again can quickly lead to boredom. This is especially true when the activities lack novelty and variation.

Lack of challenge: When a task is too easy or doesn’t require much effort, it can fail to engage us and lead to boredom.

Lack of control: When we feel that we have no control over our situation we may feel helpless and disengaged leading to boredom.

Understimulation: When we are not receiving enough sensory input, we may feel bored. this happens in situations where there is little to no stimulation like waiting in line or sitting in traffic.

Overstimulation: When we are overstimulated we become bored as our brains become overwhelmed and desensitized to the stimuli.

The Effects of boredom

While boredom may seem like an harmless emotion, it can have significant effect on our health and well-being. Chronic boredom has been linked to a range of negative outcomes like anxiety, depression, substance abuse and also many health problems. So one of the main problem of boredom is that it can lead to negative coping strategies like eating too much food, drugs or alcohol. These behaviors can give you temporary relief but can lead to long term negative consequences.

Ways to alleviating boredom

Engage in new activities: One way to compact boredom is to try new activities that challenges your brain. This keeps our brains busy and alleviate boredom.

Set Goals: Setting goals can give us a sense of direction, which helps alleviate boredom

Practice mindfulness: Practices such as meditation can help us be more present and engaged in the movement, which can alleviate boredom

Finding meaning: Find the meaning and purpose in every activity we do. The question we should ask ourselves is “why are we dong this activity right now?” or “How does it benefit me in the long run?” Once we know the answer we are likely to be more engaged in what we do and feel less bored.

Take breaks: Continuously working for hours can make us fell drained or overwhelmed, this can lead to loss of motivation and boredom. So sometimes taking brakes from an activity can recharge our batteries and we will be able to come back to it with renewed energy and interest.

Boredom is a very common human experience that can have significant impact on our mental and physical wellbeing. But by understanding the cause and effect of boredom we can develop strategies to alleviate it and lead more fulfilling lives.

So there you have it Folks. boredom and total exaltation are just points of view, according to Francis Bacon. While we may not be able to achieve total exaltation all the time, but with proper strategies we certainly can find ways to make the most of our moments of boredom and cultivate moments of joy and creativity. After all life is too short to be bored all the time!

How to get relief from menstrual cramps?

Certain over-the-counter products and home remedies, like using a heating pad, may help relieve pain associated with period cramps. Avoiding certain foods may also help.

It’s common to feel discomfort around your abdomen, lower back, and thighs when you’re menstruating. During your period, the muscles of your womb contract and relax to help shed built-up lining. It may include nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhea.

Some tips to reduce pain are:-

1. Taking over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

2. Applying heat

3. Massaging with essential oils

4. Having an orgasm

5. Avoiding certain foods such as alcohol, beverage, fatty foods, caffeine and salty foods.

6. Adding herbs to your diet

Maintaining a healthy diet and keeping up a regular exercise regimen can go a long way toward preventing menstrual pain. A 2016 study Trusted Source of 250 women found significant differences between period pain in women who maintained a nutritious diet, exercised regularly, and reduced stress. Generally, a diet geared toward decreasing menstrual pain should be high in minimally processed foods, fiber, and plants.

Boron is a mineral that helps your body absorb calcium and phosphorus. It also reduces menstrual cramps.

A 2015 study that looked at 113 university students found that boron reduced the intensity and length of menstrual pain. The foods include are avocado, peanut butter, bananas etc.

It sounds odd, but drinking water keeps your body from retaining water and helps to avoid painful bloating during menstruation. Warm or hot water is usually better for cramps, as hot liquids increase blood flow to your skin and may relax cramped muscles.

The idea of exercising immediately before or during your period may not appeal to you, but exercise releases endorphins.

Research suggests exercise is effective at reducing menstrual pain to the extent it may also eliminate or reduce the need for pain-relief medication. Moderate activity such as walking can be beneficial during your period in place of more strenuous activity. Yoga is a gentle exercise that releases endorphins and can help prevent or reduce menstrual symptoms. Some poses are :-

Cat-Cow pose
Child’s pose
Plank pose
Cobra pose

Remember taking care of your body as well as your mind during that time of the month is the utmost priority for all women out there as well as the responsibility of their men too to look after them and just ask what they need.

Comment down your views and tips that you want to share below.

Subhash Chandrabose Vs Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for India’s Freedom

The Indian freedom struggle was a long and arduous journey that involved the efforts of several leaders and activists. Among the prominent leaders of the freedom struggle were Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi. While both of these leaders shared the same goal of freeing India from British colonial rule, they differed significantly in their approaches to achieving this goal.

Subhash Chandra Bose (Left); Mahatma Gandhi (Right).

Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as Netaji, was a charismatic and dynamic leader who believed in direct action and armed struggle to achieve freedom for India. He believed that the British would never leave India voluntarily and that the use of force was necessary to achieve freedom. Bose’s approach was influenced by his belief in the importance of military power and his admiration for the success of revolutionary movements in other countries.

Netaji Subhash Chandrabose

Bose’s approach to the freedom struggle was reflected in his establishment of the Indian National Army (INA) in 1942. The INA was formed with the objective of using military force to drive the British out of India. Bose’s approach was controversial, and his methods were often criticized by other leaders of the freedom struggle.

Netaji with his Indian National Army.

Mahatma Gandhi, on the other hand, believed in nonviolent resistance as the most effective means of achieving freedom for India. Gandhi’s approach was based on his belief in the power of truth and nonviolence to effect change. He believed that nonviolent resistance would create moral pressure on the British to leave India and would inspire Indians to stand up for their rights.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Gandhi’s approach to the freedom struggle was reflected in his campaigns of nonviolent resistance, such as the Salt Satyagraha and the Quit India movement. These campaigns involved peaceful protests, civil disobedience, and noncooperation with the British authorities. Gandhi’s approach was widely supported by the Indian people, and his campaigns of nonviolent resistance played a critical role in the eventual achievement of Indian independence.

Quit India movement.

The differences between Bose’s and Gandhi’s approaches to the freedom struggle were significant. While Bose believed in the use of force and military power, Gandhi believed in nonviolence and peaceful resistance. Bose’s approach was based on the idea of taking direct action against the British, while Gandhi’s approach was based on creating moral pressure on the British through nonviolent resistance.

Another significant difference between Bose’s and Gandhi’s approach to the freedom struggle was their attitude toward religion. Bose was a secular leader who believed that religion had no place in politics. Gandhi, on the other hand, was a deeply religious leader who believed that religion played a critical role in politics and public life.

To conclude, Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi were two prominent leaders of the Indian freedom struggle who differed significantly in their approach to achieving independence for India. Bose believed in the use of force and military power, while Gandhi believed in nonviolence and peaceful resistance. While their approaches were different, both leaders made significant contributions to the freedom struggle, and their legacy continues to inspire future generations of Indians.

The Role Of Women In The Freedom Struggle Especially During The Gandhian Phase

India’s freedom struggle was a long and arduous journey that spanned several decades. The Gandhian phase of the Indian freedom struggle, which began in 1915 and lasted until 1947, was a critical period in India’s fight for independence. During this phase, women played a vital role in the freedom struggle, contributing in various ways to the movement.

A gathering during the Indian Independence Day Act

Women’s involvement in the Gandhian phase of the Indian freedom struggle was not limited to a particular class, religion, or region. Women from all walks of life participated in the movement, including peasants, urban workers, middle-class professionals, and elite women. These women actively contributed to the movement, challenging the norms of society that relegated them to the margins.

