THE VICTORIAN ERA:
The period of British history when Queen Victoria ruled; includes the entire second half of the nineteenth century, a time when Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. The Victorian period was known for a rather stern morality.
The importance of Education was not fully realised by the people of England Before the Nineteenth century. There was no state Educational system for the common people, and the Majority of the working class was completely Illiterate. Different sections of people followed Different Systems and Standards.
SCHOOLS IN EARLIER PERIOD:
In the earlier period, there were many kinds of Schools in England. The only schools available for the working Classes were three Kinds-dame schools, the schools supported by private subscription, and the charity and Sunday schools. the only aim of these schools was to save the soul of men and women by bringing them up a Bible reading, evangelical Christians. Primary education of the poor was neglected in England. The secondary education of the well-to-do underwent remarkable Development. children of the upper and middle class went to the public schools which were founded by kings and town corporations in the earlier centuries.in many villages (dames) old women taught the children the alphabet for a small fee.
Dr.ARNOLD’S EDUCATION SYSTEM:
Dr.Thomas Arnold, the illustrious Headmaster of Rugby and Father of the poet Mathew Arnold. He focused on the Moral Education of the Boys. He emphasized the study of religion and introduced the monitoring system for maintaining discipline among students. He retained the practice of flogging and he insisted on the right to expel any boy. Arnold introduced the modern history, geography, and modern languages.
GLADSTONE’S EDUCATION ACT:
Gladstone’s education act made provision for the establishment of a school board in every District. Gladstone’s government made attendance at elementary schools compulsory. The school board must provide education for children between the ages of five and twelve. This education was cheap but not free, Elementary Education improved after1870. Some of the famous schools founded by Arnold were Eton, Harrow, Rugby, and Westminster.
BOARD OF EDUCATION:
A Royal Commission was appointed to study the system of education in the country. The board of education was established in 1899. Something more effective was done by Prime Minister, Arthur James Balfour. His Education act of 1902 was established. this act insisted that elementary education was restricted to children under fifteen. For older children, Central schools were started. An education committee was set up to look into the running of schools. Training colleges for teachers were set up to improve the teaching methods.
DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN EDUCATION:
During the Victorian period, There was a great development in women’s education. Some of the examinations of Oxford and Cambridge were opened to girls as well as boys. In 1848, Queen’s college for women was established and it was followed by Bedford and Cheltenham College. London University gave it’s degree to women for the first time in 1879. The Victorian Age is a “Golden Age to every woman and Middle class and poor class people in England .
AYISHA SHABANA. M