The world has always been changing since its formation but at a very slow pace until last year, that is 2020 with the breakout of Covid 19. When all these years we have learnt about man being a social being and that man cannot live without company, now all we hear are words like ‘isolation’, ‘distancing’ etc. We are advised not to come into contact with people unless it is extremely necessary. With the unexpected breakout of Covid 19, the world has changed tremendously. When everything in the world is on the verge of rapid change, so is Public Relations.
What is Public Relation?
Public Relation is the practice of maintaining a healthy relationship between organization and public/ employees, investors, partners and the like. It refers to a convincing communication process where the organization adopts instruments, ideas and strategies to bring about cooperation and understanding between an organization and public.
Impact of Covid 19 on Public Relations
With the Covid 19 situation across the globe, the flow of information has taken a different turn where the strategies and communication policies of Public Relations has taken a faster pace of mobility than pre – covid times.
The two extremely popular applications like Facebook and WhatsApp has become the best friends of the public through which they could connect with the outside world despite of being confined to the four walls of their house. Although these applications are informal source of communication yet business, education related information and even news are disseminated through it. Even government officials, political parties, several brands made use of these apps to maintain relations with the public.
With the horrifying outcome of the pandemic, the PR professionals ought to make sure that the public is served with verified and authentic facts and news rather than taking advantage of the fragility of the pandemic situation and circulating ‘sold’ stories. The PR professionals are endowed with national responsibility to serve the public with relevant information.
The PR professionals need to understand and figure out the wants of the public to maintain their bond. In the recent times, India has witnessed a sudden rise in the trend of binge watching when many popular shows and daily soaps were telecasted. Also, news channels has become the evening tea partners for many. To understand what the public wants has become the need of the hour.
It cannot be denied that Covid 19 has lead to digital acceleration in India and everywhere across the world . Even after the pandemic gets under control, this tendency to digitalisation would stay and leave behind an important legacy.
When the country has faced the cruel waves of the pandemic, the PR agencies are expected to feed the public with what times and public demands. The PR practitioners are expected to adapt to the changing trends in order to maintain healthy bonds with the public.
Social Media is a virtual interactive platform for sharing ideas, views and information. It has become an inseparable part of our lives as it keeps us aware of the daily happenings around the world. With social media, we are just a few clicks away to access the unknown things. Without a doubt, social media has revolutionised the process of communication and with every passing day, communication game is getting stronger. Social Media applications like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, Skype and other such apps has made life way more easier than ever.
Like the two sides of a coin, Social Media too has two sides.
Positive side of Social Media
• Through social media, we can communicate with people even from far away places. We can broaden our friend circle through it by constantly interacting with unknown people and keeping in touch with our old friends.
• Social Media has become a globalised platform to showcase the talents of people. People with various skills share their talents in the form of videos and post it on social media. It provides them with an opportunity to receive appreciation for their talent that further boost their confidence to carry on with what they excel in.
• People can use Social Media platforms for business purposes. This is the most common thing that we witness nowadays. People start their business through social media applications like Facebook, Instagram, YouTube etc. YouTube is one such popular application that people use to earn money. People post videos on YouTube and gets paid if they fulfill the various criteria of getting paid, for example, crossing a certain number of views count, likes counts or subscribers count. A lot of businesses have flourished on Social Media and are still flourishing smoothly.
• Social Media helps students in education too. Teachers can make use of social media to teach their students out of classroom situation. Especially in the time of pandemic when attending classes is not possible, social media applications have taken the place of classroom. Teachers takes online classes through various online meeting applications and share reading materials through other social media applications. Moreover, students can get extra information from surfing through social media.
Although Social Media has connected a lot of people and is making life easy, yet it has its own drawbacks.
• Social Media makes people addicted to it when people constantly keeps on using social media. People are seen to spend quite a lot of time on social media ignoring other productive works. Social Media addiction keeps people aloof from real life situation that hampers their social life in the long run.
• Social Media takes a toll on human health, be it physical health or mental health. Because a person sticks his eyes to the screen of various gadgets he is exposed to various eye ailments, headaches and body aches. Even his sleep schedule is disturbed when social media use is more than what is required.
Social Media gives us an unrealistic expectations of life and when in real we fail to meet with what we expected we become disappointed. When this disappointment goes on for a long time, we push ourselves to the web of depression. This greatly disturb our mental health.
• Cyber bullying, hacking, catfishing etc are taking at a large scale in the present times. Social Media users are the easy targets of these online criminals. Because social media platforms has a thin layer of privacy, personal and private information of the users can be hacked. A person’s identity can be used in a derogatory manner by the criminals.
• Social Media can also promote unhealthy competition among its users. Almost everyone on social media races to show how exciting their life is. Even though they lead a simple life yet they fake their lifestyle. When the other users constantly witness a happy and happening life of others, they feel insecured and inferior. In such cases, a person might not appreciate his own life and keeps on complaining about everything.
It can be said that social media is both a boon and a bane. Social Media can be used in both positive and negative ways. It is a great tool if operated with good intentions.
Who doesn’t love shopping? Shopping is therapeutic. Everytime we go for shopping, our mood changes. We get excited when we get our hands on the things we have wished for. The sense of happiness that we experience is something so different. Human wants are endless and so are the reasons to shop.
These days there has been a debate going on, whether online shopping is better or offline shopping. However, both modes of shopping has its own pros and cons. People have not taken over just one mode of shopping rather they prefer both based on their convenience. Of course, it cannot be denied that online shopping has quite a bit threatened the functioning of offline retail stores.
With easy access to Internet, we are just a few clicks away to get what we want. Online shopping is undoubtedly a relaxing and convenient mode of shopping. Right from clothes to groceries, digital gadgets to crafted products, almost everything can be purchased online. Especially in the time of pandemic, online shopping has bloomed greatly. People prefer to use online shopping platforms to get their essentials delivered rather than going out and risking their lives. However, online shopping has its own pros and cons.