One of the most significant contributions of women during the Gandhian phase of the freedom struggle was their participation in nonviolent protests. Women took part in marches, picketing, and satyagraha movements, which were a hallmark of the Gandhian phase of the freedom struggle. Women’s participation in these protests was an assertion of their agency and a demonstration of their commitment to the cause of freedom.

A fistful of salt: Women actively participated in large numbers during the salt satyagraha at Dandi Beach under Gandhiji.

Women’s contribution to the nationalistic discourse was also significant during this period. They actively participated in debates, discussions, and public meetings, where they articulated their views on the political and social issues of the day. Women’s involvement in the nationalistic discourse challenged the patriarchal structures of society, which had relegated them to the margins of public life.

Indian women, post-independence.

Women’s role in the freedom struggle was not limited to protests and political engagement. They also played a vital role in the social and economic empowerment of women. Women’s organizations, such as the All India Women’s Conference and the National Council of Women, worked towards improving the status of women and promoting their participation in public life. These organizations helped women acquire skills, provided them with education, and encouraged their participation in the political process.

Skilled women, using charkha to earn a living.

One of the most prominent women leaders of the Gandhian phase of the freedom struggle was Sarojini Naidu. She was a poet, a writer, and a social activist, who played a critical role in the freedom movement. She was actively involved in the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement, and the Quit India Movement. She was also the first woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress.

Sarojini Naidu, the nightingale of India.

Another notable woman leader of the freedom struggle was Kasturba Gandhi, the wife of Mahatma Gandhi. Kasturba was an active participant in the nonviolent protests led by her husband and played a critical role in organizing women’s groups to support the freedom struggle. She was also a prominent figure in the women’s movement and worked towards improving the status of women in society.

Kasturba Gandhi.

To conclude, women played a vital role in the Gandhian phase of the Indian freedom struggle. They challenged patriarchal structures, participated in nonviolent protests, contributed to the nationalistic discourse, and worked towards the social and economic empowerment of women. Their contribution to the freedom struggle was critical, and it paved the way for the recognition of women’s rights in independent India. The legacy of these women leaders continues to inspire women’s participation in public life and their pursuit of equality and justice.


Social media supports many businesses as well as society as a whole. It offers resources like social media marketing tools to connect with millions of potential customers. Using social media, we may easily access information and obtain news. Any social cause can benefit greatly from the usage of social media.

Social media in our society used in several ways.

they are:

1.Education .




In many ways social media used.


Teachers can use social media to connect with their peoples. even when they are not in the classroom. Students may access an infinite number of resources and texts from reliable sources by using social media platforms, which they can then use to their advantage in essays, projects, and presentations.

Students are inspired and encouraged to learn through the usage of social media platforms in the classroom. Major factors that contribute to educational progress include simple access to e-books, online notes, and learning through video conversations.

Advantages of social media in Education:

1.To learn new things for studying

2.Social media provides current information and updates to the students.

3.Increases connections among to the students.

4.Learn new skills to students

5.Improve Knowledge retention and understanding.

6.It builds a community for students.

7.Even Teachers are out of the station .They are communicate in online class room.


Most farmers today use smartphones with internet and social media capabilities. Social media is being used by farmers to exchange information, novel techniques, etc. The most well-known social media sites for agricultural marketing. .The spread of various agricultural information is being greatly aided by social media in the agricultural sector. It aids in bridging the geographic gap that separates farmers in various locations.

Advantages of social media in Agriculture:

1.Advanced training provided by farmers on use of social media.

2.Farmers share there plans in groups by use of socil medioa.

3.create organic content.

4.Get knowledge about what type of crops are in fields.


Social media provides a venue for businesses to engage with their clients and establish a cherished relationship, making social media marketing a crucial component of digital marketing. It streamlines communication between brands and customers by cutting out the middlemen.

Advantages of social media in Business:

1.Develope the brand of our business.

2.Do market research and reduce marketing prices

3.Increase your market,international market business.

4.attract customers, get customer feedback and build customer loyalty.

5.Improve business ideas to develop business.

6.keep an eye for your competitors.


In essence, social entertainment marketing may be used to describe any type of online content that is published or broadcast with the intention of entertaining its audience. Long or short-form videos, live streaming, and other types of content that promote a closer relationship between content producers and users are now popular trends.

The popular social media entertainment apps are You tube,face book,Whats app,Instagram,Twitter,Tiktok.

Advantages of social media on Entertainment:

1.Use of social media for promoting and advertising.

2.To watch movies on online OTT platforms.

3.Stress relief for entertaining apps.

4.stay update on local and global events.

5.Enjoy video games and films.

6.Wide range of availability.

Disadvantages of social media:

1.It addict the people.

2.Self image issues

3.Increasing of usage, The more time spent on social media can lead to social anxiety,depression and exposure content

that is not appropriate.

4.A fear of missing out can keep you returning to social media again and again.

5.Feeling inadequate about your life or your appearance.

The economic significance of the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences

The Arctic Sea is known for its frigid temperatures and harsh weather conditions, but it is also a region that is rich in natural resources, including oil. The discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea has significant economic implications, but it also raises concerns about the potential environmental consequences.

Arctic Ocean

The Arctic region is estimated to contain up to 90 billion barrels of oil, which is equivalent to 13% of the world’s undiscovered oil reserves. This represents a significant opportunity for economic growth and energy security for countries that have access to this resource. The potential economic benefits of the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea are numerous, including increased investment, job creation, and increased revenues for governments.

Oil mining in the Arctic Sea

The discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea is particularly significant for countries like Russia, Canada, Norway, and Denmark, which all have territories in the region. These countries are already major oil producers and have the infrastructure and expertise necessary to extract oil from the Arctic Sea. In addition, the melting of Arctic ice due to climate change has made it easier to access previously inaccessible oil reserves.

Arctic Ocean Countries

However, the extraction of oil from the Arctic Sea also poses significant environmental risks. The region is home to a delicate ecosystem that is already under threat due to climate change. The extraction of oil could result in spills and leaks that could have devastating consequences for the environment and the animals that live in the region. The harsh weather conditions in the Arctic Sea also make it difficult to contain and clean up spills, which could result in long-term damage to the environment.

Melting of glaciers due to oil mining in the arctic ocean

In addition to the environmental risks, the extraction of oil from the Arctic Sea also contributes to climate change. The burning of fossil fuels, including oil, is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming. As the Arctic Sea becomes more accessible due to melting ice, the extraction of oil could accelerate the process of climate change, leading to more severe weather events, rising sea levels, and other environmental problems.

Green House Gas Emissions

Despite the potential environmental risks, the economic benefits of the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea are significant. As such, there is a need for a balanced approach that takes into account both the economic benefits and the environmental risks. This could include measures to reduce the environmental impact of oil extraction, such as the use of new technologies and best practices to minimize spills and leaks. It could also include investments in renewable energy sources that could reduce the world’s dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to a cleaner and more sustainable future.

Oil spillage due to oil mining

In conclusion, the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea has significant economic implications, but it also raises concerns about the potential environmental consequences. The extraction of oil could lead to spills and leaks that could have devastating consequences for the environment and contribute to climate change. As such, there is a need for a balanced approach that takes into account both the economic benefits and the environmental risks of oil extraction in the Arctic Sea.

Can Germany Be Held Responsible For Causing The Two World Wars?

The two World Wars are arguably the most catastrophic events in modern history. Millions of people lost their lives, and countless others were affected in unimaginable ways. As such, it is natural for people to seek answers as to what caused these wars. One of the most commonly discussed factors is the role of Germany. Many people believe that Germany, specifically the German government, was primarily responsible for causing both World Wars. However, this is a complex issue that requires careful analysis.

