Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a computer system able to perform tasks that ordinarily require human intelligence. It is the study of ideas that enables computers to do the things that make people seem intelligent.

The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people” – Kurzweil

Some examples of AI are self-driving cars, Netflix’s recommendations, conversational bots, smart assistances such as Siri and Alexa.

Basically, there are two types of AI – 

  • Artificial Narrow Intelligence

Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) also known as “Weak” AI, exists in our world today. Narrow AI is goal-oriented and programmed to perform a single task. i.e. facial recognition, google searching, smart assistance, being able to play games. For example, AI systems today are used in medicine to diagnose cancer and other diseases with extreme accuracy through replication of human cognition and reasoning.

Artificial intelligence is a set of algorithms and intelligence to try to mimic human intelligence. Machine learning is one of them, and deep learning is one of those machine learning techniques.”

  • Artificial General Intelligence

Artificial general intelligence (AGI), also known as strong AI, is the concept of a machine with general intelligence that mimics human intelligence and behaviors, with the ability to learn and apply its intelligence to solve any problem as humans do in any given situation. It is expected to be able to solve problems and be innovative, imaginative, and creative. 

Applications of AI –

  • Finance

AI has encompassed from chatbot assistants to fraud detection and task automation. Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks and manage properties. 

  • Social Sites

AI helps social sites to analyze data to find out what’s trending, different hashtags, and patterns. For example, Facebook uses machine learning and AI for serving you interesting content, recognizes your face, and many other tasks.

  • Healthcare

Doctors assess the patient’s health-related data and intimate the risk factors to the customers via the health care devices with the help of artificial machine intelligence. AI has also applications in fields of cardiology (CRG), neurology (MRI), embryology (sonography), complex operations of internal organs, etc.

  • Robotics

AI in robotics helps robots perform crucial tasks with a human-like vision to detect or recognize various objects. The AI in robotics not only helps to learn the model to perform certain tasks but also makes machines more intelligent to act in different scenarios. There are various functions integrated into robots like computer vision, motion control, grasping the objects, and training data to understand physical and logistical data patterns and act accordingly.

  • Heavy Industries

Huge machines involve risk in their manual maintenance and working. So it becomes a necessary part to have an automated AI agent in their operation. Robots have proven effective in jobs that are repetitive.

  • Gaming

AI has also been applied to video games, for example, video game bots, which are designed to stand in as opponents.

There are many applications of AI such as self-driving cars, smart assistance, google maps, and many more. Future applications are expected to bring about enormous changes.


Places to visit in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand

Almora district is a district in the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state, India. The town of Almora is surrounded by Pithoragarh district to the east, Garhwal region to the west, Bageshwar district to the north, and Nainital district to the south. The landscape of Almora attracts tourists each year for its views of the Himalayas, cultural heritage, handicrafts, and cuisine, and is a business hub for the Kumaon region. 

Almora has attracted several eminent people through the ages, including Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Uday Shankar, and his troupe, and Ravi Shankar, who contributed to the cultural enrichment of the town. Govind Ballabh Pant noted freedom fighter was born in Almora. Former Indian Captain and ace cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni has ancestral roots in Lwali village in Almora. The town also serves as the starting point for many treks like Jageshwar, Pindari, Mornaula, Mukteshwar, Binsar, and Ranikhet among others.

The place owes its name to “Kilmore” a tiny plant found in the nearby regions, used for washing utensils of Katarmal sun temple. The people who used to bring the plant were referred to as Kilmore or Almora. Hence, the town came to be known as Almora or Almoda. 


Places to visit –

  1. Chitai Golu Devta Temple

Presided by the deity of Golu Ji, an incarnation of Lord Shiva in the form of Gaur Bhairav, the Chitai Temple is recognized by the number of copper bells hung in its premises. Although there are many temples of Golu Devta in Almora the Chitai Golu Devta Temple is the most sacred one.

Chitai Golu Devta Temple

  • Kasar Devi

Kasar Devi is a village near Almora, Uttarakhand. It is known for the Kasar Devi temple, a Devi temple, dedicated to Kasar Devi, after whom the place is also named. The Kasar Devi temple offers a pleasant view of the Almora city and Hawabagh Valley. In the 1890s Swami Vivekanand came to this temple for meditation.

Kasar Devi Temple

  • Dunagiri

Dunagiri temple is located 14 km far from Dwarahat. The temple is dedicated to the goddess Durga. It is believed that when Hanuman Ji was carrying the mountain with ‘Sanjiwani buti’ for Laxman, a piece of it fell here and since that day this place is known as ‘Doonagiri’ (‘giri’ meaning fell).

Dunagiri Temple

  • Jageshwar

One of the finest examples of architecture in Uttarakhand, Jageshwar Dham is a group of temples dedicated to Lord Shiva. The Jageshwar temple site attracts many pilgrims and visitors every day. Many complete a part of the post-cremation last rites after the death of a loved one at the Jageshwar temple site. 

Jageshwar Temple

  • Binsar

Binsar is a small town adorned on the hills of Kumaon. Binsar is known for offering spell-binding views of the majestic Himalayan peaks such as Chaukhamba, Nanda Devi, Nanda Kot, Panchauali, and Kedarnath. This compact hill town is encircled by the Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary which serves as a habitat for the rare animals, birds, and flower species. It is the best place for experiencing adventurous hiking and camping.


  • Katarmal Sun Temple

Katarmal Sun Temple is considered the second most important sun temple in India after Konark Sun Temple (Orissa). It is believed to be the only sun temple located in the hills. The Katarmal Sun temple is a unique cluster of temples that is the tallest temple in the Kumaon region. Inside the main temple along with the statue of Vraddhaditya, other deities are also present. The locals believe that this shrine is significant for two reasons. One, this is the only Sun temple in the hills, and second, in February and November, the sun rays fall directly on the deity making it an extraordinary sight.

Katarmal Sun Temple

Ways to Stop Procrastination

One of the common things human beings are suffering from is procrastination. It is the act of delaying or putting things off for a later time. Even a person who is well-organized and disciplined tends to fall into this well of procrastination. Believing that repeated minor delays will not hurt you in a long run is nothing but a form of procrastination. If you are delaying the task, having trouble acting on them, or are unable to manage distractions then you are procrastinating.

Procrastination can lead to –

  • Ruining your career
  • Wasting your precious time
  • Making poor decision
  • Ruining your relationships
  • Resentment from family and co-workers
  • Making poor decisions
  • Lower self-esteem
  • Stress on your health

“Success is not a place at which one arrives but rather the spirit with which one undertakes and continues the journey.”

– Alfred Nobel

But this needs to stop right now otherwise you will be in great trouble. Here are some ways that will help you to overcome procrastination

  • Manage your environment

Working in a space where you are surrounded by positive energy will enhance your ability to do the work efficiently.

  • Take baby steps

Break down the items on your list into small, manageable steps so that your tasks don’t seem so overwhelming.

  • Make a to-do list

This will help you to keep track of things you would be doing the following day. By this, you don’t have to waste time in the morning. You know what are your plans for the day and you will start your day with a clear picture.

  • Eliminate distractions

Eliminate the distractions that force you to procrastinate. If you are distracted by social media so deactivate it for a short period of time. Turn off your notifications and focus on what you are doing.

  • Start today

Once you’ve figured out what is the task for the day, you must take immediate action. Muster the courage and give it a start with a positive note of completing the task without any distraction.

  • Hang out with people who don’t procrastinate

Hang out with people who inspire you. They’ll infuse some of their drive and spirit into your work ethic.

  • Reward yourself

When we tell ourselves something like, “I’ll do it first thing tomorrow morning,” that provides another reward in the form of positive emotions. You see, when we imagine ourselves engaged in some future action that we perceive as beneficial, we feel good about ourselves.

  • Increase self confidence

Students who believe that they won’t be successful at the task at hand are more likely to procrastinate. One way to increase their confidence is to highlight how others who have been in a similar position have been successful.

  • Perfectionism

Don’t strive for perfectionism. It is better to do something 80% than having done nothing. As the saying goes “Well done is better than well said“.

  • When your plan is failing, RE-PLAN

Some goals weren’t meant to be achieved then take a step back and decide what it is exactly that you want to achieve and what steps you should take to get there.

Search Engine Optimization

SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is a process of optimizing web pages and sites to get more traffic and make them search engine friendly, thus getting a higher ranking in search results. 

Here are step by step processes if you want your website to rank higher in search engines like google :

  • Find keywords

Keywords are fundamentals to the search process but they should be relevant to the context. Using long-tail keywords is a great strategy. It consists of three to five words and is more specific. They are less competitive than common keywords which tend to attract more traffic to your website.

  • Creating good content

If you want your website to get a good ranking, to get popularity then start creating good and engaging content. One of the reasons why most of the websites don’t get ranking is because the contents don’t get shared or linked to. To get someone to link or share your website, you need to create unique content which

  1. Publish in-depth and engaging content so that the reader gets want he wants to know without getting bored might lead to sharing your content or even gain links.
  2. Adding hooks to your content will help you get more links. It can be anything such as statistics or an interview which can be used to engage your website visitors and guide them to take actions you want them to take next.  

  • Keyword optimize your content

Keyword optimization is to make sure that chosen keywords are effective and map your targeted keywords in a few important places on your page. This will help search engines to understand better what your page is all about the targeted terms. You should decide where to use each keyword depending on the content of each page on the site. Key areas on your website are the title tag, image alt text, H1 heading, H2 and H3 subheaders, and so on. Using LSI keywords will help search engines to know what your content is about. LSI keywords are terms closely related to the keywords you are targeting.

  • Optimize your content for users

To boost your website rank higher in the search engine you have to optimize your content such that the user remains engaged with the content for a longer period otherwise they will leave your page and will eventually lead to a lower rank in the search engine. 

