• Pandemic – affected the Indian children
• Factors of Child Labour – pre existed.
• Third decade of the 21st century:
152 million – child Labour
73 million – hazardous work.
• 2011 census – 10.1 million children (5-14 years) are working.
8.1 million – rural areas
26% – cultivators;
32.9% – agricultural labourers.
• UNESCO’s estimates
38.1 million – out of school. • Rapid Survey on Children (2013-14)
Less than half of children – 10-14 years have completed primary education.
• Child Labour:
long-term devastating consequences – education, skills and acquisition.
reduce – possibilities to overcome poverty, incomplete education and poor-quality jobs.
Policy and programmatic interventions
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005
the Right to Education Act 2009
Mid-Day Meal Scheme.
• Education and wage employment (unskilled) for rural families.
• Ratification – ILO child labour Conventions
Convention No. 138 – Minimum Age
Convention No. 182 – Worst Forms of Child Labour.
• Online portal – allows to share information and
to coordinate on child Labour at all levels for
effective enforcement of child Labour laws.
• Child Labour – rate of reduction slowed by two-thirds .
• Important – consider the trends while developing policy and response.
• India – slower economic growth and rising unemployment.
• Lockdowns – backtrack the efforts invested and the gains made in eliminating child Labour.
• Present – economic insecurity, lack of social
protection and reduced household income
Children – to contribute to their family income.
Exposed to risk and exploitative work.
Distant learning – child drop out.
• Digital divide.
Annual Status of Education Report, 2020 – a third of the total number of enrolled
children received learning materials
• Right level of commitment, policy and programmatic interventions.
• Strong alliance – ending child Labour in all its forms by 2025 as agreed to in Sustainable Development
Eradicate forced Labour and to end modern slavery and human trafficking.
Secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child Labour in all its forms by the end of 2025.