A painting depicting the plight of thousands of martyrs during World War 1

To begin with, it is important to acknowledge that Germany played a significant role in both World Wars. In the case of World War I, Germany was one of the main instigators of the conflict. The country’s aggressive foreign policy, particularly its support for Austria-Hungary in the aftermath of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, helped to spark the war. Additionally, Germany’s invasion of Belgium and its use of unrestricted submarine warfare were significant factors in the escalation of the conflict.

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

In the case of World War II, Germany was once again a major player. The country’s invasion of Poland in 1939, which led to the formal declaration of war by Britain and France, marked the beginning of the conflict. Additionally, Germany’s aggressive expansionist policies in Europe, as well as its alliance with Italy and Japan, contributed to the outbreak of war.

Germans invading Poland under Hitler’s dictatorship

However, it is important to recognize that Germany was not the only country involved in these conflicts. Other nations, such as Britain, France, Russia, and the United States, also played important roles. Furthermore, the causes of the two World Wars were multifaceted and involved numerous political, economic, and social factors.

The Allied Forces and the Axis Forces during World

In the case of World War I, for example, the complex system of alliances between European nations, the arms race, and the competition for colonial territories all contributed to the outbreak of war. Similarly, in the case of World War II, the Treaty of Versailles, which imposed harsh economic sanctions on Germany after World War I, and the rise of fascist regimes in Italy and Japan, were significant factors.

Paris peace conference and the signing of the treaty of Versailles.

It is also important to acknowledge that not all Germans were responsible for causing the two World Wars. While the German government and military leadership played a significant role in both conflicts, many ordinary Germans were also victims of the wars. Millions of German civilians were killed or displaced during both World Wars, and many others were conscripted into the military against their will.

German Civilians during World War 1.

In conclusion, while Germany certainly played a significant role in causing the two World Wars, it is important to avoid simplistic explanations that assign all responsibility to a single country. The causes of these conflicts were complex and multifaceted and involved numerous political, economic, and social factors. Furthermore, it is important to acknowledge that many ordinary Germans were also victims of the wars. Ultimately, understanding the causes of the two World Wars requires a nuanced and comprehensive approach that takes into account the actions of all nations involved.

Indian Independence Without Mahatma Gandhi

The struggle for Indian independence from British colonial rule was a long and difficult one, marked by a series of protests, movements, and uprisings. While there were many leaders who played important roles in this struggle, it is widely acknowledged that the achievement of Indian independence would have been much more difficult without the influence and leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

Image of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhi’s Role in the Independence Struggle:

Mahatma Gandhi was a central figure in the Indian independence struggle, using his philosophy of non-violent resistance, or satyagraha, to lead a series of movements and campaigns against British colonial rule. Gandhi’s ideas and leadership were instrumental in uniting the Indian people around a common cause and inspiring them to take action against the British.

Gandhi at the time of Indian Independence

Gandhi’s Influence on the Indian National Congress:

Gandhi’s influence on the Indian National Congress, the leading political party in the struggle for independence, was particularly significant. Gandhi joined the Congress in 1919 and quickly became a prominent figure within the party, advocating for non-violent resistance and leading a number of successful campaigns against the British.

Indian National Congress Logo

Under Gandhi’s leadership, Congress became a mass movement that attracted millions of Indians from all walks of life. Gandhi’s ability to connect with people and inspire them to take action was critical in creating a unified movement for independence that transcended caste, religion, and regional differences.

Gandhi’s Influence on International Opinion:

Gandhi’s influence extended beyond India, as he became a global symbol of resistance against colonialism and oppression. His philosophy of non-violent resistance inspired movements for civil rights and social justice around the world, including the American civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Gandhi’s international influence helped to raise awareness of the Indian independence struggle and put pressure on the British to grant India its independence. His ability to connect with people from different cultures and backgrounds helped to create a powerful international coalition of support for the Indian cause.

The Difficulty of Achieving Independence Without Gandhi:

Without Gandhi’s leadership and influence, the achievement of Indian independence would have been much more difficult. Gandhi’s ability to unite the Indian people and create a mass movement for independence was critical in putting pressure on the British and forcing them to grant India its freedom.

British Atrocities

Without Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, the independence struggle may have descended into violent conflict, leading to a much longer and bloodier struggle for independence. Gandhi’s international influence also helped to raise awareness of the Indian cause and put pressure on the British to grant India its independence.

Gandhi’s philosophy of Non-Violence


In conclusion, the achievement of Indian independence would have been much more difficult without the influence and leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, his ability to unite the Indian people, and his international influence were all critical in the struggle for independence. While there were many leaders who played important roles in this struggle, Gandhi’s contribution was unique and irreplaceable. His legacy as a global symbol of resistance against oppression and injustice continues to inspire people around the world to this day.

The Effects Of Globalization On The Aged Population of India

Globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people, economies, and cultures around the world, has had significant effects on populations of all ages in countries around the world. In India, a rapidly aging population has been impacted by the forces of globalization in a number of ways, both positive and negative.

Demographic Shifts:

India is experiencing a significant demographic shift, with the proportion of elderly people in the population expected to rise from 8% in 2015 to 19% by 2050. This shift is a result of a combination of factors, including increased life expectancy and declining birth rates. Globalization has played a role in these demographic changes, as access to better healthcare and improved standards of living have led to longer lifespans and smaller families.

Positive Effects:

One positive effect of globalization on the aged population in India has been increased access to healthcare and medical treatment. Globalization has brought with it new medical technologies, improved pharmaceuticals, and access to global networks of medical experts, all of which have helped to improve the health outcomes of the elderly population in India.

Globalization has also created new opportunities for elderly people to stay engaged in the workforce and remain economically active. Advances in technology and the rise of the gig economy have made it easier for elderly people to find work and stay productive, even as they age.

Negative Effects:

However, globalization has also had negative effects on the aged population in India. One major challenge is the erosion of traditional family structures, which have often been the primary source of support for elderly people in India. As younger generations have migrated to cities and adopted more Westernized lifestyles, the traditional family structure has come under strain, leaving many elderly people without the social and economic support they need.

Left: Nuclear Family; Right: Joint Family.

Another negative effect of globalization is the growing prevalence of ageism or discrimination against elderly people. In India, as in many other countries, youth-oriented cultural values and trends have created a perception that older people are less valuable or less relevant than their younger counterparts. This has led to a range of negative attitudes and behaviors towards the elderly population, including exclusion from social and economic opportunities.


In conclusion, the effects of globalization on the aged population in India are complex and multifaceted. While globalization has brought with it improvements in healthcare and increased economic opportunities, it has also created new challenges and exacerbated existing ones. As India continues to grapple with the challenges of an aging population, it will be important to find ways to address the negative effects of globalization while harnessing its positive impacts. This may involve strengthening traditional family structures, investing in healthcare and social services, and promoting more inclusive and age-friendly attitudes and policies.

How was Africa chopped into states artificially created by the accident of European competition?

The continent of Africa is made up of 54 countries, each with its own unique culture, language, and history. However, the way that these countries are divided and organized is not necessarily reflective of the continent’s indigenous population or their natural boundaries. Rather, the current geopolitical landscape of Africa is a product of a complex history of colonialism and European competition for resources and territory.

The Scramble for Africa:

The “Scramble for Africa” refers to the period of rapid colonization and exploitation of the African continent by European powers in the late 19th century. This period was marked by the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, during which European powers convened to negotiate and divide up African territory among themselves. At the time, European nations had developed superior military technology and were eager to expand their empires, as well as access the continent’s abundant natural resources, including rubber, diamonds, and ivory.