Structure your content by giving a short introduction about what the topic is all about. This will grab the reader’s attention and then start with the topics covered in the post. Add come relevant images to make your website look clean and easy to read.

  • Build backlinks

Backlinks help to promote your site just by being hyperlinks to you from another source. Search engines aggregate the volume and relevance of all of the pages linking to your site which impacts your page rank.

There are many ways to build backlinks and one of them is broken link building. When a site has been taken down entirely, existing backlinks on the other site will result in a 404 error. These are called broken links. Find resource page and check for broken links and this is done by using a browser extension like Check My Links. Broken links will be highlighted in red, making them easy for us to find at a glance. Find a good replacement on your site and send the resource site owner an email asking him to swap the dead link for a link to your content.

There are too many websites that are clustered with the same stock photos. The more original images you will put on your website, the better experience for the user and the better your odds are of ranking on search engines.

Lifestyle mistakes that are damaging our health

Living in a world where we are continuously striving to achieve materialistic things. Working late at night, eating junk food, binge-watching, and being lazy are only deteriorating your healthy lifestyle. You won’t notice this in the early stage but sooner or later symptoms will start showing up and then it will be too late.

As the saying goes “A healthy mind lives in a healthy body”. Researchers from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden have revealed that regular exercise boosts the brainpower of young adults. It improves blood flow to the brain that could help build new brain cells.

Here are some mistakes that one should be avoiding for living a healthy lifestyle –

  • Unhealthy Eating Habits

In this new era of fast food, people are ordering junk food like pizza and burgers. From a convenience point of view, it is okay although it isn’t a healthy option. Consuming high calories foods but lacking essential healthy nutrients causes severe digestive problems in the long run. It leads to unhealthy weight gain and an increased risk of many chronic diseases.

  • Drinking less water

For proper functioning of the body, you have to keep your body dehydrated. Drinking 3-4 liters a day will keep much illness away and gives you clear and healthy skin. 

  • Stressful life

Nowadays people feel overwhelmed because of the pressure that they face. There are many reasons for stressful life such as trying to do too much, not prioritizing your needs, and constantly being connected (social media). So to improve your lifestyle, unplug from being constantly connected, prioritize your needs and eat healthily and work out regularly.

  • Not making to-do list

Make your to-do list before going to bed. This will help you to manage your day without wasting your morning time figuring out what to do. Sometimes you take much time and you end up doing nothing. 

  • Being lazy

Laziness is one of the biggest modern-day problems. Not only will it affect your physical health, but it will also have a great impact on your mental health. Laziness in itself has enough potential to weaken your cognitive abilities and discourage you from eating and drinking healthy.

  • Avoiding deep and meaningful conversations

Human experience is about connecting with other people. Connection is what provides value and meaning to our lives. For example, people with strong social ties were found to be healthier and have a lower risk of death. Additionally, it was found that as age increases, the people with stronger social ties tend to live longer. And it seems that friendships can even help you find cancer.

  • Spending all day indoors

Explore the world around you whether that means traveling to faraway lands or hiking. This will freshen your mind and provides a wide range of mental and physical benefits.

  • Binge-watching for long hours

It’s good to binge watch for entertainment but it also has its side effects. It may increase anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Binge-watching for long hours may lead to insomnia and will make you less physically active.   

Search Engine Factors

Every website needs to be optimized to get a good search engine rank. Google uses some algorithms to rank a website in search engines.

Some google ranking factors are –

  • Backlinks
  • Freshness
  • Topical authority
  • Search intent
  • Content depth
  • Page speed
  • Mobile-friendliness
  • User experience

  • Quality Backlinks

These are the links on a website that links back to your website if your topic is related to the one referred on the website or they have linked your website.

Relevance and Authority are the two most important factors that play a major role in ranking your website.

Relevance – Search engines decide the relevancy by the keywords and links used.

Authority – Backlinks that are obtained from high authority domains offer more equity than ones that are not.

  • Freshness

It is a query-dependent ranking factor, meaning it’s important for some queries than others. Fresh content is content that has been recently updated or updated regularly such as a news update. It is updated whenever there is something new around the world and when searched you will get the high-ranking pages that are just updated a few minutes ago.

But some queries don’t require to be updated such as “how to tie a tie”. Here freshness doesn’t matter because the process of tying a tie never changes.

  • Search Intent

Search Intent represents the objective the searcher is trying to accomplish. For example, if a user searches “Best places to visit in Uttarakhand,” google will pop the articles and blogs about the places to visit in Uttarakhand.

The 3C’s of Search Intent

  1. Content-Type – You will see tourism articles, blogs on places to visit
  2. Content Format
  3. Content Angle – Updated articles and tourist accommodations will show up

  • Topical Authority

It is a measure that ranks a website whose content is better and related to the topic of the site. Write original, high-quality content based on keyword research and build topically relevant links to your article.

The concept E-A-T comes from Google’s Search Quality Rater guidelines which stand for Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trustworthiness. Google uses E-A-T to evaluate the overall quality of a webpage.

  • Content Depth

Writing in-depth SEO content will improve the user’s engagement with the content. If a user searches for something online then you have to solve his problem by providing him everything that he needs to know. Well written detailed content improves the sites ranking because search engine treats it as complete information about a topic in a single page.

  • Page Speed

Page Speed is the amount of time it takes for a webpage to load. This plays an important role in determining ranking your site high on Google searches. The less time it takes to load your webpage, the higher the user engagement as they won’t be waiting for a long time for your content to load. They will eventually switch to another website whose content loads fast.

  • Using the HTTPS Protocol

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is a secure internet communication protocol that protects the integrity and confidentiality of data between the user’s computer and the site. Switching to HTTPS will make your website more secure and avoid damages from the third party.

  • User Experience

When it comes to User Experience it’s all about- 

  • Quality of content you are putting on your website
  • Responsive design and a good user interface are the key factors 


There are many other ranking factors when it comes to ranking your website such as domain name, algorithm rules, CTR, etc. It’s all about the quality of content you are putting out there that searchers are looking for, providing a great user experience so that searchers want to engage with your website. 

World’s Photography Day

19th August of every year is celebrated as World Photography Day. This day is to celebrate creativity and acknowledge the effort that a photographer puts to capture amazing shots that seems so unreal. Today’s generation is taking interest in photography and making it a professional career. Photography is a way of conveying a message that is unseen which is still out there unheard by the world. With advancements in camera technology, it has become one of the primary modes of communication. The saying “a picture is worth a thousand words” remains true even now.

History of World Photography Day

The origins of World Photography Day can be traced back to 1837. In France, Joseph Nicephore Niepce and Louis Daguerre invented the daguerreotype, the first-ever photographic process. In 1861, the first durable color photograph was captured. From then on, the medium of photography kept evolving.

The first digital photograph was created in 1957, two decades before the digital camera was invented. The French Academy of Sciences officially announced the invention of the daguerreotype in 1839 to the public. On 19 August 1839, the French government is believed to have purchased the patent for the device and made it freely available to the world. Later on, the day began to be marked as World Photography Day.

Photography is an art, to become better you need to practice it and know what other artists are doing.

Here are some of the famous photographers –

  • Jimmy Nelson

Jimmy Nelson is a famous photographer from the UK and he has been taking amazing photography since 1987. Since 2010 he has been working on a series ‘Before they Pass Away’ which has made him travel extensively to places like Vietnam, Tibet, Africa, and so on. He visits tribal people and takes photos of them in their natural habitat, which is amazing since the emotions are beautifully captured in his photos.

Tribal by famous photographer Jimmy Nelson

  • Rehahn

Rehahn is a french photographer currently settled in Vietnam. He is quite popular for his photographs of India, Vietnam, and Cuba. He published his first book – Vietnam, Mosaic of Contrasts in 2014 which has more than 150 photographs of Vietnam that focus specifically on the large diverse culture. 

Hidden smile by famous photographer Rehahn

  • Lee Jeffries

Lee Jeffries is from Manchester, UK and he enjoys traveling around the world to capture black and white portraits of homeless people. His passion for homeless portrait photography started when he participated in a marathon in London. He happened to come across a young woman huddled in a sleeping bag and his conception of homeless people changed drastically. 

Homeless by famous photographer Lee Jeffries

  • Joe McNally

Joe McNally is award-winning photography with international recognition. His work is quite popular in more than 70 countries. He is among the rare breed of photographer who has bridged the world between photojournalism and advertising, amassing an impressive commercial and advertising client list including FedEx, Sony, ESPN, Adidas, etc. His photos have been featured in top magazines like National Geographic, Life, and so on.

Music woman by famous photographer Joe McNally

  • Erik Almas

 Erik Almas is a photographer from Norway, currently living in San Fransisco. He was given a camera as present at the age of 12 and since then his exploration with photography has taken him many places. He pursued his education in photography at the Academy of Art University for 4 years.

Walk by famous photographer by Erik Almas

All about Networking

Network Engineers design, develop, install, test, and maintain networks that link computers, peripherals (fax machines, printers, modems), communication equipment (telephones, cellular phones), and video equipment (cameras, VCRs) using cabling methods of wireless transmissions and software.

Sharing is the basic reason that networks exist. Through networks, the greatest number of users can access applications, hardware, and information and thereby, attain cost-saving, efficiency, and widened communication.

Ask ten different people what networking is and you may get as many as ten different answers. A person’s definition of networking probably depends upon their use of this important personal and professional activity. However, whether your network is to make new friends, find a new job, develop your current career, explore new career options, obtain referrals or sales leads, or simply broaden your professional horizons, it is important to focus on networking as an exchange of information, contacts or experience.

Computer networks enable communication for every business, entertainment, and research purpose. The internet, online search, email, audio and video sharing, online commerce, live-streaming, and social networks all exist because of computer networks.


Although a 4-year degree in Engineering is the routine educational preparation, it is becoming increasingly necessary for certain certification of network-related competency. Several network hardware and software vendors after certification programs that at least an individual’s basic network knowledge or specialized knowledge of that company’s products.

