The term “biodiversity” was coined around 1985.Biodiversity or biological diversity . Biodiversity is a term refers to the variety of species both flora and fauna present in an area, that is the variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural world. Each of these species and organisms work together in ecosystems, like an intricate web, to maintain balance and support life.
Scientists have estimated that there are around 8.7 million species of plants and animals in existence. However, only around 1.2 million species have been identified and described so far, most of which are insects.Although examining counts of species is perhaps the most common method used to compare the biodiversity of various places, in practice biodiversity is weighted differently for different species, the reason being that some species are deemed more valuable or more interesting than others. One way this value is assessed is by examining the diversity that exists above the species level, in the genera, families, orders.The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. This includes variation in genetic, phenotypic, phylogenetic, and functional attributes, as well as changes in abundance and distribution over time and space within and among species, biological communities and ecosystems.
The framework based on counting-up units contrasts with other proposals for general frameworks for biodiversity, including those proposals that have attempted to include a variety of calculations like endemism , dissimilarity, rarity, and so on within the definition of biodiversity . The framework based on counting-up units implies not only that biodiversity as variety is that total count, but also that we can carry out lots of other important, associated, calculations that will be useful for decision-making and policy ,notably looking at gains and losses. This idea of a biodiversity “calculus” contrasts with the ecologically oriented perspective that there are many different indices called “biodiversity”.
The common measure, species richness, illustrates the different perspectives. The pre-history of biodiversity, reflecting the species extinction crisis and the values of variety, provides a core rationale for a definition that includes counting-up species. The pre-history of “biodiversity” also highlighted the idea that the value of variety itself should be considered along-side the recognised benefits and dis-benefits of individual species , and all these benefits/values can enter into trade-offs and synergies that support decision-making. Some current perspectives or framings about biodiversity and its value can be understood as again blurring that distinction between biodiversity and biospecifics. One such framing equates biodiversity with all of nature. A focus on biodiversity as the collection of individual units/elements suggests that biodiversity covers so many individual elements that it more or less can be equated with biotic nature. An ecological/ecosystem framing of biodiversity expands this further biodiversity may be interpreted as including not only the many individual elements but also all their ecological interactions, and associated processes. These expanded perspectives, focused on elements and their interactions, create a risk that we may miss the opportunity to properly consider both values of nature/ecology and the values associated with biodiversity-as-variety.
On the study of biodiversity,Conservation biology has emerged as a true scientific discipline and has succeeded in providing an understanding of many of the underpinnings of the field, including effects of pollution on populations of plants and animals, how to approach restoration of various habitats, how to manage endangered species, and many other topics too numerous to mention. Conservation biology has done well in developing the science of understanding individual species in their habitat, performing spatial scale analyses of individuals, and modeling their activity within the landscape.
Important direct drivers affecting biodiversity are habitat change, climate change, invasive species, overexploitation, and pollution.Habitat loss is the single greatest threat to biodiversity on Earth today and in fact it is the second largest threat to our existence on this planet next to Climate Change.Human activities such as urban development degrade or completely eradicate areas on which species depend for food and shelter.Habitat loss can also take the form of night lighting; this unnatural condition removes habitat for most animals, birds and even fish and especially from LED lights which mimic daytime spectrums. Even plants will not respire under LED lights. Undue noise levels from industry and fireworks can also alter nigh-time habitats and sleeping patterns of wildlife.Sidden changes in the climate temperature can cause habitat loss.Long term climate changes , increasing the temperature of earth causes global warming which affects biodiversity. Natural events such as storms, forest fires, floods, and droughts also have the potential to alter or eradicate habitats. And while these events are natural occurrences, overall, or until recently, they do not compare to the losses caused by human activities- and yet they are also amplified as a result of climate change- a phenomenon aggravated by human activities.Pollution also includes the release of effluents from industrial and agricultural processes into the natural environment.
Biodiversity supports human and societal needs, including food and nutrition security, energy, development of medicines and pharmaceuticals and freshwater, which together underpin good health. It also supports economic opportunities, and leisure activities that contribute to overall wellbeing.Biodiversity is essential for all living beings on earth.Change and conservation are increasingly in the hands of the people rather than governments. Therefore, it is our responsibility to do protect nature.
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