The result of the Berlin Conference was a hodgepodge of borders and boundaries that were drawn up by European powers with little regard for Africa’s indigenous populations. In many cases, these borders cut across ethnic and linguistic groups, creating artificial states and perpetuating divisions that would have lasting effects on the continent.

Arbitrary Borders:

The borders that were established during the Scramble for Africa often divided groups that shared cultural, linguistic, and historical ties. For example, the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria were split across the borders of modern-day Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea, despite their shared language and cultural heritage. Similarly, the Maasai people of Kenya and Tanzania were divided by a colonial border, which made it difficult for them to continue their traditional pastoral lifestyle.

Arbitrary Borders In Africa

The arbitrary nature of these borders has contributed to conflicts and tensions between neighboring countries, as well as within countries. Ethnic groups that were divided by colonial borders may feel a stronger allegiance to their fellow kin across the border than to the national government of their own country, leading to separatist movements and calls for secession.

Impact on Development:

The artificial borders of Africa have also had a significant impact on the continent’s economic and political development. In many cases, borders were drawn to maximize the extraction of resources for European powers, rather than to create viable and sustainable states. This legacy of resource extraction has persisted into the modern era, as African countries struggle with corruption, inequality, and underdevelopment.

The arbitrary borders of Africa have also made it difficult for countries to cooperate on a regional level, which has hindered economic growth and development. Regional trade agreements, for example, are often stymied by the fact that the borders of African countries do not correspond with natural trade routes or economic zones. This has prevented African countries from harnessing the benefits of trade and integration that have been enjoyed by other regions of the world.


In conclusion, the current geopolitical landscape of Africa is a product of a complex history of colonialism and European competition for resources and territory. The arbitrary borders that were established during the Scramble for Africa have perpetuated divisions between ethnic and linguistic groups, hindered economic and political development, and contributed to conflicts and tensions on the continent. While it is impossible to undo the legacy of colonialism, there is a growing recognition among African leaders and intellectuals of the need to rethink the borders and boundaries of the continent, to create more sustainable and equitable societies.

Yoga Asanas that help in weight loss

The development of yoga has benefited many people in losing weight in a healthy way. Yoga for weight loss is a debatable topic. Many people believe that Yoga alone does not promote weight loss.

Yoga, when combined with healthy eating, has proven beneficial as it helps to lose weight along with keeping your mind and body healthy.

Yoga increases your mindfulness and how you relate to your body. You will start seeking out food that is healthy instead of binging on food that can increase your fat accumulation.

Losing weight has two important aspects, healthy eating, and exercise. Yoga poses for weight loss demand these aspects.

Yoga is not just about a few poses that strengthen you. It has more benefits to offer, such as:

  • Increased flexibility
  • Improved respiration
  • Improved energy and vitality
  • Balanced metabolism
  • Improved athletic health
  • Increased muscle tone
  • Improved cardio health
  • Weight reduction
  • Stress management

1. Chaturanga Dandasana – Plank Pose

Chaturanga dandasana is the best way to strengthen your core. As simple as it looks, its benefits are immense.

It is only when you are in the pose that you start to feel its intensity on your abdominal muscles.

2. Virabhadrasana – Warrior Pose

Toning your thighs and shoulders, as well as improving your concentration has become more accessible and interesting with the Warrior II pose. The more you hold that pose, the better the results you gain. With just a few minutes of Virabhadrasana, you will get tighter quads. Warrior III pose is made to improve your balance along with toning your back end, legs, and arms. It also helps to tone your tummy and give you a flat belly if you contract your abdominal muscles while you hold the position.

3. Trikonasana – Triangle pose

The trikonasana helps to improve digestion as well as reduce the fat deposited in the belly & waist. It stimulates and improves blood circulation in the entire body. The lateral motion of this asana helps you burn more fat from the waist and build more muscles in the thighs and hamstrings.

Though this pose does not make your muscles shake as others do, it does give you the benefit that other asanas do. It also improves balance & concentration.

4. Adho Mukha Svanasana – Downward Dog pose

Adho Mukha Svanasana tones your whole body with a little extra attention to specific muscles.

It helps to strengthen your arms, thighs, hamstring and back. Holding this pose and concentrating on your breathing engages your muscles and tones them, as well as improves your concentration and blood circulation.

5. Sarvangasana – Shoulder Stand Pose

Sarvangasana comes with multiple benefits, from increasing your strength to improving digestion. But it is known for boosting metabolism and balancing thyroid levels.

6. Sethu Bandha Sarvangasana – Bridge pose

Yet another asana with multiple benefits is the Sethu Bandha Sarvangasana or Bridge pose. It is excellent for glutes, thyroid as well as weight loss.

7. Parivrtta Utkatasana – Twisted Chair pose

The Parivrtta Utkatasana is also called the Yoga’s version of the squat. But you must know that it is a little more intense and tones the abdominal muscles, works the quads and glutes.

The asana also improves the lymph system and the digestive system. It is a great way to lose weight.

8. Dhanurasana – Bow Pose

Are you looking for the best way to lose that belly fat? Dhanurasana helps massage the abdominal organs, improves digestion, and strengthens the thighs, chest, and back. It stretches your whole body, strengthens and tones your muscles with improved blood circulation.

9. Surya Namaskara – Sun Salutation Pose

The Surya Namaskara or Sun Salutation does more than warm up the muscles and get the blood flowing. It stretches and tones most of the major muscles, trims the waist, tones the arms, stimulates the digestive system, and balances the metabolism.

Surya Namaskar is a whole package of good health and the best way to lose weight.

5 Biggest Environmental Issues in India in 2023

1. Air Pollution

Undoubtedly one of the most pressing environmental issues in India is air pollution. According to the 2021 World Air Quality Report, India is home to 63 of the 100 most polluted cities, with New Delhi named the capital with the worst air quality in the world. The study also found that PM2.5 concentrations – tiny particles in the air that are 2.5 micrometres or smaller in length – in 48% of the country’s cities are more than 10 times higher than the 2021 WHO air quality guideline level. 

Vehicular emissions, industrial waste, smoke from cooking, the construction sector, crop burning, and power generation are among the biggest sources of air pollution in India. The country’s dependence on coal, oil, and gas due to rampant electrification makes it the world’s third-largest polluter, contributing over 2.65 billion metric tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere every year.  

The months-long lockdown imposed by the government in March 2020 to curb the spread of Covid-19 led to a halt in human activities. This unsurprisingly, significantly improved air quality across the country. When comparing the Air Quality Index (AQI) data for 2019 and 2020, the daily average AQI in March-April 2019 was 656, the number drastically dropped by more than half to 306 in the same months of 2020.  

2. Water Pollution

Among the most pressing environmental issues in India is also water pollution. The Asian country has experienced unprecedented urban expansion and economic growth in recent years. This, however, comes with huge environmental costs. Besides its air, the country’s waterways have become extremely polluted, with around 70% of surface water estimated to be unfit for consumption. Illegal dumping of raw sewage, silt, and garbage into rivers and lakes severely contaminated India’s waters. The near-total absence of pipe planning and an inadequate waste management system are only exacerbating the situation. Every day, a staggering 40 million litres of wastewater enter rivers and other water bodies. Of these, only a tiny fraction is adequately treated due to a lack of adequate infrastructure.

In middle-income countries like India, water pollution can account for the loss of up to half of GDP growth, a World Bank report suggests. Water pollution costs the Indian government between USD$6.7 and $7.7 billion a year and is associated with a 9% drop in agricultural revenues as well as a 16% decrease in downstream agricultural yields.

