some basic differences between ancient and modern education realities:

1)Who was educated in real sense?
Ancient Days: It is safe to assume that the city people were more educated than the rural areas. Majority of the boys attended the group schools. Few girls did learn to read but did not attend schools. If they wanted to study, tutors were called home.
Modern Day: Both Boys and girls are legally expected to attend school. If they do not, it could lead to legal prosecution of parents.

2)Who were the educators/ Tutors/ Teachers?
Ancient Days: Someone who taught on the logical understanding of the existence of God, spiritual education, Hindu religion and Vedas etc, so that the society was built without corruption and chaos. This gave immense happiness to the life of humanity.
Modern Day: Someone who teaches about the skills required for science and technology, computer knowledge, how to compete etc.

3)What was the mode of communication?
Ancient Days: The entire education was imparted in Sanskrit. Culture, customs and traditions of the society they live in were taught with discipline.
Modern Days: The mode of communication for mostly every School becomes English or Hindi. And in most of the schools in metro cities, English is the preferred language.Also read  Why it is Necessary to Balance Studies and Play?

4)Was there a specific dress code?
Ancient Days: The Gurukul was fairly strict. The students had to follow the rules and regulations. The dress code was generally dhoti pants and kurta. But there was no specific dress code as such.
Modern days: The children have to wear a well-ironed uniform with belt, badges and I.D card compulsorily.

5)What was society’s attitude about education?
Ancient Days:
 Education was considered valuable, but there wasn’t a trend of not possessing book learning. Though there was a need for reading and writing activities such as voting, this did not embarrass the citizens or bring shame at any point of life.
Modern Days: Education is considered prestigious and economically valuable. Parents from all walks of life want their children to attend school, and do well in school. Being poor at school work is a problematic source of social shame for many.

Summing Up!
Well the differences are countless, but what matters is the right kind of education. The Gurukul and modern school both have some merits and demerits. Both the schools have equal importance to the life of the student