There are three to four companies well known for their educational courses. Microsoft offers several courses for a network engineer link Microsoft Certified Professional, Microsoft Certified Professional Internet, Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer, Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer Internet, or Microsoft Solution Developer.The most highly regarded of them all is CISCO systems.

It offers a course containing three levels, the lowest level of certification is Cisco Certified Network Associate, secondly Cisco Certificate Network Professional, and ultimately, Cisco Certified Interwork Expert Certification.

Identify the Networking Engineering Path You Want

Once you’ve gained entry-level IT experience, you need to identify your career path. Networking engineering careers and positions vary widely depending on the industry, company, and technology.

If you’re just starting, here’s a list of some of the networking jobs available:

  • Network Specialist
  • Network Administrator
  • Network Technician
  • Network Analyst
  • Network Manager
  • Network Engineer
  • Network Solutions Architect

What is a job of a Network Engineer?

The aim is to ensure the integrity of high availability network infrastructure to provide maximum performance for your users.

  • Network engineers enable data to pass between computers in a network to aid communication between users.

  • Consult with key users/customers concerning the design and maintenance of their networks.

  • Monitoring the daily performance of the network infrastructure including cable lines, hubs, servers, and satellites/towers.

  • Resolve hardware and software problems, bugs and deficiencies, and customer router and circuit outages.

  • Report network operational status by gathering and prioritizing information and managing projects.

  • Maximize network performance by monitoring performance, troubleshooting network problems and outages, scheduling upgrades, and collaborating with network architects on network optimization.

  • Undertake data network fault investigations in local and wide-area environments using information from multiple sources.

  • Secure network systems by establishing and enforcing policies, and defining and monitoring access.

  • Support and administer firewall environments in line with IT security policy.

The Birth of Pentium

Computer hardware engineers design, develop, test, and assist in the manufacture of computer components, products, and systems, such as chips and device controllers. Computer hardware engineers often work together with software engineers, since both are often connected to the development of certain products. For example, developing a mobile phone requires both hardware and software engineering skills.

They plan the systems concepts and the hardware needs for a particular computer product by analyzing the market requirement and prepare a forecast which defines specification, the technology to be used, and the method by which the product could be made economical and market-friendly. They fabricate and test theoretical models of computer products and build working prototypes of the computer equipment.

The Indian brain behind the Pentium Processor

Vinod Dham is known as ‘Father of the Pentium Chip’ for his contribution to the development of Intel’s Pentium micro-processor.

Vinod Dham

After his bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from the Delhi College of Engineering in 1971, Dham wanted to go abroad and study microelectronics. However, his parents wanted him to be with them in Delhi.

At that time he was not career-minded so he took up a job in Delhi. Yet, he was lucky to be 10 minutes away from a forward-looking entrepreneur, Gurpreet Singh of Continental Devices, who wanted to run a world-class semiconductor company in the outskirts of Delhi. It was he who introduced Dham to conductors.

Dham was fascinated and wanted to know what went on inside the devices. He decided to go abroad and learn more. And so, after a lot of convincing, his parents agreed and he went to Cincinnati in 1975 to do an MSEE in Solid-State Sciences.

He was working in EPROMs (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory). He was asked by his college to present his work at an IEEE conference in Monterrey, California. The Intel people were also there presenting their work and they asked him to join them.

He had read about Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce, the co-founder of Intel but it wasn’t easy at the interview as they were asking questions like “how Ph. Ds would run a business”. Of course, they absorbed him as a lowly engineer.

He worked on EPROMS for seven years. However, Dham wanted more action and started looking around for more projects. He soon found one to beat the 486 processor.

His task was not simple as he had thought it would be. His team was frustrated as it was consuming a lot of time and errors kept on occurring.

As the deadline was nearing, Dham decided to set things right. He and his team worked day and night trying to figure out ways and means to beat the predecessor. They experimented and tried several permutations and combinations. Finally, they decided to use a new type of memory system and it worked wonderfully. He built a new type of processor and when it came to be named they couldn’t use 586, as numbers couldn’t be patented on technology products. So, they called it Pentium.


A dotcom, or dot-com, is a company that conducts business primarily through a website. A dotcom company embraces the Internet as the key component in its business. The businesses are normally conducted through a website with the domain “.com” in the URL. Popular dotcom companies include,,,, and The companies survived the burst of the dot-com bubble.

The Dotcom Bubble Burst

People started a dotcom or a website for almost everything, right from buying groceries from nearby grocers to buying pencils, but they did not figure out how much money they spent on making the website and buying space and designing it. They did not even access how much money they should make by selling their products to recover the cost because they had funds from others supporting them. Later, when the supporting people who funded their website started asking how they would recover money, the founders were clueless. So, the website was shut down. This happened all over the world. Then, the venture capitalists or the VCs (the people who fund other people to start a business) became careful about the money they were spending to avoid losses. This caused a lot of disappointment among people who wanted to start a venture. Hence, the dotcom bubble busted.

It was like bargaining for onions

Sabeer Bhatia – Hotmail founder

An eleven-year-old from Bangalore sold off his excess sandwiches, made by his mom to his friends; perhaps this was his first venture.

When he attended a lecture at Standford University, he learned about the history of founders like Steve Jobs or Scott McNealy. He thought to himself, “This is no big deal, I can do this.”

This is the story of none other than Indian – Sabeer Bhatia, the person who founded

Working in Apple Computers, he hated it when others had access to his company email. He decided to form an email system that could be accessed only by the owner, and no matter where he was, he could check his inbox and receive emails for free.

He was rejected by 19 funding organizations. Finally, a company agreed because it felt introducing a free email service would revolutionize the Internet.

The day hotmail was launched; servers were flooded with people signing up. Thousands and thousands of people flocked to sign up every day.

By year-end, they were greeting their millionth customer. When Microsoft came knocking, 12 months later, they’d signed up nearly 10 million users. But what were 10 million subscribers worth?

Bhatia didn’t know how to sell a company. But he did know how to buy onions. “In India, you’ve got to negotiate for everything,” he says. “Even while buying vegetables, you’ve got to negotiate.” When the bargaining started, Bhatia felt right at home. “They came in low with $160 million, so I came in at $700 million! And when they said: that’s ridiculous! Are you out of your mind?” I knew it was just a ploy. Bhatia won’t budge and finally, they had to succumb.

Microsoft purchased for a whopping 400 million dollars.

There are plenty of options available to you if you wish to choose a career in a dotcom company. Here are a few of them : 

  • Venture Capitalist
  • Web Developer
  • Web Designer

ACID Properties of Transaction

Database Transaction is a logical unit of processing in a DBMS which entails one or more database access operation. It is a sequence of operations that form a single unit of work.

A transaction is often initiated by an application program

  • Begin a transaction


  • Ends a transaction

COMMIT (if successful) or ROLLBACK (if errors)

A transaction T transforms one consistent database state into another consistent database state. During the execution of T, the database may be temporarily inconsistent.

Either the whole transaction must be succeed or the effect of all operations has to be undone (rollback).

There are two main transaction issues

  • concurrent execution of multiple transactions
  • recovery after hardware failures and system crashes

DBMS is the management of data that should remain integrated when any changes are done in it. It is because if the integrity of data is affected, whole data will get distributed and corrupt. Therefore, to maintain integrity of the data, there are four properties which are known as ACID properties.

Operations in Transaction

Following are the two main operations in a transaction:

  • Read operation
  • Write operation

Read Operation:This operation transfers the data item from the database and then stores it in a buffer in main memory.

Write Operation:This operation writes the updated data value back to the database from the buffer.

For example: Let T be a transaction that transfer Rs50 from X account to Y account. This transaction can be defined as:

T : read(X);
X := X – 50;
Y := Y + 50;

Assume that the value of both X and Y before starting of the transaction T is 100.

  • The first operation read the value of X (100) from the database and stores it in a buffer. The second operation will decrease X value by 50. So buffer will contain 50. The third operation will write the value of the buffer to the database. So the final value of X will be 50.
  • The fourth operation read the value of Y (100) from the database and stores it in a buffer. The fifth operation will add X value by 50. So buffer will contain 150. The sixth operation will write the value of buffer to the database. So the final value of Y will be 150.

ACID properties are used for maintaining the integrity of database during transaction processing. ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability.

  • Atomicity

A transaction is a single unit of operation. You either execute it entirely or do not execute it at all.

For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the atomicity property ensures that, if a debit is made successfully from one account, the corresponding credit is made to the other account.

  • Consistency

Once the transaction is executed, it should move from one consistent state to another.

For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the consistency property ensures that the total value of funds in both the accounts is the same at the start and end of each transaction.

  • Isolation

Even though transactions are executing concurrently, they should appear to be executed in isolation – that is, their final effect should be as if each transaction was executed in isolation from start to finish.

For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the isolation property ensures that another transaction sees the transferred funds in one account or the other, but not in both, nor in neither.

  • Durability

Once a transaction is committed, its changes (writes) applied to the database must never be lost because of subsequent failure.

For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the durability property ensures that the changes made to each account will not be reversed.

Zerodha – 0 to 1 Billion Dollar Company

In just 10 years, Zerodha went from 0 to 1 billion dollars in valuation. 

But how and what is Zerodha?

Zerodha is a financial service company founded by two brothers Nithin Kamath and Nikhil Kamath in the year 2010 to make trading barrier-free in the Stock Market. The name Zerodha comprises two terms, ‘Zero’ and ‘Rodha’. The latter term has been taken from Sanskrit, combining it with zero gives the meaning ‘barrier free’. 

All of this was done with zero funding and zero marketing. That means Zerodha went from 0 to 1 billion dollars in valuation with zero marketing and zero funding. In today’s competitive world where companies are pouring millions of money for advertisement just to be in the market here, Zerodha built his empire with zero funding and zero marketing.