Besides affecting humans, with nearly suffering from waterborne diseases like typhoid, cholera, and hepatitis and nearly 400,000 fatalities each year, water pollution also damages crops, as infectious bacteria and diseases in the water used for irrigation prevent them from growing. Inevitably, freshwater biodiversity is also severely damaged. The country’s rivers and lakes often become open sewers for residential and industrial waste. Especially the latter – which comprises a wide range of toxic substances like pesticides and herbicides, oil products, and heavy metals – can kill aquatic organisms by altering their environment and making it extremely difficult for them to survive.

3. Food and Water Shortages

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), India is the country expected to pay the highest price for the impacts of the climate crisis. Aside from extreme weather events such as flash floods and widespread wildfires, the country often experiences long heatwaves and droughts that dry up its water sources and compromise crops. 

Since March 2022 – which was the hottest and driest month recorded in 120 years – the North West regions have been dealing with a prolonged wave of scorching and record-breaking heat. For several consecutive days, residents were hit by temperatures surpassing 40 degrees Celsius, while in some areas, surface land temperatures reached up to 60C. There is no doubt among experts that this unprecedented heatwave is a direct manifestation of climate change.

The heatwave has also contributed to an economic slowdown due to a loss of productivity, as thousands of Indians are unable to work in the extreme heat. The agriculture sector – which employs over 60% of the population – is often hit hard by these erratic droughts, impacting food stability and sustenance. Currently, farmers are struggling to rescue what remains of the country’s wheat crops, piling on existing fears of a global shortage sparked by the war in Ukraine.

Already among the world’s most water-stressed countries, the heatwave is causing further water shortages across the nations. Even though water tankers are keeping communities hydrated, the supply is not enough to cover the needs of all residents. But heat is not the only factor contributing to water scarcity. In an interview with the Times of India, lead researcher at Pune-based Watershed Organisation Trust Eshwer Kale described the national water policy as very ‘irrigation-centric’. Indeed, over 85% of India’s freshwater is used in agriculture. This has led to a crisis in several states, including Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh. The indiscriminate use of water for irrigation, coupled with the absence of conservation efforts and the huge policy gap in managing water resources has left over 10% of the country’s water bodies in rural areas redundant. A 2019 report predicts that 21 major cities – including New Delhi and India’s IT hub of Bengaluru – will run out of groundwater by 2030, affecting nearly 40% of the population. 

4. Waste Management

Among the most pressing environmental issues in India is also waste. As the second-largest population in the world of nearly 1.4 billion people, it comes as no surprise that 277 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) are produced there every year. Experts estimate that by 2030, MSW is likely to reach 387.8 million tonnes and will more than double the current value by 2050. India’s rapid urbanisation makes waste management extremely challenging. Currently, about 5% of the total collected waste is recycled, 18% is composted, and the remaining is dumped at landfill sites.

The plastic crisis in India is one of the worst on the planet. According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India currently produces more than 25,000 tonnes of plastic waste every day on average, which accounts for almost 6% of the total solid waste generated in the country. India stands second among the top 20 countries having a high proportion of riverine plastic emissions nationally as well as globally. Indus, Brahmaputra, and Ganges rivers are known as the ‘highways of plastic flows’ as they carry and drain most of the plastic debris in the country. Together with the 10 other topmost polluted rivers, they leak nearly 90% of plastics into the sea globally. 

5. Biodiversity Loss

Last but not least on the list of environmental issues in India is biodiversity loss. The country has four major biodiversity hotspots, regions with significant levels of animal and plant species that are threatened by human habitation: the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the Sundaland (including the Nicobar Islands), and the Indo-Burma region. India has already lost almost 90% of the area under the four hotspots, according to a 2021 report issued by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), with the latter region being by far the worst affected.

Moreover, 1,212 animal species in India are currently monitored by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, with over 12% being classified as ‘endangered’. Within these hotspots, 25 species have become extinct in recent years.

Due to water contamination, 16% of India’s freshwater fish, molluscs, dragonflies, damselflies, and aquatic plants are threatened with extinction and, according to the WWF and the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), freshwater biodiversity in the country has experienced an 84% decline. However, given these activities’ dramatic consequences on biodiversity, committing to end and reverse deforestation should be a priority for India.



A calm environment with few distractions, a relaxed posture, a focus of attention, and an open mindset are the four essential components of meditation. Meditation is described as a mind-body activity that focuses on interactions between the brain, mind, body, and behaviour.

Types of Meditation:

Different types of Meditations are there. But mainly three types of meditations.

they are:

1.concentrative Mefitation.

2.Mindfulness Meditation.

3.Guided Meditation.

1.Concentrative Meditation:


The focus of attention is highlighted in concentrated meditation. This type of meditation involves concentrating on just one thing, such as the sensation of one’s breath, a sound like a ticking clock, the repetition of a single word or phrase in one’s head, or an actual object, such a candle that is burning or a piece of art.

Purpose of Concentrative Meditation:

The goal is to just be aware of your feelings, not to lose yourself in them. An object, speech, or breath that is the focus of concentration. To stop your mind from wandering, the objective is to let go of your thoughts and maintain or redirect your concentration on that area.

2.Mindfulness Meditation:


A particular form of meditation known as mindfulness focuses on your ability to be acutely aware of your senses and emotions in the present moment without analysing or judging them. In order to calm the body and mind and help with stress reduction, practising mindfulness involves breathing techniques, guided imagery, and other techniques.

purpose of Mindfulness Meditation:

By practising mindfulness, we can prevent ourselves from losing our cool and becoming overwhelmed by unpleasant bodily sensations, pessimistic thoughts, and painful emotions that arise in response to stressful events. Stressful situations won’t go away, but we can learn how to react to them wisely.

3.Guided Meditation:

A style of meditation known as “guided meditation” is one that is conducted by a teacher, either in person or via audio or video. It is advised that you have a professional guide you through the fundamentals of your meditation practise when you first begin.

Purpose of Guided Meditation:

The duration of guided meditation might range from a few minutes to several hours. In any case, the goal is to relieve stress and promote physical, mental, and emotional recovery.

Why Meditation is so powerful:

Your sensation of quiet, peace, and balance that meditation can bring you can help your physical and emotional health. By concentrating your attention on something peaceful, you can also utilise it to unwind and manage stress. You can learn to keep your focus and maintain inner serenity by practising meditation.

Advantages of Meditation:

1.Improve Self awareness.

2.Enhances Mental health.

3.Reduce fear.

4.Pecefulness of Mind.

5.Improve Sleep hygiene

6.Increasing patience and tolerance

7.Reduce Negative emotions.

8.Skills to control your stress.

9.Improve Creative thinking

10.Increasing the concentration to our goal.

11.Generate empathy and kindness.

12.lowering resting of heart rate

13.control blood pressure

14.immunity our health

15.focusing on the present situation.

Rules of Meditation:

1. Sit down. Locate a quiet, peaceful area where you may sit.
2.Set a time limit
3. Take note of your body.
4.Feel your breath.
5. Recognize when your thoughts have strayed.
6. Close with kindness.
7. End on a kind note.


The coronavirus pandemic’s effects on India have primarily disrupted economic activities and resulted in fatalities. With a few notable outliers where high growth was witnessed, almost all industries have been negatively impacted since domestic demand and exports have dramatically decreased.

With over 2.5 million confirmed cases and an increasing death toll, India has one of the highest rates of COVID-19 infection in the world (15, 16). On January 30, 2020 in Kerala a student who had just returned from Wuhan, China, was found to have the first instance of COVID-19 .

