As a general science major, you’ll study at least three of these fields biology, chemistry, computer science, physics, and psychology and do advanced work in one of them, plus a year of math. You’ll gain confidence to pursue knowledge and ideas across disciplines, setting you up for professional success
The 3 main branches of Natural Sciences are:
- Physics: the Study of Universe.
- Chemistry: the Study of Matter.
- Biology: the Study of Life and Living Organisms.
Physical Quantities and Mechanics
Matter and its Properties
Electromagnetics Waves & Optics / Light
Electricity and Magnetism
Physical quantities and mechanics:
Physical quantities are a characteristic or property of an object that can be measured or calculated from other measurements. Units are standards for expressing and comparing the measurement of physical quantities. All units can be expressed as combinations of four fundamental units.
Matter and its properties:
Any characteristic that can be measured, such as an object’s density, colour, mass, volume, length, malleability, melting point, hardness, odour, temperature, and more, are considered properties of matter.
Electromagnetic waves & optics/light:
Light is an electromagnetic wave phenomenon described by the same theoretical principles that govern all forms of electromagnetic radiation. Optical frequencies occupy a band of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends from the infrared through the visible to the ultraviolet.
Heat is the transfer of kinetic energy from one medium or object to another, or from an energy source to a medium or object. Such energy transfer can occur in three ways: radiation, conduction, and convection.
Electricity and magnetism:
Electricity and magnetism are essentially two aspects of the same thing, because a changing electric field creates a magnetic field, and a changing magnetic field creates an electric field. (This is why physicists usually refer to “electromagnetism” or “electromagnetic” forces together, rather than separately.)
Nature / State of Matter – Solid, liquid and Gas
Radioactivity rays, nuclear fission and fusion
Chemical Formula, Change equation, reactions and bonding
Element classification / periodic table
Nature or state of matter:
Solids, liquids and gases are three states of matter. In solids, the particles are tightly packed together. In liquids, the particles have more movement, while in gases, they are spread out. Particles in chemistry can be atoms, ions or molecule
Atomic structure refers to the structure of an atom comprising a nucleus (centre) in which the protons (positively charged) and neutrons (neutral) are present. The negatively charged particles called electrons revolve around the centre of the nucleus.
Radioactivity rays , Nuclear fission and fusion:
Fusion is where two light atomic nuclei combine and release energy, while fission is the process of splitting two heavy, unstable atomic nuclei into two lighter nuclei, also releasing energy although less than with fusion. Radioactivity is the spontaneous release of energy from an unstable atom to get to a more stable state.
Chemical formula, change equation reactions and bonding:
According to the modern view of chemical reactions, bonds between atoms in the reactants must be broken, and the atoms or pieces of molecules are reassembled into products by forming new bonds. Energy is absorbed to break bonds, and energy is evolved as bonds are made.
Element classification or periodic table:
In the long form periodic table the elements are arranged in the order of their atomic numbers. Atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons inside the nucleus of its atom.
The general features of the long form periodic table are:
- There are in all, 18 vertical columns and 18 groups in the long form periodic table.
- These groups are numbered from 1 to 18 starting from the left.
- There are seven horizontal rows called periods in the long form periodic table. Thus, there are seven periods in the long form periodic table.
- The elements of Groups 1, 2 and 13 to 17 are called the main group elements. These are also called typical or representative or normal elements.
- The elements of Groups 3 to 12 are called transition elements.
- Elements with atomic number 58 to 71 (Ce to Lu) occurring after lanthanum (La) are called lanthanides. Elements with atomic numbers 90 to 103 (Th to Lw) are called actinides. These elements are called f-block elements and also as inner transition elements.
Cell Biology, Genetics and Blood
Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Kingdom and taxonomy of Plant
Cell biology is the study of cell structure and function, and it revolves around the concept that the cell is the fundamental unit of life. Focusing on the cell permits a detailed understanding of the tissues and organisms that cells compose.
Plant anatomy and physiology:
Plant anatomy refers to the detailed structure of the plant: leaf, stem, roots, flowers, and fruits, while plant physiology is concerned with the processes that occur within the plant that account for it being alive and productive.
kingdom and taxonomy of plant:
Kingdom Plantae includes all the plants. They are eukaryotic, multicellular and autotrophic organisms. The plant cell contains a rigid cell wall. Plants have chloroplast and chlorophyll pigment, which is required for photosynthesis.
Plant physiology is a branch of study in Botany dealing with the physiological processes or functions of plants. Precisely, it is a descriptive study of variation and structure of plants at the molecular and cellular level, resulting in ecological, physiological and biochemistry related aspects of plant exploration
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