Pros of online shopping
∆ When shopping online we can get our hands on a variety of products at the same time. We can buy clothes, ornaments, shoes etc at once without having to hop here and there.
∆ We can easily find branded and imported products online without any difficulty.
∆ There is no particular time to shop online. We can place our order at any time of the day and at any day of the week.
∆ Sometimes, in different shopping applications the prices of the same product varies. In that case we can make a comparison and buy from the pocket friendly app.
∆ When shopping online, the ordered products gets delivered right at our doorstep which definitely is a great advantage of shopping online.
∆ We can filter our choices and preferences to narrow down the search so that we can view only those types of products we are looking for.
∆ In online shopping platforms, some or the other discounts goes on everyday that allows the buyers to shop at a lower price.
∆ A buyer can confirm the quality and authenticity of the products by looking at the reviews and ratings provided by other buyers of the same products.
Cons of online shopping
∆ The products takes a long time to get delivered. Sometimes, due to prolonged delivery the buyer might face certain problems.
∆ Because we cannot touch or see the product we are buying in real, there might be some issues with the quality or size of the product. Every brand has different size and quality and so it is difficult to identify the quality and the accurate size of the product we order.
∆ Sometimes, the picture of the product that we buy may be deceptive. We might receive something which not at all look like the one we have seen online. Getting what we didn’t order would be a disappointment. The disappointment would be worst if no ‘return’ facility is provided for that product. It would be a sheer waste of money.
∆ With increasing rates of cyber crimes online shoppers have become the soft targets of the criminals. The bank details of the online shoppers might get hacked which indeed creates a big problem.
Offline shopping is the traditional mode of shopping. This mode of shopping has its own unique charm. Despite the popularity of online shopping, offline shopping has still survived. People often roam around the streets with their friends and families adding life to the shops and social relationships are established between the customers and shopkeepers. Offline Shopping too has its own pros and cons.
Pros of offline shopping
∆ When we buy from a physical store, we can buy the products after closely inspecting the quality of it. We can take a trial of the things be it clothes, shoes etc that we wish to buy so that we don’t regret the purchase.
∆ If by any chance, after the purchase we do not like the product, we can easily return or exchange it.
∆ We need not wait for a long time to get the products we buy. We can immediately get it after we pay the price of the product to the shopkeeper.
∆ No offline shopper buys something without bargaining. The customers enjoy it.
∆ If we suddenly get an invitation to attend an event and we want to look presentable, the only option that strikes our mind is to shop from an offline retail store. We can immediately rush to the market and buy a dress, shoe, jewellery or any such things that we need without any delay.
Cons of offline shopping
∆ Offline shopping can be tiresome. Sometimes people spend their whole day hopping from one shop to another to buy the product they want and still not find it. In that case, it would be a waste of time and energy. To return home empty hand after spending hours in the market can be frustrating.
∆ Markets are a crowded area. Too many people getting into a shop can disrupt shopping fun. Waiting at a shop for a long time to get bills paid is not liked at all. People generally prefer to shop in a peaceful environment without much hassle.
∆ Limited branded clothes are accessible in offline stores.
∆ Buying from an offline store can be expensive most of the times. Customers find the same product online at a much lower price.
Inter – relation between online and offline shopping
Although both the modes of shopping has its own advantages and disadvantages yet there is an inter – relation between the two. Some offline retail store put up their products online for the customers to purchase. This way they earn a good amount of profit.
No mode of shopping can completely overpower the other. Both plays their unique role in providing services to people. People use both the modes as per their preferences and convenience. However, be it online or offline, it cannot be denied that shopping brings a smile on the face of the people. Yes, it is no less than a therapy.
Domestic Violence is a serious crime in a household setting. Such crimes are a part of every society of the world. Spouse, children, elderly people are the victims in domestic violence. Domestic Violence can take place in the form of physical, mental, emotional, verbal abuse.
With every passing year, cases of domestic violence has been increasing rapidly. A significant number of deaths are taking place on an everyday basis due to domestic violence. Illiteracy, economic dependency, alcoholism etc are the main reasons behind domestic violence. Although many cases of domestic violence comes to light every year yet a huge number of cases goes unnoticed and unregistered.
Dowry is one of the main reason behind domestic violence. The groom and his family pressurise the bride and her family for money and other expensive things. If the family of the bride fails to fulfill the demands of the groom, the bride gets assaulted by her husband and her in – laws. Not only the newly married women but women married for several years too face violence from their in – laws. These women gets robbed of even their basic human rights and lead an unfortunate life.
In many of the cases, the abuser is psychotic and requires counselling. Besides the abuser, the people who are the mute spectators of domestic violence are equally responsible for the crime. To cope with the growing cases of domestic violence, India launched a campaign called ‘Bell Bajao’ with the motivation to raise voice against domestic violence happening around in the society.
The Government of India enforced many Domestic Violence Acts. In Section 498 – A of Indian Penal Code, rules and regulations have been mentioned. Law deals with the culprits strictly.
Making laws to deal with such violence is undoubtedly necessary but it is not enough. People will have to awake from their slumber and become aware. Every human being deserves honour and respect and it is high time for people to raise their voice to protest against the wrongful activities happening to self and others. Domestic Violence is a serious offence and has to be dealt with strongly.
People belonging to the same age group, sharing the same social status, friends are referred to as peers.
What is Peer Pressure?
Peer Pressure is the influence exerted by people belonging to the same social group. This pressure has the capacity to change the way a person behaves.
Peer Pressure among teenagers
The teenage phase of life is the most crucial and vulnerable phase. During this period of time, teenagers have the tendency to refrain from following the instructions of their elders and explore everything that they feel like without considering its consequences. Understanding about the influence of peer pressure among teenagers is very important because when a teenager grows, his peers plays an important role in shaping his nature and character, the way he behaves, how his likes, dislikes and preferences are established. The adult life of a person is somewhat shaped on the basis of his teenage phase.