Which sectors are Effected by Covid-19 pandemic In India:

The following sectors effected by the covid-19 pandemic in India.

They are:

1.Agriculture and food security




5.Automobilee industries

6.fishing industry.

7.Textile industry


1.Agriculture and food :

COVID-19 had a negative impact on the food supply chain financially and by restricting labour movement, altering consumer demand, closing food manufacturing facilities, and restricting food trade laws. Governments should therefore make it easier for people and agricultural and food products to travel.

Food security has been compromised since the COVID-19 pandemic as a result of limitations on food production, processing, and marketing. A high price was noted for fresh goods, particularly vegetables, fish, and meat, as a result of delivery route disruptions.


There is a good likelihood that the education of female and transgender children will have an impact on the opportunity and financial expenses of doing so, as their parents may see. In addition to affecting students, this epidemic also negatively impacted low-cost institutions and schools, forcing several to close.

Almost 250 million pupils in India were impacted by the shutdown of schools at the start of the lockdown brought on by COVID-19. The epidemic presented both public and private schools with a number of difficulties, including an increase in dropouts, learning losses, and the digital divide.


In every country in the world, the tourism industry has been severely hit by the coronavirus outbreak. Every aspect of the tourism industry, whether it be aviation, hotels, transportation, tour guides, or restaurants, has been negatively impacted in a way that is unprecedented.

The epidemic has disrupted local communities overall by affecting not just foreign exchange earnings (FEE), but also numerous regional developments and job prospects. The research seeks to forecast foreign tourists’ arrival in India and FEE using artificial neural networks in light of a significant reduction in foreign visitor visits in 2020. (ANN). Additionally, we examine the effects of COVID-19 in terms of loss and gain in FEE based on four scenarios that take lockdown into account. Last but not least, the outcomes will assist policymakers in optimising FEE while also assisting them in making important strategic and operational decisions.


With comparison to 2019, it is predicted that traffic will decrease by 56% in 2020. As the previous projection was $66 billion, the region’s GDP that is supported by aviation will continue to decline by up to $85 billion. The transportation industry has been one of COVID-19’s main victims. Every industry, from airlines to rickshaw pullers, has been impacted financially by the pandemic. In March 2020, India’s total energy demand decreased by 11%. The demand for passenger travel has been significantly impacted by lockdown in several nations. Regarding the short-term need for transportation, the freight industry has had a mixed impact. Truck drivers are in high demand for the conveyance of necessities. For instance, after the COVID outbreak, there has been a 40% to 60% rise in the volume of goods moving into supermarkets and warehouses in the US2. However in the medium run, it’s anticipated that COVID’s slowdown and supply chain disruption will reduce demand for freight.

5.Automobile industries:

COVID‐19 affected automobile new vehicle sales very badly especially in the month of February 2020. Like, in China new sales of vehicles have fallen by 92% in February. Also, in European countries total vehicle sales were dropped by 7.4% when compared to that of sales in last year.

6.fishing industry :

The reduction of fishing and fish farming activities will reduce the amount of fish available for processing and trade. Furthermore, mobility restrictions will adversely affect the transfer of fish to markets. This will particularly impact women, who are mostly in charge of these activities. Traders had projected a price decline of 20–40%. Fish is a perishable food, therefore panicked consumers are driving up demand for packaged and frozen goods. But, the processing and canning industries won’t be able to meet this demand due to a lack of labour.

7.Textile industry:

According to the organisation representing the garment industry, Clothes Manufacturers Association of India, there could be up to one crore job layoffs in the textiles sector, which has been adversely impacted by the current shutdown.

The 40,000 textile and garment manufacturers that were forced to close as a result of the enforced lockdown caused a significant disruption in supply and demand. According to a research by the apparel export development council, 83% of export orders had been fully or partially cancelled.


It is believed that the Corona virus is hurting India’s construction sector Rs 30,000 crore every day. This pandemic would likely reduce investment in the building sector by 13 to 30 percent, which will likely have an impact on employment and gross value added.

positive impact of Covid-19:

The sudden changes in human behaviour in response to the COVID-19 epidemic are having some unusual and unexpectedly favourable side effects, according to doctors and experts. The sky is bluer, there are fewer traffic accidents, fewer crimes, and some infectious diseases are disappearing from hospital emergency rooms.

“Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what the west had experienced. 

The industrial revolution that swept across Europe and America in the 18th and 19th centuries is often considered the most significant event in human history since the Agricultural Revolution. It transformed the world from an agricultural to an industrial society and laid the foundations for modern economic growth. However, the industrial revolution in Japan was unique and involved certain factors that were markedly different from what the West had experienced. This article will examine these factors and discuss how they contributed to Japan’s “latecomer” industrial revolution.

Latecomer in Industrial Revolution: Japan

Japan’s Industrial Revolution: A Late Bloomer

Japan’s industrial revolution came relatively late in comparison to the West. While the industrial revolution began in Britain in the late 18th century and spread to other parts of Europe and America in the 19th century, Japan’s industrialization began in the late 19th century, after the country had been forced to open up to foreign trade following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). The Japanese government recognized the importance of industrialization in strengthening the country’s economy and military power and embarked on a policy of rapid modernization and industrialization, known as the Meiji Restoration.

First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)

Unlike the West, which had a long history of technological innovation and scientific discovery, Japan had been largely isolated from the rest of the world until the mid-19th century. The country had no significant industrial base and relied heavily on agriculture and handicrafts. However, the Meiji government was determined to catch up with the West and implemented a range of policies to promote industrialization.

Meiji Government restoring peace

Unique Factors Contributing to Japan’s Industrialization:

1. Confucianism and Samurai Culture:

One of the factors that contributed to Japan’s industrialization was the influence of Confucianism and Samurai culture. Confucianism emphasized the importance of education and hard work, and this attitude was ingrained in the Samurai culture. Samurai were trained to be disciplined and dedicated, and they were expected to work hard and show loyalty to their lords. This work ethic was a key factor in Japan’s industrialization, as workers were willing to put in long hours and work hard to achieve the country’s industrial goals.


2. Strong Government Involvement:

Another unique factor that contributed to Japan’s industrialization was the strong involvement of the government. The Meiji government implemented a range of policies to promote industrialization, including building infrastructure such as railways and ports, providing subsidies and tax breaks to encourage investment, and setting up state-owned industries. The government also invested heavily in education and research, establishing universities and research institutions to train scientists and engineers.

Meiji Government

Emphasis on Technological Transfer:

Unlike the West, which relied on indigenous innovation, Japan’s industrialization was largely based on the transfer of technology from the West. The Meiji government sent students and scholars to study in Europe and America, and imported machinery and equipment to set up factories. Japanese engineers and technicians were also sent to the West to learn about the latest technologies and manufacturing methods. This emphasis on technological transfer enabled Japan to quickly acquire the skills and knowledge needed to build a modern industrial economy.

4. Unique Relationship between the Government and Private Sector:

Another factor that contributed to Japan’s industrialization was the unique relationship between the government and the private sector. Unlike in the West, where the government and the private sector were largely separate, the Japanese government actively encouraged the private sector to invest in industrial development. The government provided financial support, such as subsidies and tax breaks, to private companies, and also established a range of industry associations to promote cooperation between companies and encourage the sharing of knowledge and expertise.

Impact of Japan’s Industrial Revolution:

The impact of Japan’s industrial revolution was significant, both for Japan and for the world. It transformed Japan from an agrarian society into a modern industrial nation and set the stage for Japan’s emergence as a major economic power in the 20th century.

