Pollution refers to the contamination of the environment due to the presence of hazardous substances in the atmosphere. Pollution is basically man-made. These hazardous substances are referred as pollutants. In early times, pollution was in terms of the fire burnt in caves. But that did not have a big impact on the atmosphere. The population was very low during ancient human civilization. However, as the human civilization progressed and as evolution and advancements in human beings took place, it ended up having a huge population density across the world. Industrialisation also played its part in pollution. According to studies, the productivity of indoor and outdoor workers have decreased due to pollution. Thus pollution is a severe problem in the current day.

Though there are many types of pollution such as plastic pollution, radioactive contamination, light pollution etc. the major types are pollution are air, water and soil pollution.


Air pollution is the release of chemicals and particles in the environment. The chemicals include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide etc. Air pollution attributes to about 5 million deaths each year. It contributes to 9% of the total deaths in the world every year. There are many causes of air pollution such as

  • Burning of fossil fuels, wood, plastic etc.
  • The untreated chemicals let out from industries and exhaust of vehicles
  • Deforestation
  • Emission of green house gases such as methane, carbon dioxide etc.
  • Mining operations
  • Chlorofluorocarbons present in coolants

These cause a severe damage to environment, health and welfare of the living beings such as

  • Respiratory problems such as wheezing and asthma and other lung problems
  • Global warming
  • Acid rain formation
  • Smog formation
  • Affects wildlife

We can prevent air pollution by

  • Afforestation
  • Using a filter in factories before releasing chemicals
  • Using eco-friendly vehicles


Water pollution is mainly caused by discharge of sewage in the water bodies that pose a dangerous threat to marine life. Every year, 14 billion pounds of plastic are released into the ocean. The reasons for water pollution are

  • Oil spills from the ships
  • Pesticides used in agriculture washed off to seas
  • Marine dumping such as dumping plastics and other non biodegradable substances
  • Release of untreated waste into water bodies
  • Acid rain

Effects of water pollution are

  • Contamination of marine organisms
  • Water pollution affects the growth of marine plants
  • Eutrophication – prevents the sunlight from entering into the ocean
  • Infected fishes infect human being leading to water borne diseases such as cholera, hepatitis and typhoid

How do we prevent water pollution?

  • Proper disposal of wastes into water after treating it
  • Recycling water
  • Conserving water


Soil pollution is defined as the presence of toxic chemicals in the soil, in high enough concentrations to pose a risk to human health and the ecosystem. The causes of soil pollution are

  • Acid rain
  • Landfill
  • Usage of fertilizers and pesticides
  • Dust particles present in the soil
  • Deforestation and soil erosion

Due to these reasons, it is evident that the soil becomes infertile and contaminated, making it unfit for agriculture. There are some measures to prevent soil pollution such as

  • Treating wastes before dumping them
  • Avoiding burning of wastes
  • Afforestation
  • And finally, using organic manure for maintaining a healthy/fertile soil.

Relevant links:https://in.finance.yahoo.com/news/eu-drafts-plan-tighten-carbon-070725934.html https://r.search.yahoo.com/_ylt=AwrXgiOIKdxgJQYAvDPAHAx.;_ylu=Y29sbwNncTEEcG9zAzMEdnRpZAMEc2VjA3Ny/RV=2/RE=1625070088/RO=10/RU=https%3a%2f%2fwww.ndtv.com%2fdelhi-news%2fdelhi-government-bans-fishing-in-parts-of-yamuna-river-citing-high-pollution-2475600/RK=2/RS=24WnrdQSK4vCKpBJqFmCILrj3wE-