Peer Pressure takes place in two ways. Generally, when discussing about peer pressure, the negative side is highlighted more than the positive side. Although a lot of teenagers goes through negative peer pressure, yet the positive side of the same cannot be denied.
Positive Peer Pressure
Peer Pressure has a lot of negative connotations but it too has a good side. Peer Pressure can also act as a reflecting tool for a person. In such type of peer pressure, peers can convince a person to do good things. Peers can encourage and motivate one another to accomplish their goals and dreams to become a better person in life. For example, encouraging a friend to study hard, score good grades and get a job. Positive peer pressure has the following benefits –
°° Leads to a stable and focussed mindset
°° Gain new experiences
°° Get rid of bad habits
°° Motivation to achieve goals
°° Healthy social life
°° Develop strong personal identity
°° Sound emotional state
Negative Peer Pressure
Negative Peer Pressure is the most common type of peer pressure. Almost everyone of us, knowingly or unknowingly has fallen prey to it. In negative peer pressure, peers convince a person to do something bad. A person might be pressurised to take a wrong or unethical decision. For example, encouraging a peer to bunk class, consume alcohol or get into a fight with someone. If a person succumbs to the negative peer pressure around him, he lands himself into trouble. In the teenage phase of life, an individual desires to get recognition and attention in the society and in thirst of that, he is ready to shun his own identity in order to fit into another group whom he admire. He would imitate the lifestyle, clothing pattern, hairstyle, way of interacting and even changes his likes and preferences. When an individual falls for negative peer pressure, he
°° loses his own identity
°° isolates himself from his near and dear ones
°° Adopt bad habits
°° Divert himself from his aims and goals in life
°° Lack confidence
°° Suffers mental health issues
°° Land himself into dangerous circumstances
How to cope with peer pressure
It is very important for the parents of the teenagers to identify what is going on with their child. The parents should establish a friendly relation with their children so that they approach their parents if they face any dilemma. Also, the parents should make the children differentiate between good and bad, right and wrong from a very early stage.
Even if a teenager falls for negative peer pressure, his elders should offer him a helping hand and stand by him to overcome all his problems. He should be taught self love and should be made aware of his own unique identity.
Peer pressure is not always bad but a person should identify what kind of peer pressure he is influenced by.
Menstruation is a natural phenomenon particular to women. It is a part of the women’s reproductive cycle and this cycle occurs at the onset of puberty. During menstruation, blood and tissues of the uterus is discharged from the vagina that lasts for 3 to 6 days.
Despite being a natural process, menstruation is highly stigmatized. Merely pronouncing the word ‘Menstruation’ which is commonly known as periods is considered as a taboo. This natural, biological process is trapped in myths which directly or indirectly create obstacles in the socio – cultural life of women. A menstruating woman is treated like an impure and unwanted being. The taboos regarding menstruation has been circulated from one generation to another since a very long time and unfortunately even now, people still have misconceptions regarding this natural process.
Common myths regarding Menstruation
1. MYTH – A menstruating woman cannot enter a place of worship.
FACT – Menstruation is purely biological and has nothing to do with religion.
2. MYTH – Menstrual blood is impure.
FACT – Menstrual blood is not impure. It is the blood that sheds from the lining of the uterus when the egg is not fertilized during the menstrual cycle.
3. MYTH – A menstruating woman is not allowed to enter into the kitchen and are also not allowed to touch pickles.
FACT – In the earlier days, women during their periods used cloth which was extremely unhygienic that led to many dieseases and infections. In that case, it was not preferred for a bleeding woman to enter into the kitchen and touch pickles or any other things in the kitchen. But now when women are using sanitary pads during their periods which is safe, it doesn’t lead to dieseases and infections and this is why there is no need to impose such restrictions.
4. MYTH – A menstruating woman should not come into contact with any family members because she is considered to be in an impure state.
FACT – Because menstruation is a biological phenomenon, there is no way that a woman can be considered to be impure. There is no harm if she come into contact with her family members when she is on her periods.
5. MYTH – Women on their periods should not go near plants as it will kill the plants.
FACT – Plants survive on sunlight, water, manure and good care and their lifespan is not effected if someone goes near them.
6. MYTH – A menstruating woman should refrain from engaging in physical activities like exercise.
FACT – Engaging in physical activities does not harm a menstruating woman rather it helps them to get rid of menstrual cramps.
7. MYTH – There is nothing like PMS.(Pre Menstrual Syndrome)
FACT – PMS is a real thing. A woman on her periods often goes through mixed emotional feelings, anxiety, gets disturbed at little issues etc. Women should consult a doctor if they face these conditions severely during their periods.
8. MYTH – A woman on her periods should not take bath or wash her hair
FACT – It is completely safe for women to take bath during periods. In fact, it is essential for a woman to keep herself clean and maintain hygiene when she is in her periods.
9. MYTH – A woman on her periods should not indulge in sexual activities.
FACT – There is no health problem associated with indulging in sexual activities when a woman is on her periods.
10. MYTH – Do not talk about periods publicly.
FACT – Young girls should be educated about their bodily changes and menstruation right before the time they attain puberty. Also, there is nothing to be embarrassed to talk about periods openly rather it is important to create awareness among people regarding this natural process to swipe away taboos.
Myths relating to menstruation effect a woman’s mental, social and emotional state. Adolescent girls should be made aware of menstrual health and they should be educated enough to distinguish between myths and facts. Awareness should be created among people regarding menstruation so that people stop believing in myths that will help in improving the reproductive health of women.
For a smooth living, a stable source of income has become an utmost necessity. The modern world grants many employment opportunities to the people to choose from. People choose their career options that suit their necessities and personality. People engage themselves in various jobs to secure their present and future. The 9 to 5 jobs are considered to be the most common and safe option for people that promises a good salary at the end of the month. In the present time of crisis, many people lost their jobs and with no source of income, life has definitely come to a standstill for them. To keep going with the flow of life, people have started to utilize their passion in a professional way that would fetch them money to lead a good life.
