Confucianism was founded by Confucius or King Fu-Tzu, who was also a Chinese scholar. It is a system of ethics and stresses over loyalty, correct behavior and obedience to hierarchy. The concept of Confucianism was developed in China but then found its way to Korea and then to Japan. Confucianism is a practical and moral philosophy that is mainly concerned with society and government and having the main agenda to maintain social order and to have affective governance. Confucianism lays emphasis on three things:
- the mandate of heaven
- great Maine
- words of Sages
The concept of ‘Mandate of Heaven’ refers to the order from above, that is, influential people in society influence other people and those people follow the ways of those influential people.
The Great Maine is the one who is supreme so that all the other people could accept his words without any questions and doubts. If the person is morally incapable or unfit they cannot be a ruler as he won’t be able to maintain order. Only a person who is morally and ethically fit is capable of being a ruler as according to Confucianism a ruler needed to be a paragon of virtues.
He should have a respectable attitude towards heaven and the sages. He is also expected to acquire the virtues of benevolence, righteousness, wisdom and propriety.
Confucius taught the principle of cardinal relationships. He emphasized on the importance to preserve the order in the society was based on these five relationships:-
- between Lord and his Subject
- between Father and Son
- between Husband and Wife
- between Brothers
- between Friends
There must be loyalty between lord and his subject. Respect and love between father & son and husband & wife, as well as between brothers and friends must have mutual trust.
In all the above relationships except that of friends all involve authority of one over another. This power or authority belongs to the one who is superior among the two. Among the five mentioned relationships above, three of them are family relations.
Confucius emphasized that if the relations between families are good then the order of the society will be maintained as families form the base of an empire. So it is necessary to have ideal relationships.
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