  1. Economic Growth

Japan’s industrial revolution led to rapid economic growth and the development of a modern industrial economy. The country became a major producer and exporter of manufactured goods, including textiles, steel, machinery, and electronics. This economic growth fueled Japan’s rise as a major economic power and allowed it to compete on a global scale.

  1. Military Expansion

Japan’s industrial revolution also had significant implications for its military expansion. The country’s rapid industrialization allowed it to modernize its military and build a powerful navy and army. Japan’s military expansion was a key factor in its emergence as a major power in Asia and its eventual involvement in World War II.

  1. Social and Cultural Changes

The industrial revolution also brought about significant social and cultural changes in Japan. The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society led to the growth of urban areas and the emergence of a new middle class. New social and cultural norms emerged, including a greater emphasis on education and individualism.

  1. Global Influence

Japan’s industrial revolution had a significant impact on the rest of the world as well. The country’s success in industrialization inspired other countries in Asia and beyond to follow a similar path. Japan’s technological advancements in fields such as electronics and automobiles also had a global impact, with Japanese companies such as Sony, Toyota, and Honda becoming household names around the world.

  1. Environmental Impact

However, rapid industrialization in Japan also had negative environmental consequences. The heavy use of natural resources and the rapid expansion of industrial infrastructure led to pollution and environmental degradation. The environmental impact of Japan’s industrial revolution is still felt today, and the country has since made efforts to reduce its carbon emissions and promote sustainable development.


In conclusion, Japan’s “Latecomer” Industrial Revolution was a remarkable achievement that propelled the country from a feudal society to a modern industrial nation. The factors that drove Japan’s industrialization, including government-led economic policies, social and cultural changes, and unique geopolitical circumstances, were markedly different from the experience of the West. Japan’s industrial revolution had far-reaching impacts on its economy, military, society, and global community. It serves as a reminder that innovation and progress can emerge from unexpected places and circumstances, and that every nation has the potential to forge its own path toward development and prosperity.

Assess the contributions of Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar to the making of modern India

Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar was a prominent figure in the making of modern India. His contributions to education, women’s rights, social reforms, and literature were significant and far-reaching. His impact on Indian society can still be felt today, more than a century after his death. In this article, we will assess the contributions of Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar to the making of modern India.

Iswarchandra Vidyasagar

Promotion of Education:

Vidyasagar was a firm believer in the power of education. He understood that education was the key to social and economic progress. He was an advocate for the education of girls, who were often excluded from formal education. Vidyasagar established several schools and colleges for girls in Bengal, which provided them with opportunities to learn and grow. He believed that education was the only way to eradicate poverty and empower the masses.

People along with Vidyasagar promoted girls’ education during British rule.

In addition to promoting education for girls, Vidyasagar also worked to reform the education system in Bengal. He believed that the education system was outdated and needed to be modernized. He introduced new teaching methods, textbooks, and curricula to make education more accessible and relevant to the needs of the time. His efforts in promoting education have had a lasting impact on Indian society.

Women’s education in Bengal during Vidyasagar’s period

Reforms in the Bengali Language:

Vidyasagar was a linguist who believed that language was an essential tool for communication and expression. He worked to standardize the Bengali language by simplifying its grammar and introducing punctuation marks. His efforts made the language more accessible to the common people and helped to promote its use in literature and education.

“Exotic India Art” a book written by Vidyasagar in Bengali

Vidyasagar was also a prolific writer in Bengali. He wrote several textbooks, novels, and essays that helped to popularize the language. His works were widely read and admired, and they helped to establish Bengali as a literary language.

Vidyasagar’s contribution to Bengali Literature

Women’s Rights:

Vidyasagar was a champion of women’s rights. He understood that women were often marginalized and oppressed in Indian society and believed that they deserved equal rights and opportunities. He advocated for the education of girls and fought for their right to study. He believed that education was the key to empowering women and enabling them to participate fully in society.

Vidyasagar also worked to reform laws that discriminated against women. He was a strong advocate of widow remarriage, which was taboo at the time. He believed that widows deserved a second chance at happiness and worked to change social attitudes towards remarriage. His efforts led to the passing of the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856, which legalized widow remarriage.

Social Reforms:

Vidyasagar was an ardent social reformer who believed that society needed to change to ensure the welfare of all its members. He worked to abolish social evils such as caste discrimination, polygamy, and the dowry system. He was a strong advocate of social equality and believed that all individuals were equal and deserving of respect.

Vidyasagar’s efforts to abolish caste discrimination were particularly significant. He believed that caste was a social construct that had no place in modern society. He worked to break down the barriers between castes and promote social equality. His efforts have had a lasting impact on Indian society, and today, caste discrimination is illegal in India.


Vidyasagar was a prolific writer who made significant contributions to Bengali literature. He wrote several textbooks, novels, and essays that helped to popularize the language. His works were widely read and admired, and they helped to establish Bengali as a literary language.

Vidyasagar was also a translator who translated several works of English literature into Bengali. His translations helped to introduce English literature to a wider audience and made it more accessible to those who could not read English.


Overall, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar’s contributions to the making of modern India were significant. His advocacy for education, women’s rights, social reforms, and literature has had a lasting impact on Indian society. He was a visionary who foresaw the importance of education and social reform in building a modern and progressive India.

How did Communalism manifest in the Indian political scene? Explain the background of the passing of the momentous Pakistan Resolution.

Communalism is a phenomenon that has been prevalent in Indian politics for a long time. It is the belief that one’s religion or community is superior to others, leading to conflict between different communities. The partition of India in 1947 was the most significant consequence of communalism in the Indian political scene. This article will explore the background of the passing of the Pakistan Resolution and how communalism manifested in the Indian political scene.

Communalism in Indian politics:

Communalism has been a persistent issue in Indian politics for centuries. It is rooted in the country’s diverse religious and cultural makeup, with different religious communities coexisting in the same territory. Communalism manifests in different ways, from religious extremism to caste politics. In recent years, communalism has been seen in the form of hate speech, violence, and discrimination against minority communities.

The Pakistan Resolution:

The Pakistan Resolution, also known as the Lahore Resolution, was a historic moment in the Indian political scene. It was passed on March 23, 1940, at the All India Muslim League’s annual session held in Lahore. The resolution demanded the creation of an independent Muslim state in the northwestern and northeastern regions of India.

Left: M.A Jinnah; Right: Pt.Jawaharlal Nehru

The background to the Pakistan Resolution was the growing communal tensions between the Hindu and Muslim communities in India. The Muslim League, led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, believed that Muslims needed a separate state to protect their political, social, and economic rights. They argued that a Hindu-dominated government would not safeguard the interests of the Muslim minority in India.

The mass exodus of Indians from Pakistan during the partition

The Pakistan Resolution was a turning point in Indian politics, leading to the eventual partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. The partition was marked by widespread violence, displacement, and loss of life, with estimates suggesting that up to two million people were killed in the aftermath.

Violence in the Pakistan-Punjab border

Manifestation of communalism in Indian politics:

Communalism has manifested in different ways in the Indian political scene. One of the most significant manifestations is religious extremism, where extremist groups advocate for the supremacy of one religion over others. These groups use violence and hate speech to further their agenda, leading to communal tension and conflict.

Communal violence in Jammu-Kashmir

Caste politics is another manifestation of communalism in Indian politics. The caste system is a hierarchical social structure prevalent in India, with each caste having its own social and economic status. Caste-based politics involves using caste identities to mobilize voters, leading to division and tension between different castes.