Self employment is that job opportunity where a person is his own boss. Although being self employed is not at all an easy task because there are challenges at every step. Initially, a self employed person might face many downfalls, monetary losses, uncertainty about continuity of the job and many such issues. Apart from that, stress, anxiety, feeling of despair, under – confidence, societal pressure, unfulfillment of economic needs etc might crush the person. But if a person believes in himself and his ideas, is determined and hard working, no challenge can break him. Ideas and proper execution of ideas are the key to a successful self employment opportunity.
10 Self Employment Ideas
Freelancing refers to that self employment idea where a person puts up his skills on the concerned websites so that they could be hired by companies for a period of time. Freelancers don’t work as employees rather they work on the basis of contract. Freelancing includes works like Content Writing, Proofreading, Web designing, Copywriting etc.
Blogging is the most common self employment idea presently. To become a good blogger, one needs to have an internet connection, a laptop or maybe a smartphone and a lot of ideas on varied topics that would catch the attention of the readers. For example, right now, ‘Fashion’ is something that everyone is interested in and blogs on fashion would fetch a blogger with lots of readers and ultimately profit. The same goes with health and fitness blogs, travel blogs etc.
YouTube has become the most popular platform on the internet where people showcase their talents. Some use this platform for entertainment purpose and for some it is a source of income. People post their music, dance, acting, cooking, painting and other such videos on YouTube. YouTube pays people when their videos cross a certain limit of views, likes and subscribers. Some people even earn around lakhs monthly from YouTube. It is a perfect platform to earn name, fame and money.
4. Make – up Artists
Make – up Artists are in great demand nowadays. A training certificate from a well known institute is enough to start with the job. Although the well established Make – up Artists have customers throughout the year yet the business of the Make – up Artists bloom more during the wedding season.
5. Home Bakers
In the past few years, home bakers have come up in huge numbers. People who are interested in baking have taken an opportunity to use their skills to earn money. Home bakers bake at the comfort of their homes and sell their eatable items.
6. Selling hand – made products
People good at art and crafts can make use of their crafting skills to start their own line of business. There are many websites where people sell their hand made products. Social media applications like Facebook, Instagram etc are used for promoting their products. Some of the hand – made products are so well crafted that it gives a tough competition to machine – made products.
7. App designing
With the popularity and necessity of smartphones, app developing industry is getting popular. With a proper training in an app developing course, one can start his career in this industry even remotely.
8. Social Media Influencers
This profession is the most discussed and popular profession of recent times. With the growing popularity of social media, social media influencers are growing in numbers. These influencers specialise in specific content and work on those contents. They make regular posts on their social media accounts on their specialised topics in an interesting way to attract the attention of the viewers. Because these influencers have a massive fan base, they are approached by the top brands for promotion of their products. This is of course a great self employment idea.
If a person thinks that he is good at any subject, he can start teaching students. Initially there might be one or two students but gradually if his students appreciate his teaching process, many more students would enroll themselves in his tuition. Because people give so much importance to education, taking tuitions is a good idea to start one’s career.
The photography industry is also growing rapidly. A person with photography skills can easily turn his passion for photography into profession. To begin with, one should take mini steps like concentrating on creating his own portfolio, learn from or intern under skilled photographers to enhance their already existing skills. After building a strong portfolio and promotion of his works, he could be approached by people to cover various events from which he can earn his living.
These are a few self employment ideas that people can make use of to earn their daily bread. Before taking up any self employment idea, one has to self introspect and self discover to know what he wants in his life. When a person turns his passion into profession, his zeal towards working immediately doubles than ever before.
Before understanding Criminology, we should know what is crime. We frequently use the word ‘Crime’. Crime is an act that harms individuals or a society and is punishable by law. Our society has never been crime free. Since the ancient days till the present day, society has witnessed various crimes and crime rates have been increasing ever since then. Everyday when we read the newspaper or watch the news and through social media, we come across instances of heinous criminal activities. In such a scenario, the importance of Criminology is greatly felt.
What is Criminology?
The scientific study of crime is Criminology. It not only studies crime but also studies the causes behind crime, laws relating to crime and also studies the measures to stop crimes.
Crimes are generally committed by those people who are not satisfied with what they have. Insecurities, greed, lust, hatred, suspicion, jealousy and the like are the main roots of crime. Here, Criminology plays an important role where the discipline studies all the components of society like family, religion, economy in relation to crime and makes the society understand, control and reduce crime by discovering and analysing its causes. Criminology provides stability to the society.
Importance of Criminology and Criminologists
Because of increasing crime rates, various laws relating to crime has also been introduced because law is an important tool of social control. Laws related to crime is adequately modified with time to deal with criminal activities and changing intentions and mindsets of the criminals.
Criminologists works together with the law enforcing agencies to develop profiles of the criminals and gather statistics on crime rates so that they could rightly prevent crimes and punish the offenders but in a liberalised manner. In the present time, Criminology has been playing more attention to rehabilitation of offenders through intensive after – care programs.
Since we are living in a modern era, we cannot skip the advancement of scientific knowledge and technology. Although technology has made life easy yet complexities of life has increased greatly due to which patterns of crime has changed. Theft of automobiles, shop lifting, forgery, cheating,smuggling,trafficking,financial scams and scandals, terrorist activities, have become so common these days. Also, crimes that are committed online cannot be ignored like online gambling, hacking, cyber bullying etc. The more the world is advancing, the more criminal acts are increasing.
To tackle all these criminal instances, Criminology as a discipline is of great importance to devise new methods and techniques to solve these problems through scientific research.
The Criminologists keeps themselves acquainted with new criminological developments and work out strategies to deal with intricate problems of life.
In a nutshell,
∆ Criminology helps in reducing crime by understanding the causes behind it.
∆ Criminology helps in understanding the mindsets of the criminals which would help in proper allocation of resources to control crime.
∆ Criminology suggest appropriate measures for rehabilitation of criminals.
