1. Human Resources Approach:
This approach recognizes that human resources in an organisation are the central force. Their development will contribute to the success of the organisation. Human resources approach provides for the changes in the managerial role. It requires that the managers, instead of controlling the employees, should provide active support to them by treating them as part of the group.
The superiors and managers should practice a style where workers are given the opportunities and encouragement to perform under loose supervision. By treating individuals as mature adults, organisations can increase productivity and at the same time meet the needs of individuals for independence and growth.
2. Contingency Approach:
The approach stresses that there is no single way to manage effectively under all circumstances. The methods of behaviours which work effectively in one situation may fail in another. The organisational structure and the processes of management are governed by the external environment and several aspects of the internal environment. Effective management processes will vary in different situations depending on the individuals and groups in the organisation, the nature of the job and technology, the environment facing the organisation and its structure.
The manager’s task therefore, is to identify which method will, in a particular situation, under particular circumstances and at a particular time, best contribute to the attainment of organization’s goals. Thus, the manager will have to analyze each situation prior to action and different managerial practices and styles are needed for effective management.
3. Productivity Approach:
Productivity means the numerical value of the ratio of output to input. Higher the value of this ratio, greater is the efficiency and effectiveness of the management. The traditional concept of productivity was concerned with economic inputs and output only. But nowadays human and social inputs and outputs are equally important. Productivity, a significant part of organisational behaviour decisions, is recognized and discussed extensively. These decisions relate to human, social and economic issues. For example if better organisational behaviour can reduce worker’s turnover or the number of absentees, a human output or benefit occurs.
4. System Approach
The systems approach is of the view that an organisation is a powerful system with several subsystems which are highly and closely interconnected. Any action taken to solve the problems in one subsystem will have its effect on the other subsystems as well; since all the parts of the organisation are closely connected. Thus, this approach gives the managers a way of looking at the organisation as a whole, whole group, and the whole social system. Systems approach has become an integral part of modern organisational theory. Organisations are termed as complex systems comprising of interrelated and interlocking systems.
According to this approach, an organisation receives several inputs from its environment such as material, human and financial. These inputs are then processed so as to produce the final output in terms of products or services.