Nithin and Nikhil Kamath

The Idea Behind Zerodha

In 2016, Kunal Shah – one of the most legendary entrepreneurs in the Indian startup ecosystem, deliberated an ink talk where he proposed a very interesting theory which more or less explains the root cause of the success of some of the biggest startups in the world.

According to Kunal Shah, “in this world, there are terms of system which have a term of inefficiencies and hurdles which often prevent ordinary people like you and me from moving into a more efficient system but we human beings once we find an efficient system, we have this innate ability to move on from where we never ever come back.”

Before Zerodha, Nikhil Kamath observed that three hurdles were troubling the investors and were also preventing the common people of India from investing in the stock market.

These hurdles were – 

  • Lack of knowledge and awareness – People in India make decisions based on myths rather than knowledge and strategy.

  • Exorbitant brokerage fees – As the conventional brokerage forms for charging percentage commission, all the amount of investment that in investing was made which results in exorbitant brokerage fees.

  • The entire process of investment was very tedious and complex for a common man to understand.

“The problem we are trying to solve with this is how to grow the capital market ecosystem in India. It can only happen through educating people on a platform which has content and engagement both,” Nithin said.

That is why they came up with three unique solutions which turned Zerodha into billion-dollar company

  • Tackle the lack of knowledge and awareness – To educate the Indian population about investment in stocks, they came up with something called Zerodha Varsity, which is an investor education platform wherein customers can enhance their knowledge and skills on trading and investments.

  • Discount the brokerage fees to such a large extent that it results in it into revolution. They came up with a super affordable price of 20 rupees or 0.03% which is even less for all intraday trades and they charge 0 fees for all equity and direct mutual fund investments.

  • To resolve the tedious process of investment, they came up with a website with a simple user interface which any common man can get familiar with the entire process of investment.   

Now Zerodha is India’s first discount brokerage firm with over 8.5 lakh active clients. 

What Is Affiliate Marketing ?

Affiliate marketing is an online marketing advertising channel that puts merchants in charge of an online marketing sales force. In simple words, affiliate marketing involves referring a product or service by sharing it on a blog, social media platforms, or website. The affiliate earns a commission each time someone makes a purchase through the unique link associated with their recommendation.

Affiliate Marketing

Roles in Affiliate Marketing

  • Merchants (Advertiser)

If you have a company and website, and you sell a product or service, you are a merchant. The merchants are the companies that sell a product and/or service, and they are the ones that pay affiliates for their marketing campaigns.

  • Affiliates (Publisher)

Affiliates are the website owners who allow a merchant to advertise on their site or blogs, respectively. They are the one who get paid whenever an ad performs, so it is in their best interest to have merchants with which they have an affiliate partnership.

  • The Affiliate Network

An Affiliate Network handles all tracking, reporting and payment to affiliates. It allows affiliates to find merchants which are suitable for their site.

It is a win-win situation for both affiliates and merchants.

Affiliate Marketing Process

Affiliate marketing is a transaction on a commission basis.

  • A website owner (e.g. a blogger) provides advertising space on his website (website owner: PUBLISHER/AFFILIATE).
  • The website owner offers this space to a company (or an organization) who wants to sell products or services (company: MERCHANT/ADVERTISER).
  • By placing the links of the partners on their webpages they pass on the traffic to the advertiser‘s webpage.

Some companies have a huge affiliate network at their disposal which guarantees them a constant flow of traffic.

How Does Affiliate Marketing Works?

  • Find and join an affiliate program
  • Choose which offers to promote
  • Obtain a unique affiliate link for each offer
  • Share those links on your blogs, social media platforms, or website
  • Collect a commission anytime someone uses your links to make a purchase.

Pros of the Affiliate Marketing

  • Zero/Minimal Investment – You can run your business almost with free of cost using different blogging sites. You just need to promote products.
  • Learning through earning – Affiliate marketing also can generate relatively passive income through commission, the ideal money-making scenario. Though initially you’ll have to invest time creating traffic sources, your affiliate links can continue to deliver a steady paycheck.
  • Work From Anywhere – One of the reason why affiliating marketing is booming on the internet is because you can run your business from anywhere in the world. You just need to have a laptop and internet connection to run your business.

Cons of Affiliating Marketing

  • Commission Based Payment – Companies largely paid the cost per click (traffic) on banner advertisements. As technology evolved, the focus turned to commissions on actual sales or qualified leads. Though there are still ads for the visitors to click on, affiliate programs usually only pay when a purchase takes place.
  • The early affiliate marketing programs were vulnerable to fraud because clicks could be generated by software, as could impressions.
  • No Guarantee of Revenue – Pay-per-performance can be a tremendous opportunity as well as a significant risk. No one promises that working as an affiliate marketer will be easy and that you are going to earn the expected revenue right away. It’s a challenge you have to face and put all your efforts into maximizing the opportunity, but all in all, it’s difficult to predict how much money you will make on it in the end.

Why Your Twenties Matter

You are just stepping into your 20’s and want to live life on your terms. You are in that zone where you don’t want to be told about what needs to be done. As they say, your 20’s are the “defining decade”, because they define who you’ll become personally and professionally.

Here are some things that you should do in your 20’s to make the most of them.

  • Figure out what you want to pursue

Take a break, try out new things, do internships, learn new skills. Discover what you want from your life and ask yourself where you see yourself five years down the line. Most of the time it doesn’t matter where you think you’ll be in five years, but it’s important to think about it because doing so can give you the idea you want to pursue.

  • Travel

You don’t know what the real world looks like. Now you don’t have family obligations so use this time to meet different people, live with them, and understand their thoughts and culture; learn how to survive independently.

  • Start taking care of your body

It is much easier to build a habit of taking care of your body in your 20’s than in later years. The study showed that most people who adopted five healthy habits in their 20’s – a lean body mass index, moderate alcohol consumption, no smoking, a healthy diet, and regular physical activity – stayed healthy well into middle age.

  • Start letting go of your ego

We must learn to control our egos. It can cause a lot of problems for us over time and create turmoil in our relationships.

  • Have standards not expectations

standard is a level of quality, something that is accepted as a norm and generally used as a basis for judgment. An expectation is a strong belief that something is going to happen in the future or a feeling that someone or something is going to achieve something. One is fact, the other fiction.

  • Learn to say ‘NO’

It’s hard to say no cause you don’t want to jeopardize your good relationship with the person you are saying “no” to. However, it is difficult to do so but you need to stop pleasing people and value your time and priorities. 

  • Distance yourself from negativity

Life is too short to let people make you feel like you aren’t worthy of what you want. Don’t waste your time with people trying to feel better about themselves by tearing you down. Create space for positive people who believe in your dream, encourages your ideas, and challenge you to bring out the best in you.

  • Volunteer in your community

Volunteering is a way to help you find new interests and strengths that will help you with new career opportunities. It helps you to change your perspective about things in your life and makes you feel grateful for all that you have. It reminds that you are a part of something bigger than yourself.

Your Twenties aren’t about them going as you planned. But how you adapt, change, and grow when they don’t.

MBA Chai-Wala

Getting into a top Business school in India to pursue the dream career is still a dream for many aspirants. This is an inspiring story of a middle-class Indian Prafull Billore, who wanted to pursue an MBA. To get into top B Schools you have to clear the CAT exam. He failed 3 out of the 3 times he appeared for the CAT exam. On his repetitive failure, he got depressed and quit his CAT preparation, and traveled few cities. After weeks of traveling, he landed in Ahemdabad, he felt like home.

To sustain life, he started working at McDonald’s. After serving for some time, he was promoted to the kitchen staff who would take orders and served customers. During this phase of his life, he gained a lot of experience but he felt like a person having/with no identity. He often wondered, “Why sell burgers for someone else, while I can make and sell on my own”. But the question was why would anyone come to his stall and not go to McDonald’s. He dropped the idea of selling burgers and decided to set up a tea stall, as tea was his staple beverage during his CAT preparation, and India loves chai.

The early phase in starting roadside business attracted many stigmas such as these businesses are done by lower class or less educated people but this didn’t stop him. Prafull Billore’s father thought that he might be pursuing an educational course but he wasn’t aware of what was running in Prafull’s mind. It took 45 days to muster the courage and set up his tea stall.

The first day went bad as there was not even a single customer. The next day, he decided to approach customers with a friendly gesture and conversed with them in English. The taste and unique way of serving tea, his communication skills caught many people’s attention and his business started growing.

His chai business started getting popular, annoyed the roadside vendors, as Prafull’s chai business was bringing down their business. He got threats from local goons and local authorities to shut down the chai stall. He didn’t lose hope and reached a hospital owner for renting a nearby space for a tea stall for 10K rental. He even created a platform for job seekers who mentioned their details on paper which was further picked up by job providers as even they were his regular customers. The candidate that suited the job profile was called up by the job provider. This way he gained more popularity.

Prafull named his business “MBA Chaiwala” which stands for “Mr. Billore Ahemdabad Chaiwala”. Within a few months, he got fame and his business MBA Chaiwala, gathered crores every month. Praful’s most memorable occasion was a Valentine’s Day event. He distributed free chai to singles on Valentine’s Day, which went viral and acquired worldwide recognition.

And look at the irony of life! Now, MBA Chaiwala is invited to IIM’s and Harvard Business school only to deliver a talk on how to pursue a passion and become big. It all started with his failure to seek admission to these very prestigious colleges like IIMS and Harvard.

Today, Prafull Billore owns a 300 sq ft restaurant named “MBA Chai Wala”, where he has employed 20 people. In the financial year 2019-20, he recorded a turnover of Rs 3 crore. “My dream is to sell tea across the country, and that every Indian drink my tea,” he says.