Criminology as a discipline should be introduced in every educational institutions to create awareness among students regarding crime. In the present times when every corner of the world is occupied with criminal acts, the importance of Criminology is realized.
Human eye is that organ through which we witness the beauty of the world. The eyes capture an image and send signals to the brain to perceive the colour, size and shape of the object. The human eye is often compared to that of a camera. As per the reports of Dr. Roger Clark, who is a scientist and a photographer, the resolution of human eye is about 576 megapixels which is more than a camera. However a camera and human eyes should not be compared because both function in its own way. In certain cases, a camera has quite a few advantageous position than the human eye but it cannot be denied that humans are blessed with a powerful and a beautiful organ like the eye.
Unfortunately, the functioning of eyes are disturbed by many disorders and Allergic Conjunctivitis is one of the most common eye disorder.
What is Allergic Conjunctivitis?
In simple terms, Allergic Conjunctivitis is a non – contagious allergy in the eye due to reaction of certain substances like dust, pollen, animal fur etc. The eyeball consist of a membrane called the conjunctiva which is vulnerable to irritation from the external substances. Allergic Conjunctivitis are of two types as per duration is concerned.
1. Seasonal or Acute Allergic Conjunctivitis
Acute Allergic Conjunctivitis occurs for a short period of time when the eyes suddenly gets irritated and usually stays for a day or two. Seasonal eye allergies gets cured on its own.
2. Long – term or Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis
This type of conjunctivitis occurs for a long period of time where eye irritation is much more intense and long lasting than the acute. In case of Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis, proper treatment and care is essential for the eye to come back to its normal state.
Symptoms of Allergic Conjunctivitis
1. Redness of eye
2. Itching of eye
3. Swelling of eye
4. Watery and pus discharge from the eye
5. Runny nose and frequent sneeze
6. Discomfort when the naked eye is exposed to bright light or even direct sunlight
7. Unable to keep looking into someone’s eyes straight up even for a short period of time
8. Sensation of presence of a foreign body in the eye
9. Burning sensation of the eye
10. Pain in and around the eye
Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis
1. Avoiding those substances to which a person is allergic.
2. A person should take precautions when it is windy as the dust and pollen count is more on windy days.
3. People suffering from allergic conjunctivitis should stop rubbing their eyes no matter how irritated they feel because rubbing of eyes makes the eye swelling worse.
4. People suffering from allergic conjunctivitis should soak their eyes with a clean cotton pad dipped in cold water or gently put ice cubes wrapped on a clean cloth on their eyes to get rid of the irritation and soothe their eyes.
5. One should avoid wearing contact lenses and eye makeup when symptoms are showing.
6. Wearing sunglasses in the outdoors is always a good idea that would protect the eyes from direct sunlight.
7. The most effective treatment is to visit an eye specialist who would provide the required medication in the form of eye drops and tablets as per the severity of one’s allergic condition. Eye drops like Antihistamine eye drops, Mast Cell Stabilizer eye drops, Steroid eye drops etc are quite effective in reducing symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. The eye drops and tablets should be taken as per instructions of the doctor as these medicines have quite a many side effects.
People suffering from Allergic Conjunctivitis should take utmost care of themselves because allergies do not have a permanent cure but it can be reduced to an extent if we identify the substances we are allergic to and refrain from coming into its contact. Eye allergies should not be taken lightly because we cannot compromise with such a precious sense organ. Eye allergies might not be fatal but it definitely disturbs the normal functioning. Human eye is a wonderful gift, let’s take care of it.
To know where we are going, we need to know where we came from. Ancient Indian texts can give us a reference to understand how the Indian society can be studied which also makes possible to predict or plan the future of the Indian society. Because the Indian society is so diverse, the ancient books plays an important role as the history and significance of every individual culture, the wants and needs of people can be studied through it. These studies are advantageous for the present day policymakers in framing the policies and schemes favourable to the diverse groups of people. Any activity that is done in the present or has to be done in the future has to be in co – relation with the past.
Ancient texts in Science and Technology
We might not be aware of the fact that the ancient Indian books are still relevant but the present technological advancements of the Indian society has its base in ancient Indian society. Progress in science and technology aims to fulfill the needs of the people and those needs have been the same throughout ages. The Indus Valley Civilization is an apt example in this context. The advancements of this civilization can be related very well to the present Indian society. They excelled in town planning, agriculture, trade, architecture, craftsmanship which is evident in their jewellery and other artifacts. They used to live in two – storeyed buildings and had proper bathing area along with hygienic toilets. Although the Indus Valley Civilization is thousands of years old yet these developments are widespread in the present Indian society. Even after all these years, it is possible to keep up with these developments through ancient Indian texts.
Ancient texts in religion
In the religious context as well, ancient Indian texts are immensely relevant in the present times. Religious texts and mythologies preach how to live life, make us differentiate between right and wrong. Religions like Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and others has provided the mankind with guidelines on living an ethical life that forms a moral background of ideal human behaviour. The Bhagwad Gita that teach us to conquer our fears still remain relevant. People still read such religious texts to overcome their fears. Lord Krishna’s advice to Arjuna in the Indian epic Mahabharata also holds relevance today. When Arjuna faced difficulty in choosing between his duty on one hand and his unruly kinsmen on the other hand in the battlefield, Krishna advised him to remain steadfist in his duty or dharma and defeat his evil kinsmen. This advice of Lord Krishna can be applied in the current times to keep away evil and negativity.
Ancient texts in politics and economy
The ancient Indian texts has mentioned about proper and effective governance. In this regard, Chanakya’s Chanakya Neeti and Arthashastra is worth mentioning. Chanakya has very clearly mentioned how the administrators should be in order to run the country efficiently. He stated that the public administrators have to bear the responsibility of the citizens so that the country runs smoothly and work for the common people keeping in mind their needs and requirements. Talking about corruption, he mentioned that strict punishment should to given to those who choose the path of corruption. All these statements are seen to be quite relevant in the current times.