Communalism also manifests in the form of discrimination against minority communities, particularly Muslims and Dalits. These communities face discrimination in employment, education, and social opportunities, leading to a sense of alienation and marginalization.


Communalism has been a persistent issue in the Indian political scene, leading to conflict and division between different communities. The Pakistan Resolution was a significant moment in Indian history, leading to the eventual partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. Communalism has manifested in different ways in Indian politics, including religious extremism, caste politics, and discrimination against minority communities. It is essential for India’s political leaders and citizens to work towards creating a society that values tolerance, inclusivity, and diversity, and rejects the divisive forces of communalism. Only then can India truly realize its potential as a vibrant, pluralistic democracy.

Are tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism the key elements in the making of an Indian form of secularism?

India is a diverse country with multiple religions, languages, and cultures. The idea of secularism has been an integral part of the Indian ethos since its inception. India’s Constitution guarantees the freedom of religion to all citizens, and the government is expected to remain neutral in matters of religion. However, the concept of secularism in India is different from the Western notion of secularism. In India, tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism are considered to be the key elements in the making of an Indian form of secularism.


Tolerance is the first and foremost element of Indian secularism. It is the ability to respect and accept differences among people of different religions, cultures, and beliefs. Tolerance allows people to live together harmoniously without fear of persecution or discrimination. It is not just about accepting different beliefs but also acknowledging and embracing the diversity of Indian society. Tolerance is the cornerstone of the Indian Constitution, and it is enshrined in the Preamble, which declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.


Assimilation is the second element of Indian secularism. It is the process by which people of different cultures, religions, and beliefs come together to form a common national identity. India’s history is full of examples of assimilation, where people of different cultures and religions have come together to form a distinct Indian identity. One of the best examples of assimilation is Indian cuisine, which is a blend of various regional cuisines. Indian music, dance, and literature are also the result of assimilation, where different cultures have come together to create a unique Indian identity.


Pluralism is the third element of Indian secularism. It is the recognition and acceptance of diversity within society. India is a country with multiple religions, languages, and cultures. Pluralism recognizes and respects this diversity and provides equal opportunities to all communities. The Indian Constitution provides for the protection of minority communities, and it ensures that they have equal rights and opportunities. Pluralism is not just about accepting diversity, but it is also about celebrating it.

The role of tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism in Indian secularism:

Tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism have played a significant role in the making of Indian secularism. The Indian Constitution guarantees freedom of religion to all citizens, and the government is expected to remain neutral in matters of religion. The concept of secularism in India is different from the Western notion of secularism, where religion is kept separate from the state. In India, secularism is about acknowledging and respecting the diversity of Indian society.

Tolerance has played a significant role in maintaining communal harmony in India. Indian society is diverse, with multiple religions and cultures coexisting peacefully. Tolerance has allowed people of different religions to live together harmoniously without fear of persecution or discrimination.

Assimilation has helped in creating a distinct Indian identity. Indian cuisine, music, dance, and literature are all the result of assimilation, where people of different cultures have come together to create a unique Indian identity. Assimilation has helped in creating a sense of belongingness among people of different cultures and religions.

Pluralism has played a significant role in providing equal opportunities to all communities. The Indian Constitution provides for the protection of minority communities, and it ensures that they have equal rights and opportunities. Pluralism has helped in recognizing and respecting the diversity within society and has played a significant role in the making of Indian secularism.


In conclusion, tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism are integral to the Indian form of secularism. The diversity of India’s religions, languages, and cultures is a strength that has been fostered through these elements, allowing for peaceful coexistence and a unique national identity. The Indian Constitution guarantees the freedom of religion and equal opportunities for all communities, while also ensuring the protection of minority communities. The concept of Indian secularism is distinct from the Western notion of secularism, and it is rooted in the idea of acknowledging and respecting diversity. Tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism continue to be essential elements in the making of Indian secularism, promoting communal harmony and providing a sense of belongingness to all communities.

The forces that influence ocean currents and their role in the fishing industry of the world


Ocean currents play a crucial role in the distribution of heat, nutrients, and marine life throughout the world’s oceans. These currents are driven by a variety of forces, including wind, temperature, and the Earth’s rotation. Understanding these forces and how they influence ocean currents is essential to many industries, including the fishing industry. In this article, we will explore the forces that influence ocean currents and their role in the fishing industry around the world.

Ocean Currents
Ocean Currents

Forces that influence ocean currents:

1. Wind:

The wind is one of the primary forces that influence ocean currents. The wind creates surface currents, which are responsible for distributing heat and nutrients across the ocean. The wind also creates upwelling, which is the process by which deep, nutrient-rich water is brought to the surface. Upwelling is crucial to the fishing industry, as it provides an abundance of nutrients for marine life.

2. Temperature:

Temperature is another significant force that influences ocean currents. Warm water is less dense than cold water, so it tends to rise to the surface. This creates surface currents that move warm water away from the equator and towards the poles. Cold water, on the other hand, is dense than warm water and tends to sink. This creates deep ocean currents that move cold water toward the equator.


3. Salinity:

Salinity, or the concentration of salt in the water, is another important force that influences ocean currents. When water evaporates, it leaves behind salt, which increases the salinity of the water. This increases the water’s density, causing it to sink and creating deep ocean currents. Areas of high salinity, such as the Mediterranean Sea, can also create surface currents that move water toward areas of lower salinity.


4. The Earth’s rotation:

The Earth’s rotation also influences ocean currents. The Coriolis effect, which is caused by the rotation of the Earth, causes moving objects, including ocean currents, to appear to deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This deflection causes ocean currents to move in a circular pattern, known as a gyre.

Earth's rotation

Role of ocean currents in the fishing industry:

Ocean currents play a crucial role in the fishing industry. The distribution of nutrients and marine life is influenced by ocean currents, which affect where fish are found and how abundant they are in different areas. Some of the most significant ways that ocean currents impact the fishing industry include:

1. Upwelling:

As mentioned earlier, upwelling is the process by which deep, nutrient-rich water is brought to the surface. This process is essential to the fishing industry, as it provides an abundance of nutrients for marine life. Areas of upwelling, such as the coasts of Peru and West Africa, are known for their rich fishing grounds.


2. Migration patterns:

Ocean currents also influence the migration patterns of fish. Some species of fish, such as salmon, are known to migrate long distances to reach their spawning grounds. Ocean currents can impact the timing and location of these migrations, which can affect the fishing industry’s ability to catch these fish.

Fish migration pattern

3. Fishing locations:

Ocean currents also influence where fish are found. Areas with high nutrient concentrations, such as upwelling zones, tend to have more abundant fish populations. The Gulf Stream, for example, is known for its rich fishing grounds, particularly for tuna and swordfish.

Fishing locations in oceans worldwide

4. Climate patterns:

Ocean currents also play a role in climate patterns. The movement of warm and cold water influences regional weather patterns, which can impact the fishing industry. Changes in ocean currents can also lead to changes in water temperature, which can affect the migration patterns and abundance of fish.

Climate patterns due to movement of earth


In summary, the forces that influence ocean currents play a critical role in the fishing industry worldwide. Wind, temperature, salinity, and the Earth’s rotation all contribute to the distribution of nutrients and marine life in the world’s oceans. Upwelling, migration patterns, fishing locations, and climate patterns are all impacted by ocean currents and affect the fishing industry’s ability to catch fish. Understanding these forces and their role in ocean currents is essential to the fishing industry’s sustainability and success. As we continue to study and monitor these forces, we can better manage and protect our oceans’ resources for future generations.