Ratan Tata

Ratan Naval Tata was born on December 28, 1937, in Bombay (now Mumbai), an Indian businessman who became chairman (1991 – 2012 and 2016 – 17) of the Tata Group, a Mumbai-based conglomerate.

Ratan Tata was the Chairman of Tata Sons, the holding company of the Tata group, from 1991 until his retirement on December 28, 2012. He was also chairman of the major Tata companies, including Tata Motors, Tata Steel, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Power, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Chemicals, Indian Hotels, and Tata Teleservices. Becoming the Chairman of the Tata Group in 1991 in his 21, he brought international recognition for the Tata Group.

Now retired from the corporate sphere, he retains the chairmanship of the Tata Trusts. The trusts hold around 66 percent of the equity capital of Tata Sons Limited, the holding company of the Tata Group.

Ratan Tata

A member of a prominent family of Indian industrialists and philanthropists. He holds a Bachelors’s degree in Architecture from Cornell University, USA, and has pursued an Advanced Management Program from the Harvard Business School, USA.

Under his leadership, the revenues of the Tata Group grew more than 40 times. The profits abounded by over 50 times. The company that made only $5.7 billion in 1991 made around $103 billion in 2016.

Ratan thinks that ‘Philanthropy’ can be seen in different perspectives, earlier ‘philanthropy’ was to develop institutions, charitable hospitals, etc. whereas, now it’s more about nation-building.

Tata is a supporter of education, medicine, and rural development, and is considered a leading philanthropist in India. More than 65% of his shares are invested in charitable trusts.

Tata Education and Development Trust, a philanthropic affiliate of the Tata Group, endowed a $28 million Tata Scholarship Fund that will allow Cornell University to provide financial aid to undergraduate students from India.

In 2010, Tata Group companies and Tata charities donated $50 million for the construction of an executive center at Harvard Business School. The hall was named Tata Hall.

In 2014, the Tata Group gave ₹950 million to IIT, Bombay, the largest donation received in its history, and formed the Tata Center for Technology and Design to develop design and engineering principles suited to the needs of people and communities with limited resources.

This year, he pledged ₹1,500 crores to fight the Covid-19 pandemic.

Ratan Tata set a perfect example of generosity and leadership during the 26/11 Mumbai attacks. Unarmed, he stood all alone outside the Taj hotel and supervised the activities to help the victims. He showcased his humane gesture by personally visiting the families of all the 80 employees who were killed or injured.

He is a member of the Indian Prime Minister’s Council on Trade and Industry. He is the president of the Court of the Indian Institute of Science and chairman of the Council of Management of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.

The Government of India honored Mr. Tata with its second-highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan, in 2008 and Padma Bhushan (2000). He has also received honorary doctorates from several universities in India and overseas.

Career Options in Physical Education

If we look at the history of physical education in India, before 1900 A.D., there were very few opportunities for a career in physical education. Most of the physical education teachers in schools were used to be retired persons from the army. During this era, physical education was not considered a profession. In fact, during this period there were very few institutions of physical education. But after 1950, this situation changed up to some extent. Several institutions of physical education were established, and proper stress was laid down on physical education.

These numerous career opportunities in physical education are a result of various factors, such as the desire to be fit, awareness of health benefits, increased interest in competitive sports and finally, the increase in depth and breadth of knowledge in physical education had led to the future development and expanded career opportunities as physiotherapists, sports psychologists, sports photographer, and sports journalists, etc.

Teaching Career

Individuals who opt for a career as physical education teachers make a good contribution to society and create awareness in students of all age groups. There are many opportunities of jobs to teach physical education not only in high schools and secondary schools but also in colleges and universities. Some professional courses in physical education in several colleges are – 

  • Diploma Course in Physical Education 
  • Certificate Course in Yoga
  • Certificate Course in Physical Education
  • B.Sc in Physical Education and Master’s Degree in Physical Education

Health Related Career

Nowadays, people have become more health-conscious. They want to keep away from various diseases, such as hypertension, heart diseases, and disorders like obesity and diabetes. Everyone wants to lead a healthy lifestyle. That is why health-related career opportunities in the field of physical education have been expanded in recent years. Candidates who complete the diploma or bachelor’s degree in physical education are also eligible to work as fitness trainers, Gym trainers, Yoga, and Health trainer in private and Government institutions.

Careers in Communication Media

The communication media, i.e., television, radio, newspaper, and magazines, etc., have contributed to the enhancement of various career opportunities in sports communication. Some career-related opportunities in communication media are –

  1. Sports Journalism
  2. Book Writing
  3. Sports Photography
  4. Book Publishing
  5. Sports Broadcasting

Administrative Related Careers

A physical education student is also eligible for administrative jobs like sports administration, management of sports clubs, sports marketing and promotion, etc. They are also eligible to work in the International and National championships as an official like Commonwealth, Asian Games, World cup, and other international tournaments.

As Player

Many jobs are available for skilled sportspersons in govt. and private sectors such as defense services, banks, railways, etc. Nowadays, amateur sports transform into commercialized games, many sports offer Professional leagues in particular games i.e. IPL, ISL, BPL, WKL, etc. Sportspersons also earn good money by professionally participating in the above leagues. Martina Navratilova (tennis) gets two million dollars per year through commercial advertisements.

Various careers can be created in the fields of physical education, such as sports biomechanics, sports nutrition, sports sociology, sports history, sports psychology, and many more.

Simple Steps to Overcome Anxiety

Here are some steps that will help to overcome anxiety –

  • Just Breathe

One way to reconnect the mind to the body is breathing. Deep breathing helps you calm down and put your mind at ease. Take a slow breath in through the nose, hold it for 1 or 2 seconds and then exhale slowly through your mouth. Wait a few seconds before taking another breath. About 6-8 breathing cycles per minute is often helpful to decrease anxiety. As clinical psychologist Ryan Howes, Ph.D., “A big struggle right now is that with all the emotions people are feeling, it can be hard to tease out and identify what’s going on.”

  • Writing Down Your Thoughts

Writing down your thoughts, positive or negative, helps you gain perspective and feel better. It is one of the effective ways to monitor and control your anxiety is to keep track of your symptoms and the techniques that help you control them.

“You cannot always control what goes on outside, but you can always control what goes on inside.”

– Wayne Dyer

  • Get Quality Sleep

Anxiety is directly connected to sleeping problems. Excess worry and fear make it harder to fall asleep. Sleep is the time when your body gets time to recharge. Trying relaxation techniques or breathing techniques can help you to fall asleep quickly. Try to get at least 7-8 hours of sleep each night. 

  • Exercise Regularly

Exercise not only helps to prevent anxiety but also improves several mental health-related problems including depression, anxiety, and panic attacks. Regular exercise helps you take your mind off worries and releases feel-good endorphins that can enhance your sense of well-being.

  • Positive Thinking and Self-Talk

Positive thinking doesn’t mean that you keep your head in the sand and ignore life’s less pleasant situations. Positive thinking just means that you approach unpleasantness more positively and productively. You think the best is going to happen, not the worst. Positive thinking often starts with self-talk. Self-talk is the endless stream of unspoken thoughts that run through your head. These thoughts can be positive or negative. This enables you to cope better with stressful situations.

  • Work-Life Balance

Work-life balance is adjusting your day-to-day activities to achieve a sense of balance between work life and personal life. Balancing the demands of a busy lifestyle is not an easy thing to do, but is best managed by regularly reviewing and assessing your priorities. Anxiety can develop if an individual is unable to achieve a healthy work-life balance.

  • Positive Affirmations

Positive affirmations can change your negative thoughts to a positive ones. If you start focusing on what can be done rather than what can’t and begin to focus more on solutions than problems, then this can lower your stress levels by helping you feel more in control. Surrounding yourself with positive people who love you and believe in you.

  • Adjust Your Diet

There aren’t any diet changes that can cure anxiety. Try these steps –

  • Drink plenty of water
  • Limit or avoid alcohol
  • Limit or avoid caffeine 
  • Eat complex carbohydrates 
  • Eat lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, and don’t overeat

Charlie Chaplin

Charles Spencer Chaplin was one of the greatest artists of the world who was born in London, England, on April 16th, 1889.

Charlie was named after his father, a British music hall entertainer. His mother, Hannah Hill Chaplin, a talented singer, actress, and piano player, spent most of her life in and out of mental hospitals; his father, Charles Spencer Chaplin Sr. was a fairly successful singer until he began drinking. After his parents separated, Charlie and his half-brother, Sidney, spent most of their childhood in orphanages.

Charlie Chaplin

Having inherited natural talents from their parents, the youngsters took to the stage as the best opportunity for a career. Charlie made his professional debut as a member of a juvenile group called “The Eight Lancashire Lads”.

In 1914, Chaplin made his film debut in a somewhat forgettable one-reeler called Make a Living. To differentiate himself from the clad of other Chaplin decided to play a single identifiable character, and “The Little Tramp” was born, with audiences getting their first taste of him in Kid Auto Races at Venice (1914).

Chaplin made 14 films, including The Tramp (1915) during his first year in the industry. Generally regarded as the actor’s first classic, the story establishes Chaplin’s character as the unexpected hero when he saves the farmer’s daughter from a gang of robbers.

“A day without laughter is a day wasted”

– Charlie Chaplin

During the 1920s Chaplin’s career blossomed even more. During the decade he made some landmark films, including The Kid (1921), The Pilgrim (1923), A Woman in Paris (1923), The Gold Rush (1925), a movie Chaplin would later say he wanted to be remembered by, and The Circus (1928).

The latter three were released by United Artists, a company Chaplin co-founded in 1919 with Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and D.W. Griffith.

Chaplin spoke even louder in The Great Dictator (1940), which pointedly ridiculed the governments of Hitler and Mussolini. “I want to see the return of decency and kindness,” Chaplin said around the time of the film’s release. “I’m just a human being who wants to see this country a real democracy . . .