Regarding economy, his famous book Arthashastra points out many things that are still relevant. Arthashastra conceptualised India as a welfare state. It covered various areas like infrastructure, finance, agriculture, trade and commerce, employment, laws etc. He stated that proper work on these areas will develop India in later times and in the present day, these areas are considered to be extremely crucial for the development of the country.
The ancient Indian texts thus acts as a blueprint that helps in creating a society in its best form by referring to the past society by identifying what was best and what went wrong. Therefore it can be said that we can study the present Indian society through ancient Indian books.
Music is a universal language, a form of expression that knows no boundaries. Music is the most beautiful part of our lives and we cannot imagine our lives without it. Music is nothing but a combination of words, melody and rhythm. Music is everywhere, right from the sound of raindrops to the frightening thunderstorm, voice of a babbling baby to the chirping of birds. Music is like a medicine that heals wounded souls, lifts up melancholy mood, brightens up our days and light up our nights.
What is Music Therapy
Music for treating people was used in ancient days but its use as a therapy has been popularised since the last century. Music is so powerful and therapeutic that it can be used as a tool to help reduce the severity of dieseases. Every age group responds to music in a positive way that makes them feel happy and when someone is happy, his body releases Dopamine and Endorphin hormones that keeps a person in a jolly mood even though he is suffering from physical pain and illness. Music Therapy is a clinical profession that meets with the goals of individuals through musical interventions. Music Therapy treats an ailing person by reducing his stress, anxiety, fear thus helping him to recover physically, psychologically and socially.
How Music Therapy helps
In the current scenario, stress and anxiety has become the toxic friends of people. Stress and anxiety when reach a higher level might also be fatal and therefore it is extremely important to get rid of these mental toxins. Research has shown that Music Therapy works well in treating a stressful and anxious mind. Music Therapy works the best for Alzheimer and Dementia patients. These dieseases have no permanent cure yet Music Therapy has become a ray of hope for them. These dieseases disconnect the patients from everyone but music connects them to the world. Researchers found that music stimulates the brain and upon hearing music, the patients revive their connection with their surrounding.
Music provides creativity, self discovering capability, self expression to a person who eventually let go of his stress and anxiety. Through music a person can connect himself to the world that helps in overall development of his character and well being. Even in general, if we have a bad day, just listening to music makes us feel good. Music Therapy not just encourage listening to music for healing purpose but also encourage people to participate in music making, practicing music that enhances memory, develop comprehension skills, learn and value qualities like patience and will power. When participating in music making, a person also gets the opportunity to express his suppressed emotions in a creative way which would bring him utmost satisfaction. Through the lyrics of a song or rhythm and melody of music, a person can relate it to his own life experiences and process it. Also, when a person goes through Music Therapy, he is exposed to multiple genres that introduce him to different cultures through which he can learn many new things necessary for his growth as a person.
However, Music Therapy is not a dominant treatment in curing physical ailments of the body yet it is a great therapy that helps in the process of recovery. Music Therapy helps people forget pain and anxiety and in that case medicine works better and faster leading to quick recovery. A person who does not feel physically healthy often feels isolated and keeps worrying about his health which makes his health even worse. Music Therapy comes as a rescue in such cases where the person feels motivated and positive after the music sessions. Music lowers the blood pressure of the body and control heart rates that makes a person feel stable when he is not keeping in good health. Music Therapy works like magic on children who face problems while speaking. Through regular Music Therapy sessions the therapist takes care of all the requirements of the child and work on its verbal developments.
Pre – requisites of Music Therapy
Before starting with music therapy, the therapist needs to know his patients well. Without understanding the needs of his patients, the therapist won’t be able to treat them up to the desired expectation. For a therapist, it is essential to know his patients’
∆ Emotional state
∆ Mental strength and abilities
∆ Physical well being
∆ Communication skills
∆ Music preferences
∆ History of past trauma
∆ Social relationships
Only after having an in depth knowledge of these factors, the therapist can accordingly plan the sessions so that the patients can receive the needful treatment. During the session, the therapist can assess if the designed session has any effectiveness on the patient. If the therapist observe that the patient is not not responding, he can make changes and re – design the sessions.
Benefits of Music Therapy
√ Reduction of stress and anxiety
√ Reduction of pain
√ Strong social relationships
√ Cultural awareness
√ Reduction of feeling of isolation
√ Creative expression of self
√ Strong memory
√ Light and happy mood
√ Positive approach to problem solving
√ Proper speaking skills
√ Control over emotions
Therefore music has the capacity to heal even the unseen and unknown wounds of life. Music helps us lead a stress-free life and live with a determined and positive approach. It gives us strength to face every situation that life throws on us. Music is not just a part of life but it is life itself.
Education is our birth right. Education is essential for every human being as it makes our lives better and worth living. Therefore schooling has become a norm and children at the age of 4 starts attending school. But in many areas of the country, still, if the child is a girl, then there are many hindrances to her access to education. The common perception is that the girls of the family will get married one day and would not contribute to the financial needs of the family. This is a disheartening picture and it is very essential to make people understand that education of women is a fundamental right just like men.
No society can progress without the contribution of women. Therefore women needs to be educated. Education is the first step to provide a woman the power to choose a life she wants to lead. An educated woman becomes aware of her rights and raise her voice against exploitation, discrimination or any form of injustice. The struggle to promote women education has begun long time back and even in the 21st century it is still continuing. When talking about women education in India, the mention of Savitribai Phule and her husband Jyotirao Phule has to be made who established India’s first school for girls in Pune in the year 1848.
Importance of Women Education
Self Reliance : An educated woman need not depend on a third person for her survival.
Elimination of crime against women : Education is a vital weapon in eliminating crimes and evils against women. Social customs such as dowry, female infanticides and other harmful practices can be eradicated through women education when the women of the country stand up together against such practices.
Woman empowerment : Education makes a woman aware of her rights and duties and enables them to respond to the challenges in a bold way.
Improvised standards of living : When a woman earns, she can utilize her money on her own and no other males would have a say on that. Women Education elevates the standard of living of the family.
