Affirmative action as a government remedy to effects of long standing against such group and has consisted of policies, programs and procedures that give limited preference to minorities and in the job hiring admission institute of higher education, the awarding of government contracts and other social benefits. The typical for criteria for affirmative action are race, disability and age.
The affirmative action was initiated by administration of president of the Lyndon in order to improve opportunity for Africa American while civil right legislation was dismantling the basis for discrimination.The federal government began to institute affirmative action policies under the landmark civil Right Act as an a executive order. Business receiving federal funds were prohibited from using programs were monitoring office of federal fund were prohibited from using aptitude test other criteria by the tended to discriminate federal funds were prohibited from using program were monitoring by the office of federal contract compliance and the Equal Employment opportunity commission, subsequently, affirmative action broadened to cover women and native American,Hispanics and minorities and was extended college universe and federal agencies.
The affirmative action in California culminated in the passage in 1996 of the civil right by the California initiative, Which is prohibited agencies institution from the giving preferential treatment t o individual on the basis of their race. The supreme court effectively upheld the constitutional of proposition 209 in November 1997 by refusing to hear challenges its enforcement. The supreme court also upheld a lower court ruling that struck down as unconditional the university of Texas action. program arguing in Hopwood University of Texas Law school that there are no compelling state interest to warrant using race as a factor in admission decisions. After ward there are further legislative an electoral challenges to affirmative action decision in many parts of country. In the two landmark ruling involving to the University of Michigan and its law school the supreme curt reaffirmed the of constitutionality of affirmative action.
The preeminent factor in such decision, striking down the university undergoes admission policy that awarded point on the basis, three year later admission policies of the kind approved in grutter were outlawed in Michigan under a state constitutional amendment banning race-based and other discrimination or the preferential treatment in public employment, public education otherwise there are public contracting. The supreme court upheld amendment as it applied to admission policies in Schuette defend affirmative action in fisher, the supreme court vacated and remanded an appeals court decision that had rejection challenge to an affirmative action program modeled on the approved in Gratz that the lower court had not subjected the to strict scrutiny, those most demanding form of the judicial review.
2. SEGREGATION THEORIES – There are the different have been put forward to explain the OS of men and women. The main difference between these theories is whether segregation is attribution to discrimination or the in preference or choice. Alternatively seem to have different implication for relationship between ES and OS, Possibly the policy instruments to be used ES and OS.