He soon became a target of the right-wing conservatives. Representative John E. Rankin of Mississippi pushed for his deportation.

In 1952, the Attorney General of the United States obliged when he announced that Chaplin, who was sailing to Britain on vacation, would not permit him to return to the United States.

The incensed Chaplin said goodbye to the United States and took up residence on a small farm in Corsiersur-Vevey, Switzerland.

By the 1970s times had changed, and Chaplin was again recognized for his rich contribution to film. He returned to the United States in 1972, where he was honored by major tributes in New York City and Hollywood, California, including receiving a special Academy Award.

In 1975, he became Sir Charles Chaplin after Queen Elizabeth II (1926–) of England knighted him. Two years later, on December 25, 1977, Chaplin died in his sleep in Switzerland.

Reference Link –

Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Schwarzenegger, Austrian-born American bodybuilder, film actor, and politician who rose to fame through roles in blockbuster action movies and later served as governor of California (2003-11).

Arnold Schwarzenegger is the world most famous bodybuilder. He began bodybuilding at the age of 15. He was awarded the title of Mr. Universe at the age of 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest a total of seven times.

One day he saw a magazine of Reg Park and immediately knew that he wanted to look like Reg Park. He became obsessed with Reg Park’s huge, massive look and started training hard. His father was a police officer, he wanted him to go to the military. So in 1965 , at the age of 18 he went to military to became a tank driver. He wanted to become the most muscular man in the World. So he trained his body every day during his military period. In the year 1966 Arnold left the junior-league and participated in the professional league. He was invited to go to Stuttgat to the Junior Mr. Europe championship and from there his bodybuilding career started to take off.

Arnold Schwarzenegger

He had real achievements considering a 19-year-old debutant. He became “Best built man of Europe” and won “The International Body-Building Competition“, both in Germany. Arnold realized that he had the chance to be the best built man in the world. So he travelled in the same year to London, where he wanted to win the Mr. Universe competition. When he arrived a lot of fans and other body builders surrounded the newcomer of the bodybuilding business. Arnold felt that he was something special, and that he was ready to be Mr. Universe. Unfortunately Chet Yorton left beat Arnold Schwarzenegger. He persuaded the judges with his unique show. So Arnold trained his body to make it more and more imposing. He created new training methods to train some more muscles.

Prepared to win he travelled one year later, in 1967, back to London again, to beat Chet Yorton. But there was a new rival in the competition, Denis Tinerino. Before the contest even started everybody thought, Arnold wouldn’t have the chance to win against Denis. However Arnold was enthusiastic enough to win. Arnold realized, that being the best is as important as having the desire to win. Furthermore he defeated the Mr Olympia title seven years. In 1981 he finally quit his bodybuilding career.

Arnold Schwarzenegger has allowed his bodybuilding publicity to help him achieve success in other careers.

In 1970 Arnold plays his first role in a film called Hercules in New York. Schwarzenegger played the lead, but another actor was used to dub his dialog. Schwarzenegger’s native charm and wit finally came through in the acclaimed documentary Pumping Iron (1977), which led to his starring role in Conan the Barbarian (1982). He became an international star with The Pumping Terminator (1984) and over the next 20 years appeared in two sequels (1991 and 2003). His other films during this time included Predator (1987), Kindergarten (1990), Total Recall (1990), True Lies (1994), and The 6th Day (2000).

Reference link

Olympics As a Social Force

The Ancient Olympic Games, an athletic festival was originated in ancient Greece and was revived in the late 19th century. The Olympics Games were held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece until they were abolished in the early Christian era. The revival of the Olympic Games took place in 1896, and since then they have been held every fourth year (except during World War I and World War II

The Modern Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896. The credit to start the modern Olympic games goes to Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France. Having studied political science, he came to know about national and international problems. He thought national and international problems can be easily solved through the Olympic games. It was Coubertin’s imagination to restart the ancient Olympic games at the world level. After many endeavors, Coubertin succeeded in enlisting worldwide support, and the first modern Olympics games were held in Athens in 1896.

In 1896, Athens Olympic games, only nine countries participated in the first modern Olympic games. The number gradually increased and in 1972, Munich Olympic games 122 countries participated.

The Olympic motto was coined by a French educator Father Didon in 1895. It is compromises of three Latin words – Citius, Altius, Fortius which means Faster, Higher, Stronger respectively.

The Olympic flag was created in 1913 at the suggestion of Baron Pierre de Coubertin. The Olympic flag is made of white silk and contains five interlocking rings in five colors representing five continents of the world – America, Europe, Australia, Asia, and Africa. The interlocking of the rings symbolizes cooperation and friendship.

Olympics act as a social force in achieving international brotherhood, fraternity, peace, and solidarity. Olympics provide a broad platform for attaining these values. 

Olympic provides the platform for the development of the following values 

  • Free from discrimination

The most important objective of the Olympic games is that there is no discrimination based on caste, race, and religion. Though exceptions are always there. The racial difference was seen during the 1936 Berlin Olympics when Adolf Hilter refused to honor Jasse Owens who got four gold medals in that Olympics.

  • Fair play

Rules and regulations should be applied fairly to each team. But in fact, there is a gap between the words and actions of the officials. Nowadays every team wants to win by hook or crook. The slogan like “stay out for sports and stay out of courts” and “live by code or get out” have become useless as these are not found in practice. Therefore, it can be said that the Olympic games in this respect are not so successful as they should have been.

  • International Friendship and Solidarity

Olympic games provide many opportunities to develop international friendships not only among the participants but among the nation also. It also provides ample opportunity to enhance the feeling of brotherhood and unity among various nations.

  • Harmony

During Olympic games, the various teams belong to different religions, colors, castes, and social backgrounds but even then the harmony is developed between them. They don’t have any ill-will or malice. They believe in the following Olympic deals : 

“The important thing in Olympic is not to win, but to take part; The important thing in life is not the triumph, but to struggle; The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well”.

Misconceptions About Physical Education

Padhoge likhoge banoge nawab, jo kehloge, kudoge banoge kharab” is a proverb that has become a permanent wound for physical education. 

In present-day society, there are many misconceptions about physical education. Even many people do not know the meaning of physical education. Some people treat it like physical training, whereas others treat it like physical culture. Some people have the assumption that physical education is nothing except games and sports. Some people think that it is only bodybuilding which is done with the help of weight training exercises. 

It means different people have different thoughts or misconceptions about the meaning of physical education.

  • Physical Education is nothing but to Play

It is usually presumed that physical education is nothing but playing games and sports. Games and sports are a part of physical education. In physical education, various subjects are taught such as Psychology, Sports Sociology, Human Anatomy, and Physiology, etc. 

  • Creates Indiscipline

It is also a wrong notion about physical education that it creates indiscipline behavior in children. Sportspersons always behave in a disciplined way and follow the rules and regulations not only in playfield but in real life also. Moreover, many programs of physical education decrease the possibility of undesired behaviors.

  • Waste of Time

Most parents think that participation in games and sports is a waste of time which is why they don’t send their children to play. It is such a competitive age that parents lay too much stress on the study of their children and rebuke them if they go to play. But they have to understand that playing sports helps in the proper growth and development of the child.

  • Physical Education is Body-Building

Participating in physical activity, such as weight training increases muscular strength and power which are beneficial in improving performance. So, it is wrong to think that physical education is just bodybuilding.

  • Fewer Career Opportunities 

A large number of people hold the notion that physical education has fewer job opportunities. In past, there were fewer career opportunities in this field, but now there are increasing rapidly. Some career opportunities are sports media, sports management, sports physiologists, and many more.

  • Waste of Money

Nowadays, sports and games are considered a big business. Good sportspersons get a lot of money by participating in games and sports and by advertisements. Along these, facilities in the form of sports equipment, uniforms, free education, and free meals are provided to a good sportsperson. So, it is not a waste of money, rather it is a way of making money.

  • Physical Education Helps in Physical Development and Not in Mental Development

Most people have the misconception that physical education helps in physical development and not in the mental development of children. No doubt that physical education helps in the physical development of an individual but it also helps in mental development. We should not forget the views of Montague. He avers, “Physical education does neither train up the soul nor body but the whole man.” Studies found that students who participate in programs of physical education are more intelligent in comparison to non-participant students. Hence, it is also a misconception that it does not help in mental development.  

Places to visit in Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand, a state in northern India crossed by Himalayas , is known for its Hindu pilgrimage sites. The state is popularly known as the “Devbhumi” known as “Land of Gods”. It is divided into two regions—Garhwal in the north, and Kumaon in the south. Each of these offers plenty of opportunities for adventure, sightseeing, wildlife and tourism.

Rishikesh, a major centre for yoga study, was made famous by the Beatles’ 1968 visit. The city hosts the evening Ganga Aarti, a spiritual gathering on the sacred Ganges River. The state’s forested Jim Corbett National Park shelters Bengal tigers and other native wildlife.

For those who seek adventure tourism, Uttarakhand offers some incredible trekking and mountain climbing opportunities. Here are six places to visit in Uttarakhand if by any chance you are in mood of taking your mind off and just want to enjoy the nature.

  • Haridwar

It is situated on the right bank of the holy Ganga and is regarded among the seven sacred cities of India. Haridwar is also, the gateway to the four major pilgrimages – the Char Dham – Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri. It’s particularly popular with Hindu pilgrims who come to take a dip in the holy waters of the Ganga River and wash away their sins.

  • Rishikesh

Rishikesh, not located far from Haridwar, is also known as the “Yoga Capital of the World” because of the large number of ashrams teaching meditation and yoga. For the adventurous, Rishikesh is the place for starting their trekking expeditions and excursions towards the Himalayan peaks.

  • Nainital

Nainital is one of the most popular hill stations in India, located in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas. It is surrounded by seven hills and snow-capped peaks. Nainital is an all-year destination but the weather is best between March and June.