Prevents social exclusion : Uneducated women or a girl child is likely to work as a domestic help or in extreme cases become a victim of flesh trade over the opposite gender and these women often get secluded in society.
Contribution to the welfare of society : Educated women gets themselves involved in developmental activities and work for the progress of the country. Women like Kalpana Chawla, Kiran Bedi, Mother Teresa, Mary Kom set a classic example.
Sadly, there are many barriers of Women Education in India.
Barriers of Women Education
1. Lack of consciousness among some women to be educated : Some women are not aware that education is important for them. This maybe because of the environment where they were born and brought up with the so called notion that she is supposed to be in the kitchen and not in school and women happens to believe that it is her fate.
2. Lack of safe transportation for school going girls : Due to lack of safe transportation to go to school, parents hesitate to send their daughters to school. Now this barrier is common for everyone whether it is a rural or urban area.
3. Financial constraints of the family : If the family of a woman cannot afford the education expense, they would pull her out of school. The education of the son is always given preference than the daughter.
4. Unwillingness of parents to send girl child to school : Some parents don’t want their daughters to attend schools and colleges. Some families still think that daughters are a burden and believe that the sooner they are married off, the better. Education never comes into the scenario in such cases.
5. Early marriage : Education of women is stopped when she gets married. Some families allow their daughter-in-law to continue their study after marriage but it is very rare. 10 out of 100 families do that. In most cases, when girls gets married early, their education stops then and there.
6. Conservative mentality : It is very sad to see people having low mentality towards women education. Some believe that if a girl is too educated, it would be difficult to search a groom for her. Also it is a well known fact that Indian families spend more money on a girl’s marriage than on her education. The married life of a woman is always given more importance than her career.
Women Education in India can be improved when
. We do not consider a girl to be a burden.
. People should stop thinking that cooking, laundry and other household activities are woman’s job.
. People should stop categorizing women as inferior.
. Encourage people to send their daughters to school without discrimination.
. Encourage people to not stop the education of a girl just because she got a great match and needs to get married.
Popular quotes on Women Education
“When women are educated, their country become stronger and more prosperous.” – Michelle Obama
” Young women who want education will not be stopped.” – Frieda Pinto
” To educate girls is to reduce poverty.” – Kofi Annan
Women Education contributes to the overall development and progress of our country. A society lacks behind if the women are not happy. Education is the master key to open the doors of development and it is high time for the society to acknowledge it.
Necessity is always the main reason behind commission of a crime. But it is not so in every case.
What is White Collar Crime?
When a person of high status and respectability commits crime to fulfill his personal or economic gains is known as White Collar Crime. Such crimes takes place not because of need but greed.
Nature of White Collar Crimes and Criminals
As compared to other crimes for financial gains like robberies, theft, burglaries etc., white collar crimes causes great amount of financial loss. Such crimes can can destroy a company, families by taking away their life savings or cost investors a thick sum of money. White Collar Crimes have been taking place in a large scale for the last few years and are often seen to be committed in famous organizations.
White Collar Crimes are difficult to detect in the initial times because the criminals belonging to the reputable groups of the society does the evil activities quite tactfully with proper planning and execution. Although such crimes does not apply violence or physical force yet it deceives people and shatter their life long hardwork in one go.
A very famous example of White Collar Crime that could be cited is that of the fraud case of Nirav Modi. The Nirav Modi scam created a wave of chaos in the country when the Punjab National Bank (PNB), one of the largest public sector lenders found itself amidst Rs 11,400 crore transaction fraud in Feb 2018. Having received complaints against Nirav Modi by PNB, the CBI started investigating the case. Meanwhile, Modi left the country avoiding arrest.
White Collar Crimes in certain professions
Medical professional : A great amount of white collar crimes can be seen in the medical professional which includes issuance of fake medical certificates, selling of unlicenced drugs, intended prolonged treatments to increase bills, sex determination of unborn child in the womb and such other similar activities.
Engineering profession : In the Engineering profession as well, maintenance of false records of work – charged labours, construction of roads, bridges etc with below standard materials, unethical dealings with contractor and suppliers can be seen.
Legal profession : In the legal profession, violating the expected standards of the legal profession to earn monetary gains, framing false evidences to punish the innocent etc is very common.
Educational institutions : Submission of fake details about an institution to enjoy financial aids from the government, asking for huge sum of money as donation comes under the category of white collar crimes.
The intensity or effect of white collar crimes are not felt immediately or maybe directly to an extent, yet it greatly hamper the economy of the country in the long run.
How to combat White Collar Crimes?
Controlling White Collar Crime is no less than a challenge for the authorities because the criminals belong to the most powerful groups of the society.
Public awareness should be created on a large scale about these crimes through media platforms and other audio-visual aids.
Strict regulatory rules, improvement of criminal law, unbiased and impartial prosecution of the accused should be done along with drastic punishment for such criminals should be made compulsory.
If White Collar Crimes keeps on taking place in the society, very soon the society would faces its worst consequences. We, as responsible citizens of the country should always be alert and raise our voice if we come across any cases of such crimes in our surroundings.
“Books are a uniquely portable magic.” – Stephen King
Books are considered to be the most beautiful gift to mankind. Books are a wonderful source of gaining knowledge and is popularly referred to as ‘Treasure of Knowledge’. April 23 every year is celebrated as “World Book and Copyright Day” to appreciate and glorify books, authors, editors and most importantly this day glorifies reading. The culture of writing books has been prevalent since ages when men started writing on the barks of trees, leaves of the papyrus plant which later was compiled into a book. In due course of time, with the coming of printing press, men started manufacturing books in large numbers.
Books in digital era
As the world is changing rapidly, we have entered into the digital age. In this period, things have changed drastically and so is reading and writing. Nowadays to read a book, we don’t really need pages but we can read from a screen. Numerous articles on any topic can be found online. Electronic formats like Amazon Kindle, PDFs, International Digital Publishing Forums, Open e-books etc has taken the place of traditional printed books. Despite technological advancements in the field of reading, that is, reading online, traditional books have not lost its significance.
Reasons for relevance of books in digital era
1. Books provides experience : Reading a book is an experience in itself because while reading, we get connected to the author, we can feel what the author is trying to convey. Reading books takes us to an imaginary world where at the end, all we get is a surreal experience.
2. Books contain real information : An author writes a book after he has done a detailed study on the area he is writing. Also, a book is published after thorough scrutinization by the concerned authorities. So in that case, we can rely on the information that we get from books.
3. Minimal distraction : When we read a book, it is just us and the book and there is nothing sort of external disturbances. But while reading online, we receive so many pop up advertisements, notifications from our social media accounts. If we are tempted by these distractions, we tend to lose the flow of reading.
4. Retention power : Everyone of us has different reading and memorising techniques. Some of us highlight the important texts with colourful pens, use our favourite bookmarks to keep a track on the last reading material, make our own tiny notes somewhere on the book and many such techniques to remember what we have read. Although many of such facilities are available when reading online yet traditional books tend to enhance our retaining capacity.
5. Limited health issues : Reading from a book have no major health related problems. Although many readers do complain about back pains and spondylitis yet health issues are serious when people engage themselves too much in online reading. Starring at the screens for a long time would cause severe headache, vision related problems, sleep disorientation and many others which would gradually affect health.
6. Not everybody has access to Internet : The picture of the rural areas can be drawn in this context. Many parts of the country is still fighting against illiteracy. In such a case, even if internet connection is provided to these people people, it would be of no use because they will not know how to make use of it. But if they are taught by a teacher with the help of books, they would be able to know how to read and write and also gain knowledge. Thus, books are a weapon to fight against illiteracy.
7. Permanence of books : We can keep books with us forever and even conserve it for our future generations to read. Libraries are the best example to highlight the permanence of books.
Libraries are still very important all over the world even in the digital age because we cannot find everything on the internet. The good, classic books written by famous writers long back are not uploaded on the internet. Library is the only place to find such books. The ambience of a library attract the readers to visit it often. We meet so many enthusiastic readers in the library and from them we can learn many new things. The environment of a library is so quiet and peaceful. The smell of the pages of the books, the sound of the pages being turned, whispering sounds of the readers and everything about a library is so wonderful. Although both libraries and internet are sources of information yet it cannot be denied that internet can never replace libraries.
Inter – relation between books and technology
Books and technology goes hand in hand in disseminating knowledge. We can make use of technology to promote books that enhances its relevance in this technology dominated era. Nowadays, we can order books online from various shopping portals which clearly reflects that the culture of reading is not yet vanished. Also, we have witnessed that many movies has been made where the storyline is adopted from books. For example, the Harry Potter series, the Twilight series, the movie 2 States and even the 2009 Bollywood blockbuster 3 idiots is taken from a book. In this way, technology is not replacing books but promoting the relevance of books.
Books really does wonders. An author takes quite a long time to write a book after making a thorough study and we as readers can gain the same information in a short span of time just by reading it. This is the magic of books. Books have always been and will always be an important tool for promoting knowledge.
The year 2019 was a normal year until December when this normalcy was disturbed by the outburst of Corona Virus in Wuhan city of China. The villainous corona virus or Covid 19 has shattered humankind into pieces by killing people all around the globe. Within no time, the virus took a toll on social, cultural, mental, economical and every possible spheres of life. Despite the tragedy, people all over the world has been fighting hard against this unseen enemy with solidarity.
Role of Mass Media in Covid 19 pandemic
With the outbreak of the Covid 19 pandemic, mass media has been a crucial tool for information generation. Because people were confined to their houses, mass media was the only source to get information about the ongoing situation. People began to watch the news like never before to update themselves with facts. Not just the latest news updates but with an easy access to social media, people are making use of platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc for personal and business updates. Even the government agencies interacted with the common people through social media to share information regarding the pandemic.
Negative effects of Media during the pandemic
At the beginning of the Covid 19 pandemic, people were searching for all sorts of Covid 19 related articles and news and unfortunately a lot of misinformation has been circulated creating panic. Such misinformation and rumours manipulated the minds of the people leading to mental breakdown which further took a toll on the immune system. There has been cases where mentally weak people lost their lives after falling prey to rumours. However, many people were arrested for circulating fake news regarding Covid 19.
Positive effects of Media during the pandemic.
Keeping aside the negative aspect, the role of Mass Media is worthy of appreciation as it has been a constant source of making people aware about the DO’s and DON’T’s. News portals, social media users be it friends, family, health workers, politicians or celebrities encouraged people to stay in their homes, safe and healthy. People were encouraged to exercise and do yoga on everyday basis to boost their immune system. The Quarantine culture started to come in trend and people started embracing lockdown. The effect of Media on culture came to be more profound during the pandemic. We have seen people reviving their long lost hobbies, spending quality time with family which infact inspired many people to look back into their lives, taking a break from their hectic schedule.
But sadly, not everybody could embrace lockdown. This pandemic has been the worst nightmare for the wage workers, the migrant labourers and even the middle class section of the society to an extent. Fortunately, media came as a rescue for these people. When their plight was shown in the media, many influential people, NGOs came forward to help them with food, money, shelter, medical facilities and the like. Covid 19 has been extremely harsh for the elderly people especially with disabilities, people with serious ailments, people who lost their livelihood but people made use of Media platforms to raise funds and distribute money and essential items to the needy. Also in this pandemic, the term ‘Webinar’ has become quite popular. Many notable health workers, scholars and teachers kept in touch with people by conducting webinars to keep a check on each others’ mental health.
It can be seen that the role and impact of Mass Media in this pandemic is never ending. Like the two sides of a coin, mass media also have two sides – positive and negative. We, the people, must always approach the positive side and fight to overcome the virus. Also let us keep in mind what Malcolm said, “When I is replaced by We, illness becomes wellness.”