  • Dehradun

Dehradun also spelled Dera Doon, is the capital of Uttarakhand and a lively city surrounded by charming views of the mountains of Mussoorie. It is primarily known for the number of elite boarding schools it has like Doon School and the Indian Military Academy. March to June is the best time to visit and to beat the summer heat as the weather is pleasant.

  • Mussoorie

Mussoorie, known as the Queen of the Hills, and famous for its scenic beauty, is located 34 km from Dehradun. Mussoorie gets its name from the Mussoorie plant that grows in abundance here. It is famous for its scenic beauty and superb view of the Himalayas. If you want to see snowfall, you can visit during the winter months.

  • Jim Corbett National Park

One of India’s most popular national parks, Jim Corbett National Parks is named after hunter-turned-conservationist Jim Corbett. Located at the Himalayas foothills, near the popular hill station of Nainital, is famous for being home to a large number of tigers. The park is explored by jeep safaris. It offers the best chance of animal sightings. And if you are lucky, you might spot a tiger.

There are many other places to visit such as Almora, Auli, Chopta, Munsiyari, Kausani etc.

Why Is an Internship Important?

Internships are popular amongst college students who need to gain work experience. Internships are important when deciding on a career. It helps you to figure out your interests and if possible even helps you to get paid for the work. It not only helps you develop your professional skills but also your leadership and soft skills.

Finding a job can be a challenge, especially if you don’t have experience. Unfortunately, you need to obtain a job before you can gain experience. Internships are a great way for college students, recent graduates or anyone considering a career change to obtain valuable work experience. 

Here are some reasons why internships are beneficial –

  • It helps you figure out your interests. You might think you know what career you want to pursue, but you won’t know if it is the right fit for you until you gain some experience. 

  • Internships are a great way to apply your knowledge to real-world experience. It not only provides you the first-hand experience in the real working world but also enables you to understand the desired job title. 

  • Having an internship gives you experience in the career field you want to pursue. 

  • Make connections – Through internships, you can get connected to the employees of the organization through Linkedln that you are working for as an intern. For many students, the internship is a stepping stone to additional opportunities within the same organization, including full-time employment. The more people you meet in the professional world with the same interest, the higher your chances to grow as a professional.

  • Students can gain work experience – If you have done an internship and remaining of the candidate haven’t then the internship will give you an edge over the remaining candidates who are there for the interview and haven’t done any internship. The interviewer will give preference to you cause you have work experience.

  • Build your resume – You are not only gaining experience but you are building your resume. Most organizations that you apply after your graduation look for candidates who had internship experience. You can highlight your qualifications in your resume.

  • Allows you to gain more internship opportunities – After completing one internship, you can apply to another, and the chances of getting hired become more as you have the experience and the organizations always want to hire an experienced candidate.

  • Not only do internships help develop your professionalism, but they also encourage character growth. Many employers even value personal qualities over professional knowledge when it comes to employment. It develops the necessary skills required to stand out in the job market.

  • Learn from others – You can learn a lot about your strengths and weakness during internships. You get feedback on your from the supervisors and offer a learning opportunity.

  • Many internships are paid which means you can gain valuable work experience and make money at the same time.

If you are a college freshman and looking for an internship, then Internshala and Linkedln are the best options for you. Finding an internship might be difficult but don’t lose hope and keep trying.

Mary Kom

Mary Kom is an Indian Olympic Boxer who is the only female to win World Amateur Boxing Championship six times. She is the only women boxer to have won a medal in each of the first seven world championships. Kom is also the first women boxer to earn a Gold Medal at the Asian Games (2014 in Incheon, South Korea) and at the Commonwealth Games (2018 Gold Coast, Australia).

Kom is also a member of Rajya Sabha after being nominated by the President of India on 26 April 2016. 

Born into a poor family, being the eldest one she had to take care of her siblings and also work with her parents to help them financially. Growing up she wasn’t a fan of boxing. Seeing boxer Dingko Singh won Gold at the Asian Games in 1998, inspired her to take up boxing. Even though her father was against her decision but she stood there firmly and convinced her father and look where she is now.

Mary Kom

Career and Achievements

  • She won her first Gold in 2001 as the Women Boxing Champion of India. Followed by winning the East Open Boxing Champ later in the same year. MC Mary Kom also won the title of Sr World Women Boxing Champ (WWBC) five times in her entire career out of the six she played. The winning editions were the 2nd (2001), 3rd (2003), 4th (2004), 5th (2004), 6th (2005). 

  • Mary Kom also won the National Women Sort Meet in New Delhi 2001 and also won the National Games in the year 2002 held in Hyderabad.

  • In the Asian Women’s Championships held across the Asian countries, she kept on winning a Gold medal for her nation for the years 2005, 2010, 2012, and 2017. But in the event held in 2008 in Guwahati, India she had to settle with a Silver Medal when she lost to Jong Ok again in the pin weight category. MC Mary Kom was also part of the Asian Games both indoor and outdoors. And has made her country proud in both fields. Her first Asian Game medal came in an Indoor tournament held in Hanoi in 2009 where she won a Gold medal again in the category of pin weight. After this, she won a bronze in 2010 and a gold in 2014 in the category of a flyweight.

  • She secured the title of AIBA Women’s World Championship in the next edition of 2002 in Turkey. After that, she played five editions of the same World Championships and kept on defending her title as the World Championships held across the globe.

  • She has also won theWomen’s World Cup once in the year 2004. And a Gold Medal at the Commonwealth Games in 2018 was held in Queensland, Australia.  

Other than that, she has been awarded various honors. She is the first amateur athlete to win the Padma Bhushan.

  • Padma Bhushan (Sports), 2013
  • Arjuna Award (Boxing), 2003
  • Padma Shree (Sports), 2006
  • Contender for Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, 2007
  • People of the Year- Limca Book of Records, 2007
  • Pepsi MTV Youth Icon, 2008
  • ‘Magnificent Mary’, AIBA 2008
  • Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award, 2009

APJ Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (October 15, 1931 – July 27, 2015), known as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from July 25, 2002, to July 25, 2007. He was honored with several prestigious awards during the course of his carrier including India’s highest civilian honor “Bharat Ratna” in 1997. 

Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

He was born in Dhanuskhodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied physics and aerospace engineering. 

Before becoming President of India, he worked with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) as an aerospace engineer and was intimately involved in India’s civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missiles and launch vehicle technology.

If you fail, never give up because FAIL means “First Attempt In Learning”

– APJ Abdul Kalam

Some biggest achievements of India’s ‘Missile Man’

  • Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam led India’s two major science research organizations – Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

  • Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period and Kalam played an intensive political and technological role in their success.

  • He directed the project to develop India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SVL). As a project director for the development of the indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle at ISRO led to groundbreaking scientific development. It was in July 1980, that India’s SVL-III successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in the near-Earth orbit leading to the country becoming a member of the exclusive Space Club. 

  • He was responsible for the successful launch of Agni and Prithvi missiles.

  • Dr. Kalam directed projects for the development of India’s ballistic missiles. He headed the projects Devil and Valiant, for the development of ballistic missiles using the technology behind the successful SLV programme. 

  • The Government of India honored him with Padma Bhushan in 1981, Padma Vibhbuhsan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India’s highest civilian honor,the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernization of defense technology in India. In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society “to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of space-related project”.

  • Dr. Kalam had always encouraged the young population of India to develop a habit of reading and penned down many inspirational books. Some of his notable masterpieces are India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium (1998); Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of A P J Abdul Kalam (1999); Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India (2002).

  • APJ Abdul Kalam made huge contributions to the healthcare sector. Woking jointly with the cardiologist Soma Raja, the late President developed a cost-effective coronary stent ‘Kalam-Raju Stent’ which helped in making healthcare accessible to all.

Dr. Kalam died on July 27, 2015, while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management in Shillong.

Reference Link :

Sati Pratha

Hinduism, being the oldest religion, has many rituals in it. Sati, burning a woman alive with her husband’s dead body, is the most influential and controversial ritual. Many other religions had similar ill practices in the past such as witch-hunting (women were hanged to death for being suspicious of witches), and female genital mutilation. It was declared illegal in 1829 but even today we see women committing it, which might be voluntarily or forcefully.

If it was a voluntary act, then it was considered to be the greatest form of devotion of a wife toward her husband. As time passed sati became a forced practice.

Origin Of Sati Pratha

We have read about sati pratha and how it was abolished in our history books but do you know how it was originated in the first place.

As per mythology, Sati was the name of the wife of lord shiva. Sati was the daughter of Daksha who was the son of Brahma. Her father never respected shiva and often despised him. So to protest against the hatred that her father held for her husband she burnt herself. While she was burning she prayed to be reborn as shiva’s wife again. Thus this did happen and her new incarnation was called Parvati.

There is no mention of sati pratha in any ancient Indian scriptures like  The Valmiki Ramayana and Vedas. In Mahabharata, Madhuri the second wife of Pandu, burned herself to death after her husband died. She considered herself responsible for his death as she could not save her husband from the poison. Her sacrifice was not the result of any sati pratha but sheer love toward her husband.

If you look in Ramayana and Mahabharata you can see many women who lost their husbands did not perform sati. In Ramayana, Sita had to undergo fire to prove her chastity. But there is no correlation cause sati happens when the husband dies but Ram or Shiva never dies in those stories.

There is a resemblance between sati and jauhar (another form of sati performed by Rajput women). Jauhar was a mass suicide performed by women to avoid capture by Muslim invaders. Sati on other hand is performed by a widow.

Spread of Sati Pratha

This tradition has been followed since ancient times in India. Sati was considered as a dignified sacrifice, a way to clean the sins of the spouse and his family but some considered it as a private matter of spouses who follow his/her loved one into death, and with time it became public. Initially, the practice of sati was confined to the rural families of Kshetriya cast and only later spread to the lower caste becoming widely practiced among all social classes. The window of royal families prefers dying rather than being captivated by the soldiers who defeated their king in the war.

Abolition of Sati

Many Hindu scholars and poets have condemned the sati tradition. The first ones who tried to put a stop to this inhuman tradition were the Muslim rulers of India, namely the Mughals and Nizams. But the attempt was unsuccessful as they were criticized by many people. However, in the 19th century, during British rule in India, Sati was abolished by the governor of India at that time, William Bentick.

4 Pillars of Object-Oriented Programming

What is OOPS ?

It is a programming paradigm based on a concept of objects and classes. It allows the programmer to work with real life entities like inheritance, polymorphism, hiding, etc. Some popular object-oriented programming languages are Java, C++, Python, PHP, etc.

Before diving into the concept of OOPS, you should be familiar with object and classes.

Object – These are the real world entities having a specific identity, specific characteristics and behavior you find in your everyday life.

Classes – It is the blueprint that represents a set of objects that share common characteristics and behavior.

Object’ is an instance of ‘class’. For example, ‘bird’ is a class but ‘eagle’ is an object.

The four pillars of object-oriented programming are – 

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

Let’s take a look at these concepts – 


It is the method of hiding the implementation details and showing only the functionality to the user.

For example, when we are driving a car to the grocery store ignoring the details of how the engine, braking systems works. We think car as an object with its own unique behavior. We are only interested in how to propel the car forward and reach the destination. The user need not be concerned about how a particular feature is implemented. From the outside, the car is a single entity. But from inside, you see that the car consists of several systems – brakes, sound system, steering wheel, and so on. 


It is an object-oriented programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data and keeps both safe from outside interference. In other words, encapsulation is a programming technique that binds the class members (variables and methods) together and prevents them from being accessed by other classes. Therefore, it is also called data mining.

For example, a capsule encapsulates several ingredients of the medicine. The mixture of medicines are variables and methods then the capsule will act as a class and the whole process is called encapsulation as shown in the figure given below.


Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. It is important because it supports the concept of hierarchical classification.

For example, the Cat extends the Mammal class, which extends the Animal class. So cat would directly inherit all the functions from Animal and Mammal class. 

It represents an IS-A type of relationship. From the above example, we can say that cat is a mammal, which is a mammal. So anything that applied to animals also applies to a cat. This will make more sense when you will be writing complicated code and using inheritance for the reusability of code.


Polymorphism (from Greek, meaning “many forms”) is a feature that allows one interface to be used for a general class of action. A specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. In simple words, it means one function behaves in different forms.

For example, a dog’s sense of smell is polymorphic. If a dog smells cat, it will bark and run after it, if the dog smells its food, it salivates and run to its bowl.

Reference Link :

Green Computing – The Future of Computing


It is a study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing. In other words, minimizing the environmental impact of computer system and its resources effectively and eco-friendly. We on a daily basis uses computers and other components which has a huge impact on environment while manufacturing and disposal so to minimize the impact we practice green computing techniques.

Many materials that are used for building PC’s are hazardous and difficult to recycle. The goal is to manage improper use of power consumption and reduce the use of hazardous material and maximize the lifespan of the product. Now-a-days many IT manufacturers are investing in designing and implementing green efficient computer devices, reducing the use of hazardous materials and efficient disposal of electronic waste.



In 1992, the US Enviromental Protection Agency launched Energy star. It was a voluntary labelling program which was designed to promote and recognize energy-efficient in monitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies. “Green Computing” was coined shortly after the “Energy Star” program began. This result in the widespread adoption of sleep mode in computers and electronics popular among consumer electronics.


Now a day’s  computer is very basic need of all individuals. It makes our life easier and saves our time and efforts but it also has a downside. As computer devices are used in a larger scale (in large sector) which increases the power consumption and also generate a large amount of heat which increases the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) which has adverse impact on our environment. To decrease their impact the green computing comes into existence.

Reasons of using Green Computing –

  • We are producing PCs on a larger scale and manufacturing of electronic devices uses hazardous substances such as lead.
  • Old computers and electronic devices produces a lot of heat which causes the emission of greenhouse gas (CO2) which is one of the gases that are responsible global warming.
  • Improper disposal of electronic devices can produce hazardous waste.
  • We consume most of the natural resources to get the electricity that have adverse impact on the environment.

Green Computing

Advantages of Green Computing –

  • It saves power consumption and reduces the amount of heat produced from the electronic devices.
  • Encourages the use of renewable resources.
  • Reduces the energy cost. Cloud computing can be used to reduce the energy cost and reduces the amount of greenhouse gases emitted from the data centers.
  • Encourages recycling and proper disposal of unwanted electronic devices.
  • Minimizing waste during manufacturing of computers and its resources.
  • Green Disposal – Reuse, Refurbish, Recycle

Disadvantages of Green Computing –

  • Green computing is quite costly.
  • Some computers that are green are considered underpowered and inefficient.
  • Maintenance and adaptation of a green computing system is considered to be highly difficult.
  • Rapid technology change.


People don’t care about ecological impact when buying computers. Currently, they are not much efficient but it is the near future. Green computing can lead to energy consumption, reducing enviromental impact of technology and promote sustainability.


The word yoga first appeared in the oldest sacred texts, the Rig Veda( one of the oldest Veda) and is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘yug’ which means ‘to unite or integrate’. Yoga is all about uniting body, mind and spirit.

There are many paths to divine and so there are many types of yoga.

Four main paths of yoga

1. Karma Yoga – Path of Action

It is a service that you do selflessly and enjoy while doing it without worrying about the consequences. We learn kindness and forgiveness in this process of serving people knowing the fact of gaining nothing but filling your heart with love and letting go of our ego.

Karma yoga is the spiritual practice of “selfless action performed for the benefit of others”.  It is the path to reach moksh through work.

– Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita

Some of the great people who have chosen this path are Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa and Swami Vivekananda.

2. Bhakti Yoga – Path of Devotion

The term Bhakti originates from the Sanskrit word “Bhag” which means love, faith, devotion and attachment.

It focuses on devoting yourself to worship of the divine through singing, dancing , chanting, and celebrating. It is selfless love that you feel when you are devoted to god , to your parent or nation. It is always something higher. It takes our mind, emotion and heart to get back to the soul and unite as one. It’s the universal love that is making us feel the sense of gratitude of what we have received from the moment of birth to death.

Four types of men begin to render devotional service unto me (God) — the distressed, the inquisitive, the seeker of material wealth, and the one who has already realized knowledge of the Absolute

– Bhagwat Gita

3. Jnana Yoga – Path of Knowledge and Wisdom

The term Jnana means knowledge in Sanskrit. It’s a path which encourages people to study observation and personal spiritual experience, intuition, self realization , service to God, and ancient scriptures such as The Upanishad.

Steps that will help to know when the knowledge you have acquired is transferred into your experience –

  • Sharvana – To read and study the Upanishads and achieve a deep understanding of the concepts of Atman and Brahman.
  • Madana – Thinking and apply it in your life.
  • Ninidhyasana – Through focus and repeating Sharvana and Madana you can achieve wisdom.

Jnana Yoga, or the science of the Self, is not a subject that can be understood and realized through mere intellectual study, reasoning, discussion or arguments. It is the most difficult of all sciences.

– Swami Sivananda

4. Raja Yoga –

In Sanskrit, raja means ‘king” or ‘royal,” referring to the status of Raja yoga as a “royal path”’ or principal form of yoga.

Raja yoga involves an individuals physical, mental and spiritual state and enables practitioners to achieve balance and harmony on all of these levels.

Raja Yoga is the yoga of mind and body and focuses on cultivating self discipline. It is also known as Ashtanga Yoga (Eight steps of yoga)

The eight limbs of Raja yoga are :

  • Yama – Self-control
  • Asana – Yoga postures.
  • Niyamas – Discipline
  • Pranayama – Breathing techniques as a means of controlling prana.
  • Pratyahara – Withdrawal of the senses.
  • Dharana – Concentration.
  • Dhyana – Meditation.
  • Samadhi – Enlightenment or bliss.

Things That Will Make You More Productive

Boost Your Productivity

Don’t worry, here are few productivity tips that will help you work more efficiently.

  • Learn to say NO

Say no when it comes to things that doesn’t align with your goals . Say no to that friend who don’t want you to become successful. Start hanging out with people which helps you to see your goal more clearly.

  • Read Daily

Build a habit to read daily whatever you like. It can be anything a book, an article, a movie review etc. This will help you think outside the box. One should be aware about things that are happening around the world, catch up with new technologies.

  • Listen Podcast

If you are a college student then the right thing to do to make your college life productive by to listen from the experts and people who have achieved their dreams. There you will find many topics that might interest you or you can find what excites you more. It is more of a conversation between two or more people talking about various aspects of the fields. You can listen podcast anywhere without any distraction even when you are multitasking. Just plugin your earphone and listen the conversation that feels more natural as if they are infront of you.

  • Make TO-DO List Before Going To Bed

Before going to bed analyse what you have done today and what are things that needs to be given more attention. This helps you keep track of your performance. Making to-do list a day before will help you prioritize your work and relieve stress. Now you don’t have to waste your morning time just to figure out what you have to do. You just have to check your to-do list and start your day.

  • Writing Down Your Thoughts

One of the things that I have learned is that write down whatever thoughts and opinions crosses your mind. This is the best way as you can forget things. Later when you are free you can always continue from where you left or restructure your opinion and maybe this will help you to control your emotions and can figure out what are the things that needs to be taken care of. You can always keep a journal that will make you keep track of your progress.

  • Meditation

One way to channelizes your energy is by doing meditation. It reduces physical and mental stress, control anxiety level, increase positive feelings toward every individual and makes your mind calmer which helps you to take right decisions even at difficult situations. This also creates a positive vibe around yourself which makes other people to have faith and confidence in you.